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Mitzvah
In its primary meaning, the Hebrew word MITZVAH (/ˈmɪtsvə/ ; meaning "commandment", מִצְוָה‎, , Biblical : miṣwah; plural מִצְווֹת‎ mitzvot , Biblical: miṣwoth; from צִוָּה‎ ṣiwwah "command") refers to precepts and commandments commanded by God. It is used in rabbinical Judaism
Judaism
to refer to the 613 commandments given in the Torah
Torah
at biblical Mount Sinai
Mount Sinai
and the seven rabbinic commandments instituted later for a total of 620. The 613 commandments are divided into two categories: 365 negative commandments and 248 positive commandments. According to the Talmud
Talmud
, all moral laws are, or are derived from, divine commandments . The collection is part of the larger Jewish law or halakha
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Targum
The TARGUMIM (singular: "targum", Hebrew : תרגום‎) were spoken paraphrases, explanations and expansions of the Jewish scriptures (also called the Tanakh) that a Rabbi
Rabbi
would give in the common language of the listeners, which was then often Aramaic
Aramaic
. That had become necessary near the end of the 1st century BCE, as the common language was in transition and Hebrew was used for little more than schooling and worship. The noun "Targum" is derived from the early semitic quadriliteral root 'trgm', and the Akkadian term 'targummanu' refers to "translator, interpreter". It occurs in the Hebrew Bible
Bible
in Ezra 4:7 "..
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Tosefta
—— Tannaitic —— * Mishnah
Mishnah
* Tosefta—— Amoraic ( Gemara
Gemara
) —— *
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Gemara
—— Tannaitic —— * Mishnah
Mishnah
* Tosefta
Tosefta
—— Amoraic (Gemara) —— *
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Bene Israel
The BENE ISRAEL ("Sons of Israel"), formerly known in India
India
as the "Native Jew Caste", are a historic community of Jews in India
India
. It has been suggested that it is made up of descendants of one of the disputed Lost Tribes and ancestors who had settled there centuries ago. In the 19th century, after the people were taught about normative ( Ashkenazi
Ashkenazi
/ Sephardi
Sephardi
) Judaism, they tended to migrate from villages in the Konkan
Konkan
area to the nearby cities, primarily Mumbai
Mumbai
, but also to Pune
Pune
, Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad
, and Kolkata
Kolkata
, India; and Karachi
Karachi
, in today's Pakistan
Pakistan
. Many gained positions with the British colonial authority of the period
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Beit Yosef (book)
BEIT YOSEF (Hebrew : בית יוסף‎‎) — also transliterated BETH YOSEF — is a book by Rabbi Joseph Caro . It is a long, detailed commentary on the Arba\'ah Turim . It served as a precursor to the Shulchan Aruch
Shulchan Aruch
, which Rabbi Caro wrote later in his life. For more information on this book, see the section Beth Yosef (in the article Shulchan Aruch
Shulchan Aruch
). This article about a Judaism
Judaism
-related book or text is a stub . You can help by expanding it
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Mishneh Torah
The MISHNEH TORAH (Hebrew : מִשְׁנֵה תּוֹרָה‎‎, "Repetition of the Torah"), subtitled SEFER YAD HA-HAZAKA (ספר יד החזקה "Book of the Strong Hand"), is a code of Jewish religious law ( Halakha ) authored by Maimonides
Maimonides
( Rabbi
Rabbi
Moshe ben Maimon, also known as RaMBaM or "Rambam"), one of history's foremost rabbis. The Mishneh Torah
Torah
was compiled between 1170 and 1180 (4930–4940), while Maimonides
Maimonides
was living in Egypt
Egypt
, and is regarded as Maimonides' magnum opus . Accordingly, later sources simply refer to the work as "Maimon", "Maimonides" or "RaMBaM", although Maimonides
Maimonides
composed other works. Mishneh Torah
Torah
consists of fourteen books, subdivided into sections, chapters, and paragraphs
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Midrash
In Judaism
Judaism
, the MIDRASH (/ˈmɪdrɑːʃ/ ; Hebrew : מִדְרָשׁ‎; pl. מִדְרָשִׁים midrashim) is the genre of rabbinic literature which contains early interpretations and commentaries on the Written Torah and Oral Torah (spoken law and sermons), as well as non-legalistic rabbinic literature (aggadah ) and occasionally the Jewish religious laws (halakha ), which usually form a running commentary on specific passages in the Hebrew Scripture ( Tanakh ). The Midrash, capitalized, refers to a specific compilation of these writings, primarily from the first ten centuries CE . The purpose of midrash was to resolve problems in the interpretation of difficult passages of the text of the Hebrew Bible, using Rabbinic principles of hermeneutics and philology to align them with the religious and ethical values of religious teachers
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Shulchan Aruch
The SHULCHAN ARUCH (Hebrew : שֻׁלְחָן עָרוּך‎ , literally: "Set Table"), also known by various Jewish communities but not all as "the CODE OF JEWISH LAW," is the most widely consulted of the various legal codes in Judaism. It was authored in Safed (today in Israel
