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PATNA /ˈpætnə, ˈpʌt-/ ( listen ), is the capital and largest city of the state of Bihar
Bihar
in India. It had an estimated population of 1.68 million in 2011, making it the 19th largest city in India. With over 2 million people, its urban agglomeration is the 18th largest in India. Patna
Patna
also serves as the seat of Patna High Court .

One of the oldest continuously inhabited places in the world . Patna was founded in 490 BCE by the king of Magadha. Ancient Patna
Patna
, known as PATALIPUTRA , was the capital of the Magadha
Magadha
Empire under the Haryanka , Nanda , Mauryan
Mauryan
, Shunga , Gupta and Pala empires. Pataliputra
Pataliputra
was a seat of learning and fine arts. Patliputra was home to many astrologists and scholars including Aryabhata
Aryabhata
, Panini , Vātsyāyana , Chanakya and Kālidāsa . Its population during the Maurya
Maurya
period (around 300 BCE) was about 400,000. Patna
Patna
served as the seat of power, political and cultural centre of Indian subcontinent during the Maurya
Maurya
and Gupta empires. With the fall of Gupta Empire, Patna
Patna
lost its glory. It was revived again in the 17th century by the British as a centre of international trade. Following the partition of Bengal presidency in 1912, Patna
Patna
became the capital of Bihar
Bihar
and Orissa province.

The modern city of Patna
Patna
is situated on the southern bank of river Ganges
Ganges
. The city also straddles the rivers Sone , Gandak and Punpun . The city is approximately 35 kilometres (22 mi) in length and 16 to 18 kilometres (9.9 to 11.2 mi) wide. In June 2009, the World Bank ranked Patna
Patna
second in India
India
(after Delhi
Delhi
) for ease of starting a business. As of 2015, Patna's per capita gross domestic product is ₹1,06,000 ($1581). Using figures for assumed average annual growth, Patna
Patna
is the 21st fastest growing city in the world and 5th fastest growing city in India
India
according to a study by the City Mayors' Foundation. Patna
Patna
registered an average annual growth of 3.72% during 2006–2010. Patna
Patna
also has lowest slum population of any city in India.

The Buddhist
Buddhist
, Hindu
Hindu
, and Jain
Jain
pilgrimage centres of Vaishali , Rajgir , Nalanda
Nalanda
, Bodh Gaya
Bodh Gaya
, and Pawapuri
Pawapuri
are nearby and Patna
Patna
City is also a sacred city for Sikhs as the tenth Sikh
Sikh
Guru , Guru Gobind Singh , was born here.

CONTENTS

* 1 Etymology
Etymology

* 2 History

* 2.1 Ancient Era * 2.2 Mauryan
Mauryan
empire * 2.3 Gupta empire * 2.4 Mughal period

* 2.5 British empire

* 2.5.1 Indian independence movement
Indian independence movement

* 2.6 Post Independence

* 3 Geography

* 3.1 Topography * 3.2 Climate * 3.3 Air pollution

* 4 Economy * 5 Demographics

* 6 Government and public services

* 6.1 Civic administration * 6.2 Patna
Patna
master plan * 6.3 Utility services

* 7 Transport and connectivity

* 7.1 Air * 7.2 Rail * 7.3 Road * 7.4 Rapid transit * 7.5 Inland Waterways

* 8 Culture * 9 Tourism * 10 Education * 11 Sports

* 12 Media

* 12.1 List of Private FM Station

* 13 See also * 14 Notes * 15 References * 16 Further reading * 17 External links

ETYMOLOGY

Main article: Names of Patna

The name of this city has changed with time. One of the oldest cities of India, there are several theories regarding the origin of the modern name Patna
Patna
( Devanagari
Devanagari
:पटना)

* It is etymologically derived from Patan (Devanagari: पटन), the name of the Hindu
Hindu
goddess, Patan Devi. * Patan Devi Mandir is still situated in old Patna
Patna
near Gulzarbagh mandi along with another Patan Devi Mandir near Takht Sri Patna
Patna
Sahib in Patna
Patna
city. * Many believe Patna
Patna
derived its name from Patli, a tree variety that was found in abundance in the historic city. (which is also seen on the state tourism 's logo ) * The place is mentioned in Chinese traveller Fa Hien 's records as Pa-lin-fou. * The city has been known by various names through more than 2,000 years of existence – Pataligrama, Pataliputra
Pataliputra
, Kusumapura, Kusumdhwaja Pushpapuram, Padmavathi, Azimabad and the present-day Patna. * Legend ascribes the origin of Patna
Patna
to the mythological King Putraka who created Patna
Patna
by magic for his queen Patali, literally "trumpet flower", which gives it its ancient name Pataligrama. It is said that in honour of the queen's first-born, the city was named Pataliputra. Gram is Sanskrit for village and Putra means son. Legend also says that the Emerald Buddha
Emerald Buddha
was created in Patna
Patna
(then Pataliputra) by Nagasena in 43 BCE.

HISTORY

Main article: History of Patna See also: Pataliputra
Pataliputra
, History of Bihar
Bihar
, and Timeline for Bihar
Bihar

ANCIENT ERA

Patna
Patna
assumed importance and grandeur around 490 BCE as Ajatashatru , the king of Magadha, wanted to shift his capital from the hilly Rajagrha (today's Rajgir) to a strategically located place to better combat the Licchavis of Vaishali . He chose the site on the bank of the Ganges
Ganges
and fortified the area. Gautama Buddha travelled through this place in the last year of his life. He prophesied a great future for this place even as he predicted its ruin due to flood, fire and feud.

MAURYAN EMPIRE

Statue of Matrikas found near Agam Kuan
Agam Kuan
built by Ashoka
Ashoka

Megasthenes
Megasthenes
, the Indo-Greek historian and ambassador to the court of Chandragupta Maurya, gave one of the earliest accounts of the city. He wrote that the city was situated on the confluence of the rivers Ganga and Arennovoas (Sonabhadra — Hiranyawah) and was 14 kilometres (9 mi) long and 2.82 kilometres (1.75 mi) wide. Megasthenes
Megasthenes
, the Greek ambassador to India, described the city as the greatest city on earth during its heyday. The Shungas ultimately retained control of Pataliputra
Pataliputra
and ruled for almost 100 years. The Shungas were then followed by the Kanvas and eventually by the Guptas.

A number of Chinese travellers came to India
India
in pursuit of knowledge and recorded their observations about Pataliputra
Pataliputra
in their travelogues. One such famous account was recorded by a Chinese Buddhist
Buddhist
traveller Fa Hien, who visited India
India
between 399 and 414 CE, and stayed here for many months translating Buddhist
Buddhist
texts.

*

Pataliputra
Pataliputra
as a capital of the Magadha
Magadha
Empire . *

Pataliputra
Pataliputra
as a capital of Maurya
Maurya
Empire . The Maurya
Maurya
Empire at its largest extent under Ashoka the Great
Ashoka the Great
. *

Pataliputra
Pataliputra
as a capital of Shunga Empire
Shunga Empire
. Approximate greatest extent of the Shunga Empire
Shunga Empire
(c. 185 BCE). *

Pataliputra
Pataliputra
as a capital of Gupta Empire
Gupta Empire
. Approximate greatest extent of the Gupta Empire
Gupta Empire
.

