pronunciation: [ˈvʲɪlʲnʲʊs] ( listen), see also
other names) is the capital of
Lithuania and its largest city, with a
population of 574,221 as of 2017[update].
Vilnius is in the
southeast part of
Lithuania and is the second largest city in the
Vilnius is the seat of the main government institutions
Lithuania and the
Vilnius District Municipality.
classified as a Gamma global city according to
GaWC studies, and is
known for the architecture in its Old Town, declared a
Heritage Site in 1994. Before World War II,
Vilnius was one of the
largest Jewish centres in Europe. Its Jewish influence has led to it
being described as the "Jerusalem of Lithuania" and
Napoleon named it
"the Jerusalem of the North" as he was passing through in 1812. In
Vilnius was the European Capital of Culture, together with the
Austrian city of Linz.
1 Etymology and other names
2.1 Early history and Grand Duchy of Lithuania
2.2 Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
2.3 In the Russian Empire
2.4 In Poland
2.5 World War II
2.6 Lithuanian SSR – in Soviet Union
2.7 Independent Lithuania
10 Parks, squares and cemeteries
12.1 Public transport
13.1 Municipal council
14 Twin towns – sister cities
15 Significant depictions in popular culture
16 Notable people
17 See also
19 External links
Etymology and other names
The name of the city originates from the Vilnia River. The city
has also been known by many derivate spellings in various languages
throughout its history: Vilna was common in English. The most notable
non-Lithuanian names for the city include: Polish: Wilno, Belarusian:
Вiльня, German: Wilna, Latvian: Viļņa, Russian: Вильнюс,
Yiddish: ווילנע (Vilne), Czech: Vilnius. A Russian name from
the time of the
Russian Empire was Вильна/Вильно
(Vilna/Vilno), although Вильнюс (Vilnius) is now used.
The names Wilno, Wilna and Vilna have also been used in older English,
German, French and Italian language publications when the city was one
of the capitals of
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and later an
important city in the Second Polish Republic. The name Vilna is still
used in Finnish, Portuguese, Spanish, and Hebrew. Wilna is still used
in German, along with Vilnius.
The neighborhoods of
Vilnius also have names in other languages, which
represent the languages spoken by various ethnic groups in the area.
According to the legend, Grand Duke
Gediminas (ca. 1275 – 1341) was
hunting in the sacred forest near the Valley of Šventaragis, near
Vilnia River flows into the
Neris River. Tired after the
successful hunt of a wisent, the Grand Duke settled in for the night.
He fell soundly asleep and dreamed of a huge Iron Wolf standing on top
a hill and howling as strong and loud as a hundred wolves. Upon
awakening, the Duke asked the krivis (pagan priest) Lizdeika to
interpret the dream. And the priest told him: "What is destined for
the ruler and the State of Lithuania, is thus: the Iron Wolf
represents a castle and a city which will be established by you on
this site. This city will be the capital of the Lithuanian lands and
the dwelling of their rulers, and the glory of their deeds shall echo
throughout the world." Therefore, Gediminas, obeying the will of gods,
built the city, and gave it the name
Vilnius – from the stream of
the Vilnia River.
History of Vilnius
History of Vilnius and Timeline of Vilnius
Early history and Grand Duchy of Lithuania
St. Nicholas Church (built before 1387) is the oldest church in
Historian Romas Batūra identifies the city with Voruta, one of the
castles of Mindaugas, crowned in 1253 as King of Lithuania. During the
Vytenis a city started to emerge from a trading settlement
and the first Franciscan Catholic church was built.
The city was first mentioned in written sources in 1323 as Vilna,
when the Letters of Grand Duke
Gediminas were sent to German cities
inviting Germans (including German Jews) to settle in the capital
city, as well as to Pope John XXII. These letters contain the first
unambiguous reference to
Vilnius as the capital; Old
Trakai Castle had
been the earlier seat of the court of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.
According to legend,
Gediminas dreamt of an iron wolf howling on a
hilltop and consulted a pagan priest Lizdeika for its interpretation.
He was told: "What is destined for the ruler and the State of
Lithuania, is thus: the Iron Wolf represents a castle and a city which
will be established by you on this site. This city will be the capital
of the Lithuanian lands and the dwelling of their rulers, and the
glory of their deeds shall echo throughout the world". The
location offered practical advantages: it lay in the Lithuanian
heartland at the confluence of two navigable rivers, surrounded by
forests and wetlands that were difficult to penetrate. The duchy had
been subject to intrusions by the Teutonic Knights.
Palace of the Grand Dukes of Lithuania
Vilnius was the flourishing capital of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania,
the residence of the Grand Duke.
Gediminas expanded the Grand Duchy
through warfare along with strategic alliances and marriages. At its
height it covered the territory of modern-day Lithuania, Belarus,
Ukraine, Transnistria, and portions of modern-day
Poland and Russia.
Vytautas the Great and Jogaila, however, fought
civil wars. During the Lithuanian Civil War of 1389–1392, Vytautas
besieged and razed the city in an attempt to wrest control from
Jogaila. The two later settled their differences; after a series of
treaties culminating in the 1569 Union of Lublin, the
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth was formed. The rulers of this
federation held either or both of two titles: Grand Duke of Lithuania
or King of Poland. In 1387,
Jogaila acting as a Grand Duke of
King of Poland
King of Poland Władysław II Jagiełło, granted
Magdeburg rights to the city.
