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BIHAR (/bᵻˈhɑːr/ ; Hindustani pronunciation: ) is an Indian state considered to be a part of Eastern as well as Northern India . It is the 13th-largest state of India, with an area of 94,163 km2 (36,357 sq mi). The third-largest state of India by population, it is contiguous with Uttar Pradesh to its west, Nepal to the north, the northern part of West Bengal to the east, with Jharkhand to the south. The Bihar plain is split by the river Ganges which flows from west to east. Bihar is an amalgamation of three main distinct regions, these are Magadh , Mithila and Bhojpur .

On November 15, 2000, southern Bihar was ceded to form the new state of Jharkhand . Only 11.3% of the population of Bihar lives in urban areas, which is the lowest in India after Himachal Pradesh. Additionally, almost 58% of Biharis are below the age of 25, giving Bihar the highest proportion of young people of any Indian state. The official languages of the state are Hindi and Urdu . Other languages commonly used within the state include Bhojpuri , Maithili , Magahi , Bajjika , and Angika (Maithili is the only one of these to be officially accepted by the government).

In ancient and classical India, the area that is now Bihar was considered a centre of power, learning, and culture. From Magadha arose India's first empire, the Maurya empire , as well as one of the world's most widely adhered-to religions, Buddhism . Magadha empires, notably under the Maurya and Gupta dynasties, unified large parts of South Asia under a central rule. Another region of Bihar is Mithila which was an early centre of Brahmanical learning and the centre of the Videha kingdom. There is an ongoing movement in the Maithili speaking region of Bihar for a separate Indian state of Mithila. What will be the capital of the state has yet to be decided however Darbhanga is the most likely candidate. Other potential capitals include Muzaffarpur , Purnia ,Madhubani and Begusarai .

Since the late 1970s, Bihar has lagged far behind other Indian states in terms of social and economic development. Many economists and social scientists claim that this is a direct result of the policies of the central government , such as the Freight equalisation policy , its apathy towards Bihar, lack of Bihari sub-nationalism, and the Permanent Settlement of 1793 by the British East India Company . The state government has, however, made significant strides in developing the state. Improved governance has led to an economic revival in the state through increased investment in infrastructure, better health care facilities, greater emphasis on education, and a reduction in crime and corruption.

CONTENTS

* 1 Etymology

* 2 History

* 2.1 Ancient * 2.2 Medieval * 2.3 Colonial Era * 2.4 Pre- and post-Independence

* 3 Geography and climate

* 3.1 Flora and fauna

* 4 Demographics

* 5 Government and administration

* 5.1 Politics

* 6 Economy

* 6.1 Agriculture * 6.2 Industry * 6.3 Income distribution

* 7 Culture

* 7.1 Language and literature * 7.2 Paintings * 7.3 Performing arts * 7.4 Cinema * 7.5 Religion

* 8 Media

* 9 Transport

* 9.1 Airways * 9.2 Inland Waterways

* 10 Tourism * 11 Education * 12 See also * 13 References * 14 Further reading * 15 External links

ETYMOLOGY

The Mahabodhi Temple , among the four holy sites related to the life of the Lord Buddha and UNESCO World Heritage Site

The name _Bihar_ is derived from the Sanskrit and Pali word, _Vihara _ ( Devanagari : विहार), meaning "abode". The region roughly encompassing the present state was dotted with Buddhist vihara, the abodes of Buddhist monks in the ancient and medieval periods. Medieval writer Minhaj al-Siraj Juzjani records in the _Tabakat-i-Nasiri_ that in 1198, Bakhtiyar Khalji committed a massacre in a town now known as Bihar Sharif , about 70 km away from Bodh Gaya .

HISTORY

Main article: History of Bihar See also: Timeline for Bihar ; Magadha ; History of Buddhism in India ; Decline of Buddhism in India ; Mithila, India ; and List of rulers of Mithila Paag of Mithila

ANCIENT

Copy of the seal excavated from Kundpur, Vaishali. The Brahmi letters on the seal means: Kundpur was in Vaishali. Prince Vardhaman (Mahavira) used this seal after the Judgement

Chirand , on the northern bank of the Ganga River , in Saran district , has an archaeological record from the Neolithic age (about 2500–1345 BC). Regions of Bihar—such as Magadha , Mithila and Anga —are mentioned in religious texts and epics of ancient India.

