The Info List - Bihar

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BIHAR (/bɪˈhɑːr/ ; Hindustani pronunciation: ) is an Indian state considered to be a part of Eastern as well as Northern India . It is the 13th-largest state of India, with an area of 94,163 km2 (36,357 sq mi). The third-largest state of India by population, it is contiguous with Uttar Pradesh to its west, Nepal to the north, the northern part of West Bengal to the east, with Jharkhand to the south. The Bihar plain is split by the river Ganges which flows from west to east. Bihar is an amalgamation of three main distinct regions, these are Magadh , Mithila and Bhojpur .

On 15 November 2000, southern Bihar was ceded to form the new state of Jharkhand . Only 11.3% of the population of Bihar lives in urban areas, which is the lowest in India after Himachal Pradesh. Additionally, almost 58% of Biharis are below the age of 25, giving Bihar the highest proportion of young people of any Indian state.

In ancient and classical India, the area that is now Bihar was considered a centre of power, learning, and culture. From Magadha arose India's first empire, the Maurya empire , as well as one of the world's most widely adhered-to religions, Buddhism . Magadha empires, notably under the Maurya and Gupta dynasties, unified large parts of South Asia under a central rule. Another region of Bihar is Mithila which was an early centre of Brahmanical learning and the centre of the Videha kingdom. There is an ongoing movement in the Maithili speaking region of Bihar for a separate Indian state of Mithila. What would be the capital of the state has yet to be decided, but Darbhanga is the most likely candidate. Other potential capitals include Muzaffarpur , Purnia , Madhubani and Begusarai .

Since the late 1970s, Bihar has lagged far behind other Indian states in terms of social and economic development. Many economists and social scientists claim that this is a direct result of the policies of the central government , such as the Freight equalisation policy , its apathy towards Bihar, lack of Bihari sub-nationalism, and the Permanent Settlement of 1793 by the British East India Company . The state government has, however, made significant strides in developing the state. Improved governance has led to an economic revival in the state through increased investment in infrastructure, better health care facilities, greater emphasis on education, and a reduction in crime and corruption.


* 1 Etymology

* 2 History

* 2.1 Ancient * 2.2 Medieval * 2.3 Colonial Era * 2.4 Pre- and post-Independence

* 3 Geography and climate

* 3.1 Flora and fauna

* 4 Demographics

* 5 Government and administration

* 5.1 Politics

* 6 Economy

* 6.1 Agriculture * 6.2 Industry * 6.3 Income distribution

* 7 Culture

* 7.1 Language and literature * 7.2 Paintings * 7.3 Performing arts * 7.4 Cinema * 7.5 Religion

* 8 Media

* 9 Transport

* 9.1 Airways * 9.2 Inland Waterways

* 10 Tourism * 11 Education * 12 See also * 13 References * 14 Further reading * 15 External links


The Mahabodhi Temple , among the four holy sites related to the life of the Lord Buddha and UNESCO World Heritage Site

The name Bihar is derived from the Sanskrit and Pali word, Vihara ( Devanagari : विहार), meaning "abode". The region roughly encompassing the present state was dotted with Buddhist vihara, the abodes of Buddhist monks in the ancient and medieval periods. Medieval writer Minhaj al-Siraj Juzjani records in the Tabakat-i-Nasiri that in 1198, Bakhtiyar Khalji committed a massacre in a town now known as Bihar Sharif , about 70 km away from Bodh Gaya .


Main article: History of Bihar See also: Timeline for Bihar ; Magadha ; Mithila Kingdom ; History of Buddhism in India ; Decline of Buddhism in India ; Mithila, India ; and List of rulers of Mithila Magadha, Anga and Vrijji (or Vajji) Confederacy of Mithila in circa 600 BCE


Copy of the seal excavated from Kundpur, Vaishali. The Brahmi letters on the seal means: Kundpur was in Vaishali. Prince Vardhaman (Mahavira) used this seal after the Judgement

Chirand , on the northern bank of the Ganga River , in Saran district , has an archaeological record from the Neolithic age (about 2500–1345 BC). Regions of Bihar—such as Magadha , Mithila and Anga —are mentioned in religious texts and epics of ancient India.

Mithila first gained prominence after being settled by Indo-Aryan peoples who established the Videha Kingdom. During the late Vedic period (c. 1100-500 BCE), Videha became one of the major political and cultural centers of South Asia, along with Kuru and Pañcāla. The kings of the Videha Kingdom were called Janakas . Sita , a daughter of one of the Janaks of Mithila is mentioned as the consort of Lord Rama , in the Hindu epic , Ramayana , written by Valmiki . The Videha Kingdom later became incorporated into the Vajji confederacy which had its capital in the city of Vaishali , which is also in Mithila. Vajji had a republican form of government where the king was elected from the number of rajas. Based on the information found in texts pertaining to Jainism and Buddhism, Vajji was established as a republic by the 6th century BCE, before the birth of Gautama Buddha in 563 BCE, making it the world's first republic.

