VILNIUS (Lithuanian pronunciation: ( listen ), see also other names
) is the capital of
Lithuania and its largest city, with a population
of 542,664 as of 2015 .
Vilnius is located in the southeast part of
Lithuania and is the second largest city in the
Baltic states .
Vilnius is the seat of the main government institutions of Lithuania
as well as of the
Vilnius District Municipality .
classified as a Gamma global city according to
GaWC studies, and is
known for the architecture in its Old Town , declared a
Heritage Site in 1994. Prior to
World War II
World War II ,
Vilnius was one of the
largest Jewish centers in Europe. Its Jewish influence has led to it
being described as the "Jerusalem of Lithuania" and
Napoleon named it
"the Jerusalem of the North" as he was passing through in 1812. In
Vilnius was the
European Capital of Culture , together with the
Austrian city of
* 1 Etymology and other names
* 2 History
* 2.1 Early history and Grand Duchy of
* 2.3 In the
* 2.4 In
World War II
World War II
* 2.6 Lithuanian SSR – in
* 2.7 Independent
* 3 Geography
* 4 Climate
* 5 Demographics
* 5.1 Evolution
* 6 Culture
* 7 Economy
* 8 Education
* 9 Religion
* 10 Parks, squares and cemeteries
* 11 Sport
* 12 Transport
* 12.1 Public transport
* 13 Governance
* 13.1 Municipal Council
* 13.2 Mayors
* 13.3 Subdivisions
* 14 Twin towns – Sister cities
* 15 Significant depictions in popular culture
* 16 Notable people
* 17 See also
* 18 References
* 19 External links
ETYMOLOGY AND OTHER NAMES
The name of the city originates from the
Vilnia River . The city has
also been known by many derivate spellings in various languages
throughout its history: _Vilna_ was common in English. The most
notable non-Lithuanian names for the city include: Polish : _Wilno_,
Belarusian : Вiльня, German : _Wilna_, Latvian : _Viļņa_,
Russian : Вильнюс, Yiddish : ווילנע (_Vilne_), Czech :
_Vilnius_. A Russian name from the time of the
Russian Empire was
Вильна/Вильно (_Vilna/Vilno_), although Вильнюс
(_Vilnius_) is now used. The names _Wilno_, _Wilna_ and _Vilna_ have
also been used in older English, German, French and Italian language
publications when the city was one of the capitals of
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and later of
Second Polish Republic
Second Polish Republic .
The name _Vilna_ is still used in Finnish, Portuguese, Spanish, and
Hebrew. _Wilna_ is still used in German, along with _Vilnius_.
The neighborhoods of
Vilnius also have names in other languages ,
which represent the languages spoken by various ethnic groups in the
History of Vilnius and
Timeline of Vilnius
EARLY HISTORY AND GRAND DUCHY OF LITHUANIA
Historian Romas Batūra identifies the city with
Voruta , one of the
Mindaugas , crowned in 1253 as King of
Lithuania . During
the reign of
Vytenis a city started to emerge from a trading
settlement and the first Franciscan Catholic church was built.
The city was first mentioned in written sources in 1323 as _Vilna_,
when the Letters of Grand Duke
Gediminas were sent to German cities
inviting Germans (including German Jews) to settle in the capital
city, as well as to
Pope John XXII . These letters contain the first
unambiguous reference to
Vilnius as the capital; Old
Trakai Castle had
been the earlier seat of the court of the Grand Duchy of
According to legend,
Gediminas dreamt of an iron wolf howling on a
hilltop and consulted a pagan priest Lizdeika for its interpretation.
He was told: "What is destined for the ruler and the State of
Lithuania, is thus: the Iron Wolf represents a castle and a city which
will be established by you on this site. This city will be the capital
of the Lithuanian lands and the dwelling of their rulers, and the
glory of their deeds shall echo throughout the world". The location
offered practical advantages: it lay within the Lithuanian heartland
at the confluence of two navigable rivers, surrounded by forests and
wetlands that were difficult to penetrate. The duchy had been subject
to intrusions by the
Teutonic Knights . St. Nicholas Church
(built before 1387) is the oldest church in
Vilnius Palace of
the Grand Dukes of
Vilnius was the flourishing capital of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania,
the residence of the Grand Duke.
Gediminas expanded the Grand Duchy
through warfare along with strategic alliances and marriages. At its
height it covered the territory of modern-day Lithuania, Belarus,
Ukraine, Transnistria, and portions of modern-day
Poland and Russia.
Vytautas the Great and
Jogaila , however, fought
civil wars. During the Lithuanian Civil War of 1389–1392 , Vytautas
besieged and razed the city in an attempt to wrest control from
Jogaila. The two later settled their differences; after a series of
treaties culminating in the 1569
Union of Lublin , the
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth was formed. The rulers of this
federation held either or both of two titles: Grand Duke of Lithuania
King of Poland . In 1387,
Jogaila acting as a Grand Duke of
King of Poland
Władysław II Jagiełło
Władysław II Jagiełło , granted
Magdeburg rights to the city.
Subačius Gate by
Franciszek Smuglewicz St. Peter and
St. Paul\'s Church is famous for its impressive
Gate of Dawn
Gate of Dawn Church of St. Casimir
The city underwent a period of expansion. The
Vilnius city walls were
built for protection between 1503 and 1522, comprising nine city gates
and three towers, and Sigismund August moved his court there in 1544.
Its growth was due in part to the establishment of Alma Academia et
Universitas Vilnensis Societatis Iesu by the Polish King Stefan
Bathory in 1579. The university soon developed into one of the most
important scientific and cultural centres of the region and the most
notable scientific centre of the Commonwealth.
During its rapid development, the city was open to migrants from the
territories of the
Crown of the Kingdom of Poland , Grand Duchy and
further. A variety of languages were spoken: Polish , German , Yiddish
, Ruthenian , Lithuanian , Russian ,
Old Church Slavonic ,
Hebrew , and
Turkic languages ; the city was compared to
Each group made its unique contribution to the life of the city, and
crafts, trade, and science prospered.
The 17th century brought a number of setbacks. The Commonwealth was
involved in a series of wars, collectively known as The Deluge .
Russo-Polish War (1654–1667) ,
Vilnius was occupied by
Russian forces; it was pillaged and burned, and its population was
massacred. During the
Great Northern War it was looted by the Swedish
army. An outbreak of bubonic plague in 1710 killed about 35,000
residents ; devastating fires occurred in 1715, 1737, 1741, 1748, and
1749. The city's growth lost its momentum for many years, but even
despite this fact, at the end of the 18th century and before the
Napoleon wars, Vilnius, with 56,000 inhabitants, entered the Russian
Empire as its 3rd largest city.
IN THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE
Grande Armée in
Vilnius during its retreat (near the Vilnius
Town Hall ) by
Jan Krzysztof Damel
The fortunes of the Commonwealth declined during the 18th century.