Mithila first gained prominence after being settled by Indo-Aryan peoples who established the Videha Kingdom. During the late Vedic period (c. 1100-500 BCE), Videha became one of the major political and cultural centers of South Asia, along with Kuru and Pañcāla. The Kings of the Videha Kingdom where called Janakas . Sita , a daughter of one of the Janaks of Mithila is mentioned as the consort of Lord Rama , in the Hindu epic , Ramayana , written by Valmiki . The Videha Kingdom later became incorporated into the Vajji confederacy which had its capital in the city of Vaishali , which is also in Mithila. Vajji had a republican form of government where the king was elected from the number of rajas. Based on the information found in texts pertaining to Jainism and Buddhism, Vajji was established as a republic by the 6th century BCE, before the birth of Gautama Buddha in 563 BCE, making it the world's first republic.

The region of modern-day southwestern Bihar called Magadha remained the centre of power, learning, and culture in India for 1000 years. The Haryanka dynasty , founded in 684 BC, ruled Magadha from the city of Rajgriha (modern Rajgir ). The two well-known kings from this dynasty were Bimbisara and his son Ajatashatru , who imprisoned his father to ascend the throne. Ajatashatru founded the city of Pataliputra which later became the capital of Magadha. He declared war and conquered the Vajji . The Haryanka dynasty was followed by the Shishunaga dynasty . Later the Nanda Dynasty ruled a vast tract stretching from Bengal to Punjab .

The Nanda dynasty was replaced by the Maurya Empire , India 's first empire. The Maurya Empire and the religion of Buddhism arose in the region that now makes up modern Bihar. The Mauryan Empire, which originated from Magadha in 325 BC, was founded by Chandragupta Maurya , who was born in Magadha. It had its capital at Pataliputra (modern Patna ). The Mauryan emperor, Ashoka , who was born in Pataliputra (Patna) is believed to be one of the greatest rulers in the history of the world.

The Gupta Empire, which originated in Magadha in 240 AD, is referred as the Golden Age of India in science, mathematics, astronomy, commerce, religion, and Indian philosophy . Bihar and Bengal was invaded by Rajendra Chola I of the Chola dynasty in the 11th century. _ Kalidasa 's Sanskrit play Abhijñānaśākuntalam _

MEDIEVAL

Buddhism in Magadha went into decline due to the invasion of Muhammad Bin Bakhtiar Khilji , during which many of the viharas and the famed universities of Nalanda and Vikramashila were destroyed. It was claimed that thousands of Buddhist monks were massacred during the 12th century. D. N. Jha suggests, instead, that these incidents were the result of Buddhist- Brahmin skirmishes in a fight for supremacy. In 1540, the great Pathan chieftain, Sher Shah Suri , from Sasaram , took northern India from the Mughals, defeating the Mughal army of Emperor Humayun. Sher Shah declared Delhi his capital.

From the 11th century to the 20th century, Mithila was ruled by various indigenous dynasties. The first of these where the Karnatas , followed by the Oinwar dynasty , Raghuvanshi and finally Raj Darbhanga . It was during this period that the capital of Mithila was shifted to Darbhanga .

The tenth and the last _Guru _ of Sikhism , Guru Gobind Singh
Guru Gobind Singh
was born in Patna.

COLONIAL ERA

After the Battle of Buxar (1764), the British East India Company obtained the diwani rights (rights to administer, and collect revenue or tax) for Bihar, Bengal and Odisha . The rich resources of fertile land, water and skilled labour had attracted the foreign imperialists, particularly the Dutch and British, in the 18th century. A number of agriculture-based industries had been started in Bihar by foreign entrepreneurs. Bihar remained a part of the Bengal Presidency of British India until 1912, when the province of Bihar and Orissa was carved out as a separate province. Since 2010, Bihar has celebrated its birthday as Bihar Diwas on 22 March.

PRE- AND POST-INDEPENDENCE

(Sitting L to R) Rajendra Prasad and Anugrah Narayan Sinha during Mahatma Gandhi 's 1917 Champaran Satyagraha

Farmers in Champaran had revolted against indigo cultivation in 1914 (at Pipra ) and 1916 (Turkaulia ). In April 1917, Mahatma Gandhi visited Champaran, where Raj Kumar Shukla had drawn his attention to the exploitation of the peasants by European indigo planters. The Champaran Satyagraha that followed received support from many Bihari nationalists, such as Rajendra Prasad and Anugrah Narayan Sinha .

