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Amoraim
Amoraim
Amoraim
(Aramaic: plural אמוראים‬ ʔamoraˈʔim, singular Amora אמורא‬ ʔamoˈʁa; "those who say" or "those who speak over the people", or "spokesmen")[1] refers to the Jewish scholars of the period from about 200 to 500 CE, who "said" or "told over" the teachings of the Oral Torah. They were concentrated in Babylonia
Babylonia
and the Land of Israel. Their legal discussions and debates were eventually codified in the Gemara. The Amoraim
Amoraim
followed the Tannaim in the sequence of ancient Jewish scholars. The Tannaim were direct transmitters of uncodified oral tradition; the Amoraim
Amoraim
expounded upon and clarified the oral law after its initial codification.Contents1 The Amoraic era 2 Prominent Amoraim2.1 First generation (approx. 230–250 CE) 2.2 Second generation (approx. 250–290 CE) 2.3 Third generation (approx
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Adolf Behrman
Abraham Adolf Behrman
Adolf Behrman
(Berman, also spelled Behrmann, July 13, 1876 – August 1943) was a Jewish-Polish-born painter of interwar Poland best known for his outdoor paintings of Jewish shtetl life as well as landscapes and group portraits.[1] He spent most of his life in Łódź
Łódź
and died during the liquidation of the Białystok Ghetto
Białystok Ghetto
in the Holocaust.[2] Biography[edit] Behrman's place of birth is uncertain. He was born either in the town of Tukkum
Tukkum
near Mitawa, or in Riga
Riga
(sources vary), the son of Róża and Markus Behrman, who arrived in Łódź
Łódź
sometime before the end of the century.[2] Adolf studied art under Jakub Kacenbogen at his private Drawing School in Łódź
Łódź
before the 1900s
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Book Of Proverbs
The Book
Book
of Proverbs (Hebrew: מִשְלֵי, Míshlê (Shlomoh), "Proverbs (of Solomon)") is the second book of the third section (called Writings) of the Hebrew
Hebrew

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Psalms
The Book
Book
of Psalms
Psalms
(/sɑː(l)mz/ SAH(L)MZ, /sɔː(l)mz/ SAW(L)MZ; Hebrew: תְּהִלִּים‬ or תהילים‬, Tehillim, "praises"), commonly referred to simply as Psalms
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Ishmael Ben Elisha
Rabbi Ishmael "Ba'al HaBaraita" or Ishmael ben Elisha (90-135 CE, Hebrew: רבי ישמעאל בעל הברייתא) was a Tanna of the 1st and 2nd centuries (third tannaitic generation).[1] A Tanna (plural, Tannaim) is a rabbinic sage whose views are recorded in the Mishnah.Contents1 Life 2 Disposition 3 Views on marriage 4 Halakhic exegesis 5 Hermeneutic rules 6 References 7 External linksLife[edit] Ismael son of Elisha was alleged to have been a young boy during the Destruction of the Second Temple (in 70 C.E.), which militates against his claimed year of birth in 90 C.E. by two generations. He was redeemed from captivity by Rabbi Neḥunya ben ha-Ḳanah, whom Tractate Shevu'ot (26a) lists as his teacher. He was a close colleague of Rabbi Joshua. He is likely the grandson of the high priest of the same name.[1] He is buried at Parod in the Galilee. Disposition[edit] Ishmael's teachings were calculated to promote peace and goodwill among all
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Tannaim
Tannaim (Hebrew: תנאים‬ [tanaˈʔim], singular Hebrew: תנא‬ [taˈna], Tanna "repeaters", "teachers"[1]) were the Rabbinic sages whose views are recorded in the Mishnah, from approximately 10-220 CE. The period of the Tannaim, also referred to as the Mishnaic period, lasted about 210 years. It came after the period of the Zugot ("pairs"), and was immediately followed by the period of the Amoraim
Amoraim
("interpreters").[2] The root tanna (אתנא‬) is the Talmudic Aramaic equivalent for the Hebrew root shanah (שנה‬), which also is the root-word of Mishnah. The verb shanah (שנה‬) literally means "to repeat [what one was taught]" and is used to mean "to learn". The Mishnaic period is commonly divided up into five periods according to generations. There are approximately 120 known Tannaim. The Tannaim lived in several areas of the Land of Israel
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Iddo (prophet)
Iddo (Hebrew: עדו) or Jedo was a minor biblical prophet. According to the Books of Chronicles, he lived during the reigns of King Solomon and his heirs, Rehoboam
Rehoboam
and Abijah, in the Kingdom of Judah. Although little is known about him, and he appears only in the Books of Chronicles, the Chronicler states that the events of Solomon's reign, as well as Iddo's prophecies concerning the rival king Jeroboam I of Israel were recorded in writing.[1] The alleged records composed by Iddo are no longer extant. He is also credited with a history of King Rehoboam,[2] and a history of his son King Abijah.[3] A tradition of identifying Iddo with the unnamed prophet of 1 Kings 13 can be found in the first-century CE Jewish historian Josephus, the fourth- and fifth-century Christian commentator Jerome, and the medieval Jewish commentator Rashi
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Common Era
Common Era or Current Era (CE)[1] is a name for a calendar era widely used around the world today. The era preceding CE is known as before the Common or Current Era (BCE). The Current Era notation system can be used as an alternative to the Dionysian era
Dionysian era
system, which distinguishes eras as AD (anno Domini, "[the] year of [the] Lord")[2] and BC ("before Christ"). The two notation systems are numerically equivalent; thus "2018 CE" corresponds to "AD 2018" and "400 BCE" corresponds to "400 BC".[2][3][4][a] Both notations refer to the Gregorian calendar