Three partitions took place, dividing its territory among the Russian
Empire , the Habsburg Empire , and the
Kingdom of Prussia . After the
third partition of April 1795,
Vilnius was annexed by the Russian
Empire and became the capital of the
Vilna Governorate . During
Russian rule, the city walls were destroyed, and, by 1805, only the
Gate of Dawn
Gate of Dawn remained. In 1812, the city was taken by
Napoleon on his
Moscow , and again during the disastrous retreat. The
Grande Armée was welcomed in Vilnius. Thousands of soldiers died in
the city during the eventual retreat; the mass graves were uncovered
in 2002. Inhabitants expected
Tsar Alexander I to grant them autonomy
in response to Napoleon's promises to restore the Commonwealth, but
Vilnius didn't become autonomous by itself nor as a part of Congress
November Uprising in 1831,
Vilnius University was
closed and Russian repressions halted the further development of the
city. Civil unrest in 1861 was suppressed by the Imperial Russian Army
January Uprising in 1863, heavy fighting occurred within
the city, but was brutally pacified by Mikhail Muravyov , nicknamed
_The Hangman_ by the population because of the number of executions he
organized. After the uprising, all civil liberties were withdrawn, and
use of the Polish and Lithuanian languages was banned.
Vilnius had a
vibrant Jewish population: according to Russian census of 1897 , out
of the total population of 154,500, Jews constituted 64,000
(approximately 40%). During the early 20th century, the
Lithuanian-speaking population of
Vilnius constituted only a small
minority, with Polish, Yiddish, and Russian speakers comprising the
majority of the city's population.
Chapel of Saint Casimir in the
Cathedral of Vilnius
During World War I,
Vilnius and the rest of
Lithuania was occupied by
the German Army from 1915 until 1918. The Act of Independence of
Lithuania , declaring Lithuanian independence from any affiliation to
any other nation, was issued in the city on 16 February 1918. After
the withdrawal of German forces, the city was briefly controlled by
Polish self-defence units , which were driven out by advancing Soviet
Vilnius changed hands again during the Polish–Soviet War
Lithuanian Wars of Independence : it was taken by the Polish
Army , only to fall to Soviet forces again. Shortly after its defeat
in the battle of
Warsaw , the retreating
Red Army , in order to delay
the Polish advance, ceded the city to
Lithuania after signing the
Soviet–Lithuanian Peace Treaty on 12 July 1920.
Lithuania both perceived the city as their own. The League
of Nations became involved in the subsequent dispute between the two
countries. The League brokered the
Suwałki Agreement on 7 October
1920. Although neither
Vilnius or the surrounding region was
explicitly addressed in the agreement, numerous historians have
described the agreement as allotting
Vilnius to Lithuania. On
9 October 1920, the Polish Army surreptitiously, under General Lucjan
Żeligowski , seized
Vilnius during an operation known as
Żeligowski\'s Mutiny . The city and its surroundings were designated
as a separate state, called the Republic of Central
Lithuania . On 20
February 1922 after the highly contested election in Central Lithuania
, the entire area was annexed by Poland, with the city becoming the
capital of the Wilno Voivodship (Wilno being the name of
Kaunas then became the temporary capital of
Lithuania vigorously contested the Polish annexation of Vilnius, and
refused diplomatic relations with Poland. The predominant languages of
the city were still Polish and, to a lesser extent, Yiddish . The
Lithuanian-speaking population at the time was a small minority, at
about 6% of the city's population according even to contemporary
Lithuanian sources. The
Council of Ambassadors and the international
community (with the exception of Lithuania) recognized Polish
sovereignty over Vilnus region in 1923.
Vilnius University was reopened in 1919 under the name of Stefan
Batory University By 1931, the city had 195,000 inhabitants, making
it the fifth largest city in
Poland with varied industries, such as
Elektrit , a factory that produced radio receivers.
WORLD WAR II
Lithuanian National Philharmony
World War II
World War II began with the German invasion of
Poland in September
1939. The secret protocols of the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact had
Poland into German and Soviet spheres of
interest. On 19 September 1939,
Vilnius was seized by the Soviet Union
Poland on 17 September ). The USSR and Lithuania
concluded a mutual assistance treaty on 10 October 1939, with which
the Lithuanian government accepted the presence of Soviet military
bases in various parts of the country. On 28 October 1939, the Red
Army withdrew from the city to its suburbs (to
Naujoji Vilnia ) and
Vilnius was given over to Lithuania. A Lithuanian Army parade took
place on 29 October 1939 through the city centre. The Lithuanians
immediately attempted to Lithuanize the city, for example by
Lithuanizing Polish schools. However, the whole of
annexed by the
Soviet Union on 3 August 1940 following a June
ultimatum from the Soviets demanding, among other things, that
unspecified numbers of
Red Army soldiers be allowed to enter the
country for the purpose of helping to form a more pro-Soviet
government. After the ultimatum was issued and
occupied, a Soviet government was installed with
Vilnius as the
capital of the newly created Lithuanian SSR . Between 20,000 and
30,000 of the city's inhabitants were subsequently arrested by the
NKVD and sent to gulags in the far eastern areas of the Soviet Union.
The Soviets devastated city industries, moving the major Polish radio
Elektrit , along with a part of its labour force, to
Belarus, where it was renamed the
Vyacheslav Molotov Radio Factory,
after Stalin's Minister of Foreign Affairs. Soviet Red Army
On 22 June 1941, the Germans launched
Operation Barbarossa against
the Soviet Union.
Vilnius was captured on 24 June. Two ghettos were
set up in the old town centre for the large Jewish population – the
smaller one of which was "liquidated" by October. The larger ghetto
lasted until 1943, though its population was regularly deported in
roundups known as "Aktionen ". A failed ghetto uprising on 1
September 1943 organized by the Fareinigte Partizaner Organizacje (the
United Partisan Organization, the first Jewish partisan unit in
German-occupied Europe), was followed by the final destruction of the
ghetto. During the Holocaust , about 95% of the 265,000-strong Jewish
Lithuania was murdered by the German units and
Lithuanian Nazi collaborators, many of them in
Paneriai , about 10 km
(6.2 mi) west of the old town centre (see the
Ponary massacre ). In
2015, a street sign was unveiled in Kūdrų street for Righteous Among
Ona Šimaitė , along with that street being renamed after
LITHUANIAN SSR – IN SOVIET UNION
KGB headquarters in
Vilnius now Museum of Genocide
In July 1944,
Vilnius was taken from the Germans by the Soviet Army
and the Polish
Armia Krajowa (see
Operation Ostra Brama and the
Vilnius Offensive ). The
NKVD arrested the leaders of the Armia
Krajowa after requesting a meeting. Shortly afterwards, the town was
once again incorporated into the
Soviet Union as the capital of the
Lithuanian SSR .