In the northern and central regions of Bihar, the Kisan Sabha (peasant movement) was an important consequence of the independence movement. It began in 1929 under the leadership of Swami Sahajanand Saraswati who formed the Bihar Provincial Kisan Sabha (BPKS), to mobilise peasant grievances against the zamindari attacks on their occupancy rights. The movement intensified and spread from Bihar across the rest of India, culminating in the formation of the All India Kisan Sabha (AIKS) at the Lucknow session of the Indian National Congress in April 1936, where Saraswati was elected as its first president.

Bihari migrant workers have faced violence and prejudice in many parts of India, such as Maharashtra , Punjab and Assam after independence. See also: 2008 attacks on North Indians in Maharashtra

GEOGRAPHY AND CLIMATE

Main articles: Geography of Bihar and Climate of Bihar River Map of Bihar Mountain of Ashrams , near Sena Village, at Buddha Gaya Flooded farmlands in northern Bihar during the 2008 Bihar flood

CLIMATE

CLASSIFICATION ETh

AVG. TEMPERATURE 27 °C (81 °F)

• SUMMER 34 °C (93 °F)

• WINTER 10 °C (50 °F)

PRECIPITATION 1,200 mm (47 in)

Bihar has a diverse climate. Its temperature is subtropical in general, with hot summers and cool winters. Bihar is a vast stretch of fertile plain. It is drained by the Ganges River, including its northern tributaries Gandak and Koshi , originating in the Nepal Himalayas and the Bagmati originating in the Kathmandu Valley that regularly flood parts of the Bihar plains. The total area covered by the state of Bihar is 94,163 km2 (36,357 sq mi). the state is located between 24°-20'-10" N ~ 27°-31'-15" N latitude and between 83°-19'-50" E ~ 88°-17'-40" E longitude. Its average elevation above sea level is 173 feet (53 m).

The Ganges divides Bihar into two unequal halves and flows through the middle from west to east. Other Ganges tributaries are the Son, Budhi Gandak , Chandan, Orhani and Phalgu . Though the Himalayas begin at the foothills , a short distance inside Nepal and to the north of Bihar, the mountains influence Bihar's landforms, climate, hydrology and culture. Central parts of Bihar have some small hills, for example the Rajgir hills . To the south is the Chota Nagpur plateau, which was part of Bihar until 2000 but now is part of a separate state called Jharkhand .

FLORA AND FAUNA

_ Bauhinia acuminata , locally known as Kachnaar_ Main articles: Flora of Bihar and Fauna of Bihar See also: Protected areas of Bihar

Bihar has notified forest area of 6,764.14 km2 (2,612 sq mi), which is 7.2% of its geographical area. The sub Himalayan foothill of Someshwar and the Dun ranges in the Champaran district are another belt of moist deciduous forests. These also consist of scrub, grass and reeds. Here the rainfall is above 1,600 millimetres (63 in) and thus promotes luxuriant Sal forests in the area. The most important trees are Shorea Robusta, Sal Cedrela Toona, Khair , and Semal. Deciduous forests also occur in the Saharsa and Purnia districts. Shorea Robusta (sal), Diospyros melanoxylon (kendu), Boswellia serrata (salai), Terminalia tomentose (Asan), Terminalia bellerica (Bahera), Terminalia Arjuna (Arjun), Pterocarpus Marsupium (Paisar), Madhuca indica (Mahua) are the common flora across the forest of Bihar.

Valmiki National Park , West Champaran district , covering about 800 km2 (309 sq mi) of forest, is the 18th Tiger Reserve of India and is ranked fourth in terms of density of tiger population. It has a diverse landscape, sheltering rich wildlife habitats and floral and faunal composition, along with the prime protected carnivores.

