Bihar (/bɪˈhɑːr/; Hindustani pronunciation: [bɪˈɦaːr]) is
Indian state considered to be a part of Eastern as well as
Northern India. It is the 13th-largest state of India,
with an area of 94,163 km2 (36,357 sq mi). The
third-largest state of
India by population, it is contiguous with
Uttar Pradesh to its west,
Nepal to the north, the northern part of
West Bengal to the east, with
Jharkhand to the south. The
is split by the river
Ganges which flows from west to east. Bihar
is an amalgamation of three main distinct regions, these are Magadh,
Mithila and Bhojpur.
On 15 November 2000, southern
Bihar was ceded to form the new state of
Jharkhand. Only 11.3% of the population of
Bihar lives in urban
areas, which is the lowest in
India after Himachal Pradesh.
Additionally, almost 58% of Biharis are below the age of 25,
Bihar the highest proportion of young people of any Indian
In ancient and classical India, the area that is now
considered a centre of power, learning, and culture. From Magadha
arose India's first empire, the
Maurya empire, as well as one of the
world's most widely adhered-to religions, Buddhism. Magadha
empires, notably under the
Gupta dynasties, unified large
parts of South Asia under a central rule. Another region of Bihar
is Mithila which was an early centre of Brahmanical learning and the
centre of the
Videha kingdom. There is an ongoing movement in the
Maithili speaking region of
Bihar for a separate
Indian state of
Mithila. What would be the capital of the state has yet to be decided,
Darbhanga is the most likely candidate. Other potential capitals
include Muzaffarpur, Purnia, Madhubani and Begusarai.
Since the late 1970s,
Bihar has lagged far behind other Indian states
in terms of social and economic development. Many
economists and social scientists claim that this is a direct result of
the policies of the central government, such as the Freight
equalisation policy, its apathy towards Bihar,
lack of Bihari sub-nationalism, and the Permanent
Settlement of 1793 by the British East
India Company. The state
government has, however, made significant strides in developing the
state. Improved governance has led to an economic revival in the
state through increased investment in infrastructure, better
health care facilities, greater emphasis on education, and a reduction
in crime and corruption.
2.3 Colonial Era
2.4 Pre- and post-Independence
3 Geography and climate
Flora and fauna
5 Government and administration
6.3 Income distribution
7.1 Language and literature
7.3 Performing arts
9.2 Inland Waterways
12 See also
14 Further reading
15 External links
The Mahabodhi Temple, among the four holy sites related to the life of
Lord Buddha and UNESCO World Heritage Site
Bihar is derived from the
Pali word, Vihara
(Devanagari: विहार), meaning "abode". The region roughly
encompassing the present state was dotted with
Buddhist vihara, the
Buddhist monks in the ancient and medieval periods. Medieval
Minhaj al-Siraj Juzjani records in the Tabakat-i-Nasiri that in
Bakhtiyar Khalji committed a massacre in a town now known as
Bihar Sharif, about 70 km away from Bodh Gaya.
Main article: History of Bihar
See also: Timeline for Bihar; Magadha; Mithila Kingdom; History of
Buddhism in India; Decline of
Buddhism in India; Mithila, India; and
List of rulers of Mithila
Anga and Vrijji (or Vajji) Confederacy of Mithila in circa
Copy of the seal excavated from Kundpur, Vaishali. The Brahmi letters
on the seal means: Kundpur was in Vaishali. Prince Vardhaman
(Mahavira) used this seal after the Judgement
Chirand, on the northern bank of the Ganga River, in Saran district,
has an archaeological record from the
Neolithic age (about 2500–1345
BC). Regions of Bihar—such as Magadha, Mithila and
Anga—are mentioned in religious texts and epics of ancient India.
Mithila first gained prominence after being settled by Indo-Aryan
peoples who established the
Videha Kingdom. During the late
Vedic period (c. 1100-500 BCE),
Videha became one of the major
political and cultural centers of South Asia, along with Kuru and
Pañcāla. The kings of the
Videha Kingdom were called Janakas.
Sita, a daughter of one of the Janaks of Mithila is mentioned as the
consort of Lord Rama, in the
Hindu epic, Ramayana, written by
Videha Kingdom later became incorporated into the
Vajji confederacy which had its capital in the city of Vaishali, which
is also in Mithila.
Vajji had a republican form of government
where the king was elected from the number of rajas. Based on the
information found in texts pertaining to
Jainism and Buddhism, Vajji
was established as a republic by the 6th century BCE, before the birth
Gautama Buddha in 563 BCE, making it the world's first republic.