The region of modern-day southwestern Bihar called Magadha remained the centre of power, learning, and culture in India for 1000 years. The Haryanka dynasty , founded in 684 BC, ruled Magadha from the city of Rajgriha (modern Rajgir ). The two well-known kings from this dynasty were Bimbisara and his son Ajatashatru , who imprisoned his father to ascend the throne. Ajatashatru founded the city of Pataliputra which later became the capital of Magadha. He declared war and conquered the Vajji . The Haryanka dynasty was followed by the Shishunaga dynasty . Later the Nanda Dynasty ruled a vast tract stretching from Bengal to Punjab .

The Nanda dynasty was replaced by the Maurya Empire , India 's first empire. The Maurya Empire and the religion of Buddhism arose in the region that now makes up modern Bihar. The Mauryan Empire, which originated from Magadha in 325 BC, was founded by Chandragupta Maurya , who was born in Magadha. It had its capital at Pataliputra (modern Patna ). The Mauryan emperor, Ashoka , who was born in Pataliputra (Patna) is believed to be one of the greatest rulers in the history of the world.

The Gupta Empire, which originated in Magadha in 240 AD, is referred as the Golden Age of India in science, mathematics, astronomy, commerce, religion, and Indian philosophy . Bihar and Bengal was invaded by Rajendra Chola I of the Chola dynasty in the 11th century. Kalidasa 's Sanskrit play Abhijñānaśākuntalam


Buddhism in Magadha went into decline due to the invasion of Muhammad Bin Bakhtiar Khilji , during which many of the viharas and the famed universities of Nalanda and Vikramashila were destroyed. It was claimed that thousands of Buddhist monks were massacred during the 12th century. D. N. Jha suggests, instead, that these incidents were the result of Buddhist- Brahmin skirmishes in a fight for supremacy. In 1540, the great Pathan chieftain, Sher Shah Suri , from Sasaram , took northern India from the Mughals, defeating the Mughal army of Emperor Humayun. Sher Shah declared Delhi his capital.

From the 11th century to the 20th century, Mithila was ruled by various indigenous dynasties. The first of these where the Karnatas , followed by the Oinwar dynasty , Raghuvanshi and finally Raj Darbhanga . It was during this period that the capital of Mithila was shifted to Darbhanga .

The tenth and the last Guru of Sikhism , Guru Gobind Singh was born in Patna.


After the Battle of Buxar (1764) , the British East India Company obtained the diwani rights (rights to administer, and collect revenue or tax) for Bihar, Bengal and Odisha . The rich resources of fertile land, water and skilled labour had attracted the foreign imperialists, particularly the Dutch and British, in the 18th century. A number of agriculture-based industries had been started in Bihar by foreign entrepreneurs. Bihar remained a part of the Bengal Presidency of British India until 1912, when the province of Bihar and Orissa was carved out as a separate province. Since 2010, Bihar has celebrated its birthday as Bihar Diwas on 22 March.


(Sitting L to R) Rajendra Prasad and Anugrah Narayan Sinha during Mahatma Gandhi 's 1917 Champaran Satyagraha

Farmers in Champaran had revolted against indigo cultivation in 1914 (at Pipra ) and 1916 (Turkaulia ). In April 1917, Mahatma Gandhi visited Champaran, where Raj Kumar Shukla had drawn his attention to the exploitation of the peasants by European indigo planters. The Champaran Satyagraha that followed received support from many Bihari nationalists, such as Rajendra Prasad , Anugrah Narayan Sinha "> River Map of Bihar Mountain of Ashrams , near Sena Village, at Buddha Gaya Flooded farmlands in northern Bihar during the 2008 Bihar flood




• SUMMER 34 °C (93 °F)

• WINTER 10 °C (50 °F)

PRECIPITATION 1,200 mm (47 in)

Bihar has a diverse climate. Its temperature is subtropical in general, with hot summers and cool winters. Bihar is a vast stretch of fertile plain. It is drained by the Ganges River, including its northern tributaries Gandak and Koshi , originating in the Nepal Himalayas and the Bagmati originating in the Kathmandu Valley that regularly flood parts of the Bihar plains. The total area covered by the state of Bihar is 94,163 km2 (36,357 sq mi). the state is located between 24°-20'-10" N ~ 27°-31'-15" N latitude and between 83°-19'-50" E ~ 88°-17'-40" E longitude. Its average elevation above sea level is 173 feet (53 m).

The Ganges divides Bihar into two unequal halves and flows through the middle from west to east. Other Ganges tributaries are the Son, Budhi Gandak , Chandan, Orhani and Phalgu . Though the Himalayas begin at the foothills , a short distance inside Nepal and to the north of Bihar, the mountains influence Bihar's landforms, climate, hydrology and culture. Central parts of Bihar have some small hills, for example the Rajgir hills . To the south is the Chota Nagpur plateau, which was part of Bihar until 2000 but now is part of a separate state called Jharkhand .