DEMOGRAPHICS

Main article: Demographics of Bihar See also: Bihari people (PDF). Election Commission of India. * ^ "The Decline of Communist Mass Base in Bihar: Jagannath Sardar". 25 September 2011. * ^ " Nitish Kumar government orders corrupt official’s home to be made into school". Retrieved 27 February 2015. * ^ NK. "Online News, Information & Entertainment – newkerala.com, India". Archived from the original on 10 May 2013. Retrieved 27 February 2015. * ^ " Bihar fixes time for Friday prayers by its employees". _The Indian Express_. 25 July 2012. * ^ " Bihar Brings New Law on Alcohol Ban After HC Quashed Old One". _The Wire_. PTI . 4 October 2016. Retrieved 3 January 2017. * ^ " Bihar witnesses serious drop in tourism after liquor ban". _Pradesh18_. 3 September 2016. Retrieved 3 January 2017. * ^ "National Accounts Division : Press release & Statements". Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation. Archived from the original on 13 April 2006. Retrieved 16 August 2006. * ^ "Bihar\'s economy climbs to $12b by 2005". Specials.rediff.com. 31 March 2009. Retrieved 15 October 2009. * ^ Das, Anand ST (5 July 2008). "Distressed Delicacy". _ Tehelka _. 5 (26). Retrieved 14 February 2015. * ^ " Bihar fastest growing state, Maharashtra tops in economic size: Report". _dna_. 2 December 2015. * ^ _A_ _B_ * ^ " Bihar posts avg GDP growth rate of 10.5% last decade". _Business Standard_. 25 February 2016. * ^ * ^ * ^ " Bihar emerging as brewery hub". Economic Times. 16 January 2012. Retrieved 16 January 2012. * ^ About Hajipur Industrial Area- Page(2) * ^ "Bihar\'s debt soars to 77% of GDP". Specials.rediff.com. 31 March 2009. Retrieved 15 October 2009. * ^ "History". Sisindia.com. 29 July 1993. Archived from the original on 28 February 2009. Retrieved 15 October 2009. * ^ Ahmad, Faizan (25 August 2008). " Bihar security firm sets foot in Australia". _The Times of India _. Retrieved 14 February 2015. * ^ _A_ _B_ Nigam, Aditi (27 April 2008). "For Bihar, P stands for Patna and prosperity". _The Financial Express _. Retrieved 14 February 2015. * ^ "Bihar’s first IT City to come up at Nalanda : Nitish Kumar". _IANS_. news.biharprabha.com. Retrieved 24 February 2014. * ^ " Bihar prepares to be India’s 1st Multimedia Hub within 3 Years". _IANS_. news.biharprabha.com. Retrieved 24 February 2014. * ^ _A_ _B_ Carolyn Brown Heinz, 2006, “Documenting the Image in Mithila Art,” Visual Anthropology Review, Vol. 22, Issue 2, pp. 5-33 * ^ Singh, Gajendra Narayan (2008) . _Surile Logon Ki Sangat_. New Delhi: Kanishka Publishers & Distributors. ISBN 9788184570724 . * ^ Singh, Gajendra Narayan (1999). _Swargangh_. * ^ "Collections". _ Padma Shri Gajendra Narayan Singh_. Archived from the original on 11 August 2014. * ^ Jugnu, Haidar Ali. _Sati Sulochana – Bhojpuri Birha By Haidar Ali- Jugnu_. _ YouTube _. hamaarbhojpuri. Retrieved 25 July 2014. * ^ Ganga Maiyya Tohe Piyari Charaihbo – First Bhojpuri language film * ^ Bhaiyaa – First Magadhi language film * ^ Kanyadan – First Maithili language film * ^ " Ganga Maiyya Tohe Piyari Chadhaibo (1962)". _IMDb_. Retrieved 27 February 2015. * ^ Tripathy, Ratnakar (2007) 'BHOJPURI CINEMA', South Asian Popular Culture, 5:2, 145–165 * ^ "For my female audiences, I\'ll wear a really flimsy dhoti". _The Telegraph_. Kolkota, India. 