The region of modern-day southwestern
the centre of power, learning, and culture in
India for 1000 years.
The Haryanka dynasty, founded in 684 BC, ruled
Magadha from the city
Rajgriha (modern Rajgir). The two well-known kings from this
Bimbisara and his son Ajatashatru, who imprisoned his
father to ascend the throne.
Ajatashatru founded the city of
Pataliputra which later became the capital of Magadha. He declared war
and conquered the Vajji. The
Haryanka dynasty was followed by the
Shishunaga dynasty. Later the
Nanda Dynasty ruled a vast tract
Bengal to Punjab.
The Nanda dynasty was replaced by the
Maurya Empire, India's first
Maurya Empire and the religion of
Buddhism arose in the
region that now makes up modern Bihar. The
Mauryan Empire, which
Magadha in 325 BC, was founded by Chandragupta Maurya,
who was born in Magadha. It had its capital at
Mauryan emperor, Ashoka, who was born in Pataliputra
(Patna) is believed to be one of the greatest rulers in the history of
Gupta Empire, which originated in
Magadha in 240 AD, is referred
as the Golden Age of
India in science, mathematics, astronomy,
commerce, religion, and Indian philosophy.
Rajendra Chola I
Rajendra Chola I of the
Chola dynasty in the 11th
Sanskrit play Abhijñānaśākuntalam
Magadha went into decline due to the invasion of Muhammad
Bin Bakhtiar Khilji, during which many of the viharas and the famed
Vikramashila were destroyed. It was
claimed that thousands of
Buddhist monks were massacred during the
12th century. D. N. Jha suggests, instead, that these
incidents were the result of Buddhist-
Brahmin skirmishes in a fight
for supremacy. In 1540, the great Pathan chieftain, Sher Shah
Suri, from Sasaram, took northern
India from the Mughals, defeating
the Mughal army of Emperor Humayun. Sher Shah declared
From the 11th century to the 20th century, Mithila was ruled by
various indigenous dynasties. The first of these where the Karnatas,
followed by the Oinwar dynasty,
Raghuvanshi and finally Raj
Darbhanga. It was during this period that the capital of Mithila
was shifted to Darbhanga.
The tenth and the last Guru of Sikhism,
Guru Gobind Singh
Guru Gobind Singh was born in
Battle of Buxar
Battle of Buxar (1764), the British East
obtained the diwani rights (rights to administer, and collect revenue
or tax) for Bihar,
Bengal and Odisha. The rich resources of fertile
land, water and skilled labour had attracted the foreign imperialists,
particularly the Dutch and British, in the 18th century. A number of
agriculture-based industries had been started in
Bihar by foreign
Bihar remained a part of the
Bengal Presidency of
India until 1912, when the province of
Bihar and Orissa
Bihar and Orissa was
carved out as a separate province. Since 2010,
Bihar has celebrated
its birthday as
Bihar Diwas on 22 March.
Pre- and post-Independence
(Sitting L to R)
Rajendra Prasad and
Anugrah Narayan Sinha
Anugrah Narayan Sinha during
Mahatma Gandhi's 1917
Champaran had revolted against indigo cultivation in 1914
(at Pipra) and 1916 (Turkaulia). In April 1917,
Mahatma Gandhi visited
Raj Kumar Shukla
Raj Kumar Shukla had drawn his attention to the
exploitation of the peasants by European indigo planters. The
Champaran Satyagraha that followed received support from many Bihari
nationalists, such as Rajendra Prasad,
Anugrah Narayan Sinha
Anugrah Narayan Sinha &
Dr.Maghfoor Ahmad Ajazi.
In the northern and central regions of Bihar, the Kisan Sabha (peasant
movement) was an important consequence of the independence movement.
It began in 1929 under the leadership of Swami Sahajanand Saraswati
who formed the
Bihar Provincial Kisan Sabha (BPKS), to mobilise
peasant grievances against the zamindari attacks on their occupancy
rights. The movement intensified and spread from
Bihar across the rest
of India, culminating in the formation of the All
India Kisan Sabha
(AIKS) at the
Lucknow session of the
Indian National Congress
Indian National Congress in April
Saraswati was elected as its first president.
Bihari migrant workers have faced violence and prejudice in many parts
of India, such as Maharashtra, Punjab and
See also: 2008 attacks on North Indians in Maharashtra
Geography and climate
Geography of Bihar
Geography of Bihar and Climate of Bihar
River Map of Bihar
Mountain of Ashrams, near Sena Village, at
Flooded farmlands in northern
Bihar during the 2008
27 °C (81 °F)
34 °C (93 °F)
10 °C (50 °F)
1,200 mm (47 in)
Bihar has a diverse climate. Its temperature is subtropical in
general, with hot summers and cool winters.