Subačius Gate by Franciszek Smuglewicz
Church of St. Peter and St. Paul is a
Baroque architecture masterpiece
Gate of Dawn
Church of St. Casimir, the first and the oldest
Baroque church in
The city underwent a period of expansion. The
Vilnius city walls were
built for protection between 1503 and 1522, comprising nine city gates
and three towers, and Sigismund August moved his court there in 1544.
Its growth was due in part to the establishment of Alma Academia et
Universitas Vilnensis Societatis Iesu by the Polish King Stefan
Bathory in 1579. The university soon developed into one of the most
important scientific and cultural centres of the region and the most
notable scientific centre of the Commonwealth.
During its rapid development, the city was open to migrants from the
territories of the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland, Grand Duchy and
further. A variety of languages were spoken: Polish, German, Yiddish,
Ruthenian, Lithuanian, Russian, Old Church Slavonic, Latin, Hebrew,
and Turkic languages; the city was compared to Babylon. Each group
made its unique contribution to the life of the city, and crafts,
trade, and science prospered.
The 17th century brought a number of setbacks. The Commonwealth was
involved in a series of wars, collectively known as The Deluge. During
the Russo-Polish War (1654–1667),
Vilnius was occupied by Russian
forces; it was pillaged and burned, and its population was massacred.
Great Northern War
Great Northern War it was looted by the Swedish army. An
outbreak of bubonic plague in 1710 killed about 35,000 residents;
devastating fires occurred in 1715, 1737, 1741, 1748, and 1749.
The city's growth lost its momentum for many years, but even despite
this fact, at the end of the 18th century and before the Napoleon
wars, Vilnius, with 56,000 inhabitants, entered the
Russian Empire as
its 3rd largest city.
In the Russian Empire
Grande Armée in
Vilnius during its retreat (near the
Hall) by Jan Krzysztof Damel
The fortunes of the Commonwealth declined during the 18th century.
Three partitions took place, dividing its territory among the Russian
Empire, the Habsburg Empire, and the Kingdom of Prussia. After the
third partition of April 1795,
Vilnius was annexed by the Russian
Empire and became the capital of the Vilna Governorate. During Russian
rule, the city walls were destroyed, and, by 1805, only the Gate of
Dawn remained. In 1812, the city was taken by
Napoleon on his push
towards Moscow, and again during the disastrous retreat. The Grande
Armée was welcomed in Vilnius. Thousands of soldiers died in the city
during the eventual retreat; the mass graves were uncovered in
2002. Inhabitants expected
Tsar Alexander I to grant them autonomy
in response to Napoleon's promises to restore the Commonwealth, but
Vilnius didn't become autonomous by itself nor as a part of Congress
November Uprising in 1831,
Vilnius University was closed
and Russian repressions halted the further development of the city.
Civil unrest in 1861 was suppressed by the Imperial Russian Army.
January Uprising in 1863, heavy fighting occurred within
the city, but was brutally pacified by Mikhail Muravyov, nicknamed The
Hangman by the population because of the number of executions he
organized. After the uprising, all civil liberties were withdrawn, and
use of the Polish and Lithuanian languages was banned. Vilnius
had a vibrant Jewish population: according to Russian census of 1897,
out of the total population of 154,500, Jews constituted 64,000
(approximately 40%). During the early 20th century, the
Lithuanian-speaking population of
Vilnius constituted only a small
minority, with Polish, Yiddish, and Russian speakers comprising the
majority of the city's population.
Chapel of Saint Casimir
Chapel of Saint Casimir in the Cathedral of Vilnius
During World War I,
Vilnius and the rest of
Lithuania was occupied by
the German Army from 1915 until 1918. The Act of Independence of
Lithuania, declaring Lithuanian independence from any affiliation to
any other nation, was issued in the city on 16 February 1918.
After the withdrawal of German forces, the city was briefly controlled
by Polish self-defence units, which were driven out by advancing
Vilnius changed hands again during the Polish–Soviet
War and the Lithuanian Wars of Independence: it was taken by the
Polish Army, only to fall to Soviet forces again. Shortly after its
defeat in the battle of Warsaw, the retreating Red Army, in order to
delay the Polish advance, ceded the city to
Lithuania after signing
Soviet–Lithuanian Peace Treaty
Soviet–Lithuanian Peace Treaty on 12 July 1920.
Lithuania both perceived the city as their own. The League
of Nations became involved in the subsequent dispute between the two
countries. The League brokered the
Suwałki Agreement on 7 October
1920. Although neither
Vilnius or the surrounding region was
explicitly addressed in the agreement, numerous historians have
described the agreement as allotting
Lithuania. On 9 October 1920, the
Polish Army surreptitiously, under General Lucjan Żeligowski, seized
Vilnius during an operation known as Żeligowski's Mutiny. The city
and its surroundings were designated as a separate state, called the
Republic of Central Lithuania. On 20 February 1922 after the highly
contested election in Central Lithuania, the entire area was annexed
by Poland, with the city becoming the capital of the Wilno Voivodship
(Wilno being the name of
Vilnius in Polish).
Kaunas then became the
temporary capital of Lithuania.
Lithuania vigorously contested the
Polish annexation of Vilnius, and refused diplomatic relations with
Poland. The predominant languages of the city were still Polish and,
to a lesser extent, Yiddish. The Lithuanian-speaking population at the
time was a small minority, at about 6% of the city's population
according even to contemporary Lithuanian sources. The Council of
Ambassadors and the international community (with the exception of
Lithuania) recognized Polish sovereignty over Vilnus region in
Vilnius University was reopened in 1919 under the name of Stefan
Batory University. By 1931, the city had 195,000 inhabitants,
making it the fifth largest city in
Poland with varied industries,
such as Elektrit, a factory that produced radio receivers.
