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MAGADHA is a region in the Indian states of Bihar
Bihar
, Jharkhand , Orissa , West Bengal
West Bengal
and the nations of Bangladesh
Bangladesh
and Nepal
Nepal
and formed one of the sixteen Mahajanapadas
Mahajanapadas
( Sanskrit
Sanskrit
: "Great Countries") of ancient India. The core of the kingdom was the area of Bihar
Bihar
south of the Ganges
Ganges
; its first capital was Rajagriha
Rajagriha
(modern Rajgir
Rajgir
), then Pataliputra
Pataliputra
(modern Patna ). Rajagriha
Rajagriha
was initially known as 'Girivrijja' and later came to be known as so during the reign of Ajatashatru.

Magadha
Magadha
expanded to include most of Bihar
Bihar
and Bengal
Bengal
with the conquest of Vajji confederation and Anga
Anga
, respectively, followed by much of eastern Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
and Odisha
Odisha
. The ancient kingdom of Magadha
Magadha
is heavily mentioned in Jain and Buddhist texts
Buddhist texts
. It is also mentioned in the Ramayana
Ramayana
, the Mahabharata
Mahabharata
and the Puranas
Puranas
. A state of Magadha
Magadha
is recorded in Vedic texts much earlier in time than 600 BCE.

The earliest reference to the Magadha
Magadha
people occurs in the Atharvaveda
Atharvaveda
, where they are found listed along with the Angas , Gandharis and Mujavats. Magadha
Magadha
played an important role in the development of Jainism
Jainism
and Buddhism, and two of India's greatest empires, the Mauryan Empire and Gupta Empire
Gupta Empire
, originated in Magadha. These empires saw advancements in ancient India's science, mathematics , astronomy , religion, and philosophy and were considered the Golden Age of India. The Magadha
Magadha
kingdom included republican communities such as the community of Rajakumara. Villages had their own assemblies under their local chiefs called Gramakas. Their administrations were divided into executive, judicial, and military functions.

CONTENTS

* 1 Geography * 2 History * 3 Culture

* 4 Rulers

* 4.1 Haryanka dynasty (c. 600 – 413 BCE) * 4.2 Shishunaga dynasty (413–345 BCE) * 4.3 Nanda Dynasty (345–321 BCE)

* 5 See also * 6 References * 7 Bibliography

GEOGRAPHY

The kingdom of the Magadhi, before its expansion, corresponded to the modern districts of Patna , Jehanabad , Nalanda
Nalanda
, Aurangabad , Nawadah and Gaya in southern Bihar
Bihar
, and parts of Bengal
Bengal
in the east. It was bounded on the north by the river Ganges
Ganges
, on the east by the river Champa, on the south by the Vindhya Range , and on the west by the Son River .

This region of Greater Magadha
Magadha
had a culture and religious beliefs of its own that predates Hinduism. Much of the second urbanisation took place here from c. 500 BCE onwards and it was here that Jainism
Jainism
became strong and Buddhism
Buddhism
arose. The importance of Magadha's culture can be seen in that Buddhism, Jainism
Jainism
and Hinduism
Hinduism
adopted some of its features, most significantly a belief in rebirth and karmic retribution.

HISTORY

The Magadha
Magadha
state c. 600 BCE, before it expanded from its capital Rajagriha
Rajagriha
.

There is little certain information available on the early rulers of Magadha. The most important sources are the Buddhist Pāli Canon
Pāli Canon
, the Jain Agamas
Jain Agamas
and the Hindu Puranas
Puranas
. Based on these sources, it appears that Magadha
Magadha
was ruled by the Haryanka dynasty for some 200 years, c. 600 BCE – 413 BCE.

Gautama Buddha
Gautama Buddha
, the founder of Buddhism
Buddhism
, lived much of his life in Magadha
Magadha
kingdom. He attained enlightenment in Bodh Gaya
Bodh Gaya
, gave his first sermon in Sarnath
Sarnath
and the first Buddhist council was held in Rajgriha .