Bihar is a vast stretch of
fertile plain. It is drained by the
Ganges River, including its
northern tributaries Gandak and Koshi, originating in the Nepal
Himalayas and the
Bagmati originating in the
Kathmandu Valley that
regularly flood parts of the
Bihar plains. The total area covered by
the state of
Bihar is 94,163 km2 (36,357 sq mi). the
state is located between 24°-20'-10" N ~ 27°-31'-15" N latitude and
between 83°-19'-50" E ~ 88°-17'-40" E longitude. Its average
elevation above sea level is 173 feet (53 m).
Bihar into two unequal halves and flows through the
middle from west to east. Other
Ganges tributaries are the Son, Budhi
Gandak, Chandan, Orhani and Phalgu. Though the
Himalayas begin at the
foothills, a short distance inside
Nepal and to the north of Bihar,
the mountains influence Bihar's landforms, climate, hydrology and
culture. Central parts of
Bihar have some small hills, for example the
Rajgir hills. To the south is the Chota Nagpur plateau, which was part
Bihar until 2000 but now is part of a separate state called
Flora and fauna
Bauhinia acuminata, locally known as Kachnaar
Flora of Bihar
Flora of Bihar and Fauna of Bihar
See also: Protected areas of Bihar
Bihar has notified forest area of 6,764.14 km2
(2,612 sq mi), which is 7.2% of its geographical
area.[not in citation given] The sub Himalayan foothill of
Someshwar and the Dun ranges in the
Champaran district are another
belt of moist deciduous forests. These also consist of scrub, grass
and reeds. Here the rainfall is above 1,600 millimetres (63 in)
and thus promotes luxuriant Sal forests in the area. The most
important trees are Shorea Robusta, Sal Cedrela Toona, Khair, and
Semal. Deciduous forests also occur in the
Saharsa and Purnia
districts. Shorea Robusta (sal),
Diospyros melanoxylon (kendu),
Boswellia serrata (salai), Terminalia tomentose (Asan), Terminalia
bellerica (Bahera), Terminalia Arjuna (Arjun), Pterocarpus Marsupium
Madhuca indica (Mahua) are the common flora across the
forest of Bihar.
Valmiki National Park, West
Champaran district, covering about
800 km2 (309 sq mi) of forest, is the 18th Tiger
India and is ranked fourth in terms of density of tiger
population. It has a diverse landscape, sheltering rich wildlife
habitats and floral and faunal composition, along with the prime
Main article: Demographics of Bihar
See also: Bihari people
Religions in Bihar
Other religions (0.31%)
Source:Census of India
After the 2011 Census,
Bihar was the third most populous state of
India with total population of 104,099,452 (54,278,157 male and
49,821,295 female). Nearly 89% of Bihar's population lived in rural
areas. The density was 1,106. The sex ratio was 918 females per 1000
males. Almost 58% of Bihar's population was below 25 years age,
which is the highest in India. Most of Bihar's population belongs to
Indo-Aryan-speaking ethnic groups along with few Dravidian-speaking
and Austroasiatic-speaking people mostly in Chhotanagpur Plateau (now
part of Jharkhand). It also attracted Punjabi
Hindu refugees during
the Partition of British
India in 1947.
Bihar has a total literacy
rate of 63.82% (75.7% for males and 55.1% for females), recording a
growth of 20% in female literacy over the period of a decade.
Bihar has the second lowest urbanisation rate in India.
As of the 2011 census[update], population density surpassed 1,000 per
square kilometre, making
Bihar India's most densely-populated state,
but still lower than
West Java or
Banten of Indonesia.
According to the 2011 census, 82.7% of Bihar's population practised
Hinduism, while 16.9% followed Islam.
Largest cities in Bihar
Source: Census of
Government and administration
Government of Bihar
Government of Bihar and Administration in Bihar
Divisions of Bihar
Divisions of Bihar and Districts of Bihar
Vidhansabha Building, Patna
The constitutional head of the government of
Bihar is the governor,
who is appointed by the President of India. The real executive power
rests with the chief minister and the cabinet. The political party or
the coalition of political parties having a majority in the
Legislative Assembly forms the government.
The head of the bureaucracy of the state is the chief secretary. Under
this position, is a hierarchy of officials drawn from the Indian
Administrative Service, Indian Police Service, and different wings of
the State Civil Services. The judiciary is headed by the Chief
Bihar has a High Court which has been functioning since 1916.