GUPTA EMPIRE

Main street of Patna, showing one side of the Chowk, 1814–15. City of Patna, on the River Ganges, 19th-century painting.

In the years that followed, many dynasties ruled the Indian subcontinent from the city, including the Gupta dynasty and the Pala kings. With the disintegration of the Gupta empire, Patna
Patna
passed through uncertain times. Bakhtiar Khilji captured Bihar
Bihar
in the 12th century and destroyed many ancient seats of learning, and Patna
Patna
lost its prestige as the political and cultural centre of India.

Guru Gobind Singh
Guru Gobind Singh
(22 December 1666 – 7 October 1708), the tenth Guru of the Sikhs, was born as Gobind Rai in Patna
Patna
to Guru Teg Bahadur , the ninth Guru of the Sikhs, and his wife Mata Gujri . His birthplace, Patna
Patna
Sahib, is one of the most sacred sites of pilgrimage for Sikhs.

MUGHAL PERIOD

The Mughal period was a period of unremarkable provincial administration from Delhi. The most remarkable period during the Middle Ages was under the Pathan
Pathan
emperor Sher Shah Suri , who revived Patna
Patna
in the middle of the 16th century. He built a fort and founded a town on the banks of the Ganges. Sher Shah's fort in Patna
Patna
does not survive, although the Sher Shah Suri mosque, built in Afghan architectural style, does. Mughal emperor Akbar
Akbar
reached Patna
Patna
in 1574 to crush the rebellious Afghan Chief Daud Khan. One of the navratnas from Akbar
Akbar
's court, his official historian and author of " Ain-i-Akbari
Ain-i-Akbari
" Abul Fazl refers to Patna
Patna
as a flourishing centre for paper, stone and glass industries. He also refers to the high quality of numerous strains of rice grown in Patna, famous as Patna rice
Patna rice
in Europe.

By 1620, the city of Patna
Patna
was being described as the "chefest mart towne of all Bengala (i.e. largest town in Bengal) in northern India, "the largest town in Bengal and the most famous for trade". This was before the founding of the city of Calcutta. Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb acceded to the request of his favourite grandson, Prince Muhammad Azim, to rename Patna
Patna
as Azimabad , in 1704 while Azim was in Patna
Patna
as the subedar . Patna
Patna
or Azimabad did see some violent activities, according to Phllip Mason, writing in the book "The Men Who Ruled India". " Aurangzeb had restored the poll-tax (Jazia) on unbelievers and this had to be compounded for. In Patna, Peacock the Chief of the factory, was not sufficiently obliging and was seized, forced to walk through the town bare-headed and bare-footed and subjected to many other indignities before he paid up and was released." However, very little changed during this period other than the name. With the decline of the Mughal empire, Patna
Patna
moved into the hands of the Nawabs of Bengal , who levied a heavy tax on the populace but allowed it to flourish as a commercial centre. The mansions of the Maharaja of Tekari Raj dominated the Patna
Patna
river front in 1811–12.

BRITISH EMPIRE

During the 17th century, Patna
Patna
became a centre of international trade. In 1620, the English East India
India
Company established a factory in Patna
Patna
for trading in calico and silk . Soon it became a trading centre for saltpetre . Francois Bernier, in Travels in the Mogul Empire (1656–1668), says "...a prodigious quantity of saltpetre was imported from Patna. It was carried down the Ganges
Ganges
with great facility, and the Dutch and English sent large cargoes to many parts of the Indies, and to Europe". This trade encouraged other Europeans, principally the French, Danes, Dutch and Portuguese, to compete in the lucrative business. Peter Mundy , writing in 1632, described Patna
Patna
as "the greatest mart of the eastern region". After the decisive Battle of Buxar of 1764, as per the treaty of Allahabad
Allahabad
East India
India
Company was given the right to collect tax of this former Mughal province by the Mughal emperor. Patna
Patna
was annexed by the company in 1793 to its territory when Nizamat(Mughal suzernaity) was abolished and British East India
India
company took control of the province of Bengal-Bihar. Patna however continued as a trading centre.

In 1912, when the Bengal Presidency was partitioned, Patna
Patna
became the capital of the British province of Bihar
Bihar
and Orissa , although in 1935 Orissa became a separate entity with its own capital.

*

Street in Patna, 1825 (British, active in India) *

Golghar at Bankipore , near Patna, 1814–15

Indian Independence Movement

People from Patna
Patna
were greatly involved in the Indian independence movement . Most notable movements were the Champaran movement against the Indigo
Indigo
plantation and the 1942 Quit India
India
Movement . National leaders who came from the city include Swami Sahajanand Saraswati , the first President of the Constituent Assembly of India
India
: Dr. Rajendra Prasad ; Bihar
Bihar
Vibhuti ( Anugrah Narayan Sinha ); Basawon Singh (Sinha) ; Loknayak ( Jayaprakash Narayan );Dr. Sachidanand Singh

POST INDEPENDENCE

Patna
Patna
remained the capital of Bihar
Bihar
after India
India
gained independence in 1947, even as Bihar
Bihar
was partitioned again in 2000 when Jharkhand became a separate state of the Indian union.

On 27 October 2013, a series of co-ordinated bombings rocked the city at a massive election rally for BJP
BJP
Prime Ministerial candidate Narendra Modi . Of the estimated 300,000 participants at the rally, six people were killed and 85 others were injured in eight bomb blasts carried out by Islamic terrorists. On 3 October 2014, 33 people were killed and 26 injured in a stampede at Gandhi Maidan
Gandhi Maidan
during Vijaya Dashmi celebrations.

GEOGRAPHY

See also: Geography of Bihar
Bihar

TOPOGRAPHY

Map of Patna district
Patna district

PATNA\'S URBAN AGGLOMERATION JURISDICTION POPULATION

TOWN TYPE Estimate (2011)

PATNA\' Municipal Corporation 1,684,222

DANAPUR Nagar Parishad 182,429

BADALPURA Out Growth 75

DANAPUR CANTONMENT Cantonment Board 28,723

KHAGAUL Nagar Parishad 44,364

NOHSA Census Town 16,680

PATALIPUTRA HOUSING COLONY Census Town 3,531

PHULWARI SHARIF Nagar Parishad 81,740

SAIDPURA Census Town 7,392

PATNA UA 2,049,156

Patna district
Patna district
5,838,465

Source:

Patna
Patna
is located on the southern bank of the river Ganges
Ganges
in Eastern India
India
. The total area of Patna
Patna
is 136 km2 (53 sq mi). Of this, the municipal area constitutes 99 km2 (38 sq mi), while the suburban area constitutes 36 km2 (14 sq mi). The exact cartographic co-ordinates of Patna
Patna
are 25°36′N 85°06′E / 25.6°N 85.1°E / 25.6; 85.1 . It has an average elevation of 53 m (174 ft). A characteristic feature of the geography of Patna
Patna
is at the confluence of rivers. A narrow strip of somewhat high land about 8 kilometres in width along the southern bank of the river Ganges
Ganges
having very fertile soil and alluvial fertile plains in the remaining portions.