Bauhinia acuminata , locally known as Kachnaar Main articles: Flora of Bihar and Fauna of Bihar See also: Protected areas of Bihar

Bihar has notified forest area of 6,764.14 km2 (2,612 sq mi), which is 7.2% of its geographical area. The sub Himalayan foothill of Someshwar and the Dun ranges in the Champaran district are another belt of moist deciduous forests. These also consist of scrub, grass and reeds. Here the rainfall is above 1,600 millimetres (63 in) and thus promotes luxuriant Sal forests in the area. The most important trees are Shorea Robusta, Sal Cedrela Toona, Khair , and Semal. Deciduous forests also occur in the Saharsa and Purnia districts. Shorea Robusta (sal), Diospyros melanoxylon (kendu), Boswellia serrata (salai), Terminalia tomentose (Asan), Terminalia bellerica (Bahera), Terminalia Arjuna (Arjun), Pterocarpus Marsupium (Paisar), Madhuca indica (Mahua) are the common flora across the forest of Bihar.

Valmiki National Park , West Champaran district , covering about 800 km2 (309 sq mi) of forest, is the 18th Tiger Reserve of India and is ranked fourth in terms of density of tiger population. It has a diverse landscape, sheltering rich wildlife habitats and floral and faunal composition, along with the prime protected carnivores.


Main article: Demographics of Bihar See also: Bihari people

Portrait of Goddess Sita *

Vishnupadh Temple, Gaya, Bihar *

Buddha 's statue at Bodh Gaya 's temple *

31 feet Statue of Lord Vasupujya , Champapur, Bhagalpur *

Sita Kund at Sitamarhi , Mithila , Bihar is believed to be the birthplace of Hindu Goddess Sita


Main article: Media in Bihar

Biharbandhu was the first Hindi newspaper published in Bihar. It was started in 1872 by Madan Mohan Bhatta, a Marathi Brahman who settled in Bihar Sharif . Hindi journalism in Bihar, and specially Patna , could make little headway initially. Many Hindi journals were born and, after a lapse of time, vanished. Many journals were shelved even in the planning stages. But once Hindi had the support of being an official language, it started making inroads, even into the remote areas of Bihar. Hindi journalism acquired wisdom and maturity, and its longevity was assured. Hindi was introduced in the law courts in Bihar in 1880.

Urdu journalism and poetry has a glorious past in Bihar. Many poets belong to Bihar, such as Shaad Azimabadi, Kaif Azimabadi, and Kalim Ajiz. Shanurahman, a world-famous radio announcer, is from Bihar. Many Urdu dailies— such as Qomi Tanzim and Sahara—are published in Bihar. There is a monthly Urdu magazine called Voice of Bihar – which is the first of its kind and is becoming popular among the Urdu speaking people.

The beginning of the 20th century was marked by a number of notable new publications. A monthly magazine named Bharat Ratna was started in Patna , in 1901. It was followed by Ksahtriya Hitaishi, Aryavarta from Dinapure, Udyoga, and Chaitanya Chandrika. Udyog was edited by Vijyaanand Tripathy, a famous poet of the time, and Chaitanya Chandrika by Krishna Chaitanya Goswami, a literary figure of that time. The literary activity was not confined to Patna alone but to other districts of Bihar.

Hindustan , Dainik Jagran , Aaj , and Prabhat Khabar are some of the Hindi newspapers of Bihar. National English dailies like The Times of India , Hindustan Times , Navbharat Times , The Telegraph , and The Economic Times have readers in the urban regions.


Main article: Transport in Bihar Patna river port on national inland waterways-1 at Gai Ghat Steamers and dredgers at Gai Ghat, Patna


Bihar has three operational airports: Lok Nayak Jayaprakash Airport , Patna; Gaya Airport ; and Purnea Airport . The Patna airport is categorised as a restricted international airport, with customs facilities to receive international chartered flights. An airport at Muzaffarpur is under construction. Darbhanga Airport will start operation in June 2018 under UDAN 2 scheme.


The Ganges – navigable throughout the year – was the principal river highway across the vast north Indo-Gangetic Plain . Vessels capable of accommodating five hundred merchants were known to ply this river in the ancient period; it served as a conduit for overseas trade, as goods were carried from Pataliputra (later Patna ) and Champa (later Bhagalpur ) out to the seas and to ports in Sri Lanka and Southeast Asia. The role of the Ganges as a channel for trade was enhanced by its natural links – it embraces all the major rivers and streams in both north and south Bihar.


Main article: Tourism in Bihar

The culture and heritage of Bihar can be observed from the large number of ancient monuments spread throughout the state. Bihar is visited by many tourists from around the world, with about 24,000,000 (24 million ) tourists visiting the state each year.

In earlier days, tourism in the region was purely based on educational tourism , as Bihar was home of some prominent ancient universities like Nalanda ">

Monuments of Darbhanga *

Remains of the ancient city of Vaishali *

Trolley ride in Rajgir *

The tomb of Sher Shah Suri is in the Sasaram town of Bihar *

Barabar Caves – Asokan Inscription *

Vikramshila Monastery *

Buddha Smriti Park


Main articles: Education in Bihar and Literacy in Bihar See also: List of educational institutions in Bihar Front view of administrative building of IIT Patna

Historically, Bihar has been a major centre of learning, home to the ancient universities of Nalanda (established in 450 CE), Odantapurā (established in 550CE) and Vikramashila (established in 783 CE). This tradition of learning may have been stultified during the period of Turkic invasions, c. 1000 CE, at which point it is believed major education centres, maintained by reclusive communities of Buddhist monks removed from the local populace, were suppressed by the Turkic raids originating from central Asia .