All the branches of the government are located in the state capital,
The state is divided into nine divisions and 38 districts, for
Bihar has 12 Municipal Corporations, 49 Nagar
Parishads, and 80 Nagar Panchayats.
Main article: Politics of Bihar
See also: Political parties in Bihar,
Elections in Bihar
Elections in Bihar and List of
politicians from Bihar;
Bihar Legislative Assembly
Bihar Legislative Assembly election, 2015
By 2004, 14 years after Lalu Prasad Yadav's victory, The Economist
magazine said that "
Bihar [had] become a byword for the worst of
India, of widespread and inescapable poverty, of corrupt politicians
indistinguishable from mafia-dons they patronise, caste-ridden social
order that has retained the worst feudal cruelties". In 2005, the
World Bank believed that issues faced by the state were "enormous"
because of "persistent poverty, complex social stratification,
unsatisfactory infrastructure and weak governance". Currently,
there are two main political formations: the National Democratic
Alliance (NDA) which comprises Bharatiya Janata Party, Lok Janashakti
Party, Rashtriya Lok Samta Party,
Hindustani Awam Morcha
Hindustani Awam Morcha and JD(U)
(Joined recently after breaking the Grand Alliance with RJD and INC),
Second is alliance between RJD and Indian National Congress. There are
many other political formations. The Communist Party of
India had a
strong presence in
Bihar at one time, but is weakened now. The CPM
and Forward Bloc have a minor presence, along with the other extreme
In contrast to prior governments, which emphasised divisions of caste
and religion, Nitish Kumar's manifesto was based on economic
development, curbs on crime and corruption and greater social equality
for all sections of society. Since 2010, the government has
confiscated the properties of corrupt officials and redeployed them as
schools buildings. Simultaneously they introduced
Court Act to curb crime. It has also legislated for a two-hour
break on Fridays, including lunch, to enable
Muslim employees to pray
and thus cut down on post-lunch absenteeism by them. The
government has prohibited the sale and consumption of alcohol in the
state since March 2016; this ban has been linked to a drop in
tourism to Bihar.
Gross State Domestic Product
(millions of Indian Rupees)
Bihar accounts for 71% of India's annual litchi production.
A village market
Main article: Economy of Bihar
Gross state domestic product of
Bihar for the year 2013/2014 has been
around 3683.37 billion INR. By sectors, its composition is:
Agriculture = 22%
Industry = 5%
Services = 73%.
Bihar is the fastest growing state in terms of gross state domestic
product (GSDP), clocking a growth rate of 17.06% in FY 2014–15.
The economy of
Bihar was projected to grow at a compound annual growth
rate (CAGR) of 13.4% during 2012–2017, i.e. the 12th Five-Year Plan.
Bihar has witnessed strong growth in per capita net state domestic
product (NSDP). At current prices, per capita NSDP of the state grew
at a CAGR of 12.91 per cent during 2004–05 to 2014–15. Bihar's
per capita income went up by 40.6 per cent in the financial year
Bihar is the largest producer of vegetables and the second-largest
producer of fruits in India.
Bihar has high agricultural production
making it one of the strongest sectors of the state. About 80 per cent
of the state’s population is employed in agriculture, which is
higher as compared to India’s average. The main agricultural
products produced in
Bihar are litchi, guava, mango, pineapple,
brinjal, lady's finger, cauliflower, cabbage, rice, wheat and
sugarcane. Though good soil and favourable climatic conditions such as
good rainfall favour agriculture, it has to encounter flood threat as
well, which may drain off the fertile soil, if not conserved
properly. The state (mostly southern parts) faces droughts almost
every year affecting production of crops such as paddy.
Bihar has emerged as brewery hub with major domestic and foreign firms
setting up production units in the state. Three major firms – United
Breweries Group, Danish Brewery Company
Carlsberg Group and Cobra Beer
– are to set up new units in
Muzaffarpur in 2012.
Hajipur, near Patna, remains a major industrial city in Bihar, linked
to the capital city through the
Ganges bridge and good road
The state's debt was estimated at 77% of GDP by 2007. The Finance
Ministry has given top priority to create investment opportunities for
big industrial houses like Reliance Industries. Further developments
have taken place in the growth of small industries, improvements in IT
infrastructure, the new software park in Patna, and the completion of
the expressway from the Purvanchal border through
Bihar to Jharkhand.
