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Nanofiltration
NANOFILTRATION (NF) is a relatively recent membrane filtration process used most often with low total dissolved solids water such as surface water and fresh groundwater , with the purpose of softening (polyvalent cation removal) and removal of disinfection by-product precursors such as natural organic matter and synthetic organic matter. Nanofiltration
Nanofiltration
is also becoming more widely used in food processing applications such as dairy , for simultaneous concentration and partial (monovalent ion ) demineralisation
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Water Softening
WATER SOFTENING is the removal of calcium , magnesium , and certain other metal cations in hard water . The resulting soft water is more compatible with soap and extends the lifetime of plumbing. Water softening is usually achieved using lime softening or ion-exchange resins . CONTENTS * 1 Rationale * 2 Methods * 2.1 Ion-exchange resin devices * 2.2 Lime softening * 2.3 Chelating agents * 2.4 Distillation
Distillation
and rain water * 2.5 Reverse osmosis
Reverse osmosis
* 3 Non-chemical devices * 4 Health effects * 5 Environmental impact * 6 See also * 7 References RATIONALE Main article: Hard water
Hard water
The presence of certain metal ions like calcium and magnesium principally as bicarbonates , chlorides , and sulfates in water causes a variety of problems
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Aqueous Solution
An AQUEOUS SOLUTION is a solution in which the solvent is water . It is usually shown in chemical equations by appending (aq) to the relevant chemical formula . For example, a solution of table salt , or sodium chloride (NaCl), in water would be represented as Na+(aq) + Cl−(aq). The word aqueous means pertaining to, related to, similar to, or dissolved in water. As water is an excellent solvent and is also naturally abundant, it is a ubiquitous solvent in chemistry . Substances that are hydrophobic ('water-fearing') often do not dissolve well in water, whereas those that are hydrophilic ('water-friendly') do. An example of a hydrophilic substance is sodium chloride . Acids and bases are aqueous solutions, as part of their Arrhenius definitions . The ability of a substance to dissolve in water is determined by whether the substance can match or exceed the strong attractive forces that water molecules generate between themselves
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Pharmaceutical Drug
A PHARMACEUTICAL DRUG (also referred to as MEDICINE, MEDICATION, or simply as DRUG) is a drug used to diagnose , cure , treat , or prevent disease . Drug
Drug
therapy (pharmacotherapy ) is an important part of the medical field and relies on the science of pharmacology for continual advancement and on pharmacy for appropriate management. Drugs are classified in various ways. One of the key divisions is by level of control , which distinguishes prescription drugs (those that a pharmacist dispenses only on the order of a physician , physician assistant , or qualified nurse ) from over-the-counter drugs (those that consumers can order for themselves)
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Calcium
CALCIUM is a chemical element with symbol CA and atomic number 20. An alkaline earth metal , calcium is a reactive pale yellow metal that forms a dark oxide-nitride layer when exposed to air. Its physical and chemical properties are most similar to its heavier homologues strontium and barium . It is the fifth most abundant element in Earth's crust and the third most abundant metal, after iron and aluminium . The most common calcium compound on Earth is calcium carbonate , found in limestone and the fossilised remnants of early sea life; gypsum , anhydrite , fluorite , and apatite are also sources of calcium. The name derives from Latin calx "lime", which was obtained from heating limestone. Its compounds were known to the ancients, though their chemistry was unknown until the seventeenth century. It was isolated by Humphry Davy
Humphry Davy
in 1808 via electrolysis of its oxide, who named the element
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Magnesium
MAGNESIUM is a chemical element with symbol MG and atomic number 12. It is a shiny gray solid which bears a close physical resemblance to the other five elements in the second column (group 2, or alkaline earth metals ) of the periodic table : all group 2 elements have the same electron configuration in the outer electron shell and a similar crystal structure. Magnesium
Magnesium
is the ninth most abundant element in the universe. It is produced in large, aging stars from the sequential addition of three helium nuclei to a carbon nucleus. When such stars explode as supernovas , much of the magnesium is expelled into the interstellar medium where it may recycle into new star systems. Magnesium
Magnesium
is the eighth most abundant element in the Earth\'s crust and the fourth most common element in the Earth (after iron , oxygen and silicon ), making up 13% of the planet's mass and a large fraction of the planet's mantle
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PH
In chemistry , PH (/piːˈeɪtʃ/ ) (potential of hydrogen) is a numeric scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution . It is approximately the negative of the base 10 logarithm of the molar concentration , measured in units of moles per liter, of hydrogen ions . More precisely it is the negative of the logarithm to base 10 of the activity of the hydrogen ion. Solutions with a pH less than 7 are acidic and solutions with a pH greater than 7 are basic . Pure water is neutral, at pH 7, being neither an acid nor a base. Contrary to popular belief, the pH value can be less than 0 or greater than 14 for very strong acids and bases respectively. pH measurements are important in agronomy , medicine , biology , chemistry , agriculture , forestry , food science , environmental science , oceanography , civil engineering , chemical engineering , nutrition , water treatment and water purification , as well as many other applications
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Aluminum
ALUMINIUM or ALUMINUM (see below ) is a chemical element with symbol AL and atomic number 13. It is a silvery-white, soft, nonmagnetic, ductile metal in the boron group . By mass, aluminium makes up about 8% of the Earth\'s crust ; it is the third most abundant element after oxygen and silicon and the most abundant metal in the crust, though it is less common in the mantle below. Aluminium
Aluminium
metal is so chemically reactive that native specimens are rare and limited to extreme reducing environments. Instead, it is found combined in over 270 different minerals . The chief ore of aluminium is bauxite . Aluminium
Aluminium
is remarkable for the metal's low density and its ability to resist corrosion through the phenomenon of passivation . Aluminium and its alloys are vital to the aerospace industry and important in transportation and building industries, such as building facades and window frames
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Ion