During the British Raj
British Raj
, Patna
Patna
was part of the Bengal Presidency . After Nalanda
Nalanda
district was carved out of Patna district
Patna district
in 1976, Patna
Patna
was purged of all hilly regions. It is an alluvial, flat expanse of land . The land in the district is too fertile and is almost entirely cultivated with no forest cover . Alluvial soil found herevis ideal for cultivation of rice, sugarcane and other foodgrains . The area under cultivation is studded with mango orchards and bamboo groves . In the fields along the banks of river Ganges, weeds such as ammannia, citriculari, hygrophile and sesbania grow. But palmyra, date palm and mango orchards are found near habitations. Dry stretches of shrubbery are sometimes seen in the villages far from the rivers. Trees commonly found are bel, siris, jack fruit and the red cotton tree. Patna
Patna
is unique in having four large rivers in its vicinity. It is the largest riverine city in the world. The topography of Patna city is saucer shaped as per Patna City Development Plan prepared in 2006 . The bridge over the river Ganges
Ganges
named Mahatma Gandhi Setu is 5575m long and is the longest river bridge in the India
India
.

Patna
Patna
comes under India\'s seismic zone-IV , indicating its vulnerability to major earthquakes , but earthquakes have not been common in recent history. Patna
Patna
also falls in the risk zone for floods and cyclones.

CLIMATE

Monsoon
Monsoon
clouds over Priyadarshi Nagar, a part of Kankarbagh - residential area in Eastern Patna.

PATNA

CLIMATE CHART (EXPLANATION )

J F M A M J J A S O N D

20 23 9 12 26 12 11 33 17 9.6 37 22 37 38 25 150 37 27 314 33 26 273 33 26 205 32 25 71 32 22 7.5 29 15 6.7 25 10

Average max. and min. temperatures in °C

Precipitation
Precipitation
totals in mm

Source: worldweather wetterkontor.de

IMPERIAL CONVERSION

J F M A M J J A S O N D

0.8 73 48 0.5 79 54 0.4 91 63 0.4 99 72 1.5 100 77 5.9 99 81 12 91 79 11 91 79 8.1 90 77 2.8 90 72 0.3 84 59 0.3 77 50

Average max. and min. temperatures in °F

Precipitation
Precipitation
totals in inches

Patna
Patna
has a Humid subtropical climate
Humid subtropical climate
under the Köppen climate classification : (Cwa) with extremely hot summers from late March to early June, the monsoon season from late June to late September and chilly winter nights and foggy or sunny days from November to February Highest temperature ever recorded was 46.6 °C (115.9 °F), in the year 1966, the lowest ever was 1.1 °C (34 °F), on 9 January 2013, and highest rainfall was 204.5 mm (8.05 in), in the year 1997.

The table below details historical monthly averages for climate variables.

CLIMATE DATA FOR PATNA

MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR

RECORD HIGH °C (°F) 30.0 (86) 35.1 (95.2) 41.4 (106.5) 44.6 (112.3) 45.6 (114.1) 46.6 (115.9) 41.2 (106.2) 39.7 (103.5) 37.5 (99.5) 37.2 (99) 34.1 (93.4) 30.5 (86.9) 46.6 (115.9)

AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F) 22.4 (72.3) 26.0 (78.8) 32.2 (90) 37.0 (98.6) 37.4 (99.3) 36.4 (97.5) 33.0 (91.4) 32.9 (91.2) 32.5 (90.5) 31.9 (89.4) 29.0 (84.2) 24.5 (76.1) 31.27 (88.28)

DAILY MEAN °C (°F) 16.2 (61.2) 18.9 (66) 24.4 (75.9) 29.8 (85.6) 31.8 (89.2) 31.7 (89.1) 29.5 (85.1) 29.3 (84.7) 28.8 (83.8) 26.7 (80.1) 21.9 (71.4) 19.7 (67.5) 25.3 (77.5)

AVERAGE LOW °C (°F) 9.3 (48.7) 12.1 (53.8) 16.7 (62.1) 22.1 (71.8) 25.1 (77.2) 26.7 (80.1) 26.3 (79.3) 26.3 (79.3) 25.5 (77.9) 21.5 (70.7) 15.1 (59.2) 10.5 (50.9) 19.77 (67.58)

RECORD LOW °C (°F) 1.1 (34) 3.4 (38.1) 8.2 (46.8) 13.3 (55.9) 17.7 (63.9) 19.3 (66.7) 21.1 (70) 20.5 (68.9) 19.0 (66.2) 12.0 (53.6) 7.7 (45.9) 2.2 (36) 1.1 (34)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES) 15.2 (0.598) 11.1 (0.437) 11.4 (0.449) 9 (0.35) 35.6 (1.402) 133.5 (5.256) 302.4 (11.906) 266.3 (10.484) 194.7 (7.665) 24.6 (0.969) 8.2 (0.323) 7.4 (0.291) 1,019.4 (40.13)

AVERAGE RAINFALL MM (INCHES) 12.2 (0.48) 14.1 (0.555) 09.4 (0.37) 10.8 (0.425) 38.1 (1.5) 142.5 (5.61) 381.0 (15) 281.6 (11.087) 229.3 (9.028) 78.6 (3.094) 8.7 (0.343) 7.0 (0.276) 1,213.3 (47.768)

AVERAGE RAINY DAYS 1.2 1.3 0.7 1.0 2.9 6.9 14.3 12.5 9.5 2.9 0.5 0.6 54.2

Source #1: India
India
Meteorological Department (Period 1901–2000, record high and low up to 2010) (rainfall 1971–2000)

Source #2: worldweather.org

AIR POLLUTION

Pollution is a major concern in Patna. According to the CAG report, tabled in the Bihar
Bihar
Legislative Assembly in April 2015, respirable suspended particulate matter (RSPM) level ( PM-10 ) in Patna
Patna
was 355, three-and-a-half times higher than the prescribed limit of 100 micro-gram per cubic metre, primarily due to high vehicular and industrial emissions and construction activities in the city. In May 2014, a World Health Organization survey declared Patna
Patna
the second most air polluted city in India, only after Delhi
Delhi
, with the survey calculating the airborne particulate matter in the state capital's ambient air ( PM-2.5 ) to be 149 micro-grams, six times more than the safe limit, which is 25 micro-grams. Severe air pollution in the city has caused a rise in pollution-related respiratory ailments, such as lung cancer , asthma , dysentery and diarrhoea . The dense smog in Patna
Patna
during winter season results in major air and rail traffic disruptions every year.