The Hindu Mahabharata
Mahabharata
calls Brihadratha the first ruler of Magadha. King Bimbisara of the Haryanka dynasty led an active and expansive policy, conquering Anga
Anga
in what is now West Bengal
West Bengal
.

The death of King Bimbisara was at the hands of his son, Prince Ajatashatru . King Pasenadi , king of neighbouring Kosala and brother-in-law of King Bimbisara, promptly retook the gift of the Kashi province.

Accounts differ slightly as to the cause of King Ajatashatru's war with the Licchavi , an area north of the river Ganges
Ganges
. It appears that Ajatashatru sent a minister to the area who for three years worked to undermine the unity of the Licchavis. To launch his attack across the Ganges
Ganges
River, Ajatashatru built a fort at the town of Pataliputra
Pataliputra
. Torn by disagreements the Licchavis fought with Ajatashatru. It took fifteen years for Ajatashatru to defeat them. Jain texts tell how Ajatashatru used two new weapons: a catapult, and a covered chariot with swinging mace that has been compared to a modern tank. Pataliputra
Pataliputra
began to grow as a center of commerce and became the capital of Magadha
Magadha
after Ajatashatru's death. Nanda Empire, c.325 BCE

The Haryanka dynasty was overthrown by the Shishunaga dynasty . The last Shishunaga ruler, Kalasoka, was assassinated by Mahapadma Nanda in 345 BCE, the first of the so-called Nine Nandas, Mahapadma and his eight sons.

In 326 BCE, the army of Alexander approached the western boundaries of Magadha. The army, exhausted and frightened at the prospect of facing another giant Indian army at the Ganges, mutinied at the Hyphasis (the modern Beas River ) and refused to march further East. Alexander, after the meeting with his officer, Coenus , was persuaded that it was better to return and turned south, conquering his way down the Indus to the Ocean. Maurya Empire, c.250 BCE

Around 321 BCE, the Nanda Dynasty ended and Chandragupta Maurya became the first king of the great Mauryan dynasty and Mauryan Empire with the help of Chanakya
Chanakya
. The Empire later extended over most of South Asia
South Asia
under King Ashoka
Ashoka
, who was at first known as ' Ashoka
Ashoka
the Cruel' but later became a disciple of Buddhism
Buddhism
and became known as ' Dharma
Dharma
Ashoka'. Later, the Mauryan Empire ended, as did the Shunga and Khārabēḷa empires, to be replaced by the Gupta Empire
Gupta Empire
. The capital of the Gupta Empire
Gupta Empire
remained Pataliputra
Pataliputra
in Magadha.

CULTURE

The culture of Magadha
Magadha
was in some ways different than the Vedic kingdoms of the Indo-Aryans . This has been argued for by Indologist Johannes Bronkhorst in his Greater Magadha: Studies in the Culture of Early India
India
(2007) which argues for a cultural area termed "Greater Magadha" which is defined as “roughly the geographical area in which the Buddha and Mahāvīra lived and taught. Magadha
Magadha
kingdom, Circa 430-320 BC, Karshapana. Magadha
Magadha
kingdom coin, Circa 350 BC, Karshapana.

With regard to the Buddha, this area stretched by and large from Śrāvastī , the capital of Kosala , in the north-west to Rājagṛha , the capital of Magadha, in the south-east”. According to Bronkhorst “there was indeed a culture of Greater Magadha
Magadha
which remained recognizably distinct from Vedic culture until the time of the grammarian Patañjali (ca. 150 BCE) and beyond”. Vedic texts such as the Satapatha Brahmana demonize the inhabitants of this area as demonic and as speaking a barbarous speech. The Buddhologist Alexander Wynne writes that there is an "overwhelming amount of evidence" to suggest that this rival culture to the Vedic Aryans dominated the east Gangetic plain during the early Buddhist period. Orthodox Vedic Brahmins were therefore a minority in Magadha
Magadha
during this early period.