The war had irreversibly altered the town – most of the
predominantly Polish and Jewish population had been expelled and
exterminated respectively, during and after the German occupation.
Some members of the intelligentsia and former Waffen SS members hiding
in the forest were now targeted and deported to Siberia after the war.
The majority of the remaining population was compelled to relocate to
Poland by 1946 , and
Sovietization began in earnest. Only in
the 1960s did
Vilnius begin to grow again, following an influx of
Lithuanians and Poles from neighbouring regions as well as from other
areas of the
Soviet Union (particularly
Russia and Belarus).
Microdistricts were built in the elderates of
Šeškinė , Žirmūnai
Vilnius TV Tower , the main site of January\'s Events
On 11 March 1990, the Supreme Council of the Lithuanian SSR announced
its secession from the
Soviet Union and intention to restore an
independent Republic of Lithuania. As a result of these declarations,
on 9 January 1991, the
Soviet Union sent in troops. This culminated in
the 13 January attack on the State Radio and Television Building and
Vilnius TV Tower , killing at least fourteen civilians and
seriously injuring 700 more. The
Soviet Union finally recognised
Lithuanian independence in September 1991. The current Constitution ,
as did the earlier Lithuanian Constitution of 1922, mentions that
"…the capital of the State of
Lithuania shall be the city of
Vilnius, the long-standing historical capital of Lithuania".
Vilnius Cathedral Square
Vilnius has been rapidly transformed, and the town has emerged as a
modern European city. Many of its older buildings have been renovated,
and a business and commercial area is being developed into the _New
City Centre_, expected to become the city's main administrative and
business district on the north side of the
Neris river. This area
includes modern residential and retail space, with the municipality
building and the 129-metre (423')
Europa Tower as its most prominent
buildings. The construction of
Swedbank 's headquarters is symbolic of
the importance of Scandinavian banks in Vilnius. The building complex
Vilnius Business Harbour " was built in 2008, and one of its towers
is now the 5th tallest building in Lithuania. More buildings are
scheduled for construction in the area.
Vilnius was selected as a 2009
European Capital of Culture , along with
Linz , the capital of Upper
Austria . Its 2009 New Year's Eve celebration, marking the event,
featured a light show said to be "visible from outer space". In
preparation, the historical centre of the city was restored, and its
main monuments were renovated. The global economic crisis led to a
drop in tourism which prevented many of the projects from reaching
their planned extent, and allegations of corruption and incompetence
were made against the organisers, while tax increases for cultural
activity led to public protests and the general economic conditions
sparked riots. Today, Vilnius' population and economy are rapidly
growing. In 2015
Remigijus Šimašius became the first directly
elected mayor of the city. Gediminas\' Avenue in autumn
Vilnius has some of the highest internet speeds in the world, with
an average download speed of 36.37 MB/s and upload speed of 28.51
Vilnius has access to groundwater, and there is no need to use
extensive chemicals in treating surface water from lakes or rivers,
providing residents with some of the cleanest and healthiest tap water
access in Europe.
On 28–29 November 2013,
Vilnius hosted the Eastern Partnership
Summit in the Palace of the Grand Dukes of
Lithuania . Many European
presidents, prime ministers and other high-ranking officials
participated in the event. On 29 November 2013, Georgia and Moldova
signed association and free trade agreements with the
European Union .
Armenia were also expected to sign the
agreements but postponed the decision, sparking large protests in the
On 20 December 2013,
Vilnius Cathedral Square 's Christmas
tree as the best in the world, while EssentialTravel.co.uk mentioned
Vilnius as one of the ten best destinations to spend your Christmas.
Neris River at
Mindaugas Bridge with
Vilnius Upper Castle in the
Vilnius is situated in south-eastern
25°17′E / 54.683°N 25.283°E / 54.683; 25.283 ) at the
confluence of the Vilnia and
Neris Rivers. Lying close to
Vilnius is a
site some claim to be the Geographical Centre of Europe .
Vilnius lies 312 km (194 mi) from the
Baltic Sea and
Klaipėda , the
chief Lithuanian seaport .
Vilnius is connected by highways to other
major Lithuanian cities, such as
Kaunas (102 km or 63 mi away),
Šiauliai (214 km or 133 mi away) and
Panevėžys (135 km or 84 mi
away). The city's off-centre location can be attributed to the
changing shape of the nation's borders through the centuries; Vilnius
was once not only culturally but also geographically at the centre of
the Grand Duchy of
The current area of
Vilnius is 402 square kilometres (155 sq mi).
Buildings occupy 29.1% of the city; green spaces occupy 68.8%; and
waters occupy 2.1%.
The climate of
Vilnius is humid continental (Köppen climate
classification _Dfb_). Temperature records have been kept since 1777.
The average annual temperature is 6.1 °C (43 °F); in January the
average temperature is −4.9 °C (23 °F), in July it is 17.0 °C (63
°F). The average precipitation is about 661 millimetres (26.02 in)
per year. Average annual temperatures in the city have increased
significantly during the last 30 years, a change which the Lithuanian
Hydrometeorological Service attributes to global warming induced by
Summer days are pleasantly warm and sometimes hot, especially in July
and August, with temperatures above 30 °C (86 °F) throughout the day
during periodic heat waves. Night-life in
Vilnius is in full swing at
this time of year, and outdoor bars, restaurants and cafés become
very popular during the daytime.
Winters can be very cold, with temperatures rarely reaching above
freezing – temperatures below −25 °C (−13 °F) are not
unheard-of in January and February. Vilnius's rivers freeze over in
particularly cold winters, and the lakes surrounding the city are
almost always permanently frozen during this time of year. A popular
pastime is ice-fishing .
CLIMATE DATA FOR VILNIUS
RECORD HIGH °C (°F)
AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F)
DAILY MEAN °C (°F)
AVERAGE LOW °C (°F)
RECORD LOW °C (°F)
AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES)
AVERAGE PRECIPITATION DAYS
AVERAGE RELATIVE HUMIDITY (%)
MEAN MONTHLY SUNSHINE HOURS
World Meteorological Organization
World Meteorological Organization (avg high and low)
NOAA (sun, extremes, and mean temperatures)
Source #2: Weatherbase (precipitation and humidity)
HISTORIC ETHNIC MAKEUP OF VILNIUS
The Republic of
* 1897: According to the first census in the Russian Empire, in 1897
Vilnius was 154,500. The largest linguistic groups at
the time were those speaking Jewish (61,847) and Polish (47,795).
Other groups included Russian (30,967), Belarusian (6,514) and
Ukrainian (517), Lithuanian (3,131), German (2,170), Tartar (722) and
Latvian (184) speaking communities.