In August 2008, a
Patna registered company called the Security and
Intelligence Services (SIS)
India Limited took over the
Australian guard and mobile patrol services business of American
United Technologies Corporation
United Technologies Corporation (UTC). SIS is registered
and taxed in Bihar. The capital city, Patna, is one of the
better-off cities in
India when measured by per capita income.^
The State Government is setting up an Information Technology (IT) City
Nalanda district. Additionally, India's first Media
Hub is also proposed to be set up in Bihar.
In terms of income, the districts of Patna, Munger, and
the three best-off out of a total of 38 districts in the state,
recording the highest per capita gross district domestic product of
₹31,441, ₹10,087 and ₹9,312, respectively, in 2004–05.
Main article: Culture of Bihar
Paag of Mithila
Language and literature
Languages in Bihar
Languages in Bihar and Literature in Bihar
See also: Maithili language, Bhojpuri, Angika, Magahi, Magadhi
Hindi in Bihar, and
Urdu Language in Bihar
Maithili language in Tirhuta and
Hindi is the official languages of the State. Maithili (61 million
Bajjika dialect which has 11 million speakers in
India), and Urdu are other recognised languages of the state.
Unrecognised languages of the state are
Bhojpuri (60 million), Angika
(30 million) and
Magahi (20 million).
sociolinguistically a part of the
Hindi Belt languages fold, thus they
were not granted official status in the state.
See also: Mithila painting
There are several traditional styles of painting practiced in Bihar.
One is Mithila painting, a style of Indian painting used in the
Mithila region of Bihar.Traditionally, painting was one of the skills
that was passed down from generation to generation in the families of
the Mithila region, mainly by women. Painting was usually done on
walls during festivals, religious events, and other milestones of the
life cycle, like birth,
Upanayanam (the sacred thread ceremony), and
Legend states that this style of painting originated at the time of
the Ramayana, when King
Janak commissioned artists to do paintings at
the time his daughter Sita's marriage to Lord Ram. Mithila painting
was traditionally done on huts' freshly plastered mud walls, but today
it is also done on cloth, handmade paper, and canvas. Famous Mithila
painters have included Smt Bharti Dayal, Mahasundari Devi, the late
Ganga Devi, and
Mithila painting is also called Madhubani art. It mostly depicts human
beings and their association with nature. Common scenes illustrate
deities like Krishna, Ram, Shiva, Durga, Lakshmi, and
ancient epics. Natural objects like the sun, moon, and religious
plants like tulsi are also widely painted, along with scenes from the
royal court and social events like weddings. Generally no space is
Manjusha Kala or
Angika Art is another Bihari art form, practiced in
Patna School of Painting (
Patna Salaam), sometimes
called Company Painting, flourished in
Bihar during the early 18th to
mid-20th centuries. The
Patna School of Painting was an offshoot of
the well-known Mughal Miniature School of Painting. Those who
practiced this art form were descendants of
Hindu artisans of Mughal
painting. Facing persecution from the Mughal Emperor, Aurangzeb, these
artisans found refuge, via Murshidabad, in
Patna during the late 18th
century. Their art shared the characteristics of the Mughal painters,
but whereas the Mughal style depicted only royalty and court scenes,
Patna artists also started painting bazaar scenes. They used
watercolours on paper and on mica. The style's subject matter evolved
to include scenes of Indian daily life, local rulers, festivals, and
ceremonies. This school of painting formed the basis for the formation
Patna Art School under the leadership of Shri Radha Mohan. The
School is an important center of fine arts in Bihar.
See also: Music of Bihar
Magahi folk singers
Bharat Ratna Ustad Bismillah Khan, from Dumraon, Bihar
Bihar has produced musicians like
Bharat Ratna Ustad Bismillah Khan
and dhrupad singers like the Malliks (
Darbhanga Gharana) and the
Bettiah Gharana) along with poets like
Vidyapati Thakur who
contributed to Maithili Music. The classical music in
Bihar is a form
of the Hindustani classical music. Gaya is another centre of
excellence in classical music, particularly of the
Tappa and Thumri
Pandit Govardhan Mishra – son of the Ram Prasad Mishra,
himself an accomplished singer – is perhaps the finest living
Tappa singing in
India today, according to Padma Shri
Gajendra Narayan Singh, founding secretary of the Sangeet Natak
Academi of Bihar. Gajendra Narayan Singh also writes, in his memoir,
that Champanagar, Banaili, was another major centre of classical
Rajkumar Shyamanand Sinha of Champanagar,
state, was a great patron of music and was himself one of the finest
exponents of classical vocal music in
Bihar in his time. Singh,
in another book on Indian classical music, has written that "Kumar
Shyamanand Singh of
Banaili estate had such expertise in singing that
many great singers including
Kesarbai Kerkar acknowledged his ability.