14 April 2006. Retrieved 15 October 2009. * ^ "Move over Bollywood, Here\'s Bhojpuri". _BBC News_. * ^ "Home". Bhojpuri Film Award. Archived from the original on 2 November 2009. Retrieved 15 October 2009. * ^ "bhojpuricity.com". bhojpuricity.com. Retrieved 15 October 2009. * ^ "Sitamarhi". Britannica. Retrieved 30 January 2015. * ^ "History of Sitamarhi". Official site of Sitamarhi district. Retrieved 30 January 2015. * ^ Pathak Prabhu Nath,_Society and Culture in Early Bihar_, Commonwealth Publishers, 1988, p. 140 * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Ahmad, Qeyamuddin, ed. (1988). _ Patna Through the Ages: Glimpses of History, Society and Economy_. New Delhi: Commonwealth Publishers. * ^ Rajendra Abhinandan Granth, _"Nagri Pracharini Sabha"_, Arrah, 3 March 1950, pp. 353 * ^ Kumar, Nagendra (1971). _Journalism in Bihar: A Supplement to Bihar State Gazette_. Government of Bihar, Gazetteers Branch. p. 28. Retrieved 17 April 2015. * ^ _ Bihar ki Sahityik Pragati_, Bihar Hindi Sahitya Sammelan, Patna 1956, p. 73 * ^ _Jayanti Smarak Granth_, pp. 583–585 * ^ Yang, Anand A (1998). _ Bazaar India: Markets, Society, and the Colonial State in Gangetic Bihar_. ISBN 978-0-520-21100-1 . Retrieved 15 October 2009. * ^ _A_ _B_ Statics Tourism in Bihar on Indian Government 's website Archived 22 December 2010 at the Wayback Machine . * ^ Wriggins, Sally Hovey. _Xuanzang: A Buddhist Pilgrim on the Silk Road_. Westview Press, 1996. Revised and updated as _The Silk Road Journey With Xuanzang_. Westview Press, 2003. ISBN 0-8133-6599-6 . * ^ _A Record of Buddhistic Kingdoms: Being an account by the Chinese Monk Fa-Hien of his travels in India and Ceylon (A.D. 399–414) in search of the Buddhist Books of Discipline_. Oxford, Clarendon Press. Reprint: New York, Paragon Book Reprint Corp. 1965. ISBN 0-486-21344-7 Archived 24 January 2009 at the Wayback Machine . * ^ Altekar, Anant Sadashiv (1965). _Education in Ancient India_, Sixth, Varanasi: Nand Kishore & Bros. * ^ Scott, David (May 1995). " Buddhism and Islam: Past to Present Encounters and Interfaith Lessons". _Numen_. 42 (2): 141. JSTOR 3270172 . doi :10.1163/1568527952598657 . * ^ "Profile of Patna University". Patna University . Retrieved 14 April 2015. * ^ "Census Statistics for Bihar". Gov.bih.nic.in. Retrieved 15 October 2009. * ^ Pratham.org Pratham – A Network of Societal Missions to Achieve Universal Primary Education in India Archived 14 June 2006 at the Wayback Machine . * ^ "National Employability Report – Engineers, Annual Report 2014" (PDF). _www.aspiringminds.com_. www.aspiringminds.com. p. 22. Retrieved 2 September 2016. * ^ "Delhi, Bihar produce top engineers in India: Report". _The Times Of India_. * ^ "Parents want wards to go for tech education outside Bihar". Times of India. 11 December 2013. Retrieved 11 December 2013. * ^ "CM inaugurates new engineering college at Chhapra". _The Times Of India_. 26 December 2012. Retrieved 26 December 2012. * ^ "7th engineering college of state to open in July". Times of India. 8 November 2011. Retrieved 11 November 2011. * ^ "CM lays foundation of engineering college". Times of India. 23 December 2013. Retrieved 23 December 2013. * ^ "Nitish lists special tag cry as LS poll plank". Calcutta, India: The Telegraph. 23 December 2013. Retrieved 23 December 2013. * ^ "Shortage of engineering colleges in Bihar". Times of India. 6 January 2012. Retrieved 6 January 2012. * ^ "New engineering colleges, polytechs to get impetus soon". Times of India. 26 December 2011. Retrieved 26 December 2011. * ^ Jha, Abhay Mohan (4 August 2008). "Brand new IIT in Patna impresses all". NDTV. Archived from the original on 7 August 2008. Retrieved 4 August 2008. * ^ Netaji Subhash Institute of Technology (Nsit), Netaji Subhash Institute of Technology (Nsit) Address, Admission, Netaji Subhash Institute of Technology (Nsit) Courses, Ranking... * ^ "Welcome to Netaji Subhas Institute of Technology – Bihta, Patna". Retrieved 27 February 2015. * ^ NITPU Chandigarh. "National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, S.A.S. Nagar". Niper.ac.in. Retrieved 15 October 2009. * ^ NIFT starts classes in Patna Archived 11 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine . * ^ "Premier Research Institute: ANSISS". Official website. * ^ " Bihar Knowledge Center". 2008. Archived from the original on 28 April 2009. Retrieved 3 August 2016.