World War II
Further information: Vilna Ghetto
Lithuanian National Philharmonic Society
Lithuanian National Philharmonic Society was established, and
since then used the historic old town building where the Great Seimas
Vilnius took place in 1905
World War II
World War II began with the German invasion of
Poland in September
1939. The secret protocols of the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact had
Poland into German and Soviet spheres of
interest. On 19 September 1939,
Vilnius was seized by the Soviet Union
Poland on 17 September). The USSR and Lithuania
concluded a mutual assistance treaty on 10 October 1939, with which
the Lithuanian government accepted the presence of Soviet military
bases in various parts of the country. On 28 October 1939, the Red
Army withdrew from the city to its suburbs (to Naujoji Vilnia) and
Vilnius was given over to Lithuania. A Lithuanian Army parade took
place on 29 October 1939 through the city centre. The Lithuanians
immediately attempted to Lithuanize the city, for example by
Lithuanizing Polish schools. However, the whole of
annexed by the
Soviet Union on 3 August 1940 following a June
ultimatum from the Soviets demanding, among other things, that
unspecified numbers of
Red Army soldiers be allowed to enter the
country for the purpose of helping to form a more pro-Soviet
government. After the ultimatum was issued and
occupied, a Soviet government was installed with
Vilnius as the
capital of the newly created Lithuanian SSR. Between 20,000 and 30,000
of the city's inhabitants were subsequently arrested by the
sent to gulags in the far eastern areas of the Soviet Union. The
Soviets devastated city industries, moving the major Polish radio
factory Elektrit, along with a part of its labour force, to
Belarus, where it was renamed the
Vyacheslav Molotov Radio Factory,
after Stalin's Minister of Foreign Affairs.
Lithuanian Army tanks in
Vilnius after regaining control of the
On 22 June 1941, the Germans launched
Operation Barbarossa against the
Vilnius was captured on 24 June. Two ghettos were
set up in the old town centre for the large Jewish population – the
smaller one of which was "liquidated" by October. The larger
ghetto lasted until 1943, though its population was regularly deported
in roundups known as "Aktionen". A failed ghetto uprising on 1
September 1943 organized by the Fareinigte Partizaner Organizacje (the
United Partisan Organization, the first Jewish partisan unit in
German-occupied Europe), was followed by the final destruction of
the ghetto. During the Holocaust, about 95% of the 265,000-strong
Jewish population of
Lithuania was murdered by the German units and
Lithuanian Nazi collaborators, many of them in Paneriai, about
10 km (6.2 mi) west of the old town centre (see the Ponary
Lithuanian SSR – in Soviet Union
KGB headquarters in
Vilnius now Museum of Genocide Victims
In July 1944,
Vilnius was taken from the Germans by the Soviet Army
and the Polish
Armia Krajowa (see
Operation Ostra Brama
Operation Ostra Brama and the
Vilnius Offensive). The
NKVD arrested the leaders of the Armia
Krajowa after requesting a meeting. Shortly afterwards, the town was
once again incorporated into the
Soviet Union as the capital of the
The war had irreversibly altered the town – most of the
predominantly Polish and Jewish population had been expelled and
exterminated respectively, during and after the German occupation.
Some members of the intelligentsia and former Waffen SS members hiding
in the forest were now targeted and deported to Siberia after the war.
The majority of the remaining population was compelled to move to
Poland by 1946, and
Sovietization began in earnest. Only in
the 1960s did
Vilnius begin to grow again, following an influx of
Lithuanians and Poles from neighbouring regions and from other areas
Soviet Union (particularly
Russia and Belarus). Microdistricts
were built in the elderates of Šeškinė, Žirmūnai, Justiniškės
Vilnius TV Tower, the main site of January's Events
On 11 March 1990, the Supreme Council of the Lithuanian SSR announced
its secession from the
Soviet Union and intention to restore an
independent Republic of Lithuania. As a result of these
declarations, on 9 January 1991, the
Soviet Union sent in troops. This
culminated in the 13 January attack on the State Radio and Television
Building and the
Vilnius TV Tower, killing at least fourteen civilians
and seriously injuring 700 more. The
Soviet Union finally
recognised Lithuanian independence in September 1991. The current
Constitution, as did the earlier Lithuanian Constitution of 1922,
mentions that "…the capital of the State of
Lithuania shall be the
city of Vilnius, the long-standing historical capital of Lithuania".
Vilnius Cathedral Square
Vilnius has been rapidly transformed, and the town has emerged as a
modern European city. Many of its older buildings have been renovated,
and a business and commercial area is being developed into the New
City Centre, expected to become the city's main administrative and
business district on the north side of the
Neris river. This area
includes modern residential and retail space, with the municipality
building and the 129-metre (423')
Europa Tower as its most prominent
buildings. The construction of Swedbank's headquarters is symbolic of
the importance of Scandinavian banks in Vilnius. The building complex
Vilnius Business Harbour" was built in 2008, and one of its towers is
now the 5th tallest building in Lithuania. More buildings are
scheduled for construction in the area.
Vilnius was selected as a 2009
European Capital of Culture, along with Linz, the capital of Upper
Austria. Its 2009 New Year's Eve celebration, marking the event,
featured a light show said to be "visible from outer space". In
preparation, the historical centre of the city was restored, and its
main monuments were renovated. The global economic crisis led to a
drop in tourism which prevented many of the projects from reaching
their planned extent, and allegations of corruption and incompetence
were made against the organisers, while tax increases for
cultural activity led to public protests and the general economic
conditions sparked riots. In 2015
Remigijus Šimašius became the
first directly elected mayor of the city.
