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Lithuania
Coordinates : 55°N 24°E / 55°N 24°E / 55; 24 LITHUANIA (/ˌlɪθuːˈeɪniə/ (_ listen ), Lithuanian : Lietuva_ ), officially the REPUBLIC OF LITHUANIA (Lithuanian: _Lietuvos Respublika_), is a country in the Baltic region of Northern Europe
Europe
. One of the three Baltic states , it is situated along the southeastern shore of the Baltic Sea , to the east of Sweden
Sweden
and Denmark
Denmark
. It is bordered by Latvia
Latvia
to the north, Belarus
Belarus
to the east and south, Poland
Poland
to the south, and Kaliningrad Oblast (a Russian exclave ) to the southwest. Lithuania
Lithuania
has an estimated population of 2.8 million people as of 2017 , and its capital and largest city is Vilnius
Vilnius
. Lithuanians are a Baltic people . The official language, Lithuanian , along with Latvian , is one of only two living languages in the Baltic branch of the Indo-European language family. For centuries, the southeastern shores of the Baltic Sea were inhabited by various Baltic tribes . In the 1230s, the Lithuanian lands were united by Mindaugas , the King of Lithuania, and the first unified Lithuanian state, the Kingdom of Lithuania , was created on 6 July 1253
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Lithuania (other)
LITHUANIA is a country in Europe. LITHUANIA can also refer to: * Lithuania
Lithuania
(European Parliament constituency) * Sports teams listed in Category:National sports teams of Lithuania , and called "Lithuania" This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title LITHUANIA. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the intended article. Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Lithuania_(other) additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy .® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc
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Lithuanian Language
LITHUANIAN (lietuvių kalba) is the official state language of Lithuania
Lithuania
and is recognized as one of the official languages of the European Union
European Union
. There are about 2.9 million native Lithuanian speakers in Lithuania
Lithuania
and about 200,000 abroad. Lithuanian is a Baltic language , related to Latvian . It is written in a Latin
Latin
alphabet . Lithuanian is often said to be the most conservative living Indo-European language , retaining many features of Proto-Indo-European now lost in other Indo-European languages
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Flag Of Lithuania
The FLAG OF LITHUANIA consists of a horizontal tricolor of yellow , green and red . It was re-adopted on March 20, 1989, almost a year before the re-establishment of Lithuania\'s independence and almost three years before the collapse of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
. It was first used in Lithuania
Lithuania
's first period of independence (in the 20th century) from 1918 to 1940, which ceased with the occupation first by Soviet Russia and Lithuania's illegal annexation into the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
, and then by Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
(1941–44). During the post- World War II
World War II
Soviet occupation, from 1945 until 1989, the Soviet Lithuanian flag consisted first of a generic red Soviet flag with the name of the republic, then changed to the red flag with white and green bars at the bottom. The last alteration to the current flag occurred in 2004, when the aspect ratio changed from 1:2 to 3:5
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Coat Of Arms Of Lithuania
The COAT OF ARMS OF LITHUANIA , consisting of an armour-clad knight on horseback holding a sword and shield , is also known as VYTIS (pronounced (coined). It is one of very few containing symbolism adopted from ducal portrait seals rather than from coats of arms of dynasties, which is the case for most European countries. Article 15 of the Constitution of Lithuania , approved by national referendum in 1992 , stipulates, "The Coat of Arms of the State shall be a white Vytis on a red field". Heraldic shield features the field Gules (red) with an armoured knight on a horse salient Argent (white). The knight is holding in his dexter hand a sword Argent above his head. A shield Azure hangs on the sinister shoulder of the knight with a double cross Or (yellow) on it. The horse saddle, straps, and belts are Azure. The hilt of the sword and the fastening of the sheath, the stirrups, the curb bits of the bridle, the horseshoes, as well as the decoration of the harness, are Or (gold). The blazon is the following: Gules, a knight armed cap-à-pie mounted on a horse salient argent, brandishing a sword proper and maintaining a shield azure charged with a cross of Lorraine Or
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Tautiška Giesmė
TAUTIšKA GIESMė (The National Hymn; Lithuanian: ) is the national anthem of Lithuania
Lithuania
, also known by its opening words "Lietuva, Tėvyne mūsų" (official translation of the lyrics: "Lithuania, Our Homeland", literally: "Lithuania, Our Fatherland
Fatherland
") and as "Lietuvos himnas" (HYMN OF LITHUANIA). The music and lyrics were written in 1898 by Vincas Kudirka , when Lithuania
Lithuania
was still part of the Russian Empire . The fifty-word poem was a condensation of Kudirka's conceptions of the Lithuanian state, the Lithuanian people , and their past. Shortly before his death in 1899, the anthem was performed for Lithuanians living in Saint Petersburg
Saint Petersburg
, Russia. The first public Lithuanian performance of the anthem took place in Vilnius
Vilnius
in 1905, and it became the official national anthem in 1919, a year after Lithuania
Lithuania
declared its independence . Following the occupation and annexation of Lithuania
Lithuania