According to the census, 52,4% of the inhabitants were local, while
others settled in the city from other regions. Among the townsmen
class, there were 36,576 new-comers (among whose, 17,465 were born in
Vilna Governorate ). Among the peasant new-comers, 16,312 came from
other localities of
Vilna Governorate and 16,054 from the other
governorates . Among the nobility class in
Vilnius during the census
of 1897, there were 5,301 (46,3%) local nobles and 6,403 (54,7%)
new-comers. 24,1% of these noble new-comers came from Vilna
Governorate territories, while the rest new-comers nobles came to
Grodno Governorate ,
Minsk Governorate , Vitebsk
Kovno Governorate ,
Vistula Land and other regions.
* 1916: According to the census of 14 December 1916 by the occupying
German forces at the time, there were a total of 138,794 inhabitants
in Vilnius. This number was made up of the following nationalities:
Poles 53.67% (74,466 inhabitants), Jews 41.45% (57,516 inhabitants),
Lithuanians 2.09% (2,909 inhabitants), Russians 1.59% (2,219
inhabitants), Germans 0.63% (880 inhabitants), Belarusians 0.44% (644
inhabitants) and others at 0.13% (193 inhabitants).
* 1923: 167,545 inhabitants, including 100,830 Poles and 55,437
* 1931: 196,345 inhabitants. A census of 9 December 1931 reveals
that Poles made up 65.9% of the total
Vilnius population (128,600
inhabitants), Jews 28% (54,600 inhabitants), Russians 3.8% (7,400
inhabitants), Belarusians 0.9% (1,700 inhabitants),
(1,579 inhabitants), Germans 0.3% (600 inhabitants), Ukrainians 0.1%
(200 inhabitants), others 0.2% (approx. 400 inhabitants). (The Wilno
Voivodeship in the same year had 1,272,851 inhabitants, of which
511,741 used Polish as their language of communication; many
Belarusians lived there. )
* 1959: According to the Soviet census,
Vilnius had 236,100
inhabitants, of which 34% (79,400) identified themselves as
Lithuanian, 29% (69,400) as Russian, 20% (47,200) as Polish, 7%
(16,400) as Jewish and 6% (14,700) as Belarusian.
* 1989: According to the Soviet census,
Vilnius had 576,700
inhabitants, of which 50.5% (291,500) were Lithuanian, 20% Russian,
19% Polish and 5% Belarusian.
* 2001: According to the 2001 census by the
Statistical Office, there were 542,287 inhabitants in the
Municipality, of which 57.8% were Lithuanians, 18.7% Poles, 14%
Russians, 4.0% Belarusians, 1.3% Ukrainians and 0.5% Jews; the
remainder indicated other nationalities or refused to answer.
* 2011: According to the 2011 census by Statistics Lithuania,
Vilnius is inhabited by people of 128 different ethnicities which
makes it the most ethnically diverse city in Lithuania, while the
Vilnius population is made up by
Demographic evolution of
Vilnius between 1766 and 2015:
Source: ¹ Sharp decline after the
Vilnius Uprising (1794) ;
² Decline of population due to Napoleonic wars and the aftermath; ³
Sharp decline of population of
Vilnius because of World War I and the
aftermath during the clashes around
Vilnius . These resulted in
evacuation of Russian military, bureaucracy and the majority of its
Russian inhabitants from
Vilnius in 1915, as well as fleeing or
evacuation of other
Vilnius inhabitants of various communities (mostly
Jewish and Lithuanian) to
Russia and rural parts of Lithuania; ⁴
Rise of population due to influx of Polish and Jewish war refugees
and migration of Lithuanian bureaucracy, students from temporary
Kaunas and other localities in Lithuania; ⁵ Sharp decline of
population after atrocities of
World War II
World War II and The Holocaust
Old town of
Vilnius is a cosmopolitan city with diverse architecture. There are
65 churches in Vilnius. Like most medieval towns,
developed around its Town Hall . The main artery,
Pilies Street ,
links the Royal Palace with Town Hall. Other streets meander through
the palaces of feudal lords and landlords, churches, shops and
craftsmen's workrooms. Narrow, curved streets and intimate courtyards
developed in the radial layout of medieval Vilnius.
Old Town of Vilnius , the historical centre of Vilnius, is one of
the largest in Europe at 3.6 km2 (1.4 sq mi). The most valuable
historic and cultural sites are concentrated here. The buildings in
the old town—there are nearly 1,500—were built over several
centuries, creating a blend of many different architectural styles.
Vilnius is known as a
Baroque city, there are examples of
Gothic (e.g. Church of St. Anne ),
Renaissance , and other styles.
Their combination is also a gateway to the historic centre of the
capital. Owing to its uniqueness, the
Old Town of Vilnius was
inscribed on the
UNESCO World Heritage List in 1994. Vilnius
University 's main campus's spectacular architectural ensemble
features 13 courtyards framed by 15th century buildings and splashed
with 300-year-old frescoes, and the Church of St. Johns. The Gate of
Dawn , the only surviving gate of the first original five gates in the
city wall, hosts the painting of the Blessed Virgin Mary, which has
been said to have miracle-working powers. Over 200 tiles and
commemorative plaques to writers, who have lived and worked in
Vilnius, and foreign authors, who have shared a connection with
Vilnius and Lithuania, adorn a wall on Literatų street (Lithuanian :
_Literatų gatvė_) in the Old Town, presenting a broad overview of
the history of Lithuanian literature. In
Antakalnis district there is
Church of St. Peter and St. Paul – a masterpiece of the 17th-century
Baroque famous for its exceptional interior where one can see about
2,000 stucco figures. In 1995, the world's first bronze cast of Frank
Zappa was installed in the Naujamiestis district with the permission
of the government. The
Frank Zappa sculpture confirmed the newly found
freedom of expression, and marked the beginning of a new era for
Lithuanian society. A panoramic view of the Old Town of Vilnius
looking south from
Gediminas Tower The interior of Our Lady of
Gate of Dawn
Gate of Dawn
Vilnius Castle Complex , a group of defensive, cultural, and
religious buildings that includes
Gediminas Tower of the Upper Castle
(which is a part of National Museum of
Lithuania ), Cathedral Square
and the Palace of the Grand Dukes of
Lithuania . Lithuania's largest
art collection is housed in the
Lithuanian Art Museum . One branch of
Vilnius Picture Gallery in the Old Town , houses a collection
of Lithuanian art from the 16th to the beginning of the 20th century.
On the other side of the Neris, the National Art Gallery holds a
permanent exhibition on Lithuanian 20th-century art, as well as
numerous exhibitions on modern art. The
House of the Signatories ,
where the 1918 Act of Independence of
Lithuania was signed, is now a
historic landmark. The
Museum of Genocide Victims is dedicated to the
victims of the Soviet era.
The Contemporary Art Centre is the largest venue for contemporary art
in the Baltic States, with an exhibition space of 2400 square meters.