Gediminas' Avenue in autumn
In Vilnius, average download speed of 36.37 MB/s and upload speed of
On 28–29 November 2013,
Vilnius hosted the Eastern Partnership
Summit in the Palace of the Grand Dukes of Lithuania. Many European
presidents, prime ministers and other high-ranking officials
participated in the event. On 29 November 2013, Georgia and
Moldova signed association and free trade agreements with the European
Armenia were also expected to sign
the agreements but postponed the decision, sparking large protests in
Neris River at
Mindaugas Bridge with
Vilnius Upper Castle in the
Vilnius is situated in south-eastern
25°17′E / 54.683°N 25.283°E / 54.683; 25.283) at the
confluence of the Vilnia and
Neris Rivers. Lying close to
Vilnius is a
site some claim to be the Geographical Centre of Europe.
Vilnius lies 312 km (194 mi) from the
Baltic Sea and
Klaipėda, the chief Lithuanian seaport.
Vilnius is connected by
highways to other major Lithuanian cities, such as
Kaunas (102 km
or 63 mi away),
Šiauliai (214 km or 133 mi away) and
Panevėžys (135 km or 84 mi away).
The current area of
Vilnius is 402 square kilometres
(155 sq mi). Buildings occupy 29.1% of the city; green
spaces occupy 68.8%; and waters occupy 2.1%.
The climate of
Vilnius is humid continental (Köppen climate
classification Dfb). Temperature records have been kept since
1777. The average annual temperature is 6.7 °C
(44 °F); in January the average temperature is −4.3 °C
(24 °F), in July it is 18.1 °C (65 °F). The average
precipitation is about 682 millimetres (26.85 in) per year.
Average annual temperatures in the city have increased significantly
during the last 30 years, a change which the Lithuanian
Hydrometeorological Service attributes to global warming induced by
Summer days are pleasantly warm and sometimes hot, especially in July
and August, with temperatures above 30 °C (86 °F)
throughout the day during periodic heat waves. Night-life in Vilnius
is in full swing at this time of year, and outdoor bars, restaurants
and cafés become very popular during the daytime.
Winters can be very cold, with temperatures rarely reaching above
freezing – temperatures below −25 °C (−13 °F) are
not unheard-of in January and February. Vilnius's rivers freeze over
in particularly cold winters, and the lakes surrounding the city are
almost always permanently frozen during this time of year. A popular
pastime is ice-fishing.
Climate data for
Vilnius (1981-2010 normals, sun 1961-1990)
Record high °C (°F)
Average high °C (°F)
Daily mean °C (°F)
Average low °C (°F)
Record low °C (°F)
Average precipitation mm (inches)
Average precipitation days
Mean monthly sunshine hours
World Meteorological Organization
World Meteorological Organization (avg high and low)
NOAA (sun, extremes, and mean temperatures)
Source #2: Météo Climat 
Historic ethnic makeup of Vilnius
The Republic of Užupis
1897: According to the first census in the Russian Empire, in 1897
Vilnius was 154,500. The largest linguistic groups at
the time were those speaking Yiddish (61,847) and Polish (47,795).
Other groups included Russian (30,967), Belarusian (6,514) and
Ukrainian (517), Lithuanian (3,131), German (2,170), Tartar (722) and
Latvian (184) speaking communities.
According to the census, 52,4% of the inhabitants were local, while
others settled in the city from other regions. Among the townsmen
class, there were 36,576 new-comers (among whose, 17,465 were born in
Vilna Governorate). Among the peasant new-comers, 16,312 came from
other localities of
Vilna Governorate and 16,054 from the other
governorates. Among the nobility class in
Vilnius during the census of
1897, there were 5,301 (46,3%) local nobles and 6,403 (54,7%)
new-comers. 24,1% of these noble new-comers came from Vilna
Governorate territories, while the rest new-comers nobles came to
Vilnius from Grodno Governorate,
Minsk Governorate, Vitebsk
Governorate, Kovno Governorate,
Vistula Land and other
1916: According to the census of 14 December 1916 by the occupying
German forces at the time, there were a total of 138,794 inhabitants
in Vilnius. This number was made up of the following nationalities:
Poles 53.67% (74,466 inhabitants), Jews 41.45% (57,516 inhabitants),
Lithuanians 2.09% (2,909 inhabitants), Russians 1.59% (2,219
inhabitants), Germans 0.63% (880 inhabitants), Belarusians 0.44% (644
inhabitants) and others at 0.13% (193 inhabitants).
1923: 167,545 inhabitants, including 100,830 Poles and 55,437
1931: 196,345 inhabitants. A census of 9 December 1931 reveals
that Poles made up 65.9% of the total
Vilnius population (128,600
inhabitants), Jews 28% (54,600 inhabitants), Russians 3.8% (7,400
inhabitants), Belarusians 0.9% (1,700 inhabitants),
(1,579 inhabitants), Germans 0.3% (600 inhabitants), Ukrainians 0.1%
(200 inhabitants), others 0.2% (approx. 400 inhabitants). (The Wilno
Voivodeship in the same year had 1,272,851 inhabitants, of which
511,741 used Polish as their language of communication; many
Belarusians lived there.)