by the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
in 1940 , the anthem was forbidden to be played or sung in public. "Tautiška giesmė" was reinstated in 1989 shortly before the reestablishment of Lithuanian independence and confirmed in the National Anthem Act (21 October 1991)
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Europe
EUROPE —a concept dating back to classical antiquity — is a continent that comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia . Europe is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. The eastern boundary with Asia is an arbitrary historical and social construct , as there is no clear physical and geographical separation between them. The primarily physiographic term "continent" as applied to Europe also incorporates cultural and political elements whose discontinuities and lines of demarcation are not reflected by the continent's current overland boundaries with Asia. Europe is considered by historical convention as separated from Asia by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains , the Ural River , the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways of the Turkish Straits . Europe covers about 10,180,000 square kilometres (3,930,000 sq mi), or 2% of the Earth's surface (6.8% of land area). Politically, Europe is divided into about fifty sovereign states of which the Russian Federation is the largest and most populous, spanning 39% of the continent and comprising 15% of its population. Europe had a total population of about 740 million (about 11% of world population ) as of 2015
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European Union
The EUROPEAN UNION (EU) is a political and economic union of 28 member states that are located primarily in Europe . It has an area of 4,475,757 km2 (1,728,099 sq mi), and an estimated population of over 510 million. The EU has developed an internal single market through a standardised system of laws that apply in all member states. EU policies aim to ensure the free movement of people, goods, services, and capital within the internal market, enact legislation in justice and home affairs, and maintain common policies on trade, agriculture , fisheries , and regional development . Within the Schengen Area , passport controls have been abolished. A monetary union was established in 1999 and came into full force in 2002, and is composed of 19 EU member states which use the euro currency . The EU traces its origins from the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) and the European Economic Community (EEC), established, respectively, by the 1951 Treaty of Paris and 1957 Treaty of Rome . The original members of what came to be known as the European Communities , were the Inner Six ; Belgium , France , Italy , Luxembourg , the Netherlands and West Germany
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Vilnius
VILNIUS (Lithuanian pronunciation: ( listen ), see also other names ) is the capital of Lithuania
Lithuania
and its largest city, with a population of 542,664 as of 2015 . Vilnius
Vilnius
is located in the southeast part of Lithuania
Lithuania
and is the second largest city in the Baltic states . Vilnius
Vilnius
is the seat of the main government institutions of Lithuania as well as of the Vilnius District Municipality . Vilnius
Vilnius
is classified as a Gamma global city according to GaWC studies, and is known for the architecture in its Old Town , declared a UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site in 1994. Prior to World War II
World War II
, Vilnius
Vilnius
was one of the largest Jewish centers in Europe. Its Jewish influence has led to it being described as the "Jerusalem of Lithuania" and Napoleon
Napoleon
named it "the Jerusalem of the North" as he was passing through in 1812. In 2009, Vilnius
Vilnius
was the European Capital of Culture , together with the Austrian city of Linz
Linz

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Ethnic Groups
An ETHNIC GROUP or ETHNICITY is a category of people who identify with each other based on similarities such as common ancestral , language , social , cultural or national experiences . Ethnicity is often an inherited status based on the society in which one lives. In some cases, it can be adopted if a person moves into another society. Membership of an ethnic group tends to be defined by a shared cultural heritage , ancestry , origin myth , history , homeland , language or dialect , symbolic systems such as religion , mythology and ritual , cuisine , dressing style, art , and physical appearance . Ethnic groups, derived from the same historical founder population , often continue to speak related languages and share a similar gene pool . By way of language shift , acculturation , adoption and religious conversion , it is sometimes possible for individuals or groups to leave one ethnic group and become part of another (except for ethnic groups emphasizing racial purity as a key membership criterion). Ethnicity is often used synonymously with ambiguous terms such as nation or people . In English, it can also have the connotation of something exotic (cf. " White ethnic ", "ethnic restaurant", etc.), generally related to cultures of more recent immigrants, who arrived after the founding population of an area was established
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Lithuanians
LITHUANIANS (Lithuanian : _lietuviai_, singular _lietuvis/lietuvė_) are a Baltic ethnic group , native to Lithuania , where they number around 2,561,300 people. Another million or more make up the Lithuanian diaspora , largely found in countries such as the United States, Argentina, Brazil, Canada, Colombia, Russia, United Kingdom and Ireland. Their native language is Lithuanian , one of only two surviving members of the Baltic language family. According to the census conducted in 2001, 83.45% of the population of Lithuania identified themselves as Lithuanians, 6.74% as Poles , 6.31% as Russians , 1.23% as Belarusians , and 2.27% as members of other ethnic groups. Most Lithuanians belong to the Roman Catholic Church , while the Lietuvininkai who lived in the northern part of East Prussia prior to World War II, were mostly Evangelical Lutherans
