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Magadha
MAGADHA is a region in the Indian states of Bihar
Bihar
, Jharkhand , Orissa , West Bengal
West Bengal
and the nations of Bangladesh
Bangladesh
and Nepal
Nepal
and formed one of the sixteen Mahajanapadas
Mahajanapadas
( Sanskrit
Sanskrit
: "Great Countries") of ancient India. The core of the kingdom was the area of Bihar
Bihar
south of the Ganges
Ganges
; its first capital was Rajagriha
Rajagriha
(modern Rajgir
Rajgir
), then Pataliputra
Pataliputra
(modern Patna )
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Magadha Kingdom
MAGADHA is a region in the Indian states of Bihar
Bihar
, Jharkhand , Orissa , West Bengal
West Bengal
and the nations of Bangladesh
Bangladesh
and Nepal
Nepal
and formed one of the sixteen Mahajanapadas
Mahajanapadas
( Sanskrit
Sanskrit
: "Great Countries") of ancient India. The core of the kingdom was the area of Bihar
Bihar
south of the Ganges
Ganges
; its first capital was Rajagriha
Rajagriha
(modern Rajgir
Rajgir
), then Pataliputra
Pataliputra
(modern Patna )
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Rajgir
RAJGIR (originally known as GIRIVRAJ) is a city and a notified area in Nalanda district
Nalanda district
in the Indian state of Bihar
Bihar
. The city of Rajgir (ancient Rājagṛha; Pali
Pali
: Rājagaha; Hindi : राजगृह) was the first capital of the kingdom of Magadha
Magadha
, a state that would eventually evolve into the Mauryan
Mauryan
Empire. Its date of origin is unknown, although ceramics dating to about 1000 BC have been found in the city. This area is also notable in Jainism
Jainism
and Buddhism
Buddhism
as one of the favorite places for Lord Mahavira
Mahavira
and Gautama Buddha
Gautama Buddha
and the well known "Atanatiya" conference was held at Vulture\'s Peak mountain
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Pataliputra
PATALIPUTRA ( IAST : Pāṭaliputra), adjacent to modern-day Patna
Patna
, was a city in ancient India, originally built by Magadha
Magadha
ruler Ajatashatru in 490 BCE as a small fort (Pāṭaligrāma) near the Ganges
Ganges
river
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Patna
PATNA /ˈpætnə, ˈpʌt-/ ( listen ), is the capital and largest city of the state of Bihar in India. It had an estimated population of 1.68 million in 2011, making it the 19th largest city in India. With over 2 million people, its urban agglomeration is the 18th largest in India. Patna also serves as the seat of Patna High Court . One of the oldest continuously inhabited places in the world . Patna was founded in 490 BCE by the king of Magadha. Ancient Patna , known as PATALIPUTRA , was the capital of the Magadha Empire under the Haryanka , Nanda , Mauryan , Shunga , Gupta and Pala empires. Pataliputra was a seat of learning and fine arts. Patliputra was home to many astrologists and scholars including Aryabhata , Panini , Vātsyāyana , Chanakya and Kālidāsa
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Old-Indo-Aryan
Pontic Steppe * Domestication of the horse * Kurgan * Kurgan culture * Steppe cultures * Bug-Dniester * Sredny Stog * Dnieper-Donets * Samara * Khvalynsk * Yamna * Mikhaylovka culture Caucasus * Maykop East-Asia * Afanasevo Eastern Europe * Usatovo * Cernavodă * Cucuteni Northern Europe* Corded ware * Baden * Middl
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Magadhi Prakrit
MAGADHI PRAKRIT (Ardhamāgadhī) is of one of the three Dramatic Prakrits , the written languages of Ancient India
India
following the decline of Pali
Pali
and Sanskrit
Sanskrit
. Magadhi Prakrit
Prakrit
was spoken in the eastern Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
, in a region spanning what is now eastern India
India
, Bangladesh
Bangladesh
, and Nepal
Nepal

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Prakrit
A PRAKRIT ( Sanskrit
Sanskrit
: प्राकृत _prākṛta_, Shauraseni : _pāuda_, Magadhi Prakrit : _pāua_) is any of several Middle Indo-Aryan languages . The Ardhamagadhi ("half-Magadhi ") Prakrit, which was used extensively to write the scriptures of Jainism
Jainism
, is often considered to be the definitive form of Prakrit, while others are considered variants thereof. Prakrit
Prakrit
grammarians would give the full grammar of Ardhamagadhi first, and then define the other grammars with relation to it. For this reason, courses teaching "Prakrit" are often regarded as teaching Ardhamagadhi
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Sanskrit
A few attempts at revival have been reported in Indian and Nepalese newspapers. India : 14135 Indians claimed Sanskrit to be their mother tongue in the 2001 Census of India : Nepal : 1669 Nepalis in 2011 Nepal census reported Sanskrit as their mother tongue. LANGUAGE FAMILY Indo-European * Indo-Iranian * Indo-Aryan * SANSKRIT EARLY FORM Vedic Sanskrit WRITING SYSTEM No native script. Written in various Brahmic scripts
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Jainism