Bihar saw a revival of its education system during the later part of the British rule , when Patna University , the seventh oldest university of the Indian subcontinent, was established in 1917. Some other centres of high learning established under British rule are Patna College (established 1839), Bihar School of Engineering (1900; now known as National Institute of Technology, Patna ), Prince of Wales Medical College (1925; now Patna Medical College and Hospital ), and Science College, Patna (1928), among others.

A recent survey by Pratham rated the receptivity of Bihari children to their teaching as being better than those in other states.

Bihar is striving to increase female literacy, now at 53.3%, as the government establishes educational institutions. At the time of independence, women's literacy in Bihar was 4.22%.


1961 21.95 35.85 8.11

1971 23.17 35.86 9.86

1981 32.32 47.11 16.61

1991 37.49 51.37 21.99

2001 47.53 60.32 33.57

2011 63.82 73.39 53.33

Bihar has a National Institute of Technology (NIT) and an Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) in Patna. The National Employability Report of Engineering Graduates, 2014 puts graduates from Bihar in the top 25 percent of the country, and rating Bihar as one of the three top states at producing engineering graduates in terms of quality and employability. Loknayak Jai Prakash Institute Of Technology

As of December 2013, there are seven government engineering colleges in the public sector, and 12 engineering colleges in the private sector, in Bihar, besides government-aided BIT Patna and Women\'s Institute of Technology , Darbhanga. The overall annual intake of students of these technical institutes in Bihar is only 6,200.

In Bihar, government colleges are located at Muzaffarpur, Bhagalpur, Gaya, Darbhanga, Motihari, Nalanda, and Saran (Chhapra). All institutes are recognised by All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE), affiliated with Aryabhatta Knowledge University (AKU). As it is, the foundation stone of the eighth engineering college of the state government, Ramdhari Singh Dinkar Engineering College, was laid on 22 December 2013 at Begusarai , while the process of creating the infrastructure for two new engineering colleges – one each at Madhepura and Sitamarhi – has started. NIT Patna main building

NIT Patna is the second oldest engineering college of India . Its origin can be traced to 1886, with the establishment of a survey training school, subsequently renamed Bihar College of Engineering in 1932. In 2004, the government of India upgraded the college to National Institute of Technology (NIT) status. In 2007, NIT Patna was granted Institute of National Importance status, in accordance with the National Institutes of Technology Act, 2007 .

Bihar established several new educational institutes between 2006 and 2008. BIT Mesra started its Patna extension centre in September 2006. On 8 August 2008, Indian Institutes of Technology Patna was inaugurated with students from all over India In 2008, NSIT opened its new college in Bihta , which is now emerging as an education hub. BCE, Bhagalpur , MIT, Muzaffarpur , and the National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Hajipur (NIPER) are in Bihar. On 4 August 2008, National Institute of Fashion Technology Patna was established as the ninth such institute in India. Chanakya National Law University and Chandragupt Institute of Management were established in the later half of 2008. Steps are being taken to revive the ancient Nalanda Mahavihara as Nalanda International University. Countries such as Japan, Korea, and China have also taken initiatives. The Aryabhatt Knowledge University in Patna is a centre with which all the engineering and medical colleges in Bihar are affiliated. The A.N. Sinha Institute of Social Studies is a premier research institute in the state.

Bihar e-Governance Services & Technologies (BeST) and the Government of Bihar have initiated a unique program to establish a centre of excellence called Bihar Knowledge Center , a finishing school to equip students with the latest skills and customised short-term training programs at an affordable cost. The centre aims to attract the youth of the state to improve their technical, professional, and soft skills, to meet the current requirements of the industrial job market.

Bihar has the Central Institute of Plastic Engineering "> Rajendra College, Chhapra

The Central University of Bihar (CUB) is one of the sixteen central universities newly established by the Government of India under the Central Universities Act, 2009 (Section 25 of 2009). The university is temporarily located on the premises of the Birla Institute of Technology, Patna. The university is likely to be relocated to Panchanpur, approximately 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) from Gaya, on 300 acres (120 ha) of land to be transferred soon from the military. On 28 February 2014, Lok Sabha Speaker Meira Kumar laid the foundation stone.

Mahatma Gandhi Central University —also established under the Central Universities Act, and Amendment Act of 2014—is situated in Motihari , the district headquarters of East Champaran district.

One of India's premier medical institutes – AIIMS Patna – is in Patna. It is affiliated with AIIMS , New Delhi.

Dr. Rajendra Prasad Central Agricultural University , located in PUSA in Samastipur district, is one of the major universities in India in education in Agricultural Science and Research. PUSA is also a place where regional centre of IARI is placed.

Nalanda University was re-established in 2014.

The Indian Institute of Management Bodh Gaya was established in 2015.