After listening to bandishes from Kumar Sahib,
Pandit Jasraj was moved
to tears and lamented that, alas!, he did not have such ability
himself." [free translation of
During the 19th century, when the condition of
Bihar worsened under
the British misrule, many Biharis had to emigrate as indentured
labourers to the West Indies, Fiji, and Mauritius. During this time
many sad plays and songs called birha became popular, in the Bhojpur
Bhojpuri Birha. Dramas incorporating this theme continue
to be popular in the theatres of
Patna.[better source needed]
Main article: Cinema of Bihar
Bhojpuri Film Industry and List of
Anurita Jha acted as the lead actress in Maithili film Mithila Makhaan
Bihar has a robust Bhojpuri-language film industry. There is also a
smaller production of Magadhi-, Maithili-, as well as Angika-language
films. The first film with
Bhojpuri dialogue was Ganga Jamuna,
released in 1961. Bhaiyaa, the first
Magadhi film, was released
in 1961. The first Maithili movie was Kanyadan released in
1965. Maithili film
Mithila Makhaan won the National Film Award
for Best Maithili Film in 2016. The history of films entirely in
Bhojpuri begins in 1962 with the well-received film Ganga Maiyya Tohe
Piyari Chadhaibo ("Mother Ganges, I will offer you a yellow sari"),
which was directed by Kundan Kumar. 1963's Lagi nahin chute ram
was the all-time hit
Bhojpuri film, and had higher attendance than
Mughal-e-Azam in the eastern and northern regions of India.
Bollywood's Nadiya Ke Paar is another of the most famous
Bhojpuri-language movies. However, in the following years, films were
produced only in fits and starts. Films such as
1963, directed by S. N. Tripathi) and Ganga ("Ganges", 1965, directed
by Kundan Kumar) were profitable and popular, but in general Bhojpuri
films were not commonly produced in the 1960s and 1970s.
In the 1980s, enough
Bhojpuri films were produced to tentatively
support a dedicated industry. Films such as Mai ("Mom", 1989, directed
by Rajkumar Sharma) and Hamar Bhauji ("My Brother's Wife", 1983,
directed by Kalpataru) continued to have at least sporadic success at
the box office. However, this trend faded out by the end of the
decade, and by 1990, the nascent industry seemed to be completely
Bhojpuri film industry took off again in 2001 with the super hit
Saiyyan Hamar ("My Sweetheart", directed by Mohan Prasad), which
vaulted the hero of that film, Ravi Kishan, to superstardom. This
success was quickly followed by several other remarkably successful
films, including Panditji Batai Na Biyah Kab Hoi ("Priest, tell me
when I will marry", 2005, directed by Mohan Prasad) and Sasura Bada
Paisa Wala ("My father-in-law, the rich guy", 2005). In a measure of
Bhojpuri film industry's rise, both of these did much better
business in the states of
Uttar Pradesh and
Bihar than mainstream
Bollywood hits at the time, and both films, made on extremely tight
budgets, earned back more than ten times their production costs.
Sasura Bada Paisa Wala also introduced Manoj Tiwari, formerly a
well-loved folk singer, to the wider audiences of
Bhojpuri cinema. The
Ravi Kishan & Manoj Tiwari's films has led to a
dramatic increase in
Bhojpuri cinema's visibility, and the industry
now supports an awards show and a trade magazine, Bhojpuri
City, which chronicles the production and release of what are now
over one hundred films per year.
Main article: Religion in Bihar
Goddess Sita, the consort of Lord
Rama is believed to be born in
Sitamarhi district in the Mithila region of modern-day
Gautama Buddha attained Enlightenment at Bodh Gaya, a
town located in the modern day district of Gaya in Bihar. Vasupujya,
the 12th Jain
Tirthankara was born in Champapuri, Bhagalpur.
Vardhamana Mahavira, the 24th and the last
Tirthankara of Jainism, was
born in Vaishali around the 6th century BC.
Vishnupadh Temple, Gaya, Bihar
Buddha's statue at Bodh Gaya's temple
31 feet Statue of Lord Vasupujya, Champapur, Bhagalpur
Sita Kund at Sitamarhi, Mithila,
Bihar is believed to be the
Main article: Media in Bihar
Biharbandhu was the first
Hindi newspaper published in Bihar. It was
started in 1872 by Madan Mohan Bhatta, a Marathi
Brahman who settled
Hindi journalism in Bihar, and specially Patna,
could make little headway initially. Many
Hindi journals were born
and, after a lapse of time, vanished. Many journals were shelved even
in the planning stages. But once
Hindi had the support of being
an official language, it started making inroads, even into the remote
areas of Bihar.