The Centre is a non-collection based institution committed to
developing a broad range of international and Lithuanian exhibition
projects as well as presenting a wide range of public programmes
including lectures, seminars, performances, film and video screenings,
and live new music events. The Martynas Mažvydas National Library of
Lithuania , named for the author of the first book printed in the
Lithuanian language, holds 6,912,266 physical items. The biggest book
fair in Baltic States is annually held in
LITEXPO , the
Baltic's biggest exhibition centre.
On 10 November 2007, the
Jonas Mekas Visual Arts Center was opened by
Jonas Mekas . Its premiere exhibition was
entitled _The Avant-Garde: From
Fluxus _. The Modern Art
Centre, which is scheduled to be completed in 2018, will become a new
cultural space for the city of Vilnius. It will host a private
collection of modern and contemporary Lithuanian visual art.
There were plans to build the Guggenheim-Hermitage museum , designed
Zaha Hadid , but the project has been terminated. The museum would
have hosted exhibitions featuring works from
Saint Petersburg 's
Hermitage Museum and the Guggenheim Museums , along with
non-commercial avant-garde cinema, a library, a museum of Lithuanian
Jewish culture , and collections of works by
Jonas Mekas and Jurgis
Užupis district near the Old Town, which used to be one of the
most run down districts of
Vilnius during the Soviet era, is home to a
movement of bohemian artists, who operate numerous art galleries and
Užupis declared itself an independent republic on April
Fool\'s Day in 1997. In the main square, the statue of an angel
blowing a trumpet stands as a symbol of artistic freedom.
Lithuanian National Drama Theatre
In 2015, the project of
Vilnius Talking Statues was realized. 15
Vilnius now interact with visitors in multiple
languages by a simple telephone call to a smart phone.
Lithuanian National Opera and Ballet Theatre shows both standard
Western repertory works and national operas and ballets.
Opera – an independent opera theatre in Lithuania, well known for
its high quality, innovative and modern artistic approach, blends
classical with contemporary.
Lithuanian National Drama Theatre , State
Small Theatre of Vilnius, State Youth Theatre and a number of private
theatre companies, including OKT /
Vilnius City Theatre, Anželika
Cholina dance theatre and others, show classical, modern and
Lithuanian playwriting directed by world-known Lithuanian and foreign
Lithuanian National Philharmonic Society is the largest and
oldest state owned concert organisation in Lithuania, whose main
activity is to organise and coordinate live concerts, diverse
classical/classical contemporary/jazz music events and tours
Lithuania and abroad. The Lithuanian State Symphony
Orchestra every year builds up a wide-ranging repertoire, introduces
exceptional programs, and invites young talent to perform along with
outstanding and recognized soloists.
The modern skyline of Vilnius' Financial Centre at night
Vilnius is the major economic centre of
Lithuania and one of the
largest financial centres of the
Baltic states . Even though it is
home to only 20% of Lithuania's population, it generates about one
third of Lithuania's GDP. GDP per capita (nominal) in
was $ 21,000 in 2015, making it the wealthiest region in Lithuania.
The budget of
Vilnius reached €0.5 billion in 2017. Vilnius
contributed almost €3 billion to the national budget in 2008, making
up about 40% of the budget. The average monthly net salary in Vilnius
city municipality reached €727 as of 2017 (average gross salary in
Vilnius was €938 or $1,100 in 2017). In 2016,
Vilnius merged two
organisations to create Go
Vilnius - an agency tasked with developing
tourism and investment in the city.
There are growing local advanced solar and laser technologies
manufacturers centres, such as photovoltaic elements and renewable
energy producers (Arginta, Precizika, and Baltic Solar), high
performance lasers manufacturers (Ekspla, and Eksma),
biotechnological manufacturers (Fermentas Thermo Fisher, and Sicor
Biotech), which successfully supply their products into global
In 2009, the Barclays Technology Centre was established in Vilnius,
which is one of the bank's four global strategic engineering centres.
Vilnius University and Church of St.
The city has 12 primary schools, 19 progymnasiums and 42 gymnasiums.
The city has many universities. The largest and oldest is Vilnius
University with 20,864 students. Its main premises are located in the
Old Town. The university has been ranked among the top 500
universities in the world by
QS World University Rankings . The
University is participating in projects with
NATO , among
others. It features 15 Masters programs in English and 2 in Russian,
as well as programs delivered in cooperation with universities all
over Europe. The university is currently divided into 12 faculties, 7
institutes, and 4 study and research centres.
Other major universities include
Mykolas Romeris University (17,739
students as of 2013 ),
Gediminas Technical University (10,500
students ), and
Lithuanian University of Educational Sciences (3,550
students ). Specialized higher schools with university status include
General Jonas Žemaitis Military Academy of
Lithuania , Lithuanian
Academy of Music and Theatre and
Vilnius Academy of Arts . The museum
associated with the
Vilnius Academy of Arts holds about 12,000
There are also a few private universities such as ISM University of
Management and Economics ,
European Humanities University and
Kazimieras Simonavičius University .
Several colleges are also located in
Vilnius including Vilnius
Vilnius College of Technologies and Design , International
School of Law and Business and others.
List of churches in Vilnius
RELIGIOUS GROUPS IN VILNIUS (2011 CENSUS)
Orthodox Cathedral of the Theotokos Karaite
Already in the XVII c. image of
Vilnius as a city of many religions
was very noticeable. In 1600, Samuel Lewkenor’s book describing
cities with universities was published in London. He mentioned that
Vilnius were Catholics, Orthodox, followers of John Calvin
and Martin Luther, Jews and Tartar Muslims.
Vilnius had a reputation
as a city which had no rivals in Europe in the number of churches of
different confessions throughout the entire 17th century. At the end
of the century, this image was promoted by the highly rated and
several times republished work by Robert Morden "Geography Rectified
or a Description of the World" which ran that no other city in the
world could surpass
Vilnius in the number of churches and temples of
various confessions except perhaps Amsterdam.
Vilnius is the seat of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of
Vilnius , with the main church institutions and Archdiocesan Cathedral
Vilnius Cathedral ) located here. The city of
Vilnius became the
birthplace of the
Divine Mercy Devotion when
Saint Faustina began her
mission under the guidance and discernment of her new spiritual
Michał Sopoćko . In 1934, the first Divine Mercy
painting was painted by
Eugene Kazimierowski under the supervision of
Faustina and it presently hangs in the
Divine Mercy Sanctuary in
Vilnius. Numerous other Christian Beatified persons, martyrs ,
Servants of God and Saints , are associated with Vilnius. These, among
Franciscan martyrs of Vilnius , Orthodox martyrs
Anthony, John, and Eustathius ,
Saint Casimir ,
Josaphat Kuntsevych ,
Andrew Bobola ,
Raphael Kalinowski ,
Jurgis Matulaitis .
There are a number of other active Roman Catholic churches in the
city, along with small enclosed monasteries and religion schools.
Church architecture includes Gothic ,
Neoclassical styles, with important examples of each found in the Old
Town . Additionally, Eastern Rite Catholicism has maintained a
Vilnius since the
Union of Brest
Union of Brest . The
Gate is part of an Eastern Rite monastery.