* Geography portal * Asia portal * South Asia portal * India portal * Bihar portal * Patna portal

BHOJPURI EDITION of , the free encyclopedia

MAITHILI EDITION of , the free encyclopedia

Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Behar". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.

* Outline of Bihar

* Timeline of Bihar

* Bihari culture

* Cuisine of Bihar * Bihari languages

* Bihari people

* List of people from Bihar

* Outline of India

* Bibliography of India * Index of India-related articles

* India – book

* Bihar Diwas


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Ministry of Finance India. Archived (PDF) from the original on 19 December 2008. Retrieved 18 December 2008. * ^ "States Census 2011". Census 2011. Census2011.co.in. Retrieved 21 July 2017. * ^ "Census GIS HouseHold". Censusindiamaps.net. Archived from the original on 6 July 2010. Retrieved 15 October 2009. * ^ "Female literacy rate leapfrogs to 53 pc in Bihar: Nitish Kumar". Retrieved 27 February 2015. * ^ "Urban and Rural Population of India 2011". * ^ Singh, Vijaita (25 August 2015). " Bihar elections among factors in religious data of Census 2011 release". Retrieved 26 October 2017 – via www.TheHindu.com. * ^ (2011 Census of India estimate)"India: Bihar". City Population. Thomas Brinkhoff. 25 January 2014. Retrieved 23 February 2015 – via Population Census India. * ^ " Bihar Civic elections likely in May 2017". * ^ "बिहार : नगर विकास एवं आवास विभाग की पहल, पुनर्गठन से नगर परिषदों की बढ़ जायेगी संख्या". * ^ "पहली बार कोई महिला बनेगी पटना नगर निगम की मेयर". * ^ "Ward delimitation begins in Chhapra". * ^ "छपरा को निगम बख्तियारपुर को मिला नगर परिषद का दर्जा". * ^ " Bihar a byword for worst of India: The Economist". The Indian Express. 25 February 2004. * ^ " Bihar – Towards a Development Strategy". World Bank. Archived from the original on 6 October 2013. * ^ "State Wise Seat Won ">(PDF). Election Commission of India. * ^ "The Decline of Communist Mass Base in Bihar: Jagannath Sardar". 25 September 2011. * ^ " Nitish Kumar government orders corrupt official\'s home to be made into school". Archived from the original on 4 May 2015. Retrieved 27 February 2015. * ^ NK. "Online News, Information & Entertainment – newkerala.com, India". Archived from the original on 10 May 2013. Retrieved 27 February 2015. * ^ " Bihar fixes time for Friday prayers by its employees". The Indian Express. 25 July 2012. * ^ " Bihar Brings New Law on Alcohol Ban After HC Quashed Old One". The Wire. PTI . 4 October 2016. Retrieved 3 January 2017. * ^ " Bihar witnesses serious drop in tourism after liquor ban". Pradesh18. 3 September 2016. Retrieved 3 January 2017. * ^ "National Accounts Division : Press release & Statements". Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation. Archived from the original on 13 April 2006. Retrieved 16 August 2006. * ^ "Bihar\'s economy climbs to $12b by 2005". Specials.rediff.com. 31 March 2009. Retrieved 15 October 2009. * ^ Das, Anand ST (5 July 2008). "Distressed Delicacy". Tehelka . 5 (26). Archived from the original on 14 February 2015. Retrieved 14 February 2015. * ^ " Bihar fastest growing state, Maharashtra tops in economic size: Report". dna. 2 December 2015. * ^ A B "GSDP of Bihar, Economic Growth in Bihar, Bihar Tourism". www.IBEF.org. Retrieved 26 October 2017. * ^ " Bihar posts avg GDP growth rate of 10.5% last decade". Business Standard. 25 February 2016. * ^ "Economy Of Bihar". www.ILoveIndia.com. Retrieved 26 October 2017. * ^ "26 Bihar districts declared drought-hit - igovernment.in". www.iGovernment.in. Retrieved 26 October 2017. * ^ " Bihar emerging as brewery hub". Economic Times. 16 January 2012. Retrieved 16 January 2012. * ^ "About Hajipur, General Information on Hajipur, Hajipur Profile". www.HajipurOnline.in. Retrieved 26 October 2017. * ^ "Bihar\'s debt soars to 77% of GDP". Specials.rediff.com. 31 March 2009. Retrieved 15 October 2009. * ^ "History". Sisindia.com. 29 July 1993. Archived from the original on 28 February 2009. Retrieved 15 October 2009. * ^ Ahmad, Faizan (25 August 2008). " Bihar security firm sets foot in Australia". The Times of India . Retrieved 14 February 2015. * ^ A B Nigam, Aditi (27 April 2008). "For Bihar, P stands for Patna and prosperity". The Financial Express . Retrieved 14 February 2015. * ^ "Bihar\'s first IT City to come up at Nalanda : Nitish Kumar". IANS. news.biharprabha.com. Retrieved 24 February 2014. * ^ " Bihar prepares to be India\'s 1st Multimedia Hub within 3 Years". IANS. news.biharprabha.com. Retrieved 24 February 2014. * ^ Cardona, George ; Jain, Dhanesh, eds. (11 September 2003). The Indo-Aryan Languages. Routledge Language Family Series. Routledge. p. 500. ISBN 978-0-415-77294-5 . ...the number of speakers of Bihari languages are difficult to indicate because of unreliable sources. In the urban region most educated speakers of the language name Hindi as their language because this is what they use in formal contexts and believe it to be the appropriate response because of lack of awareness. The uneducated and the urban population of the region return Hindi as the generic name for their language. * ^ A B Carolyn Brown Heinz, 2006, “Documenting the Image in Mithila Art,” Visual Anthropology Review, Vol. 22, Issue 2, pp. 5-33 * ^ Singh, Gajendra Narayan (2008) . Surile Logon Ki Sangat. New Delhi: Kanishka Publishers & Distributors. ISBN 9788184570724 . * ^ Singh, Gajendra Narayan (1999). Swargangh. * ^ "Collections". Padma Shri Gajendra Narayan Singh. Archived from the original on 11 August 2014. * ^ Jugnu, Haidar Ali. Sati Sulochana – Bhojpuri Birha By Haidar Ali- Jugnu. YouTube . hamaarbhojpuri. Retrieved 25 July 2014. * ^ Ganga Maiyya Tohe Piyari Charaihbo – First Bhojpuri language film * ^ Bhaiyaa – First Magadhi language film * ^ Kanyadan – First Maithili language film * ^ " Ganga Maiyya Tohe Piyari Chadhaibo (1962)". IMDb. Retrieved 27 February 2015. * ^ Tripathy, Ratnakar (2007) 'BHOJPURI CINEMA', South Asian Popular Culture, 5:2, 145–165 * ^ "For my female audiences, I\'ll wear a really flimsy dhoti". The Telegraph. Kolkota, India. 14 April 2006. Retrieved 15 October 2009. * ^ "Move over Bollywood, Here\'s Bhojpuri". BBC News. * ^ "Home". Bhojpuri Film Award. Archived from the original on 2 November 2009. Retrieved 15 October 2009. * ^ "bhojpuricity.com". bhojpuricity.com. Retrieved 15 October 2009. * ^ "Sitamarhi". Britannica. Retrieved 30 January 2015. * ^ "History of Sitamarhi". Official site of Sitamarhi district. Retrieved 30 January 2015. * ^ Pathak Prabhu Nath,Society and Culture in Early Bihar, Commonwealth Publishers, 1988, p. 140 * ^ http://www.india.com/travel/articles/sita-temples-in-india-that-you-may-not-know-about/ * ^ A B C Ahmad, Qeyamuddin, ed. (1988). Patna Through the Ages: Glimpses of History, Society and Economy. New Delhi: Commonwealth Publishers. * ^ Rajendra Abhinandan Granth, "Nagri Pracharini Sabha", Arrah, 3 March 1950, pp. 353 * ^ Kumar, Nagendra (1971). Journalism in Bihar: A Supplement to Bihar State Gazette. Government of Bihar, Gazetteers Branch. p. 28. Retrieved 17 April 2015. * ^ Bihar ki Sahityik Pragati, Bihar Hindi Sahitya Sammelan, Patna 1956, p. 73 * ^ Jayanti Smarak Granth, pp. 583–585 * ^ Yang, Anand A (1998). Bazaar India: Markets, Society, and the Colonial State in Gangetic Bihar. ISBN 978-0-520-21100-1 . Retrieved 15 October 2009. * ^ A B Statics Tourism in Bihar on Indian Government 's website Archived 22 December 2010 at the Wayback Machine . * ^ Wriggins, Sally Hovey. Xuanzang: A Buddhist Pilgrim on the Silk Road. Westview Press, 1996. Revised and updated as The Silk Road Journey With Xuanzang. Westview Press, 2003. ISBN 0-8133-6599-6 . * ^ A Record of Buddhistic Kingdoms: Being an account by the Chinese Monk Fa-Hien of his travels in India and Ceylon (A.D. 399–414) in search of the Buddhist Books of Discipline. Oxford, Clarendon Press. Reprint: New York, Paragon Book Reprint Corp. 1965. ISBN 0-486-21344-7 Archived 24 January 2009 at the Wayback Machine . * ^ Altekar, Anant Sadashiv (1965). Education in Ancient India, Sixth, Varanasi: Nand Kishore & Bros. * ^ Scott, David (May 1995). " Buddhism and Islam: Past to Present Encounters and Interfaith Lessons". Numen. 42 (2): 141. doi :10.1163/1568527952598657 . JSTOR 3270172 . * ^ "Profile of Patna University". Patna University . Retrieved 14 April 2015. * ^ Pratham.org Pratham – A Network of Societal Missions to Achieve Universal Primary Education in India Archived 14 June 2006 at the Wayback Machine . * ^ "Census Statistics for Bihar". Gov.bih.nic.in. Retrieved 15 October 2009. * ^ "National Employability Report – Engineers, Annual Report 2014" (PDF). www.aspiringminds.com. www.aspiringminds.com. p. 22. Retrieved 2 September 2016. * ^ "Delhi, Bihar produce top engineers in India: Report". The Times Of India. * ^ "Parents want wards to go for tech education outside Bihar". Times of India. 11 December 2013. Retrieved 11 December 2013. * ^ "CM inaugurates new engineering college at Chhapra". The Times Of India. 26 December 2012. Retrieved 26 December 2012. * ^ "7th engineering college of state to open in July". Times of India. 8 November 2011. Retrieved 11 November 2011. * ^ "CM lays foundation of engineering college". Times of India. 23 December 2013. Retrieved 23 December 2013. * ^ "Nitish lists special tag cry as LS poll plank". Calcutta, India: The Telegraph. 23 December 2013. Retrieved 23 December 2013. * ^ "Shortage of engineering colleges in Bihar". Times of India. 6 January 2012. Retrieved 6 January 2012. * ^ "New engineering colleges, polytechs to get impetus soon". Times of India. 26 December 2011. Retrieved 26 December 2011. * ^ Jha, Abhay Mohan (4 August 2008). "Brand new IIT in Patna impresses all". NDTV. Archived from the original on 7 August 2008. Retrieved 4 August 2008. * ^ "Netaji Subhash Institute of Technology (Nsit), Netaji Subhash Institute of Technology (Nsit) Address, Admission, Netaji Subhash Institute of Technology (Nsit) Courses, Ranking, Contact Details". www.StudyGuideIndia.com. Retrieved 26 October 2017. * ^ "Welcome to Netaji Subhas Institute of Technology – Bihta, Patna". Retrieved 27 February 2015. * ^ NITPU Chandigarh. "National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, S.A.S. Nagar". Niper.ac.in. Retrieved 15 October 2009. * ^ NIFT starts classes in Patna Archived 11 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine . * ^ "Premier Research Institute: ANSISS". Official website. * ^ " Bihar Knowledge Center". 2008. Archived from the original on 28 April 2009. Retrieved 3 August 2016.