The Magadhan religions are termed the sramana traditions and include Jainism
Jainism
, Buddhism
Buddhism
and Ājīvika
Ājīvika
. Buddhism
Buddhism
and Jainism
Jainism
were the religions promoted by the early Magadhan kings, such as Srenika, Bimbisara and Ajatashatru , and the Nanda Dynasty (345–321 BCE) that followed was mostly Jain. These sramana religions did not worship the Vedic deities , practiced some form of asceticism and meditation (jhana ) and tended to construct round burial mounds (called stupas in Buddhism). These religions also sought some type of liberation from the cyclic rounds of rebirth and karmic retribution through spiritual knowledge.

RULERS

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Map of sixteen Mahajanapadas
Mahajanapadas
(Sanskrit: "Great Countries") during 500.BCE.

HARYANKA DYNASTY (C. 600 – 413 BCE)

* Bhattiya or * Bimbisara (544-493 BCE) * Ajatashatru (493-461 BCE) * Udayabhadra * Anuruddha * Munda * Nagadasaka

SHISHUNAGA DYNASTY (413–345 BCE)

* Shishunaga (413–395 BCE) * Kakavarna Kalashoka (395–367 BCE) * Mahanandin (367–345 BCE)

NANDA DYNASTY (345–321 BCE)

* Mahapadma Nanda Ugrasena (from 345 BCE), illegitimate son of Mahanandin , founded the Nanda Empire after inheriting Mahanandin's empire * Pandhuka * Panghupati * Bhutapala * Rashtrapala * Govishanaka * Dashasidkhaka * Kaivarta * Dhana Nanda (Agrammes, Xandrammes) (until 321 BCE), overthrown by Chandragupta Maurya
Chandragupta Maurya

SEE ALSO

* Śiśunāga dynasty * Nanda dynasty * List of Legendary Kings of Magadha
Magadha
* Kingdoms of Ancient India
India

REFERENCES

* ^ https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=V3KDaZY85wYC&pg=PA128&lpg=PA128&dq=Magadha+Landmass&source=bl&ots=kR_umsr6So&sig=mCh3Q9HhtXwJWB6EgBogMvLHytY&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjr4pPQwa7VAhWoDMAKHfpWBCoQ6AEIHzAB#v=onepage&q=Magadha%20Landmass Greater Magadha: Studies in the Culture of Early India
India
(2007), pp. xi, 4 * ^ Bronkorst, J; Greater Magadha: Studies in the Culture of Early India
India
(2007), p. 265 * ^ Wynne Alexander, Review of Johannes Bronkhorst. Greater Magadha: Studies in the Culture of Early India. http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php?id=31537 * ^ Bronkorst, J; Greater Magadha: Studies in the Culture of Early India
India
(2007), p. 3

BIBLIOGRAPHY

* Raychaudhuri, H.C. (1972). "Political History of Ancient India". Calcutta: University of Calcutta.

* Law, Bimala Churn (1926). "4. The Magadhas". Ancient Indian Tribes. Motilal Banarsidas.

* v * t * e

Tribes and kingdoms mentioned in the Mahabharata
Mahabharata

* Abhira * Andhra * Anarta * Anga
Anga
* Anupa * Assaka * Asmaka * Avanti * Ay * Bahlika * Bhārata * Chedi * Chera * Chola * Chinas * Dakshina Kosala * Dakshinatya * Danda * Dasarna * Dasharna * Dasherka * Dwaraka * Gandhāra * Garga * Gomanta * Gopa Rashtra * Hara Huna * Heheya * Himalaya * Huna * Kanchi * Kasmira * Kalakuta * Kalinga * Kamboja * Karnata * Karusha * Kashi * Kekeya * Kerala * Khasa * Kikata * Kirata * Kishkindha * Konkana * Kosala * Kuru * Kunti * Lanka
Lanka
* Madra * Madraka * Magadha
Magadha
* Maha Chinas * Mahisha * Malla * Malava * Matsya * Mekhalas * Mleccha * Mudgala * Mushika * Nasikya * Nepa * Niharas * Nishada * Odra * Pallava * Panchala * Pandya * Parada * Parama Kamboja * Parasika * Parvartaka * Parvata * Pishacha * Pragjyotisha * Pratyagratha * Prasthala * Pundra * Pulinda * Saka * Salva * Salveya * Salwa * Saraswata * Saurashtra * Sauvira * Shakya
Shakya
* Sindhu * Sinhala * Sivi * Sonita * Sudra * Suhma * Surparaka * Surasena * Tangana * Trigarta * Tulu * Tushara * Ursa * Uttara Kuru * Uttara Madra * Utkala * Vidarbha * Vanga * Vatadhana * Vatsa * Videha
Videha
* Vidarbha * Yavana * Youdheya