FURTHER READING

* _ Swami Sahajanand Saraswati Rachnawali (Selected works of Swami Sahajanand Saraswati), Prakashan Sansthan, Delhi , 2003_. * Christopher Alan Bayly , _Rulers, Townsmen, and Bazaars: North Indian Society in the Age of British Expansion, 1770–1870_, Cambridge University Press , 1983. * Anand A. Yang, _ Bazaar India: Markets, Society, and the Colonial State in Bihar_, University of California Press , 1999. * Acharya _ Hazari Prasad Dwivedi Rachnawali_, Rajkamal Prakashan , Delhi . * _Swami Sahajanand and the Peasants of Jharkhand: A View from 1941_ translated and edited by Walter Hauser along with the unedited Hindi original (Manohar Publishers , paperback, 2005). * _Sahajanand on Agricultural Labour and the Rural Poor_ translated and edited by Walter Hauser (Manohar Publishers , paperback, 2005). * _Religion, Politics, and the Peasants: A Memoir of India's Freedom Movement_ translated and edited by Walter Hauser (Manohar Publishers , hardbound, 2003). * Pandit Yadunandan (Jadunandan) Sharma , 1947, _Bakasht Mahamari Aur Uska Achook Ilaaz_ (Bakasht Epidemic and its Infalliable Remedy) in Hindi, Allahabad. * Jagannath Sarkar, "Many Streams" Selected Essays by Jagannath Sarkar and Reminiscing Sketches" Compiled by Gautam Sarkar Edited by Mitali Sarkar, First Published May 2010, Navakarnataka Publications Private Limited, Bangalore. * Indradeep Sinha , 1969, _Sathi ke Kisanon ka Aitihasic Sangharsha_ (Historic Struggle of Sathi Peasants), in Hindi, Patna. * Indradeep Sinha , _Real face of JP's total revolution_, Communist Party of India (1974). * Indradeep Sinha , _Some features of current agrarian situation in India_, All India Kisan Sabha , (1987). * Indradeep Sinha , _The changing agrarian scene: Problems and tasks_, Peoples Publishing House (1980). * Indradeep Sinha , _Some questions concerning Marxism and the peasantry_, Communist Party of India (1982). * Sinha, Udai Prakash; Kumar, Swargesh (2012). _ Bihar Tourism: Retrospect and Prospect_. New Delhi: Concept Publishing Company. ISBN 9788180697999 . Retrieved 18 April 2015. * Nand Kishore Shukla, _The Trial of Baikunth Sukul: A Revolutionary Patriot_, Har-Anand, 1999, 403 pages, ISBN 81-241-0143-4 . * _Shramikon Ke Hitaishi Neta, Itihas Purush: Basawon Singh_ published by the Bihar Hindi Granth Academy (1st Edition, April 2000). * Ramchandra Prasad, Ashok Kumar Sinha, _Sri Krishna Singh_ in _Adhunik Bharat ke Nirmata Series_, Publications Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting , Government of India . * Walter Hauser , 1961, _ Peasant Organisation in India: A Case Study of the Bihar Kisan Sabha, 1929–1942_, PhD Thesis, University of Chicago , (Forthcoming publication). * Rai, Algu, 1946, _A Move for the Formation of an All-Indian Organisation for the Kisans_, Azamgrah. * N. G. Ranga , 1949, _Revolutionary Peasants_, New Delhi. * N. G. Ranga , 1968, _Fight For Freedom_, New Delhi. * Mahapandit Rahul Sankrityayan , 1943, _Naye Bharet ke Naye Neta (New Leaders of New India)_, in Hindi, Allahabad. * Mahapandit Rahul Sankrityayan , 1957, _Dimagi Gulami (Mental Slavery)_, in Hindi, Allahabad. * Manmath Nath Gupta , _Apane samaya ka surya Dinkar_, Alekha Prakasana (1981). * Khagendra Thakur , _Ramdhari Singh 'Dinkar': Vyaktitva aur Krititva_, Publications Division , 2008 Ministry of Information and Broadcasting , Government of India . * Vijendra Narayan Singh , _Bharatiya Sahitya ke Nirmata: Ramdhari Singh 'Dinkar_, Sahitya Akademi , New Delhi, 2005, ISBN 81-260-2142-X . * Kumar Vimal, _Ramdhari Singh Dinkar Rachna — Sanchayan_, Sahitya Akademi , New Delhi, 2008, ISBN 978-81-260-2627-2 . * Mishra Shree Govind, _History Of Bihar 1740–1772_, Munshiram Manoharlal , 1970 * Verma B S, _Socio-religious Economic And Literary Condition Of Bihar (From ca. 319 A.D. to 1000 A.D.)_, Munshiram Manoharlal, 1962 * Maitra A,_ Magahi Culture_, Cosmo Publications, New Delhi, 1983 * Naipaul V S, _India: A Wounded Civilization_, Picador, 1977 * Trevithick Alan, _The Revival Of Buddhist Pilgrimage At Bodh Gaya (1811–1949): Anagarika Dharmapala And The Mahabodhi Temple_ * Jannuzi F. Tomasson, _Agrarian Crisis In India: The Case Of Bihar_, University of Texas Press, 1974, ISBN 0-292-76414-6 , ISBN 978-0-292-76414-9 * Omalley L S S, _History of Magadh_, Veena Publication, 2005, ISBN 81-89224-01-8 * Shukla Prabhat Kumar, _ Indigo And The Raj: Peasant Protests In Bihar 1780–1917_, Pragati Publications, 1993, ISBN 81-7307-004-0 * Ahmad Qeyamuddin, _ Patna Through The Ages: Glimpses of History, Society & Economy_, Commonwealth Publishers, 1988 * Jain B D, _Ardha Magadhi Reader_, Sri Satguru Publications, Lahore, 1923 * Patra C, _Life in Ancient India: As Depicted In The Digha Nikaya_, Punthi Pustak, 1996, ISBN 81-85094-93-4 * Hazra Kanai Lal, _ Buddhism In India As Described By The Chinese Pilgrims AD 399–689_, Munshiram Manoharlal, 1983, ISBN 81-215-0132-6