ECONOMY

See also: Economy of Bihar
Bihar

Patna
Patna
has long been a major agricultural hub and centre of trade . Its most active exports are grain , sugarcane , sesame , and medium-grained Patna rice
Patna rice
. There are several sugar mills in and around Patna. It is an important business and luxury brand centre of eastern India.

The economy of Patna
Patna
has seen sustained economic growth since 2005. The economy has been spurred by growth in the Fast-Moving Consumer Goods industry, the service sector , along with Green revolution businesses. In 2009, the World Bank
World Bank
stated Patna
Patna
as the second best city in India
India
to start up a business. As of 2015, GDP per capita of Patna
Patna
is ₹1,06,000 ($1581) and its GDP growth rate is 7.29 per cent.

Patna
Patna
is the 21st fastest growing city in the world, and the fifth fastest growing city in India, and is expected to grow at an average annual rate of 3.72%.

*

State Bank of India- Patna
Patna
Regional office at East Gandhi Maidan
Gandhi Maidan
Marg *

Reserve Bank of India's regional office at South Gandhi Maidan
Gandhi Maidan
Marg, Patna
Patna

DEMOGRAPHICS

See also: Demographics of Bihar
Bihar
and List of cities in Bihar
Bihar
Maurya
Maurya
Lok is one of the oldest and major shopping area of the city

HISTORICAL POPULATION

YEAR POP. ±%

1807–14 312,000 —

1820 100,000 −67.9%

1865 284,100 +184.1%

1872 158,000 −44.4%

1881 170,684 +8.0%

1891 165,200 −3.2%

1901 134,785 −18.4%

1911 136,153 +1.0%

1921 119,976 −11.9%

1931 159,690 +33.1%

1941 196,415 +23.0%

1951 283,479 +44.3%

1961 364,594 +28.6%

1971 475,300 +30.4%

1981 813,963 +71.3%

1991 1,099,647 +35.1%

2001 1,376,950 +25.2%

2011 1,683,200 +22.2%

Note: Huge population decline after 1814 due to the decrease in the river borne trade, persistent unhealthiness and repeated epidemics of plaque. Source:

With an estimated population of 1.68 million in 2011, Patna
Patna
is the 19th most populous city in India
India
and with over 2 million people, its urban agglomeration is the 18th largest in India. Residents of Patna are referred to by the demonym Patnaite.

Bihari people form the majority of Patna
Patna
city population. Bihari people constitute more than 90% of the city population. According to 2011 census data, Patna
Patna
city had a population of 1,683,200 (before expansion of the city limits) within the corporation limits, with 894,158 men and 789,042 women. This was an increase of 22.2 percent compared to the 2001 figures. 11.32 per cent of the population was under six years of age, with 102,208 boys while 88,288 are girls. The overall literacy rate is 83.37%, with the male literacy rate being 87.35% and the female literacy rate being 79.89%. The sex ratio of Patna
Patna
is 885 females per 1,000 males. Child sex ratio of girls is 877 per 1000 boys. The urban agglomeration had a population of 2,046,652 of which 1,087,864 are males and 958,788 are females with 82.73% literacy. Patna
Patna
metropolitan region constitutes the second largest metropolitan region in eastern India
India
. The Mahavir Mandir is a famous temple in Patna.

According to the 2011 census of India, Patna's major religion is Hinduism
Hinduism
with 86.39% followers. Islam
Islam
is second most popular religion in Patna
Patna
with approximately 12.27% following it. Christianity
Christianity
, Jainism
Jainism
, Sikhism
Sikhism
and Buddhism, with smaller followings, are also practised in Patna. During last census, around 0.01% stated other religion and approximately 0.49% stated no particular religion.

Roughly 0.25% of Patna's population lives in slums which makes Patna, the city with the lowest percentage of people living in slum in India. Like other fast-growing cities in the developing world, Patna
Patna
suffers from major urbanisation problems including unemployment, poor public health and poor civic and educational standards for a large section of the population. In 2015, the National Sample Survey Organisation revealed that, for females, Patna
Patna
had highest unemployment rate 34.6% and for males it was the second highest with a rate of 8% in 2011–12.

RELIGIONS IN PATNA (2011)

Religion

Percent

Hinduism
Hinduism
  86.39%

Islam
Islam
  12.27%

Christianity
Christianity
  0.51%

Sikhism
Sikhism
  0.23%

Jainism
Jainism
  0.09%

Others   0.52%

Hindi
Hindi
is the official language of the state of Bihar
Bihar
but many other languages are spoken too. The native dialect is Magadhi or Magahi , named after Magadha, the ancient name of Bihar. English is widely spoken by Patnaites, and other widely spoken dialects and languages include Bhojpuri , Maithili , Bengali , Urdu
Urdu
and Oriya .

GOVERNMENT AND PUBLIC SERVICES

CIVIC ADMINISTRATION

The civic administration of Patna
Patna
is run by several government agencies, and has overlapping structural divisions. At least five administrative definitions of the city are available; listed in ascending order of area, those are:

* Patna division
Patna division
* Patna district
Patna district
(also the Patna Police
Patna Police
area), * the Patna Metropolitan Region (also known as Patna
Patna
Planning area) * "Greater Patna" or PRDA area, which adds to the PMC area a few areas just adjacent to it * Patna Municipal Corporation
Patna Municipal Corporation
area.

The Patna
Patna
Municipal Corporation, or PMC, oversees and manages the civic infrastructure of the city's 72 wards, which accommodates a population of 1.7 million as per 2011 Census. The municipal corporation consists of democratically elected members, each ward elects a Councillor to the PMC. The PMC is in charge of the civic and infrastructure needs of the metropolis. As Patna's apex body, the corporation discharges its functions through the mayor-in-council, which comprises a mayor, a deputy mayor, and other elected members of the PMC. The Mayor is usually chosen through indirect election by the councillors from among themselves. The functions of the PMC include water supply, drainage and sewerage, sanitation, solid waste management, street lighting, and building regulation. The Municipal Commissioner is the chief Executive Officer and head of the executive arm of the Municipal Corporation. All executive powers are vested in the Municipal Commissioner who is an Indian Administrative Service (IAS) officer appointed by the state government . Although the Municipal Corporation is the legislative body that lays down policies for the governance of the city, it is the Commissioner who is responsible for the execution of the policies. The Commissioner is appointed for a fixed term as defined by state statute. The powers of the Commissioner are those provided by statute and those delegated by the Corporation or the Standing Committee. As of June 2017, the BJP won PMC Mayor seat; the mayor is Sita Sahu. , while the deputy mayor is Vinay Kumar Pappu.

CITY OFFICIALS

ASSUMED OFFICE OFFICE Source

CORPORATION MAYOR Sita Sahu, BJP
BJP
June 2107 Maurya
Maurya
Lok

CORPORATION COMMISSIONER Abhishek Singh Jun 2016 Maurya
Maurya
Lok

DIVISIONAL COMMISSIONER Anand Kishor Aug 2015

DISTRICT MAGISTRATE Sanjay Agarwal Dec 2015 Patna
Patna
Collectorate

SENIOR SUPERINTENDENT OF POLICE Manu Maharaj Dec 2015 South Gandhi Maidan Marg
Gandhi Maidan Marg

The Patna Municipal Corporation
Patna Municipal Corporation
was ranked 4th out of 21 Cities for best governance "> Gandhi Maidan
Gandhi Maidan
(shown above) lies in the heart of Patna
Patna
and is the site for most political and social functions in the city.