1959: According to the Soviet census,
Vilnius had 236,100 inhabitants,
of which 34% (79,400) identified themselves as Lithuanian, 29%
(69,400) as Russian, 20% (47,200) as Polish, 7% (16,400) as Jewish and
6% (14,700) as Belarusian.
1989: According to the Soviet census,
Vilnius had 576,700 inhabitants,
of which 50.5% (291,500) were Lithuanian, 20% Russian, 19% Polish and
2001: According to the 2001 census by the
Vilnius Regional Statistical
Office, there were 542,287 inhabitants in the
Municipality, of which 57.8% were Lithuanians, 18.7% Poles, 14%
Russians, 4.0% Belarusians, 1.3% Ukrainians and 0.5% Jews; the
remainder indicated other nationalities or refused to answer.
2011: According to the 2011 census by Statistics Lithuania,
inhabited by people of 128 different ethnicities which makes it the
most ethnically diverse city in Lithuania, while the majority of
Vilnius population is made up by
Demographic evolution of
Vilnius between 1766 and 2017:[citation
Source: :214, 303 ¹ Sharp decline after the Vilnius
Uprising (1794); ² Decline of population due to Napoleonic wars and
the aftermath; ³ Sharp decline of population of
Vilnius because of
World War I and the aftermath during the clashes around Vilnius. These
resulted in evacuation of Russian military, bureaucracy and the
majority of its Russian inhabitants from
Vilnius in 1915, as well as
fleeing or evacuation of other
Vilnius inhabitants of various
communities (mostly Jewish and Lithuanian) to
Russia and rural parts
of Lithuania; ⁴ Rise of population due to influx of Polish
and Jewish war refugees and migration of Lithuanian bureaucracy,
students from temporary capital
Kaunas and other localities in
Lithuania; ⁵ Sharp decline of population after atrocities of World
War II and The Holocaust
Old town of Vilnius
There are 65 churches in Vilnius. Like most medieval towns, Vilnius
was developed around its Town Hall. Pilies Street, the main artery,
links the Royal Palace with Town Hall. Other streets meander through
the palaces of feudal lords and landlords, churches, shops and
craftsmen's workrooms. Narrow, curved streets and intimate courtyards
developed in the radial layout of medieval Vilnius.
A panoramic view of the
Old Town of Vilnius
Old Town of Vilnius looking south from
Old Town of Vilnius
Old Town of Vilnius is the historical centre of
3.6 km2 (1.4 sq mi) in size. The most valuable historic
and cultural sites are concentrated here. The buildings in the old
town—there are nearly 1,500—were built over several centuries,
creating a blend of many different architectural styles. Although
Vilnius is known as a
Baroque city, there are examples of Gothic (e.g.
Church of St. Anne), Renaissance, and other styles. Their combination
is also a gateway to the historic centre of the capital. Owing to its
Old Town of Vilnius
Old Town of Vilnius was inscribed on the
Heritage List in 1994.
Vilnius University's main campus's features
13 courtyards framed by 15th century buildings and splashed with
300-year-old frescoes, and the Church of St. Johns. The Gate of Dawn,
the only surviving gate of the first original five gates in the city
wall, hosts the painting of the Blessed Virgin Mary, which has been
said to have miracle-working powers. Over 200 tiles and commemorative
plaques to writers, who have lived and worked in Vilnius, and foreign
authors, who have shared a connection with
Vilnius and Lithuania,
adorn a wall on Literatų street (Lithuanian: Literatų gatvė) in the
Old Town, presenting a broad overview of the history of Lithuanian
Antakalnis district there is Church of St. Peter and
St. Paul – a masterpiece of the 17th-century
Baroque famous for its
exceptional interior where one can see about 2,000 stucco figures.
Bust of Frank Zappa
In 1995, the world's first bronze cast of Frank Zappa was
installed in the Naujamiestis district with the permission of the
Frank Zappa sculpture confirmed the newly found
freedom of expression and marked the beginning of a new era for
Vilnius Picture Gallery
Vilnius Castle Complex, a group of defensive, cultural, and
religious buildings that includes
Gediminas Tower of the Upper Castle
(which is a part of National Museum of Lithuania), Cathedral Square
and the Palace of the Grand Dukes of Lithuania. Lithuania's largest
art collection is housed in the Lithuanian Art Museum. One branch of
Vilnius Picture Gallery in the Old Town, houses a collection
of Lithuanian art from the 16th to the beginning of the 20th century.
On the other side of the Neris, the National Art Gallery holds a
permanent exhibition on Lithuanian 20th-century art, as well as
numerous exhibitions on modern art. The House of the Signatories,
where the 1918 Act of Independence of
Lithuania was signed, is now a
historic landmark. The
Museum of Genocide Victims
Museum of Genocide Victims is dedicated to the
victims of the Soviet era.
The Contemporary Art Centre is the largest venue for contemporary art
in the Baltic States, with an exhibition space of 2400 square meters.
The Centre is a non-collection based institution committed to
developing a broad range of international and Lithuanian exhibition
projects as well as presenting a wide range of public programmes
including lectures, seminars, performances, film and video screenings,
and live new music events.