* v * t * e

Mahajanapadas
Mahajanapadas

Great Indian Kingdoms (c. 600 BCE–c. 300 BCE)

* Anga
Anga
* Assaka (Asmaka) * Avanti * Chedi * Gandhara * Kashi * Kamboja * Kosala * Kuru * Magadha * Malla (Mallarashtra) * Machcha (Matsya) * Panchala * Surasena * Vriji * Vatsa (Vamsa)

* v * t * e

Middle kingdoms of India
India

Timeline and

cultural period Northwestern India
India

( Punjab
Punjab
- Sapta Sindhu ) Indo-Gangetic Plain
Indo-Gangetic Plain
Central India Southern India
India

Western Gangetic Plain

(Kuru - Panchala ) Northern India
India

(Central Gangetic Plain) Northeastern India
India

(Northeast India
India
)

IRON AGE

CULTURE LATE VEDIC PERIOD LATE VEDIC PERIOD

(Brahmin ideology)

Painted Grey Ware culture LATE VEDIC PERIOD

(Kshatriya/Shramanic culture)

Northern Black Polished Ware PRE-HISTORY

6TH CENTURY BC Gandhara Kuru - Panchala Magadha

Adivasi (tribes)

CULTURE PERSIAN-GREEK INFLUENCES "SECOND URBANISATION "

Rise of Shramana movements Jainism
Jainism
- Buddhism
Buddhism
- Ājīvika
Ājīvika
- Yoga
Yoga
PRE-HISTORY

5TH CENTURY BC (Persian rule )

Shishunaga dynasty

Adivasi (tribes)

4TH CENTURY BC (Greek conquests )

Nanda empire Kalinga

HISTORICAL AGE

CULTURE SPREAD OF BUDDHISM PRE-HISTORY SANGAM PERIOD (300 BC – 200 AD)

3RD CENTURY BC MAURYA EMPIRE Early Cholas
Early Cholas

Early Pandyan Kingdom

Satavahana dynasty

Cheras

46 other small kingdoms in Ancient Thamizhagam

CULTURE PRECLASSICAL HINDUISM - "HINDU SYNTHESIS" (ca. 200 BC - 300 AD) Epics - Puranas
Puranas
- Ramayana
Ramayana
- Mahabharata
Mahabharata
- Bhagavad Gita
Bhagavad Gita
- Brahma Sutras - Smarta Tradition Mahayana Buddhism
Buddhism
Sangam period
Sangam period

(continued) (300 BC – 200 AD)

2ND CENTURY BC Indo-Greek Kingdom Shunga Empire

Maha-Meghavahana Dynasty Early Cholas
Early Cholas

Early Pandyan Kingdom

Satavahana dynasty

Cheras

46 other small kingdoms in Ancient Thamizhagam

1ST CENTURY BC

1ST CENTURY AD

Indo-Scythians Indo-Parthians Kuninda Kingdom

2ND CENTURY Kushan Empire
Kushan Empire

3RD CENTURY Kushano-Sasanian Kingdom Kushan Empire
Kushan Empire
Western Satraps Kamarupa
Kamarupa
kingdom Kalabhra dynasty

Pandyan Kingdom(Under Kalabhras)

CULTURE "GOLDEN AGE OF HINDUISM"(ca. AD 320-650) Puranas
Puranas
Co-existence of Hinduism
Hinduism
and Buddhism
Buddhism