In addition to city government, numerous commissions and state authorities—including the Ministry of Tourism, the Bihar
Bihar
Health Department, the Bihar
Bihar
Water Resources Department, National Ganga River Basin Authority, Bihar
Bihar
State Pollution Control Board and the Bihar Public Service Commission—play a role in the life of Patnaites. As the capital of Bihar, Patna
Patna
plays a major role not only in state politics but in central politics as well.

As the seat of the Government of Bihar, The city has several federal facilities, including the Raj Bhavan : Governor’s house, the Bihar Legislative Assembly ; the state secretariat, which is housed in the Patna Secretariat ; and the Patna High Court . The Patna High Court is one of the oldest High Court in India. The Patna High Court has jurisdiction over the state of Bihar. Patna
Patna
also has lower courts; the Small Causes Court for civil matters, and the Sessions Court for criminal cases. The Patna Police
Patna Police
, commanded by Senior Superintendent of Police , is overseen by the Bihar
Bihar
Government's Home Department. The Patna district
Patna district
elects two representatives to India's lower house, the Lok Sabha, and 14 representatives to the state legislative assembly.

CITY REPRESENTATIVES (LEGISLATORS )

MEMBER PARTY CONSTITUENCY Source

Shatrughan Sinha
Shatrughan Sinha
, MP BJP Patna Sahib
Patna Sahib

Ram Kripal Yadav , MP BJP Pataliputra
Pataliputra

Sanjiv Chaurasia, MLA BJP Digha

Nitin Naveen, MLA BJP Bankipur

Nand Kishore Yadav , MLA BJP Patna Sahib
Patna Sahib

Arun Kumar Sinha, MLA BJP Kumhrar
Kumhrar

Jai Vardhan Yadav, MLA RJD Paliganj

Rama Nand Yadav, MLA RJD Fatuha

Asha Devi, MLA BJP Danapur

Bhai Virendra, MLA RJD Maner

Shyam Rajak , MLA JDU Phulwari

PATNA MASTER PLAN

In October 2016, Bihar
Bihar
cabinet approved the Patna
Patna
master plan 2031 which envisages development of a new airport at Bihta . Bihar government is acquiring 126 acres of land for construction of the new airport. 17.6 km2 of area in Dumri Village in Punpun block of Patna (PMR) has been allocated for IT Park. Patna
Patna
master 2031 is the second master plan of city which has been passed ever.

UTILITY SERVICES

Bhootnath Road TV Tower broadcasts programming to Patna
Patna

Ground water fulfills the basic need of the people, administered by Patna
Patna
Jal Parishad under Patna
Patna
Municipal Corporation. The public water supply system comprises 98 tube wells that pump water directly to the distribution mains. Around 23 overhead reservoirs of which only the one’s at Agam Kuan
Agam Kuan
, Gulzarbagh Press, Guru Gobind Singh Hospital and High Court serves the city. The sewerage system in Patna was set up in 1936. At present there are four sewage treatment plants located at Saidpur, Beur, Pahari and Karmali Chak.

As of 2011, the city's electricity consumption is about 601 kWh per capita, even though the actual demand is much higher. Electricity supply to the city is regulated and distributed by the South Bihar Power Distribution Company Limited managed by Bihar
Bihar
State Power Holding Company Limited (the holding company and a successor company of erstwhile Bihar
Bihar
State Electricity Board). The city forms the Patna Electricity Supply Unit (PESU) Circle, which is further divided into two wings namely Patna
Patna
East (consists Kankarbagh , Patna City , Gulzarbagh , Bankipore , Rajendra Nagar Divisions) and Patna
Patna
West (Consists Danapur , New Capital, Pataliputra
Pataliputra
, Gardanibagh, Dak Bungalow divisions).

Direct–to–home (DTH) is available via DD Free Dish
DD Free Dish
, Airtel digital TV , Dish TV
Dish TV
, Tata Sky , Videocon d2h
Videocon d2h
, Sun Direct
Sun Direct
and Reliance Digital TV
Reliance Digital TV
. Cable companies include Darsh Digital Network Pvt. Ltd., SITI Maurya
Maurya
Cablenet Pvt. Ltd etc. The Conditional Access System for cable television was implemented in March 2013.

Patna
Patna
comes under the Patna
Patna
Telecom District of the Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited (BSNL), India's state-owned telecom and internet services provider. Both Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) and Code division multiple access
Code division multiple access
(CDMA) mobile services are available. Apart from telecom, BSNL also provides broadband internet service. Among private enterprises, Bharti Airtel
Bharti Airtel
, Reliance Jio , Reliance GSM/CDMA , Idea Cellular
Idea Cellular
, Aircel
Aircel
, Tata Teleservices (Tata DoCoMo , Virgin Mobile
Virgin Mobile
and Tata Indicom), Telenor (formerly Uninor), Vodafone and Videocon Telecom are the leading telephone and cell phone service providers in the city.

Patna
Patna
was the second Indian city, after Bangalore
Bangalore
, which offered free WiFi connectivity to its citizens in February this year. By surpassing the previous record-holder, Beijing
Beijing
in China
China
, Patna's WiFi zone is the world's longest free WiFi zone, which covers a 20-km stretch from NIT Patna on Ashok Rajpath to Danapur .

TRANSPORT AND CONNECTIVITY

Patna
Patna
is located about 100 km south of national East – West Highway corridor . The NH 30 , NH 31 and NH 2 passes through the town. The Ashok Rajpath , Patna- Danapur Road, Bailey Road , Harding Road and Kankarbagh old bypass Road are the major corridors.

Patna
Patna
was one of the first places in India
India
to use horse-drawn trams for public transport . Public transportation today is provided for by buses , auto rickshaws and local trains . Auto rickshaws are said to be the lifeline of the city. BSRTC has started City bus service on all major routes of Patna. National Highway 30 passing through Patna
Patna
Chiriyatand Flyover at Patna, one of the many new ones that have come up in the city recently. Radio Taxis Mahatma Gandhi Setu connecting Patna
Patna
with North Bihar. River port on national inland waterways-1 at Gai Ghat

AIR

Patna
Patna
Airport (official name Lok Nayak Jayaprakash Airport ) is classified as a restricted international airport. The arrival of several low-cost carriers and a number of new destinations have caused a growth in air traffic in recent years, as has an improvement in the situation with regard to law and order. For the period April to December 2009 the airport ranked first in a survey of 46 airports in the country in terms of percentage growth of domestic passengers as well as domestic aircraft movement. The Airport Authority of India (AAI) has proposed to develop a civil enclave at Bihta Air Force Station to serve as the new airport for Patna. The military airfield lies 40 kilometres (25 mi) southwest of Patna, in Bihta .