Gregorian calendar
(and its predecessor, the Julian calendar)
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Hermeneutics
Hermeneutics
Hermeneutics
(/hɜːrməˈnjuːtɪks/)[1] is the theory and methodology of interpretation,[2][3] especially the interpretation of biblical texts, wisdom literature, and philosophical texts.[4][5] Modern hermeneutics includes both verbal and non-verbal communication[6][7] as well as semiotics, presuppositions, and pre-understandings. Hermeneutics
Hermeneutics
has been broadly applied in the humanities, especially in law, history and theology. Hermeneutics
Hermeneutics
was initially applied to the interpretation, or exegesis, of scripture, and has been later broadened to questions of general interpretation.[8] The terms "hermeneutics" and "exegesis" are sometimes used interchangeably
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Philology
Philology
Philology
is the study of language in oral and written historical sources; it is a combination of literary criticism, history, and linguistics.[1] Philology
Philology
is more commonly defined as the study of literary texts as well as oral and written records, the establishment of their authenticity and their original form, and the determination of their meaning. A person who pursues this kind of study is known as a philologist. In older usage, especially British, philology is more general, covering comparative and historical linguistics.[2][3] Classical philology
Classical philology
studies classical languages. Classical philology principally originated from the Library of Pergamum
Library of Pergamum
and the Library of Alexandria[4] around the fourth century BCE, continued by Greeks and Romans throughout the Roman/Byzantine Empire
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Gesenius
Gesenius is a surname. Notable people with the surname include:Justus Gesenius (1601–1673), German theologian Wilhelm Gesenius (1786–1842), German orientalist, Biblical critic, theologian and HebraistGesenius' Lexicon Gesenius-Kautzsch-CowleyThis page lists people with the surname Gesenius
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Qal (linguistics)
In Hebrew grammar, the qal is the simple paradigm of the verb. The Classical Hebrew verb conjugates according to person and number in two finite tenses, the perfect and the imperfect. Both of these can then be modified by means of prefixes and suffixes to create other "actions" of the verb. This is not exactly parallel to any categories of grammatical voice or mood in the Indo-European languages, but can produce similar results. So the niphal is effectively a passive, the piel is an emphatic form and the hithpael has a middle or reflexive force. The qal is any form of the finite verb paradigm which is not so modified. External links[edit] Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar, §42 ff.This linguistic morphology article is a stub
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Book Of Chronicles
In the Christian Bible, the two Books of Chronicles
Books of Chronicles
(commonly referred to as 1 Chronicles and 2 Chronicles, or First Chronicles and Second Chronicles) generally follow the two Books of Kings
Books of Kings
and precede Ezra–Nehemiah, thus concluding the history-oriented books of the Old Testament,[1] often referred to as the Deuteronomistic history. In the Hebrew Bible, Chronicles is a single book, called Diḇrê Hayyāmîm (Hebrew: דִּבְרֵי־הַיָּמִים‬, "The Matters [of] the Days"), and is the final book of Ketuvim, the third and last part of the Tanakh
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Oral Law
An oral law is a code of conduct in use in a given culture, religion or community application, by which a body of rules of human behaviour is transmitted by oral tradition and effectively respected, or the single rule that is orally transmitted. Many cultures have an oral law, while most contemporary legal systems have a formal written organisation. The oral tradition (from the Latin tradere = to transmit) is the typical instrument of transmission of the oral codes or, in a more general sense, is the complex of what a culture transmits of itself among the generations, "from father to son". This kind of transmission can be due to lack of other means, such as in illiterate or criminal societies, or can be expressly required by the same law. There has been a continuous debate over oral versus written transmission, with the focus on the perceived higher reliability of written evidence,[1] primarily based on the "linear world of academia" where only written down records are accepted
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Hebrew Bible
Outline of Bible-related topics   Bible
Bible
book    Bible
Bible
portalv t ePage from an 11th-century Aramaic Targum
Targum
manuscript of the Hebrew Bible.Hebrew Bible
Bible
or Hebrew Scriptures (Latin: Biblia Hebraica) is the term used by biblical scholars to refer to the Tanakh
Tanakh
(Hebrew: תנ"ך‎; Latin: Thanach), the canonical collection of Jewish texts. They are composed mainly in Biblical Hebrew, with some passages in Biblical Aramaic (in the books of Daniel, Ezra and a few others). The Hebrew Bible
Bible
is the common textual source of several canonical editions of the Christian
Christian
Old Testament
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