Hindi journalism acquired wisdom and maturity, and its
longevity was assured.
Hindi was introduced in the law courts in Bihar
Urdu journalism and poetry has a glorious past in Bihar. Many poets
belong to Bihar, such as Shaad Azimabadi, Kaif Azimabadi, and Kalim
Ajiz. Shanurahman, a world-famous radio announcer, is from Bihar. Many
Urdu dailies— such as Qomi Tanzim and Sahara—are published in
Bihar. There is a monthly
Urdu magazine called Voice of
which is the first of its kind and is becoming popular among the Urdu
The beginning of the 20th century was marked by a number of notable
new publications. A monthly magazine named
Bharat Ratna was started in
Patna, in 1901. It was followed by Ksahtriya Hitaishi, Aryavarta from
Dinapure, Udyoga, and Chaitanya Chandrika. Udyog was edited by
Vijyaanand Tripathy, a famous poet of the time, and Chaitanya
Krishna Chaitanya Goswami, a literary figure of that
time. The literary activity was not confined to
Patna alone but to
other districts of Bihar.
Hindustan, Dainik Jagran, Aaj, and
Prabhat Khabar are some of the
Hindi newspapers of Bihar. National English dailies like The Times of
India, Hindustan Times, Navbharat Times, The Telegraph, and The
Economic Times have readers in the urban regions.
Main article: Transport in Bihar
Patna river port on national inland waterways-1 at Gai Ghat
Steamers and dredgers at Gai Ghat, Patna
Bihar has three operational airports: Lok Nayak Jayaprakash Airport,
Patna; Gaya Airport; and
Purnea Airport. The
Patna airport is
categorised as a restricted international airport, with customs
facilities to receive international chartered flights. An airport at
Muzaffarpur is under construction.
Darbhanga Airport will start
operation in June 2018 under
UDAN 2 scheme.
Ganges – navigable throughout the year – was the principal
river highway across the vast north Indo-Gangetic Plain. Vessels
capable of accommodating five hundred merchants were known to ply this
river in the ancient period; it served as a conduit for overseas
trade, as goods were carried from
Pataliputra (later Patna) and Champa
(later Bhagalpur) out to the seas and to ports in
Sri Lanka and
Southeast Asia. The role of the
Ganges as a channel for trade was
enhanced by its natural links – it embraces all the major rivers and
streams in both north and south Bihar.
Main article: Tourism in Bihar
The culture and heritage of
Bihar can be observed from the large
number of ancient monuments spread throughout the state.
visited by many tourists from around the world, with about
24,000,000 (24 million) tourists visiting the state each year.
In earlier days, tourism in the region was purely based on educational
Bihar was home of some prominent ancient universities like
Nalanda & Vikramashila.
Monuments of Darbhanga
Remains of the ancient city of Vaishali
Trolley ride in Rajgir
The tomb of
Sher Shah Suri
Sher Shah Suri is in the
Sasaram town of Bihar
Barabar Caves – Asokan Inscription
Buddha Smriti Park
Education in Bihar
Education in Bihar and Literacy in Bihar
See also: List of educational institutions in Bihar
Front view of administrative building of IIT Patna
Bihar has been a major centre of learning, home to the
ancient universities of
Nalanda (established in 450 CE), Odantapurā
(established in 550CE) and
Vikramashila (established in 783 CE).
This tradition of learning may have been stultified during the period
of Turkic invasions, c. 1000 CE, at which point it is believed major
education centres, maintained by reclusive communities of Buddhist
monks removed from the local populace, were suppressed by the Turkic
raids originating from central Asia .
Bihar saw a revival of its education system during the later part of
the British rule, when
Patna University, the seventh oldest university
of the Indian subcontinent, was established in 1917. Some other
centres of high learning established under British rule are Patna
College (established 1839),
Bihar School of Engineering (1900; now
known as National Institute of Technology, Patna), Prince of Wales
Medical College (1925; now
Patna Medical College and Hospital), and
Patna (1928), among others.
A recent survey by
Pratham rated the receptivity of Bihari children to
their teaching as being better than those in other states.
Bihar is striving to increase female literacy, now at 53.3%, as the
government establishes educational institutions. At the time of
independence, women's literacy in
Bihar was 4.22%.
Literacy rate from 1951 to 2011
Bihar has a
National Institute of Technology
National Institute of Technology (NIT) and an Indian
Institute of Technology (IIT) in Patna. The National Employability
Report of Engineering Graduates, 2014 puts graduates from Bihar
in the top 25 percent of the country, and rating
Bihar as one of the
three top states at producing engineering graduates in terms of
quality and employability.