RAIL

Patna
Patna
is served by several railway stations located in different areas of the city. The Patna Junction railway station is the main railway station of the city, and one of the busiest railway stations in India. Patna
Patna
lies in between New Delhi
Delhi
and Kolkata
Kolkata
on Howrah– Delhi
Delhi
main line , which is one of the busiest rail routes in India. Patna Junction is directly connected to most of the major cities in India. The city has four additional major railway stations: Rajendra Nagar Terminal (adjacent to Kankarbagh ), Patliputra Junction (near Bailey road ), Danapur (near western outskirts) and Patna
Patna
Sahib (in Patna City area). Danapur is the divisional headquarters of East Central Railway zone 's Danapur railway division . Patna
Patna
is well connected with neighbouring Gaya , Jehanabad , Bihar
Bihar
Sharif , Rajgir , Islampur through daily passenger and express train services. India's longest road-cum-rail bridge, Digha–Sonpur bridge has been constructed across river Ganges
Ganges
, connecting Digha, Patna to Pahleja Ghat in Sonpur . The bridge was completed in 2015, It is 4.55 kilometres (2.83 mi) long and therefore the longest road cum rail bridge in India
India
and one of the longest in the world.

ROAD

The city is served by several major road highways and state highways, including National Highways 19 , 30 , 31 , and 83 . Asia
Asia
's longest river bridge, the Mahatma Gandhi Setu (built 1982), is located in Patna
Patna
and connects the city to Hajipur across the Ganga. In recent times, the bridge has been witnessing major traffic chaos and accidents due to exceeding number of vehicles passing over it and regularly overloading the structure. A new six lane road bridge across the Ganges
Ganges
parallel to Mahatma Gandhi Setu is proposed which would connect Kacchi Dargah in Patna City to Bidupur in Vaishali district , which will be the longest bridge in India
India
after completion.

Patna
Patna
is 1,015 kilometres (631 mi) East from Delhi
Delhi
, 1,802 kilometres (1,120 mi) North East from Mumbai
Mumbai
and 556 kilometres (345 mi) North West from Kolkata
Kolkata
. Luxury bus service between Patna
Patna
and several neighbouring cities is provided by the Bihar
Bihar
State Tourism Development Corporation and the Bihar
Bihar
State Road Transport Corporation . Auto Rikshaws are a popular mode of transportation. Prepaid auto services operated by an all-women crew was started in 2013 in Patna, which is the first of its kind in India. Radio Taxi services are also available within city limit as well as outskirts.

RAPID TRANSIT

Patna Metro is a planned rapid transit system for the city. It would be owned and operated by state run Patna Metro Rail Corporation. It will be constructed on Public Private Partnership (PPP) mode, estimated to cost ₹14,000 crore (US$2 billion). It will have 5 lines with a total planned length of 60 kilometres (37 mi) km, which will be built in 3 phases. Patna Monorail Project covering the municipal area is also underway.

INLAND WATERWAYS

The Ganges
Ganges
– navigable throughout the year – was the principal river highway across the vast north Indo-Gangetic Plain
Indo-Gangetic Plain
. Vessels capable of accommodating five hundred merchants were known to ply this river in the ancient period; it served as a major trade route, as goods were transported from Pataliputra
Pataliputra
to the Bay of Bengal and further, to ports in Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
and Southeast Asia. The role of the Ganges
Ganges
as a channel for trade was enhanced by its natural links – it embraces all the major rivers and streams in both north and south Bihar.

In recent times, Inland Waterways Authority of India
India
has declared the stretch of river Ganges
Ganges
between Allahabad
Allahabad
and Haldia
Haldia
National Inland Waterway and has taken steps to restore and maintain its navigability. The National Waterway-1 , the longest Waterway in India, stretches 1620 km in the River Ganga from Allahabad
Allahabad
to Haldia
Haldia
via Varanasi
Varanasi
, Munger , Bhagalpur
Bhagalpur
passes through Patna. This National Waterways has fixed terminal at Patna. In September 2014, a luxury cruise called ‘MV Rajmahal’ from Patna
Patna
to Varanasi
Varanasi
was launched by the state-based Assam Bengal Navigation Company (ABN).

CULTURE

Magahi folk singers

Patna’s native language is Magahi or Magadhi a language derived from the ancient Magadhi Prakrit , which was created in the ancient kingdom of Magadha
Magadha
, the core of which was the area of Patna
Patna
south of the Ganges
Ganges
. It is believed to be the language spoken by Gautama Buddha . It was the official language of the Mauryan
Mauryan
court, in which the edicts of Ashoka
Ashoka
were composed.

The name Magahi is directly derived from the name Magadhi Prakrit, and educated speakers of Magahi prefer to call it "Magadhi" rather than "Magahi".

Patna
Patna
has many buildings adorned with Indo-Islamic and Indo-Saracenic architectural motifs. Several well-maintained major buildings from the colonial period have been declared "heritage structures"; others are in various stages of decay. Established in 1917 as the Bihar’s first museum, the Patna Museum
Patna Museum
houses large collections that showcase Indian natural history and Indian art. The Khuda Bakhsh Oriental Library and Sinha Library are historic public libraries of Patna. Holi
Holi
being played in the courtyard, ca 1795 painting. Patna
Patna
style Inscribed on the back of the drawing is: 'No.4. The Gift of E.E. Pote Esqr. Elizath Collins. Durga
Durga
Puja, 1809 watercolour painting in Patna
Patna
Style

Several theatres are located in or near the central part of the city, including the Bhartiya Nritya Kala Mandir , the Rabindra Parishad , Premchand Rangshala and the Kalidas Rangalaya , which is home to the Bihar
Bihar
art theatre. Kalidas Rangalaya also hosts the Patliputra Natya Mahotsav , a dance festival. But in the last two decades, the popularity of commercial theatres in the city has declined.

The Patna School of Painting or Patna
Patna
Qalaam, some times also called Company style , is an offshoot of the well-known Mughal Miniature school of painting, which flourished in Bihar
Bihar
during the early 18th to the mid-20th centuries. The practitioners of this art form were descendants of Hindu
Hindu
artisans of Mughal painting who facing persecution under the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb and who found refuge, via Murshidabad, in Patna
Patna
during the late 18th century. The Patna painters differed from the Mughal painters, whose subjects included only royalty and court scenes, in that they included as subjects bazaar scenes, scenes of Indian daily life, local dignitaries, festivals and ceremonies, and nature scenes. The paintings were executed in watercolours on paper and on mica, but the style was generally of a hybrid and undistinguished quality. It is this school of painting that inspired the formation of the College of Arts and Crafts, Patna, under the leadership of Shri Radha Mohan, which is an important centre of fine arts in Bihar.