Once widely known as _Yerushalayim De Lita_ (the "Jerusalem of
Vilnius since the 18th century, was a world centre for
the study of the
Torah , and had a large Jewish population. A major
scholar of Judaism and
Kabbalah centred in
Vilnius was the famous
Rabbi Eliyahu Kremer, also known as the
Vilna Gaon . His students have
significant influence among Orthodox Jews in Israel and around the
globe. Jewish life in
Vilnius was destroyed during the Holocaust;
there is a memorial stone dedicated to victims of Nazi genocide
located in the centre of the former Jewish
Ghetto — now Mėsinių
Vilna Gaon Jewish State Museum is dedicated to the history
of Lithuanian Jewish life. The exact location of Vilnius' largest
synagogue , built in the early 1630s and wrecked by Nazi Germany
during its occupation of
Lithuania , was pinpointed by
ground-penetrating radar in June 2015, with excavations set to begin
The Karaim are a Jewish sect who migrated to
Lithuania from the
Crimea to serve as a military elite unit in the 14th century. Although
their numbers are very small, the Karaim are becoming more prominent
since Lithuanian independence, and have restored their kenesa .
Vilnius has been home to an Eastern Orthodox Christian presence since
the 13th or even the 12th century. A famous Russian Orthodox Monastery
of the Holy Spirit , is located near the
Gate of Dawn
Gate of Dawn . St.
Orthodox Church in the Old Town is the site of the baptism
of Hannibal , the great-grandfather of Pushkin , by
Tsar Peter the
Great in 1705. Many
Old Believers , who split from the Russian
Orthodox Church in 1667, settled in Lithuania. The Church of St.
Michael and St. Constantine was built in 1913. Today a Supreme Council
Old Believers is based in Vilnius.
A number of Protestant and other Christian groups are represented in
Vilnius, most notably the Lutheran Evangelicals and the
The pre-Christian religion of Lithuania, centred on the forces of
nature as personified by deities such as
Perkūnas (the Thunder God),
is experiencing some increased interest. Romuva established a Vilnius
branch in 1991.
PARKS, SQUARES AND CEMETERIES
Singing fountain in
Almost half of
Vilnius is covered by green areas, such as parks,
public gardens, natural reserves. Additionally,
Vilnius is host to
numerous lakes, where residents and visitors swim and have barbecues
in the summer. Thirty lakes and 16 rivers cover 2.1% of Vilnius' area,
with some of them having sand beaches.
Vingis Park , the city's largest, hosted several major rallies during
Lithuania's drive towards independence in the 1980s. Concerts,
festivals, and exhibitions are held at
Bernardinai Garden , near
Gediminas Tower . Sections of the annual
Vilnius Marathon pass along
the public walkways on the banks of the
Neris River. The green area
next to the White Bridge is another popular area to enjoy good
weather, and has become venue for several music and large screen
Three Crosses in
Cathedral Square in Old Town is surrounded by a number of the city's
most historically significant sites.
Lukiškės Square is the largest,
bordered by several governmental buildings: the Lithuanian Ministry of
Foreign Affairs , the Ministry of Finance , the Polish Embassy, and
the Genocide Victims\' Museum , where the
KGB tortured and murdered
numerous opposers of the communist regime. An oversized statue of
Lenin in its centre was removed in 1991. Town Hall Square has long
been a centre of trade fairs, celebrations, and events in Vilnius,
including the Kaziukas Fair . The city Christmas tree is decorated
there. State ceremonies are often held in Daukantas Square , facing
the Presidential Palace .
Rasos Cemetery , consecrated in 1801, is the burial site of Jonas
Basanavičius and other signatories of the 1918 Act of Independence ,
along with the heart of Polish leader
Józef Piłsudski . Two of the
three Jewish cemeteries in
Vilnius were destroyed during the Soviet
era; the remains of the
Vilna Gaon were moved to the remaining one. A
monument was erected at the place where
Užupis Old Jewish Cemetery
was. On 23 October 2011, a swastika has been sprayed on the monument,
as what seems to be an anti-Semitic act. About 18,000 burials have
been made in the
Bernardine Cemetery , established in 1810; it was
closed during the 1970s and is now being restored.
, established in 1809, contains various memorials to Polish,
Lithuanian, German and Russian soldiers, along with the graves of
those who were killed during the January Events .
On 20 October 2013, Bernardinai garden , previously known as
Sereikiškės Park, was opened after reconstruction. The authentic
19th-century Vladislovas Štrausas environment was restored.
Several teams are based in the city. The largest is the basketball
BC Lietuvos Rytas , which participates in European competitions
such as the Euroleague and Eurocup , the domestic Lithuanian
Basketball League , winning the ULEB Cup (predecessor to the Eurocup)
in 2005 and the Eurocup in 2009 . Its home arena is the 2,500-seat
Lietuvos Rytas Arena ; all European matches and important domestic
matches are played in the 11,000-seat
Siemens Arena .
Vilnius also has several football teams.
FK Žalgiris is the main
football team. The club plays at
LFF Stadium in
Olympic champions in swimming
Lina Kačiušytė and Robertas Žulpa
are from Vilnius. There are several public swimming pools in Vilnius
Lazdynai Swimming Pool being the only Olympic-size swimming pool
of the city.
The city is home to the Lithuanian
Bandy Association, Badminton
Federation, Canoeing Sports Federation, Baseball Association,
Biathlon Federation, Sailors Union, Football Federation, Fencing
Federation, Cycling Sports Federation, Archery Federation,
Athletics Federation, Ice Hockey Federation, Basketball Federation,
Curling Federation, Rowing Federation, Wrestling Federation, Speed
Skating Association, Gymnastics Federation, Equestrian Union,
Modern Pentathlon Federation, Shooting Union, Triathlon Federation,
Volleyball Federation, Tennis Union, Taekwondo Federation,
Weightlifting Federation, Table Tennis Association, Skiing
Association, Rugby Federation, Swimming Federation.
Vilnius International Airport entrance
Navigability of the river
Neris is very limited and no regular water
routes exist, although it was used for navigation in the past. The
river rises in Belarus, connecting
Kernavė , and becomes
a tributary of Nemunas river in
Vilnius Airport serves most Lithuanian international flights to many
major European destinations. Currently, the airport has about 50
destinations in about 25 different countries. The airport is situated
only 5 km (3.1 mi) away from the centre of the city, and has a direct
rail link to
Vilnius railway station .
Vilnius railway station is an important hub serving direct
passenger connections to
Moscow and Saint
Petersburg as well as being a transit point of Pan-European Corridor
Vilnius is the starting point of the A1 motorway that runs across
Lithuania and connects the three major cities (Vilnius,
Klaipėda) and is a part of
European route E85 . The A2 motorway,
Vilnius with Panevėžys, is a part of E272 . Other
highways starting in
Vilnius include A3 , A4 , A14 , A15 , A16 .