Loknayak Jai Prakash Institute Of Technology
As of December 2013, there are seven government engineering colleges
in the public sector, and 12 engineering colleges in the private
sector, in Bihar, besides government-aided BIT
Patna and Women's
Institute of Technology, Darbhanga. The overall annual intake of
students of these technical institutes in
Bihar is only
In Bihar, government colleges are located at Muzaffarpur, Bhagalpur,
Gaya, Darbhanga, Motihari, Nalanda, and Saran (Chhapra). All
institutes are recognised by All
India Council for Technical Education
(AICTE), affiliated with
Aryabhatta Knowledge University
Aryabhatta Knowledge University (AKU). As it
is, the foundation stone of the eighth engineering college of the
state government, Ramdhari Singh Dinkar Engineering College, was laid
on 22 December 2013 at Begusarai, while the process of
creating the infrastructure for two new engineering colleges – one
Sitamarhi – has started.
Patna main building
Patna is the second oldest engineering college of India. Its
origin can be traced to 1886, with the establishment of a survey
training school, subsequently renamed
Bihar College of Engineering in
1932. In 2004, the government of
India upgraded the college to
National Institute of Technology
National Institute of Technology (NIT) status. In 2007, NIT
Institute of National Importance status, in accordance with
National Institutes of Technology
National Institutes of Technology Act, 2007.
Bihar established several new educational institutes between 2006 and
2008. BIT Mesra started its
Patna extension centre in September 2006.
On 8 August 2008,
Indian Institutes of Technology
Indian Institutes of Technology
inaugurated with students from all over India In 2008, NSIT
opened its new college in Bihta, which is now emerging as an education
hub. BCE, Bhagalpur, MIT, Muzaffarpur, and the National
Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Hajipur
(NIPER) are in Bihar. On 4 August 2008, National Institute of
Patna was established as the ninth such institute
Chanakya National Law University
Chanakya National Law University and Chandragupt
Institute of Management were established in the later half of 2008.
Steps are being taken to revive the ancient
Nalanda Mahavihara as
Nalanda International University. Countries such as Japan, Korea, and
China have also taken initiatives. The Aryabhatt Knowledge University
Patna is a centre with which all the engineering and medical
Bihar are affiliated. The A.N. Sinha
Institute of Social Studies is a premier research institute in
Bihar e-Governance Services & Technologies (BeST) and the
Government of Bihar
Government of Bihar have initiated a unique program to establish a
centre of excellence called
Bihar Knowledge Center, a finishing school
to equip students with the latest skills and customised short-term
training programs at an affordable cost. The centre aims to attract
the youth of the state to improve their technical, professional, and
soft skills, to meet the current requirements of the industrial job
Bihar has the Central Institute of Plastic Engineering &
Technology (CIPET) and the Institute of Hotel Management (a central
government unit) in Hajipur.
Rajendra College, Chhapra
Central University of Bihar
Central University of Bihar (CUB) is one of the sixteen central
universities newly established by the Government of
India under the
Central Universities Act, 2009 (Section 25 of 2009). The university is
temporarily located on the premises of the Birla Institute of
Technology, Patna. The university is likely to be relocated to
Panchanpur, approximately 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) from Gaya, on
300 acres (120 ha) of land to be transferred soon from the
military. On 28 February 2014, Lok Sabha Speaker Meira Kumar laid the
Mahatma Gandhi Central University—also established under the Central
Universities Act, and Amendment Act of 2014—is situated in Motihari,
the district headquarters of East
One of India's premier[according to whom?] medical institutes –
Patna – is in Patna. It is affiliated with AIIMS, New Delhi.
Rajendra Prasad Central Agricultural University, located in PUSA
in Samastipur district, is one of the major universities in
education in Agricultural Science and Research. PUSA is also a place
where regional centre of IARI is placed.
Nalanda University was re-established in 2014.
The Indian Institute of Management
Bodh Gaya was established in 2015.
South Asia portal
Bhojpuri edition of, the free encyclopedia
Maithili edition of, the free encyclopedia
Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Behar". Encyclopædia Britannica
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Outline of Bihar
Timeline of Bihar
Cuisine of Bihar
List of people from Bihar
Outline of India
Bibliography of India
Index of India-related articles
India – book
Nitish Kumar to take oath as Chief Minister of Bihar, Sushil Modi
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पटना नगर निगम की मेयर".
^ "Ward delimitation begins in Chhapra".
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