A regular Bihari meal consists of rice, lentil soup, chapatis, vegetable curry etc. Bihari cuisine is predominantly vegetarian because traditional Bihar
Bihar
society, influenced by Buddhist
Buddhist
and Hindu values of non-violence, did not eat eggs, chicken, fish and other non-vegetarian fare. However, there is also a tradition of meat-eating, and fish dishes are especially common due to the number of rivers in Bihar. There are also numerous Bihari meat dishes, with chicken and mutton being the most common.

Some well known dishes of Bihari cuisine include sattu paratha (parathas stuffed with fried gram flour), chokha (spicy mashed potatoes), fish curry, Bihari kebab , postaa-dana kaa halwaa, malpua, dal pitha (Bihari version of momos ), kheer makhana (fox nut ) and thekua/khajuria (a type of snack).

Street foods such as Samosa
Samosa
, Chaat
Chaat
, litti chokha, phuchka (a deep-fried crêpe with tamarind sauce), South Indian and Chinese cuisine are favourite among Patnaites.

Bihari Women have traditionally worn sari but shalwar kameez and other western attire are gaining acceptance among younger women. Western attire has gained wide acceptance among the urban men, although the traditional dhoti and kurta are seen during festivals. Chhath
Chhath
, also called Dala Chhath, is a major ancient festival in Bihar. It is celebrated twice a year: once in the summer, called the Chaiti Chhath, and once about a week after Deepawali
Deepawali
, called the Kartik Chhath. Durga
Durga
Puja, held in September–October, is Patna's another important festival; it is an occasion for glamorous celebrations. Among the city's other festivals, are Saraswati Puja , Eid , Holi
Holi
, Christmas
Christmas
, Vishwakarma Puja, Makar Sankranti
Makar Sankranti
, Raksha Bandhan and Rath Yatra
Rath Yatra
. Cultural events include the Patna Book Fair , Patna Sahib Mahotsav , the Patna Film Festival , Bihar
Bihar
Diwas , Rajgir Mahotsav , Vaishali Mahotsav and the Sonepur Cattle Fair in neighbouring towns.

*

A murti , or representation, of the goddess Durga
Durga
shown during the Durga
Durga
Puja festival *

People Celebrating Chhath
Chhath
Festival the 2nd Day at Morning a tribute to the rising holy God Sun

TOURISM

Main article: Tourism in Patna Golghar was originally built to serve as a granary for the British East India
India
company army during the famine of 1786. It now features an observation deck overlooking the Ganges
Ganges
and the city. Takhat Sri Harmandar Sahib, Patna Sahib
Patna Sahib

Patna
Patna
is home to many tourist attractions and it saw about 2.4 million tourists (including day visitors) in 2005. Tourists visiting the city accounted for 41% of the total number of tourists visiting Bihar
Bihar
although Bodh Gaya
Bodh Gaya
was the most popular destination for foreign visitors.

The cultural heritage of Bihar
Bihar
is reflected in its many ancient monuments. Kumhrar
Kumhrar
and Agam Kuan
Agam Kuan
are the sites of the ruins of the Ashokan Pataliputra. Didarganj Yakshi remains as an example of Mauryan art.

Takht Sri Patna Sahib
Takht Sri Patna Sahib
is one of the Five Takhts of Sikhism
Sikhism
and consecrates the birthplace of the tenth Guru of the Sikhs, Gobind Singh. There are five other Gurdwaras in Patna
Patna
which are related to different Sikh
Sikh
Gurus ; these are Gurdwara Pahila Bara , Gurdwara Gobind Ghat , Gurdwara Guru ka Bagh , Gurdwara Bal Leela and Gurdwara Handi Sahib .

Padri Ki Haveli , High Court , Golghar and Secretariat Building are examples of British architecture . Gandhi Maidan
Gandhi Maidan
is a historic ground in Patna
Patna
where several freedom movement rallies took place. Newly built Buddha Smriti Park
Buddha Smriti Park
near Patna Junction is also becoming a major tourist attraction .

The Patna Planetarium (Indira Gandhi Planetarium) is located in Patna's Indira Gandhi Science Complex. It is one of the largest planetariums in Asia. It attracts a large number of domestic as well as foreign tourists.

Recently, the Bihar
Bihar
government announced plans to build a state-of-the-art art landmark museum in Patna
Patna
at a cost of approximately ₹530 crores on a site of 13.9 acres at Bailey Road . 5 firms were shortlisted for the architectural design, of which the Japanese firm Maki and Associates was chosen. As of 2016, the museum had been partially opened and is scheduled to be completed shortly.

EDUCATION

Indian Institute of Technology Patna
Indian Institute of Technology Patna
at Bihta, one of the premier institutes of engineering and research in India. Patna College , established 1863, is considered to be the oldest institution of higher education in Bihar.

Schools in Patna
Patna
are either government run schools or private schools . The schools are affiliated to Bihar
Bihar
School Examination Board (BSEB), the All- India
India
Indian Certificate of Secondary Education (ICSE), National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS) or the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) boards. Hindi
Hindi
and English are the primary languages of instruction. A 2012 survey found 1,574 schools: of these, 78% were private unaided schools (most of them at affordable cost), 21% government schools and 1% private aided.

Under the 10+2+3/4 plan , students complete ten years of schooling and then enroll in schools that have a higher secondary facility and are affiliated to the Bihar
Bihar
State Intermediate Board, the All-India Council for the Indian School Certificate Examinations (CISCE), the NIOS or the CBSE, where they select one of three streams: arts, commerce, or science. This is followed by either a general degree course in a chosen field of study, or a professional degree course, such as law, engineering and medicine.

Patna
Patna
has important government educational institutions like Central University of South Bihar
Bihar
, Patna University , Chanakya National Law University , Aryabhatta Knowledge University , Indian Institute of Technology Patna
Patna
, National Institute of Technology, Patna , Patna Science College, Birla Institute of Technology, Patna , Patna
Patna
Medical College , All India
India
Institute of Medical Sciences Patna
Patna
, National Institute of Fashion Technology Patna
Patna
, Chandragupt Institute of Management etc.

Patna University was established in 1917 and is the seventh oldest modern university in the Indian Sub-continent
Indian Sub-continent
. Patna
Patna
also has a variety of other universities, as well as many primary and secondary schools.

Nalanda
Nalanda
University (also known as Nalanda
Nalanda
International University) is a newly established university located in Rajgir, around 100 kilometres (62 mi) from Patna. The University, created as a revival of an ancient centre of learning at Nalanda
Nalanda
, began its first academic session on 1 September 2014. It will attract students from across the globe. See also: List of educational institutions in Patna

See also: List of hostels in Patna
Patna
- See also: List of schools in Patna
Patna

SPORTS

Moin-Ul-Haque Stadium near Rajendra Nagar , It is used for cricket and association football

As in the rest of India
India
, cricket is popular in Patna
Patna
and is played on grounds and in streets throughout the city. There are several sports grounds located across the city. The Bihar
Bihar
Cricket
Cricket
Association , which regulates cricket in Bihar, is based in the city. Tournaments, especially those involving cricket, basketball, football, badminton, and table tennis, are regularly organised on an inter-locality or inter-club basis.