* McCrindle John W., _ Ancient India As Described By Megasthenes And Arrian_, Munshiram Manoharlal * McCrindle John W., _ Ancient India As Described By Ptolemy_, Munshiram Manoharlal, 1927, ISBN 81-215-0945-9 * Sastry Harprasad, _Magadhan Literature_, Sri Satguru Publications, Calcutta, 1923 * Rai Alok, _ Hindi Nationalism_, Orient Longman, 2000, ISBN 81-250-1979-0 * Waddell Austine L., _Report On The Excavations At Pataliputra (Patna) – The Palibothra Of The Greeks_, Asian Publicational Services, Calcutta, 1903 * Das Arvind N., _The State of Bihar: an economic history without footnotes_, Amsterdam: VU University Press, 1992 * Brass Paul R., _The politics of India since Independence_, Cambridge University Press, 1990 * Askari S. H., _Mediaeval Bihar: Sultante and Mughal Period_, Khuda Bakhsh Oriental Public Library, Patna, 1990 * Tayler William, _Three Months at Patna during the Insurrection of 1857_, Khuda Bakhsh Oriental Public Library, Patna, 2007 * Taylor P.J.O., _"What really happened during the Mutiny: A day by day account of the major events of 1857–1859 in India"_, Oxford University Press, 1997, ISBN 0-19-564182-5 * Pathak Prabhu Nath, _Society and Culture in Early Bihar (C.A.D. 200 – 600)_, Commonwealth Publishers, 1988 * Basham A. L., _The Wonder that was India_, Picador, 1954, ISBN 0-330-43909-X * Nambisan Vijay, _ Bihar in the eye of the beholder_, Penguin Books, 2000, ISBN 978-0-14-029449-1 * Pathak Mohan, _Flood plains and Agricultural occupance_, Deep & Deep Publication, 1991, ISBN 81-7100-289-7 * D'Souza Rohan, _Drowned and Dammed:Colonial Capitalism and Flood Control in Eastern India_, Oxford University Press, 2006, * Radhakanta Barik – _Land padding:0.75em; background:#f9f9f9;"> Find more aboutBIHARat's sister projects

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BIHAR

Jharkhand

* v * t * e

State of Bihar

Capital : PATNA

STATE SYMBOLS

* Animal : Gaur * Bird : House sparrow * Flower : Marigolds * Tree : Sacred fig

HISTORY

* Chirand * Magadha * Nanda Dynasty * Maurya Empire * Sunga Empire * Kanva dynasty * Gupta Empire * Chandragupta Maurya * Chanakya * Bindusara * Ashoka the Great * Buddhism in India * Edicts of Ashoka * Samudragupta * Chandragupta II * Arthashastra * Lion Capital of Asoka * Ashoka Chakra * Pataliputra * Bimbisara * Ajatashatru * Anga * Rajgir * Vaishali * Aryabhata * Siege of Arrah