Israel
) by Yosef Karo in 1563 and published in Venice
Venice
two years later. Together with its commentaries, it is the most widely accepted compilation of Jewish law ever written. The halachic rulings in the Shulchan Aruch
Shulchan Aruch
generally follow Sephardic law and customs , whereas Ashkenazi Jews
Ashkenazi Jews
will generally follow the halachic rulings of Moses Isserles , whose glosses to the Shulchan Aruch note where the Sephardic and Ashkenazi customs differ
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Shabbat
SHABBAT (/ʃəˈbɑːt/ ; Hebrew : שַׁבָּת‎ , "rest" or "cessation") or SHABBOS ( , Yiddish : שבת‎) or the SABBATH is Judaism
Judaism
's day of rest and seventh day of the week , on which religious Jews, Samaritans and certain Christians (such as Seventh-day Adventists and Seventh Day Baptists) remember the Biblical creation of the heavens and the earth in six days and the Exodus of the Hebrews, and look forward to a future Messianic Age . Shabbat
Shabbat
observance entails refraining from work activities , often with great rigor , and engaging in restful activities to honor the day. Judaism's traditional position is that unbroken seventh-day Shabbat
Shabbat
originated among the Jewish people, as their first and most sacred institution, though some suggest other origins
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Mishnah
—— Tannaitic —— * Mishnah * Tosefta
Tosefta
—— Amoraic ( Gemara
Gemara
) —— *
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Jewish Identity
JEWISH IDENTITY is the objective or subjective state of perceiving oneself as a Jew and as relating to being Jewish . Under a broader definition, Jewish identity
Jewish identity
does not depend on whether a person is regarded as a Jew by others, or by an external set of religious, or legal, or sociological norms. Jewish identity
Jewish identity
does not need to imply religious orthodoxy. Accordingly, Jewish identity
Jewish identity
can be cultural in nature. Jewish identity
Jewish identity
can involve ties to the Jewish community. Orthodox Judaism
Judaism
bases Jewishness on matrilineal descent. According to Jewish law (halacha ), all those born of a Jewish mother are considered Jewish, regardless of personal beliefs or level of observance of Jewish law. Jews
Jews
who are atheists may have a Jewish identity
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Jewish Peoplehood
JEWISH PEOPLEHOOD ( Hebrew
Hebrew
: עמיות יהודית, Amiut Yehudit) is the conception of the awareness of the underlying unity that makes an individual a part of the Jewish
Jewish
people. The concept of peoplehood has a double meaning. The first is descriptive, as a concept factually describing the existence of the Jews
Jews
as a people. The second is normative, as a value that describes the feeling of belonging and commitment to the Jewish
Jewish
people. Some believe that the concept of Jewish
Jewish
peoplehood is a paradigm shift in Jewish
Jewish
life
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Cochin Jews
COCHIN JEWS, also called MALABAR JEWS, are the oldest group of Jews in India
India
, with possible roots claimed to date to the time of King Solomon . The Cochin Jews
Jews
settled in the Kingdom of Cochin
Kingdom of Cochin
in South India
India
, now part of the state of Kerala
Kerala
. As early as the 12th century, mention is made of the Black Jews
Jews
in southern India. The Jewish traveler, Benjamin of Tudela , speaking of Kollam
Kollam
(Quilon) on the Malabar Coast, writes in his Itinerary: "...throughout the island, including all the towns thereof, live several thousand Israelites. The inhabitants are all black, and the Jews
Jews
also. The latter are good and benevolent
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Arba'ah Turim
ARBA\'AH TURIM (Hebrew : אַרְבַּעָה טוּרִים‎‎‎), often called simply the TUR, is an important Halakhic code composed by Jacob ben Asher ( Cologne
Cologne
, 1270 – Toledo, Spain c. 1340, also referred to as Ba'al Ha-Turim). The four-part structure of the TUR and its division into chapters (simanim) were adopted by the later code Shulchan Aruch
Shulchan Aruch
. CONTENTS * 1 Meaning of the name * 2 Arrangement and contents * 3 Later developments * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links MEANING OF THE NAMEThe title of the work in Hebrew means "four rows", in allusion to the jewels on the High Priest\'s breastplate
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Laws And Customs Of The Land Of Israel In Judaism
LAWS AND CUSTOMS OF THE LAND OF ISRAEL IN JUDAISM (Hebrew : מצוות התלויות בארץ‎‎; translit. Mitzvot Ha'teluyot Be'aretz) are special Jewish laws that apply only to the Land of Israel
Israel
. According to a standard view, 26 of the 613 mitzvot
613 mitzvot
apply only in the Land of Israel. Overall, the laws and customs may be classified as follows: * Laws that were in force at the time of the Temple in Jerusalem
Temple in Jerusalem
and in connection with the Temple service
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