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Poles In Lithuania
The POLISH MINORITY IN LITHUANIA numbered 200,317 persons, according to the Lithuanian census of 2011, or 6.6% of the total population of Lithuania
Lithuania
. It is the largest ethnic minority in the country and the second largest Polish diaspora group among the post-Soviet states . Poles are concentrated in the Vilnius Region . People of Polish ethnicity have lived in the territory of modern Lithuania
Lithuania
for many centuries. The relationship between the two groups has been long and complex. Their countries were united during the era of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth , but both nations lost their independence after the Commonwealth was partitioned in the late 18th century. Both nations regained their independence in the wake of World War I , but hostilities over the ownership of Vilnius
Vilnius
and the surrounding region broke out in 1920. The disputes became politically moot after the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
exercised its authority over both countries during and immediately after World War II
World War II

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Russians In Lithuania
RUSSIANS IN LITHUANIA numbered 176,913 people, according to the Lithuanian census of 2011, or 5.8% of the total population of Lithuania
Lithuania
. First early settlements of Ruthenians in what is now Lithuania
Lithuania
date back to late medieval ages when the first proto-Russian merchants and craftsmen began to permanently reside in several Lithuanian towns. In the late 17th century they were joined by many Russian Old Believers who settled in eastern Lithuania, escaping religious persecution in Russia
Russia
. The second, larger, influx of Russians followed the annexation of Lithuania
Lithuania
by the Russian Empire during the Partitions of Poland
Partitions of Poland
in the late 18th century. Under Russian rule, power in the region remained primarily in the hands of the Lithuanian nobility , but some administrative jobs were gradually taken over by Russians, who also settled in cities such as Vilnius
Vilnius
and Kaunas
Kaunas
. Also after the uprising of 1863 in Poland some estates had been confiscated from the local nobility and given to Russian officials. Many of the Russians who migrated to Lithuania
Lithuania
were soldiers, sailors, and merchants
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Belarusians In Lithuania
The BELARUSIAN MINORITY IN LITHUANIA (Belarusian : беларусы, biełarusy, Russian : белорусы, byelorusy, Lithuanian : baltarusiai or gudai) numbered 36,200 persons at the 2011 census, and at 1.2% of the total population of Lithuania, being the third most populous national minority. The Belarusian national minority in Lithuania
Lithuania
has deep historical, cultural and political relations. Many famous Belarusians lived and created in Lithuania, mostly its capital Vilnius
Vilnius
; it was in Vilnius
Vilnius
that the first standardized Belarusian language grammar was printed in. According to the 2011 census, only 18.4% of Belarusians speak Belarusian as their mother tongue, while Russian is native for 56.3%, Polish - 9.3%, Lithuanian - 5.2% of Belarusians. The most widespread religion among Belarusians are Roman Catholicism (49.6%) and Orthodox (32.3%). Francysk Skaryna gymnasium is the only Belarusian school in Vilnius. One Catholic church in Vilnius
Vilnius
(St. Bartholomew’s Church) provides religious services in Belarusian
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Ukrainians In Lithuania
The UKRAINIAN MINORITY IN LITHUANIA (Ukrainian : Українці, Ukrayintsi, Lithuanian : Ukrainiečiai) numbered 22,488 persons at the 2001 census, and at 0.65% of the total population of Lithuania (approximately 3,350,400). The Ukrainian national minority in Lithuania
Lithuania
has deep historical and cultural relations. Many prominent figures of Ukraine
Ukraine
such as Taras Shevchenko
Taras Shevchenko
, Meletius Smotrytsky , Yakiv Holovatsky
Yakiv Holovatsky
, St. Yosafat (in the world — Ivan Kuntsevich, a religious figure of Greco-Catholic church canonized in 1967) and others stayed and created in Lithuania
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History Of The Jews In Lithuania
The HISTORY OF THE JEWS IN LITHUANIA spans the period from the 8th century to the present day. There is still a small community in that country, as well as an extensive Lithuanian Jewish diaspora in Israel, the United States and other countries. For more detail, see Lithuanian Jews
Jews
. CONTENTS * 1 Early history * 2 Increasing prosperity and the great charter (1320–1432) * 2.1 The Charter of 1388 * 3 Jagiellon rule * 3.1 Expulsion of the Jews
Jews
in 1495 and return in 1503 * 3.2 The Act of 1566 * 4 In the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth * 4.1 Effect of the Cossacks\' Uprising in Lithuania
Lithuania
* 5 Jewish culture in Lithuania
Lithuania
* 5.1 Items from the Responsa * 6 Vilna Gaon
Vilna Gaon
* 7 Lithuanian Jews under the Russian Empire * 8 Republic of Lithuania
Lithuania
(1918–1940) * 9 The Second World War and the Holocaust * 10 The Soviet era (1944–1990) * 11 See also * 12 References * 13 Further reading * 14 External links EARLY HISTORYAs early as the 8th century Jews
Jews
lived in parts of the Lithuanian territory
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