The interior of Our Lady of the Gate of Dawn
The Martynas Mažvydas National Library of Lithuania, named for the
author of the first book printed in the Lithuanian language, holds
6,912,266 physical items. The biggest book fair in Baltic States is
annually held in
Vilnius at LITEXPO, the Baltic's biggest exhibition
On 10 November 2007, the
Jonas Mekas Visual Arts Center was opened by
avant-garde filmmaker Jonas Mekas. Its premiere exhibition was
entitled The Avant-Garde: From
Futurism to Fluxus. The Modern Art
Centre, which is scheduled to be completed in 2018, will become a new
cultural space for the city of Vilnius. It will host a private
collection of modern and contemporary Lithuanian visual art. The
museum will host exhibitions featuring works from
Hermitage Museum and the Guggenheim Museums, along with non-commercial
avant-garde cinema, a library, a museum of Lithuanian Jewish culture,
and collections of works by
Jonas Mekas and Jurgis Mačiūnas.
Užupis district near the Old Town, which used to be one of the
more run down districts of
Vilnius during the Soviet era, is home to a
movement of bohemian artists, who operate numerous art galleries and
Užupis declared itself an independent republic on April
Fool's Day in 1997. In the main square, the statue of an angel
blowing a trumpet stands as a symbol of artistic freedom.
Lithuanian National Drama Theatre
In 2015, the project of
Vilnius Talking Statues was realized. 15
Vilnius now interact with visitors in multiple
languages by a simple telephone call to a smart phone.
Vilnius City Opera – an independent opera theatre in Lithuania,
blends classical with contemporary art. Lithuanian National Drama
Theatre, State Small Theatre of Vilnius, State Youth Theatre and a
number of private theatre companies, including OKT /
Theatre, Anželika Cholina dance theatre and others, show classical,
modern and Lithuanian playwriting directed by world-known Lithuanian
and foreign directors.
Lithuanian National Philharmonic Society
Lithuanian National Philharmonic Society is the largest and oldest
state owned concert organization in Lithuania, whose main activity is
to organise and coordinate live concerts, diverse classical/classical
contemporary/jazz music events and tours throughout
Lithuanian State Symphony Orchestra
Lithuanian State Symphony Orchestra every year builds
up a wide-ranging repertoire, introduces exceptional programs, and
invites young talent to perform along with outstanding and recognized
Vilnius is the major economic centre of Lithuania. GDP per capita
Vilnius county was €20,000($44,000, in Purchasing
power) in 2016, making it the wealthiest region in Lithuania.
K29 under construction
New city centre
Financial Centre at night
The budget of
Vilnius reached €0.5 billion in 2017. The average
monthly net salary in
Vilnius city municipality reached €727 as of
2017[update] (average gross salary in
Vilnius was €938 or $1,100 in
The Grand Courtyard of
Vilnius University and Church of St. Johns
The city has 12 primary schools, 19 progymnasiums and 42
The city has many universities. The largest and oldest is Vilnius
University with 20,864 students. Its main premises are in the Old
Town. The university has been ranked among the top 500 universities in
the world by QS World University Rankings. The University is
participating in projects with
UNESCO and NATO, among others. It
features Masters programs in English and Russian, as well as
programs delivered in cooperation with universities all over Europe.
The university is currently divided into 12 faculties, 7 institutes,
and 4 study and research centres.
Other major universities include
Mykolas Romeris University
Mykolas Romeris University (17,739
students as of 2013[update]),
University (10,500 students), and Lithuanian University of
Educational Sciences (3,550 students). Specialized higher schools
with university status include General Jonas Žemaitis Military
Academy of Lithuania,
Lithuanian Academy of Music and Theatre
Lithuanian Academy of Music and Theatre and
Vilnius Academy of Arts. The museum associated with the Vilnius
Academy of Arts holds about 12,000 artworks.
There are also a few private universities such as ISM University of
Management and Economics,
European Humanities University
European Humanities University and
Kazimieras Simonavičius University.
Several colleges are also in
Vilnius College of Technologies and Design, International School of
Law and Business and others.
See also: List of churches in Vilnius
Religious groups in
Vilnius (2011 census)
Orthodox Cathedral of the Theotokos
Already in the 17th century
Vilnius was known as a city of many
religions. In 1600, Samuel Lewkenor’s book describing cities with
universities was published in London. Lewkenor mentions that
Vilnius included Catholics, Orthodox, followers of John
Calvin and Martin Luther, Jews and Tartar Muslims.
Vilnius is the seat of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of
Vilnius, with the main church institutions and Archdiocesan Cathedral
Vilnius Cathedral) here.
Vilnius became the birthplace of the Divine
Mercy Devotion when
Saint Faustina began her mission under the
guidance and discernment of her new spiritual director Fr. Michał
Sopoćko. In 1934, the first
Divine Mercy painting was painted by
Eugene Kazimierowski under the supervision of Faustina and it
presently hangs in the
Divine Mercy Sanctuary in Vilnius. Numerous
other Christian Beatified persons, martyrs, Servants of God and
Saints, are associated with Vilnius. These, among others, include
Franciscan martyrs of Vilnius, Orthodox martyrs Anthony, John, and
Saint Casimir, Josaphat Kuntsevych, Andrew Bobola, Raphael
Kalinowski, Jurgis Matulaitis.
There are a number of other active Roman Catholic churches in the
city, along with small enclosed monasteries and religion schools.
Church architecture includes Gothic, Renaissance,
Neoclassical styles, with important examples of each found in the Old
Town. Additionally, Eastern Rite Catholicism has maintained a presence
Vilnius since the Union of Brest. The
Baroque Basilian Gate is part
of an Eastern Rite monastery.