Vilnius' Southern bypass is road A19 .
Solaris Trollino 15AC trolleybus in
Vilnius Orange bikes,
available for renting
Vilnius Railway Station entrance
Vilnius Railway Station
Vilnius has a well-developed public transportation system; 45% of the
population take public transport to work, one of the highest figures
in all of Europe. The bus network and the trolleybus network are run
by Vilniaus viešasis transportas . There are over 60 bus, 18
trolleybus, 6 rapid bus and 6 night bus routes. The trolleybus
network is one of the most extensive in Europe. Over 250 buses and 260
trolleybuses transport about 500,000 passengers every workday.
Students, elderly, and the disabled receive large discounts (up to
80%) on the tickets. The first regular bus routes were established in
1926, and the first trolleybuses were introduced in 1956.
At the end of 2007, a new electronic monthly ticket system was
introduced. It was possible to buy an electronic card in shops and
newspaper stands and have it credited with an appropriate amount of
money. The monthly e-ticket cards could be bought once and credited
with an appropriate amount of money in various ways including the
Internet. Previous paper monthly tickets were in use until August
The ticket system changed again from 15 August 2012. E-Cards were
Vilnius Citizen Cards ("Vilniečio Kortelė"). It is now
possible to buy a card or change an old one in newspaper stands and
have it credited with an appropriate amount of money or a particular
type of ticket. Single trip tickets have been replaced by 30 and
The public transportation system is dominated by the low-floor Volvo
Mercedes-Benz buses as well as Solaris trolleybuses. There are
also plenty of the traditional Škoda vehicles, built in the Czech
Republic, still in service, and many of these have been extensively
refurbished internally. This is a result of major improvements that
started in 2003 when the first brand-new
Mercedes-Benz buses were
bought. In 2004, a contract was signed with
Volvo Buses to buy 90
brand-new 7700 buses over the following three years.
An electric tram and a metro system through the city were proposed in
the 2000s. However, neither has progressed beyond initial planning.
Vilnius during the winter period
Vilnius City Municipality is one of 60 municipalities of Lithuania
and includes the nearby town of
Grigiškės , three villages, and some
rural areas. The town of
Grigiškės was separated from the Trakai
District Municipality and attached to the
Vilnius City Municipality in
A 51-member council is elected to four-year terms; the candidates are
nominated by registered political parties. As of the 2011 elections,
independent candidates also were permitted. The last election was held
in March 2015. The results are:
* Liberal Movement – 15 seats
* The coalition of the Electoral Action of Poles in
Lithuanian Russian Union – 10
Homeland Union – Lithuanian Christian Democrats – 8
Lithuanian Freedom Union (Liberals) – 6
* Social Democratic Party of
Lithuania – 4
Lithuanian List – 4
Order and Justice – 3
Before 2015, mayors were appointed by the council. Starting with the
elections in 2015, the mayors are elected directly by the residents.
Remigijus Šimašius became the first directly elected mayor of the
* 1990 – Arūnas Grumadas (the president of council)
* 1993 – Valentinas Šapalas (the president of council)
* 1995 –
* 1997 –
* 1999 –
* 2000 –
Rolandas Paksas (2nd time)
* 2001 –
* 2003 –
* 2003 –
Artūras Zuokas (2nd time)
* 2007 –
Juozas Imbrasas (2nd time)
* 2009 – Vilius Navickas
* 2010 – Raimundas Alekna
* 2011 –
Artūras Zuokas (3rd time)
* 2015 –
Elderships , a statewide administrative division, function as
municipal districts. The 21 elderships are based on neighbourhoods:
Vilnius elderships. Numbers on the map correspond with
numbers in the list
Verkiai — includes Baltupiai, Jeruzalė, Santariškės, Balsiai,
Antakalnis — includes Valakampiai, Turniškės, Dvarčionys
Pašilaičiai — includes Tarandė
Fabijoniškės — includes Bajorai
Žirmūnai — includes Šiaurės miestelis
Grigiškės — a separate town
Vilkpėdė — includes
* Naujamiestis — includes bus and train stations
* Senamiestis (Old Town) — includes
Naujoji Vilnia — includes Pavilnys, Pūčkoriai
Paneriai — includes Trakų Vokė, Gariūnai
Naujininkai — includes Kirtimai, Salininkai, Vilnius
* Rasos — includes Belmontas, Markučiai
TWIN TOWNS – SISTER CITIES
See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in
Traditional street fair
Vilnius is twinned with:
Germany (since 1985)_
Poland (since 1998)_
Madison, Wisconsin ,
Saint Petersburg ,
Tbilisi , Georgia
SIGNIFICANT DEPICTIONS IN POPULAR CULTURE
Vilnius is mentioned in the movie _The Hunt For Red October _
(1990) as being the boyhood home of the sub commander Marko Ramius,
and as being where his grandfather taught him to fish; he is also
referenced once in the movie as "The
Vilnius Schoolmaster". Ramius is
Sean Connery .
Thomas Harris ' character
Hannibal Lecter is revealed to be
Vilnius and its aristocracy in the movie _
Hannibal Rising _.
Lecter is portrayed more popularly and often by Sir
Anthony Hopkins ,
although Brian Cox played Lecter in the movie _Manhunter _.
* The memoir, _A Partisan from Vilna_ (2010), details the life and
struggles of Rachel Margolis. Her family's sole survivor, she escaped
from the Vilna
Ghetto with other members of the resistance movement,
the FPO (
United Partisan Organization ), and joined the Soviet
partisans in the Lithuanian forests to sabotage the Nazis.
Vilnius is classified as a city-state in the turn-based strategy
Civilization V .
List of people from Vilnius
* Archdiocese of
Coat of arms of Vilnius
List of monuments in Vilnius
List of Vilnians
* List of
Vilnius Elderships in other languages
Neighborhoods of Vilnius
Daylight panorama of the modern city of
* ^ Widespread nickname of Vilnius, that appeared because of a
strong Litvak community. Today it is used primarily speaking about the
past of the Jewish community of Vilnius, e.g. A book "Vilnius, in
search of Jerusalem of Lithuania".
* ^ Widespread use of the nickname from the XVI c. to this day as a
reference to the many Catholic churches and monasteries in
overall religious atmosphere in the centre. This nickname was/is used
not only by the foreigners, but also by the local population, e.g.
Lithuanian cultural figure of the XIX c.
Dionizas Poška nicknamed
Rome of the North", as, according to him,
Vilnius is "the old
religious center, that transformed from a pagan city into the bastion
of Christianity". D. Poška, ‘Raštai’, Vilnius, 1959, p. 67
* ^ Cultural newspaper, that is published in
Vilnius from 1990, is
named „Šiaurės Atėnai“ (The
Athens of the North) as a reference
to one of the nicknames of Vilnius, that was widespread nickname of
the city, esp. in the first half of the XIX c. and the first half of
the XX c. mostly because of
Vilnius University . During the interwar
period, Polish scientific newspaper, published in Vilnius, was also
named "Atheneum Wileńskie".