Moin-ul-Haq Stadium , which has a capacity of 25,000, has served as venue for two one-day international cricket matches and several national sport events. It was home to the Bihar
Bihar
cricket team . Due to negligence, lack of maintenance, the stadium is in a dilapidated state and no international match has been played here since 1996. In 2013, it was announced by the Chief Minister of Bihar
Bihar
Nitish Kumar that an international cricket stadium will be constructed at Rajgir .

The Patna Golf Club was established on 21 March 1916 is one of oldest golf course of India. It is an 18-hole golf course located in a historic setting in and around Bailey Road and has a 165 acres (67 ha) course.

Patna
Patna
hosted the first ever woman\'s Kabaddi world cup . It was held at the Patliputra Sports Complex , Kankarbagh from 1 March to 4 March 2012. Hosts India
India
won the World Cup defeating Iran
Iran
in the finals. Patna
Patna
also hosts the seven league matches of Pro Kabaddi League with its home team as Patna Pirates
Patna Pirates
at the Patliputra Sports Complex.

Other famous sports complexes of Patna
Patna
are Bihar
Bihar
Military Police 's Mithilesh Stadium, East Central Railway zone
East Central Railway zone
's indoor stadium at Digha. etc.

*

A game of cricket in progress *

Kankarbagh Indoor Stadium at Patliputra Sports Complex during Pro Kabaddi League match

MEDIA

The beginning of the 20th century was marked by a number of notable new publications. A monthly magazine named Bharat Ratna was started from Patna
Patna
in 1901. It was followed by Ksahtriya Hitaishi, Aryavarta from Dinapure , Patna, Udyoga and Chaitanya Chandrika. Udyog was edited by Vijyaanand Tripathy, a famous poet of the time and Chaitanya Chandrika by Krishna Chaitanya Goswami, a literary figure of that time. The literary activity was not confined to Patna
Patna
alone but to many districts of Bihar.

Magahi Parishad, established in Patna
Patna
in 1952, pioneered Magadhi journalism in Bihar. It started the monthly journal, Magadhi, which was later renamed Bihan.

Many national media agencies, including the Press Trust of India
India
and Doordarshan's regional offices are based in the city. The Times of India
India
, Hindustan Times
Hindustan Times
, The Economic Times
The Economic Times
and The Telegraph are the four principal English language daily newspapers which have Patna editions. The Hindu
Hindu
, The Pioneer and The Indian Express
The Indian Express
, though not printed in the city, are other English language daily newspaper available in the city. The city's Hindi
Hindi
newspapers include Hindustan Dainik , Dainik Jagran
Dainik Jagran
, Dainik Bhaskar
Dainik Bhaskar
, Prabhat Khabar , Aaj and Rashtriya Sahara – all these newspapers have editions from Patna. There are also daily Urdu
Urdu
newspapers like Qaumi Tanzeem and Farooqi Tanzeem published in Patna. There is also the Hindi
Hindi
and English mixed Newspaper Tabloid Inext .

Patna
Patna
is also served by several AM and FM radio stations. The city hosts several radio stations, including the state-owned All India Radio 's Vividh Bharati , FM 105 etc. The All India
India
Radio, Patna (officially Akashvani Patna
Patna
Kendra) was established in the year 1948.

Patna
Patna
is also served by several private channels.

LIST OF PRIVATE FM STATION

NO. NAME FREQUENCY LANGUAGE

01 Radio Mirchi 98.3 FM Hindi

02 Radio City 91.1 FM Hindi

03 Big FM 95.0 FM Hindi
Hindi
padding:0.4em 2em">

* Geography portal * Asia
Asia
portal * India
India
portal * Bihar
Bihar
portal * Patna
Patna
portal

NOTES

* ^ Master plan for Patna
Patna
(2031), approved by Bihar
Bihar
Cabinet on 27 October 2016. The draft master plan for Patna
Patna
metropolitan area proposes that Patna Metropolitan Region would incorporate Bihta , Danapur , Khagaul , Daniyawan, Danaura, Fatuha , Khusrupur , Maner , Masaurhi , Naubatpur , Phulwari Sharif , Punpun and Sampatchak blocks of Patna
Patna
district, areas of Vaishali and Saran districts are excluded.

REFERENCES

* ^ http://www.hindustantimes.com/india-news/nda-backed-sita-sahu-is-first-woman-mayor-of-patna/story-tbqxVRuSnDzmEkAdcVccHL.html * ^ A B "CDP Patna" (PDF). Infrastructure Professionals Enterprise (P) Ltd, C – 2, Green Park Extension, New Delhi
Delhi
– 110016, INDIA. PATNA — Urban Development Department. July 2006. pp. 20, 21 (area) 52 (metropolis), 31 (geography). Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 28 October 2016. * ^ " Bihar
Bihar
Cabinet OKs Patna
Patna
master plan, paves way for big buildings, new airport". Economics Times. 15 May 2015. Archived from the original on 7 August 2016. Retrieved 28 October 2016. * ^ "Master Plan for Patna, 2031." (PDF). Center for Environmental Planning and Technology . Urban Development ">(PDF) on 9 June 2016. Retrieved 28 October 2016. * ^ "CPRS Patna
Patna
About Us". CRPS. Archived from the original on 5 March 2016. Retrieved 28 October 2016. * ^ A B "Provisional Population Totals, Census of India
India
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* ^ Kumar, Roshan (1 March 1999). "Women’s World Cup begins". Calcutta, India: Telegraphindia.com. Retrieved 4 March 2012. * ^ Stage set for first wc women\'s kabaddi championship ibnlive 2 March 2012 * ^ Hosts India
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FURTHER READING

* Lewis Sydney Steward O'Malley, ed. (1924). Bihar
Bihar
And Orissa District Gazetteers Patna. Concept Publishing Company. p. 256. ISBN 9788172681210 . * Surendra Gopal, ed. (1982). Patna
Patna
in the 19th Century: A Socio-cultural Profile. Naya Prokash. p. 120. * Robert Montgomery Martin , ed. (1838). Behar ( Patna
Patna
city) and Shahabad, Volume 1 of The History, Antiquities, Topography, and Statistics of Eastern India. W. H. Allen and Co. p. 256. * William Tayler , ed. (1858). The Patna
Patna
crisis; or, Three months at Patna: during the insurrection of 1857. J. Nisbet. p. 96. * J. D. Beglar, Sir Alexander Cunningham
Alexander Cunningham
, ed. (1878). Report of a Tour Through the Bengal Provinces of Patna, Gaya, Mongir, and Bhagalpur: The Santal Parganas, Manbhum, Singhbhum, and Birbhum ; Bankura, Raniganj, Bardwan, and Hughli : in 1872–73 Volume 8 of Archaeological Survey of India. Office of the Superintendent of Government Printing. p. 213. * Walter Kelly Firminger, ed. (1909). The Diaries of Three Surgeons of Patna
Patna
– 1763. The Calcutta Historical Society.

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