JAINISM (/ˈdʒeɪnɪzəm/ or /ˈdʒaɪnɪzəm/ ), traditionally known as JAIN DHARMA, is an ancient Indian religion . Jainism followers are called "Jains", a word derived from the Sanskrit word _jina _ (victor) and connoting the path of victory in crossing over life's stream of rebirths through an ethical and spiritual life. Jains trace their history through a succession of twenty-four victorious saviors and teachers known as _Tirthankaras _, with the first being Rishabhanatha , who is believed to have lived millions of years ago, and twenty-fourth being the Mahavira around 500 BCE. Jains believe that Jainism is an eternal _dharma _ with the Tirthankaras guiding every cycle of the Jain cosmology. The main religious premises of Jainism are _ahimsa _ ("non-violence"), _anekantavada _ ("many-sidedness"), _aparigraha _ ("non-attachment") and _asceticism _
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Buddhism
BUDDHISM ( /ˈbʊdɪzəm/ or /ˈbuːdɪzəm/ ) is a religion and dharma that encompasses a variety of traditions , beliefs and spiritual practices largely based on teachings attributed to the Buddha
Buddha
. Buddhism
Buddhism
originated in Ancient India sometime between the 6th and 4th centuries BCE, from where it spread through much of Asia
Asia
, whereafter it declined in India
India
during the Middle Ages. Two major extant branches of Buddhism
Buddhism
are generally recognized by scholars: Theravada ( Pali
Pali
: "The School of the Elders") and Mahayana ( Sanskrit
Sanskrit
: "The Great Vehicle"). Buddhism
Buddhism
is the world\'s fourth-largest religion , with over 500 million followers or 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists
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Hinduism
HINDUISM is a religion, or a way of life, widely practiced in the Indian subcontinent . Hinduism has been called the oldest religion in the world, and some practitioners and scholars refer to it as _Sanātana Dharma _, "the eternal tradition," or the "eternal way," beyond human history. Scholars regard Hinduism as a fusion or synthesis of various Indian cultures and traditions, with diverse roots and no founder. This " Hindu synthesis" started to develop between 500 BCE and 300 CE following the Vedic period (1500 BCE to 500 BCE). Although Hinduism contains a broad range of philosophies, it is linked by shared concepts, recognisable rituals, cosmology , shared textual resources , and pilgrimage to sacred sites . Hindu texts are classified into Shruti ("heard") and Smriti ("remembered")
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Absolute Monarchy
ABSOLUTE MONARCHY, or DESPOTIC MONARCHY, is a form of monarchy in which one ruler has supreme authority and where that authority is not restricted by any written laws, legislature , or customs. These are often, but not always, hereditary monarchies . In contrast, in constitutional monarchies , the head of state 's authority derives from and is legally bounded or restricted by a constitution or legislature . Some monarchies have weak or symbolic legislatures and other governmental bodies the monarch can alter or dissolve at will. Countries where monarchs still maintain absolute power are: Brunei , Oman , Saudi Arabia , Swaziland , Vatican City and the individual emirates composing the United Arab Emirates , which itself is a free association of such monarchies – a federal monarchy
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Arthashastra
DIVISIONS * Samhita
Samhita
* Brahmana
Brahmana
* Aranyaka
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Ancient History
ANCIENT HISTORY is the aggregate of past events from the beginning of recorded human history and extending as far as the Early Middle Ages or the Postclassical Era . The span of recorded history is roughly 5,000 years, beginning with Sumerian Cuneiform script , the oldest discovered form of coherent writing from the protoliterate period around the 30th century BC. The term classical antiquity is often used to refer to history in the Old World from the beginning of recorded Greek history in 776 BC (First Olympiad ). This roughly coincides with the traditional date of the founding of Rome in 753 BC, the beginning of the history of ancient Rome , and the beginning of the Archaic period in Ancient Greece
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Coinage Of India
Coins provide not only evidence of art and economy, but also a wisdom for understanding the history and politics of a nation. As a means of communication, they speak to the political and religious ideologies that underpinned a ruler's or state's claim to power. COINAGE OF INDIA , issued by Imperial dynasties and Middle kingdoms began anywhere between 6th century BCE to 1st millennium BCE, and consisted mainly of copper and silver coins in its initial stage. Scholars remain divided over the origins of Indian coinage. Cowry shells was first used in India as commodity money. In recent discoveries punched mark 'Mudras' (Coins) of stone have been found in lost city of Dwaraka . Which is said to exist at least 5,000 years ago. The Indus Valley Civilisation dates back between 2500 BCE and 1750 BCE
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