* Swami Sahajanand Saraswati Rachnawali (Selected works of Swami Sahajanand Saraswati), Prakashan Sansthan, Delhi , 2003. * Christopher Alan Bayly , Rulers, Townsmen, and Bazaars: North Indian Society in the Age of British Expansion, 1770–1870, Cambridge University Press , 1983. * Anand A. Yang, Bazaar India: Markets, Society, and the Colonial State in Bihar, University of California Press , 1999. * Acharya Hazari Prasad Dwivedi Rachnawali, Rajkamal Prakashan , Delhi . * Swami Sahajanand and the Peasants of Jharkhand: A View from 1941 translated and edited by Walter Hauser along with the unedited Hindi original (Manohar Publishers , paperback, 2005). * Sahajanand on Agricultural Labour and the Rural Poor translated and edited by Walter Hauser (Manohar Publishers , paperback, 2005). * Religion, Politics, and the Peasants: A Memoir of India's Freedom Movement translated and edited by Walter Hauser (Manohar Publishers , hardbound, 2003). * Pandit Yadunandan (Jadunandan) Sharma , 1947, Bakasht Mahamari Aur Uska Achook Ilaaz (Bakasht Epidemic and its Infalliable Remedy) in Hindi, Allahabad. * Jagannath Sarkar, "Many Streams" Selected Essays by Jagannath Sarkar and Reminiscing Sketches" Compiled by Gautam Sarkar Edited by Mitali Sarkar, First Published May 2010, Navakarnataka Publications Private Limited, Bangalore. * Indradeep Sinha , 1969, Sathi ke Kisanon ka Aitihasic Sangharsha (Historic Struggle of Sathi Peasants), in Hindi, Patna. * Indradeep Sinha , Real face of JP's total revolution, Communist Party of India (1974). * Indradeep Sinha , Some features of current agrarian situation in India, All India Kisan Sabha , (1987). * Indradeep Sinha , The changing agrarian scene: Problems and tasks, Peoples Publishing House (1980). * Indradeep Sinha , Some questions concerning Marxism and the peasantry, Communist Party of India (1982). * Sinha, Udai Prakash; Kumar, Swargesh (2012). Bihar Tourism: Retrospect and Prospect. New Delhi: Concept Publishing Company. ISBN 9788180697999 . Retrieved 18 April 2015. * Nand Kishore Shukla, The Trial of Baikunth Sukul: A Revolutionary Patriot, Har-Anand, 1999, 403 pages, ISBN 81-241-0143-4 . * Shramikon Ke Hitaishi Neta, Itihas Purush: Basawon Singh published by the Bihar Hindi Granth Academy (1st Edition, April 2000). * Ramchandra Prasad, Ashok Kumar Sinha, Sri Krishna Singh in Adhunik Bharat ke Nirmata Series, Publications Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting , Government of India . * Walter Hauser , 1961, Peasant Organisation in India: A Case Study of the Bihar Kisan Sabha, 1929–1942, PhD Thesis, University of Chicago , (Forthcoming publication). * Rai, Algu, 1946, A Move for the Formation of an All-Indian Organisation for the Kisans, Azamgrah. * N. G. Ranga , 1949, Revolutionary Peasants, New Delhi. * N. G. Ranga , 1968, Fight For Freedom, New Delhi. * Mahapandit Rahul Sankrityayan , 1943, Naye Bharet ke Naye Neta (New Leaders of New India), in Hindi, Allahabad. * Mahapandit Rahul Sankrityayan , 1957, Dimagi Gulami (Mental Slavery), in Hindi, Allahabad. * Manmath Nath Gupta , Apane samaya ka surya Dinkar, Alekha Prakasana (1981). * Khagendra Thakur , Ramdhari Singh 'Dinkar': Vyaktitva aur Krititva, Publications Division , 2008 Ministry of Information and Broadcasting , Government of India . * Vijendra Narayan Singh , Bharatiya Sahitya ke Nirmata: Ramdhari Singh 'Dinkar, Sahitya Akademi , New Delhi, 2005, ISBN 81-260-2142-X . * Kumar Vimal, Ramdhari