Choral Synagogue of Vilnius
Once widely known as Yerushalayim De Lita (the "Jerusalem of
Lithuania"), Vilnius, since the 18th century, was a world centre for
the study of the Torah, and had a large Jewish population. A major
scholar of Judaism and
Kabbalah centred in
Vilnius was the famous
Rabbi Eliyahu Kremer, also known as the Vilna Gaon. His students have
significant influence among Orthodox Jews in Israel and around the
globe. Jewish life in
Vilnius was destroyed during the Holocaust;
there is a memorial stone dedicated to victims of Nazi genocide in the
centre of the former Jewish
Ghetto — now Mėsinių Street. The Vilna
Gaon Jewish State Museum is dedicated to the history of Lithuanian
Jewish life. The site of Vilnius's largest synagogue, built in the
early 1630s and wrecked by
Nazi Germany during its occupation of
Lithuania, was found by ground-penetrating radar in June 2015, with
excavations set to begin in 2016.
Aug 3 2015, 3:11 pm ET Remains of Synagogue Destroyed by Nazis Found
With Radar by Laura Geggel, Live Science
The Karaim are a Jewish sect that migrated to
Lithuania from the
Crimea to serve as a military elite unit in the 14th century. Although
their numbers are very small, the Karaim are becoming more prominent
since Lithuanian independence, and have restored their kenesa.
Vilnius has been home to an Eastern Orthodox Christian presence since
the 13th or even the 12th century. A famous Russian Orthodox Monastery
of the Holy Spirit, is near the Gate of Dawn. St. Paraskeva's Orthodox
Church in the Old Town is the site of the baptism of Hannibal, the
great-grandfather of Pushkin, by
Tsar Peter the Great in 1705. Many
Old Believers, who split from the Russian
Orthodox Church in 1667,
settled in Lithuania. The Church of St. Michael and St. Constantine
was built in 1913. Today a Supreme Council of the
Old Believers is
based in Vilnius.
A number of Protestant and other Christian groups are represented
in Vilnius, most notably the Lutheran Evangelicals and the Baptists.
The pre-Christian religion of Lithuania, centred on the forces of
nature as personified by deities such as
Perkūnas (the Thunder God),
is experiencing some increased interest. Romuva established a Vilnius
branch in 1991.
Parks, squares and cemeteries
Singing fountain in Bernardinai Garden
Almost half of
Vilnius is covered by green areas, such as parks,
public gardens, natural reserves. Additionally,
Vilnius is host to
numerous lakes, where residents and visitors swim and have barbecues
in the summer. Thirty lakes and 16 rivers cover 2.1% of Vilnius' area,
with some of them having sand beaches.
Vingis Park, the city's largest, hosted several major rallies during
Lithuania's drive towards independence in the 1980s. Concerts,
festivals, and exhibitions are held at Bernardinai Garden, near
Gediminas Tower. Sections of the annual
Vilnius Marathon pass along
the public walkways on the banks of the
Neris River. The green area
next to the White Bridge is another popular area to enjoy good
weather, and has become venue for several music and large screen
Three Crosses in Kalnai Park
Cathedral Square in Old Town is surrounded by a number of the city's
most historically significant sites.
Lukiškės Square is the largest,
bordered by several governmental buildings: the Lithuanian Ministry of
Foreign Affairs, the Ministry of Finance, the Polish Embassy, and the
Genocide Victims' Museum, where the
KGB tortured and murdered numerous
opposers of the communist regime. An oversized statue of Lenin in its
centre was removed in 1991. Town Hall Square has long been a centre of
trade fairs, celebrations, and events in Vilnius, including the
Kaziukas Fair. The city Christmas tree is decorated there. State
ceremonies are often held in Daukantas Square, facing the Presidential
Rasos Cemetery, consecrated in 1801, is the burial site of Jonas
Basanavičius and other signatories of the 1918 Act of Independence,
along with the heart of Polish leader Józef Piłsudski. Two of the
three Jewish cemeteries in
Vilnius were destroyed during the Soviet
era; the remains of the
Vilna Gaon were moved to the remaining one. A
monument was erected at the place where
Užupis Old Jewish Cemetery
was. On 23 October 2011, a swastika has been sprayed on the
monument, as what seems to be an anti-Semitic act. About 18,000
burials have been made in the Bernardine Cemetery, established in
1810; it was closed during the 1970s and is now being restored.
Antakalnis Cemetery, established in 1809, contains various memorials
to Polish, Lithuanian, German and Russian soldiers, along with the
graves of those who were killed during the January Events.
On 20 October 2013, Bernardinai garden, previously known as
Sereikiškės Park, was opened after reconstruction. The authentic
19th-century Vladislovas Štrausas environment was restored.
Several teams are based in the city. The largest is the basketball
club BC Lietuvos Rytas, which participates in European competitions
such as the Euroleague and Eurocup, the domestic Lithuanian Basketball
League, winning the ULEB Cup (predecessor to the Eurocup) in 2005 and
the Eurocup in 2009. Its home arena is the 2,500-seat Lietuvos Rytas
Arena; all European matches and important domestic matches are played
in the 11,000-seat Siemens Arena.
Vilnius also has several football teams.
FK Žalgiris is the main
football team. The club plays at
LFF Stadium in
Olympic champions in swimming
Lina Kačiušytė and Robertas Žulpa
are from Vilnius. There are several public swimming pools in Vilnius
Lazdynai Swimming Pool being the only Olympic-size swimming pool
of the city.