* ^ Esp. in the 16th–17th centuries,
Vilnius was referred to as
the ‘New Babylon’ because of many languages, spoken in the city as
well as many religions presented (there were various Christian
communities as well as Jews and even Muslim Tatar community). E.g.: S.
Bodniak, ‘Polska w relacji włoskiej z roku 1604’, Pamiętnik
biblioteki kórnickiej, 2, (Kórnik, 1930), p. 37.
* ^ This nickname was very popular among the
Lithuanian nobility ,
Vilnius and used among the poets, esp. during the Baroque
period. Many poets of the period, including Maciej Kazimierz
Sarbiewski , nicknamed
Vilnius "the capital of Palemon" or "the city
of Palemon". Živilė Nedzinskaitė,
Vilnius XVII-XVIII a. LDK
lotyniškojoje poezijoje, Acta Academiae Artium Vilnensis, Vilnius,
2010, p. 16; Eugenija Ulčinaitė, Motiejus Kazimieras Sarbievijus:
Antikos ir krikščionybės sintezė; Vilniaus pasveikinimas,
Lietuvių literatūros ir tautosakos institutas, Vilnius, 2001, p. 47,
59, 61, 63; etc.
* ^ "Most popular - OSP".
* ^ osp.stat.gov.lt
* ^ _A_ _B_ "Statistinių rodiklių analizė - OSP".
* ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 16 March 2015.
Retrieved 2015-11-01. average EUR/
USD ex. rate in 2015
* ^ "Pradžia - OSP".
* ^ "Portrait of the Regions of
municipality". Department of Statistics. Retrieved 1 August 2015.
* ^ Лавринец, Павел (20 October 2004). _Русская
Вильна_: идея и формула. _Балканская
Русистика_ (IN RUSSIAN). Вильнюс. RETRIEVED 18 AUGUST
* ^ Васютинский, А.М.; Дживелегов, А.К.;
Мельгунов, С.П. (1912). "Фон Зукков, По
дороге в Вильно". Французы в России. 1812
г. По воспоминаниям
современников-иностранцев. (IN RUSSIAN).
1–3. Москва: "Задруга". Retrieved 18 August 2009.
* ^ Rowell, Stephen Christopher (2003). _Chartularium Lithuaniae
res gestas magni ducis Gedeminne illustrans – Gedimino laiškai_
(PDF). Vilnius: Leidykla Vaga. Retrieved 7 June 2017.
* ^ "
Vilnius legend". Municipality of Vilnius. Archived from the
original on 11 December 2007.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Laimonas Briedis (2008). _Vilnius: City of
Strangers_. Baltos Lankos . ISBN 978-9955-23-160-8 .
* ^ Piotr S. Wandycz, The lands of partitioned Poland, 1795–1918,
University of Washington Press, 1974, p. 166.
* ^ Egidijus Aleksandravičius, Antanas Kulakauskas; _Carų
valdžioje: Lietuva XIX amžiuje_ ("
Lithuania under the reign of Czars
in 19th century"); Baltos lankos,
Vilnius 1996. Polish translation:
_Pod władzą carów: Litwa w XIX wieku_, Universitas,
page 90, ISBN 83-7052-543-1
* ^ Dirk Hoerder, Inge Blank, Horst Rössler, "Roots of the
transplanted", East European Monographs, 1994, pg. 69
* ^ Joshua D. Zimmerman, _Poles, Jews, and the politics of
nationality_, Univ of Wisconsin Press, 2004, ISBN 0-299-19464-7 ,
Google Print, p. 16
* ^ "A 1909 official count of the city found 205,250 inhabitants,
of whom 1.2 percent were Lithuanian; 20.7 percent Russian; 37.8
percent Polish; and 36.8 percent Jewish. —
Timothy Snyder , _The
Reconstruction of Nations. Poland, Ukraine, Lithuania, Belarus
1569–1999_. Yale University Press 2003, p. 306.
* ^ Łossowski, Piotr (1995). _Konflikt polsko-litewski
1918–1920_ (in Polish). Warszawa: Książka i Wiedza. pp. 126–128.
ISBN 83-05-12769-9 .
* ^ Rawi Abdelal (2001). _National Purpose in the World Economy:
Post-Soviet States in Comparative Perspective_. Cornell University
Press. ISBN 978-0-8014-8977-8 . At the same time,
Poland acceded to
Lithuanian authority over
Vilnius in the 1920 Suwałki Agreement.
* ^ Glanville Price (1998). _Encyclopedia of the Languages of
Europe_. Blackwell Publishing . ISBN 978-0-8014-8977-8 . In 1920,
Poland annexed a third of Lithuania's territory (including the
capital, Vilnius) in a breach of the Treaty of Suvalkai of 7 October
1920, and it was only in 1939 that
about a quarter of the territory previously occupied by Poland.
* ^ Smith, David James; Pabriks, Artis; Purs, Aldis; Lane, Thomas
(2002). _The Baltic States_.
Routledge . ISBN 978-0-415-28580-3 .
Fighting continued until the agreement at Suwałki between Lithuania
Poland on 7 October 1920, which drew a line of demarcation which
was incomplete but indicated that the
Vilnius area would be part of
* ^ Eudin, Xenia Joukoff; Fisher, Harold H.; Jones, Rosemary Brown
Russia and the West, 1920–1927_. Stanford University
. ISBN 978-0-8047-0478-6 . The League effected an armistice, signed at
Suwałki, 7 October 1920, by the terms of which the city was to remain
under Lithuanian jurisdiction.
* ^ Eidintas, Alfonsas ; Tuskenis, Edvardas; Zalys, Vytautas
Lithuania in European Politics_. Macmillan . ISBN
978-0-312-22458-5 . The
Lithuanians and the Poles signed an agreement
at Suwałki on 7 October. Both sides were to cease hostilities and to
peacefully settle all disputes. The demarcation line was extended only
in the southern part of the front, to Bastunai.
Vilnius was thus left
on the Lithuanian side, but its security was not guaranteed.
* ^ Hirsz Abramowicz; Dobkin, Eva Zeitlin; Shandler, Jeffrey;
Fishman, David E. (1999). _Profiles of a Lost World: Memoirs of East
European Jewish Life Before World War II_. Wayne State University
Press. ISBN 978-0-8143-2784-5 . Before long there was a change of
authority: Polish legionnaires under the command of General Lucian
Zeligowski 'did not agree' with the peace treaty signed with Lithuania
in Suwałki, which ceded Vilna to Lithuania.
* ^ Michael Brecher; Jonathan Wilkenfeld (1997). _A Study of
University of Michigan Press. ISBN 978-0-472-10806-0 .
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