Singh Dinkar Rachna — Sanchayan, Sahitya Akademi , New Delhi, 2008, ISBN 978-81-260-2627-2 . * Mishra Shree Govind, History Of Bihar 1740–1772, Munshiram Manoharlal , 1970 * Verma B S, Socio-religious Economic And Literary Condition Of Bihar (From ca. 319 A.D. to 1000 A.D.), Munshiram Manoharlal, 1962 * Maitra A, Magahi Culture, Cosmo Publications, New Delhi, 1983 * Naipaul V S, India: A Wounded Civilization, Picador, 1977 * Trevithick Alan, The Revival Of Buddhist Pilgrimage At Bodh Gaya (1811–1949): Anagarika Dharmapala And The Mahabodhi Temple * Jannuzi F. Tomasson, Agrarian Crisis In India: The Case Of Bihar, University of Texas Press, 1974, ISBN 0-292-76414-6 , ISBN 978-0-292-76414-9 * Omalley L S S, History of Magadh, Veena Publication, 2005, ISBN 81-89224-01-8 * Shukla Prabhat Kumar, Indigo And The Raj: Peasant Protests In Bihar 1780–1917, Pragati Publications, 1993, ISBN 81-7307-004-0 * Ahmad Qeyamuddin, Patna Through The Ages: Glimpses of History, Society & Economy, Commonwealth Publishers, 1988 * Jain B D, Ardha Magadhi Reader, Sri Satguru Publications, Lahore, 1923 * Patra C, Life in Ancient India: As Depicted In The Digha Nikaya, Punthi Pustak, 1996, ISBN 81-85094-93-4 * Hazra Kanai Lal, Buddhism In India As Described By The Chinese Pilgrims AD 399–689, Munshiram Manoharlal, 1983, ISBN 81-215-0132-6 * McCrindle John W., Ancient India As Described By Megasthenes And Arrian, Munshiram Manoharlal * McCrindle John W., Ancient India As Described By Ptolemy, Munshiram Manoharlal, 1927, ISBN 81-215-0945-9 * Sastry Harprasad, Magadhan Literature, Sri Satguru Publications, Calcutta, 1923 * Rai Alok, Hindi Nationalism, Orient Longman, 2000, ISBN 81-250-1979-0 * Waddell Austine L., Report On The Excavations At Pataliputra (Patna) – The Palibothra Of The Greeks, Asian Publicational Services, Calcutta, 1903 * Das Arvind N., The State of Bihar: an economic history without footnotes, Amsterdam: VU University Press, 1992 * Brass Paul R., The politics of India since Independence, Cambridge University Press, 1990 * Askari S. H., Mediaeval Bihar: Sultante and Mughal Period, Khuda Bakhsh Oriental Public Library, Patna, 1990 * Tayler William, Three Months at Patna during the Insurrection of 1857, Khuda Bakhsh Oriental Public Library, Patna, 2007 * Taylor P.J.O., "What really happened during the Mutiny: A day by day account of the major events of 1857–1859 in India", Oxford University Press, 1997, ISBN 0-19-564182-5 * Pathak Prabhu Nath, Society and Culture in Early Bihar (C.A.D. 200 – 600), Commonwealth Publishers, 1988 * Basham A. L., The Wonder that was India, Picador, 1954, ISBN 0-330-43909-X * Nambisan Vijay, Bihar in the eye of the beholder, Penguin Books, 2000, ISBN 978-0-14-029449-1 * Pathak Mohan, Flood plains and Agricultural occupance, Deep & Deep Publication, 1991, ISBN 81-7100-289-7 * D'Souza Rohan, Drowned and Dammed:Colonial Capitalism and Flood Control in Eastern India, Oxford University Press, 2006, * Radhakanta Barik – Land padding:0.75em; background:#f9f9f9;"> Find more aboutBIHARat's sister projects

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* v * t * e

State of Bihar

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* Animal : Gaur * Bird : House sparrow * Flower : Marigolds * Tree : Sacred fig


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* Chirand * Kumhrar * Agam Kuan * Barabar Caves * Nalanda * Vikramashila


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