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* Bhagalpur

* Banka * Bhagalpur

* Darbhanga

* Darbhanga * Madhubani * Samastipur

* Kosi

* Madhepura * Saharsa * Supaul

* Magadh

* Arwal * Aurangabad * Gaya * Jehanabad * Nawada

* Munger

* Begusarai * Jamui * Khagaria * Munger * Lakhisarai * Sheikhpura

* Patna

* Bhojpur * Buxar * Kaimur * Nalanda * Patna * Rohtas

* Purnia

* Araria * Katihar * Kishanganj * Purnia

* Saran

* Gopalganj * Saran * Siwan

* Tirhut

* East Champaran * Muzaffarpur * Sheohar * Sitamarhi * Vaishali * West Champaran

CITIES

* Patna * Gaya * Bhagalpur * Muzaffarpur * Darbhanga * Purnea * Bihar Sharif * Arrah * Begusarai * Katihar * Munger * Chhapra * Hajipur

MUNICIPAL CORPORATION

* Patna Municipal Corporation * Chhapra Municipal Corporation

POLTICS

* Elections in Bihar * BJP * JD-U * RJD * LJP * RLSP * HAM * Other Political Parties

CULTURE

* Bihari * Chhath Puja * Cuisine * Languages * Music * Art and craft * Religion * Festivals * Cinema * Culture of Bihar * Culture of Angika Region * Culture of Bhojpuri Region * Culture of Magadh Region * Culture of Maithili Region

* v * t * e

Tourist sites in Bihar

Archaeological/ Monuments

EXCAVATION

* Chirand * Kumhrar * Agam Kuan * Barabar Caves * Nalanda * Vikramashila

ANCIENT

* Vishnupad Mandir * Mahabodhi Temple * Sasaram * Maner Sharif * Pataliputra * Brahmayoni Hill * Pretshila Hill * Ramshila Hill

FORTS

* Rohtasgarh Fort * Sasaram Fort * Palamu Fort * Maner Fort * Jalalgarh Fort * Raj Mahal

MONUMENTS

* Golghar * Patna Museum * Mahatma Gandhi Setu

PILGRIMAGE

HINDU

* Patna * Sitamarhi * Madhubani * Punausa * Buxar * West Champaran * Munger * Jamui * Darbhanga * Anga

BUDDHIST

* Mahabodhi Temple * Bodhi Tree * Bodh Gaya * Vaishali * Pawapuri * Nalanda * Rajgir * Kesaria * Vikramashila * Areraj * Pataliputra

JAIN

* Rajgir * Pawapuri * Pataliputra * Arrah * Vikramashila

ISLAMIC

* Malayalam * Malayalam calendar * Mappila dialect * Judeo- Malayalam * Arabi Malayalam

SIKH

* Takht Sri Patna Sahib (Guru ka Bagh ) * Ghai Ghat * Handi Sahib * Gobind Ghat * Bal Lila Maini * Taksali Sangat * Guru Bagh * Chacha Phaggu Mal * Pakki Sangat * Bari Sangat

CHRISTIAN

* Padri Ki Haveli

Tourism in Bihar

* v * t * e

States and union territories of India

STATES

* Arunachal Pradesh * Andhra Pradesh * Assam * Bihar * Chhattisgarh * Goa * Gujarat * Haryana * Himachal Pradesh * Jammu and Kashmir * Jharkhand * Karnataka * Kerala * Madhya Pradesh * Maharashtra * Manipur * Meghalaya * Mizoram * Nagaland * Odisha * Punjab * Rajasthan * Sikkim * Tamil Nadu * Telangana * Tripura * Uttar Pradesh * Uttarakhand * West Bengal

UNION TERRITORIES

* Andaman and Nicobar Islands * Chandigarh * Dadra and Nagar Haveli * National Capital Territory of Delhi * Daman and Diu * Lakshadweep * Puducherry

* Capitals in India * Proposed states and territories * Historical Regions * British Provinces

AUTHORITY CONTROL

* WorldCat Identities * VIAF : 243407858 * GND : 4006563-7

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