In the physical sciences, an ION (/ˈaɪən, -ɒn/ ) is a particle that has a non-zero net electrical charge , such as an atom or molecule whose total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons . A cation is a positively-charged ion, while an anion is negatively charged. Because of their opposite electric charges, cations and anions attract each other and readily form ionic compounds , such as salts . Ions can be created by chemical means, such as the dissolution of a salt into water, or by physical means, such as passing a direct current through a conducting solution, which will dissolve the anode via ionization . Ions consisting of only a single atom are atomic or monatomic ions . If they consist of two or more atoms, then they are called molecular ions or polyatomic ions . In the case of physical ionization of a medium such as a gas, what are known as "ion pairs" are created by ion impact, and each pair consists of a free electron and a positive ion
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Nanometer
The NANOMETRE (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures ; SI symbol: NM) or NANOMETER (American spelling ) is a unit of length in the metric system , equal to one billionth of a metre (6991100000000000000♠0.000000001 m). The name combines the SI prefix
SI prefix
nano- (from the Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
νάνος, nanos, "dwarf") with the parent unit name metre (from Greek μέτρον, metrοn, "unit of measurement"). It can be written in scientific notation as 6991100000000000000♠1×10−9 m, in engineering notation as 1 E−9 m, and is simply 1/7009100000000000000♠1000000000 metres. One nanometre equals ten ångströms . When used as a prefix for something other than a unit of measure (as in "nanoscience"), NANO refers to nanotechnology , or phenomena typically occurring on a scale of nanometres (see nanoscopic scale )
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Ultrafiltration
ULTRAFILTRATION (UF) is a variety of membrane filtration in which forces like pressure or concentration gradients lead to a separation through a semipermeable membrane . Suspended solids and solutes of high molecular weight are retained in the so-called retentate, while water and low molecular weight solutes pass through the membrane in the permeate (filtrate). This separation process is used in industry and research for purifying and concentrating macromolecular (103 - 106 Da ) solutions, especially protein solutions. Ultrafiltration
Ultrafiltration
is not fundamentally different from microfiltration . Both of these separate based on size exclusion or particle capture. It is fundamentally different from membrane gas separation , which separate based on different amounts of absorption and different rates of diffusion . Ultrafiltration
Ultrafiltration
membranes are defined by the molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) of the membrane used
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Polyethylene Terephthalate
POLYETHYLENE TEREPHTHALATE (sometimes written poly(ethylene terephthalate)), commonly abbreviated PET, PETE, or the obsolete PETP or PET-P, is the most common thermoplastic polymer resin of the polyester family and is used in fibers for clothing, containers for liquids and foods, thermoforming for manufacturing, and in combination with glass fiber for engineering resins . It may also be referred to by the brand name DACRON; in Britain, TERYLENE; or, in Russia and the former Soviet Union, LAVSAN. The majority of the world's PET production is for synthetic fibers (in excess of 60%), with bottle production accounting for about 30% of global demand. In the context of textile applications, PET is referred to by its common name, polyester , whereas the acronym PET is generally used in relation to packaging
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Sodium
SODIUM is a chemical element with symbol NA (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11. It is a soft, silvery-white, highly reactive metal . Sodium
Sodium
is an alkali metal , being in group 1 of the periodic table, because it has a single electron in its outer shell that it readily donates, creating a positively charged atom—the Na+ cation . Its only stable isotope is 23Na. The free metal does not occur in nature, but must be prepared from compounds. Sodium
Sodium
is the sixth most abundant element in the Earth\'s crust , and exists in numerous minerals such as feldspars , sodalite and rock salt (NaCl). Many salts of sodium are highly water-soluble: sodium ions have been leached by the action of water from the Earth\'s minerals over eons, and thus sodium and chlorine are the most common dissolved elements by weight in the oceans
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Distillation
DISTILLATION is the process of separating the component or substances from a liquid mixture by selective evaporation and condensation . Distillation
Distillation
may result in essentially complete separation (nearly pure components), or it may be a partial separation that increases the concentration of selected components of the mixture. In either case the process exploits differences in the volatility of the mixture's components. In industrial chemistry , distillation is a unit operation of practically universal importance, but it is a physical separation process and not a chemical reaction . Commercially, distillation has many applications
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Pressure Vessels
A PRESSURE VESSEL is a container designed to hold gases or liquids at a pressure substantially different from the ambient pressure. Pressure
Pressure
vessels can be dangerous, and fatal accidents have occurred in the history of their development and operation. Consequently, pressure vessel design, manufacture, and operation are regulated by engineering authorities backed by legislation. For these reasons, the definition of a pressure vessel varies from country to country. Design involves parameters such as maximum safe operating pressure and temperature, safety factor , corrosion allowance and minimum design temperature (for brittle fracture). Construction is tested using nondestructive testing , such as ultrasonic testing , radiography , and pressure tests. Hydrostatic tests use water, but pneumatic tests use air or another gas
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Fluid Dynamics
In physics and engineering , FLUID DYNAMICS is a subdiscipline of fluid mechanics that describes the flow of fluids (liquids and gases ). It has several subdisciplines, including aerodynamics (the study of air and other gases in motion) and HYDRODYNAMICS (the study of liquids in motion). Fluid
Fluid
dynamics has a wide range of applications, including calculating forces and moments on aircraft , determining the mass flow rate of petroleum through pipelines , predicting weather patterns , understanding nebulae in interstellar space and modelling fission weapon detonation . Fluid
Fluid
dynamics offers a systematic structure—which underlies these practical disciplines —that embraces empirical and semi-empirical laws derived from flow measurement and used to solve practical problems
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