4TH CENTURY Kidarites
Kidarites
GUPTA EMPIRE

Varman dynasty Kalabhra dynasty

Pandyan Kingdom(Under Kalabhras)

Kadamba Dynasty

Western Ganga Dynasty

5TH CENTURY Hephthalite Empire Alchon Huns Kalabhra dynasty

Pandyan Kingdom(Under Kalabhras)

Vishnukundina

6TH CENTURY Nezak Huns

Kabul Shahi
Kabul Shahi
Maitraka
Maitraka

Adivasi (tribes) Badami Chalukyas

Kalabhra dynasty

Pandyan Kingdom(Under Kalabhras)

CULTURE LATE-CLASSICAL HINDUISM (ca. AD 650-1100) Advaita Vedanta
Advaita Vedanta
- Tantra
Tantra
Decline of Buddhism
Buddhism
in India
India

7TH CENTURY Indo-Sassanids
Indo-Sassanids

Vakataka dynasty Empire of Harsha Mlechchha dynasty Adivasi (tribes) Pandyan Kingdom(Under Kalabhras)

Pandyan Kingdom(Revival)

Pallava

8TH CENTURY Kabul Shahi
Kabul Shahi

Pala Empire Pandyan Kingdom

Kalachuri

9TH CENTURY

Gurjara-Pratihara
Gurjara-Pratihara

Rashtrakuta dynasty

Pandyan Kingdom

Medieval Cholas

Pandyan Kingdom(Under Cholas)

Chera Perumals of Makkotai

10TH CENTURY Ghaznavids
Ghaznavids

Pala dynasty

Kamboja-Pala dynasty Kalyani Chalukyas

Medieval Cholas

Pandyan Kingdom(Under Cholas)

Chera Perumals of Makkotai

Rashtrakuta

References and sources for table

REFERENCES

* ^ Samuel * ^ Samuel * ^ Michaels (2004) p.39 * ^ Hiltebeitel (2002) * ^ Michaels (2004) p.39 * ^ Hiltebeitel (2002) * ^ Micheals (2004) p.40 * ^ Michaels (2004) p.41

SOURCES

* Flood, Gavin D. (1996), An Introduction to Hinduism, Cambridge University Press * Hiltebeitel, Alf (2002), Hinduism. In: Joseph Kitagawa, "The Religious Traditions of Asia: Religion, History, and Culture", Routledge * Michaels, Axel (2004), Hinduism. Past and present, Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press * Samuel, Geoffrey (2010), The Origins of Yoga
Yoga
and Tantra. Indic Religions to the Thirteenth Century, Cambridge University Press

* v * t * e

Magadh division topics

GENERAL

* Magadha * Barabar Caves
Barabar Caves

DISTRICTS

* Arwal * Aurangabad * Gaya * Jehanabad * Nawada

COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT BLOCKS

* Konch

RIVERS

* Lilajan/Niranjana * Mohana * Punpun * Son

TRANSPORT

* NH 2 * NH 31 * NH 83 * NH 96 * NH 110 * Grand Chord * Asansol–Gaya section * Gaya–Mughalsarai section

RAILWAY STATIONS

* Gaya Junction * Son Nagar

Lok Sabha constituencies

* Aurangabad * Gaya * Jahanabad * Nawada

SEE ALSO

* Cities and towns in Magadh Division * People from Aurangabad * Bihar
Bihar
topics

OTHER DIVISIONS

* Bhagalpur * Darbhanga * Kosi * Munger * Patna * Purnia * Saran * Tirhut

* v * t * e

Historical regions of North India
India

* Ajmer * Awadh
Awadh
* Bagelkhand * Bhojpur * Braj
Braj
* Bundelkhand * Delhi * Doab
Doab
* Doaba * Dhundhar * Garhwal * Gird * Godwar * Hadoti * Jaisalmer * Jangladesh * Kumaun * Magadha * Mahakoshal * Majha * Malwa
Malwa
* Malwa
Malwa
(Punjab) * Marwar * Mewar
Mewar
* Mewat * Mithila * Nimar * Purvanchal * Rohilkhand * Shekhawati * Vagad

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