The city is home to the Lithuanian
Bandy Association, Badminton
Federation, Canoeing Sports Federation, Baseball
Association, Biathlon Federation, Sailors Union,
Football Federation, Fencing Federation, Cycling Sports
Federation, Archery Federation, Athletics Federation,
Ice Hockey Federation, Basketball Federation, Curling
Federation, Rowing Federation, Wrestling Federation,
Speed Skating Association, Gymnastics Federation, Equestrian
Union, Modern Pentathlon Federation, Shooting Union,
Triathlon Federation, Volleyball Federation, Tennis
Union, Taekwondo Federation, Weightlifting Federation,
Table Tennis Association, Skiing Association, Rugby
Federation, Swimming Federation.
Vilnius International Airport
Vilnius International Airport entrance
Navigability of the river
Neris is very limited and no regular water
routes exist, although it was used for navigation in the past.
The river rises in Belarus, connecting
Vilnius and Kernavė, and
becomes a tributary of Nemunas river in Kaunas.
Vilnius Airport serves most Lithuanian international flights to many
major European destinations. Currently, the airport has about 50
destinations in about 25 different countries. The airport is
situated only 5 km (3.1 mi) away from the centre of the
city, and has a direct rail link to
Vilnius railway station.
Vilnius railway station
Vilnius railway station is an important hub serving direct
passenger connections to Minsk, Kaliningrad,
Moscow and Saint
Petersburg as well as being a transit point of Pan-European Corridor
Vilnius is the starting point of the A1 motorway that runs across
Lithuania and connects the three major cities (Vilnius,
Klaipėda) and is a part of European route E85. The A2 motorway,
Vilnius with Panevėžys, is a part of E272. Other highways
Vilnius include A3, A4, A14, A15, A16. Vilnius' Southern
bypass is road A19.
Solaris Trollino 15AC trolleybus in Vilnius
Orange bikes, available for renting
Vilnius Railway Station entrance
Vilnius Railway Station
The bus network and the trolleybus network are run by Vilniaus
viešasis transportas. There are over 60 bus, 18 trolleybus, 6 rapid
bus and 6 night bus routes. The trolleybus network is one of the
most extensive in Europe. Over 250 buses and 260 trolleybuses
transport about 500,000 passengers every workday. The first regular
bus routes were established in 1926, and the first trolleybuses were
introduced in 1956.
At the end of 2007, a new electronic monthly ticket system was
introduced. It was possible to buy an electronic card in shops and
newspaper stands and have it credited with an appropriate amount of
money. The monthly e-ticket cards could be bought once and credited
with an appropriate amount of money in various ways including the
Internet. Previous paper monthly tickets were in use until August
The ticket system changed again from 15 August 2012. E-Cards were
Vilnius Citizen Cards ("Vilniečio Kortelė"). It is now
possible to buy a card or change an old one in newspaper stands and
have it credited with an appropriate amount of money or a particular
type of ticket. Single trip tickets have been replaced by 30 and
The public transportation system is dominated by the low-floor Volvo
Mercedes-Benz buses as well as Solaris trolleybuses. There are
also plenty of the traditional Škoda vehicles, built in the Czech
Republic, still in service, and many of these have been extensively
refurbished internally. This is a result of major improvements that
started in 2003 when the first brand-new
Mercedes-Benz buses were
bought. In 2004, a contract was signed with
Volvo Buses to buy 90
brand-new 7700 buses over the following three years.
An electric tram and a metro system through the city were proposed in
the 2000s. However, neither has progressed beyond initial
Vilnius started the historically largest upgrade of its buses
by purchasing 250 new low-floor buses. The project will result in
making 6 of 10 public buses being brand new by the middle of 2018 and
will allow its passengers to use such modern technologies as free
Wi-Fi and to charge their electronic devices while traveling. On
5 September 2017, 50 new Isuzu buses were presented and triaxial MAN
buses were promised in the very near future.
Municipality also held a contest for 41 new trolleybuses and its
winner Solaris committed to deliver all trolleybuses until the autumn
of 2018, which will also have the free
Wi-Fi and charging
features. On November 13,
Vilnius City Municipality
Vilnius City Municipality signed a
contract with Solaris for the remaining 150
Solaris Urbino buses of
the newest IV generation (100 standard and 50 triaxial), also with the
Wi-Fi and USB charging.
Vilnius during winter
Vilnius City Municipality
Vilnius City Municipality is one of 60 municipalities of
includes the nearby town of Grigiškės, three villages, and some
rural areas. The town of
Grigiškės was separated from the Trakai
District Municipality and attached to the
Vilnius City Municipality
Vilnius City Municipality in
A 51-member council is elected to four-year terms; the candidates are
nominated by registered political parties. As of the 2011 elections,
independent candidates also were permitted. The last election was held
in March 2015. The results are:
Liberal Movement – 15 seats
The coalition of the Electoral Action of Poles in
Lithuanian Russian Union
Lithuanian Russian Union – 10
Homeland Union – Lithuanian Christian Democrats
Homeland Union – Lithuanian Christian Democrats – 8
Lithuanian Freedom Union (Liberals)
Lithuanian Freedom Union (Liberals) – 6
Social Democratic Party of
Lithuania – 4
Lithuanian List – 4
Order and Justice
Order and Justice – 3
Before 2015, mayors were appointed by the council. Starting with the
elections in 2015, the mayors are elected directly by the residents.
Remigijus Šimašius became the first directly elected mayor of the
1990 – Arūnas Grumadas (the president of council)
1993 – Valentinas Šapalas (the president of council)
1995 – Alis Vidūnas
1997 – Rolandas Paksas
1999 – Juozas Imbrasas
Rolandas Paksas (2nd time)
2001 – Artūras Zuokas
Artūras Zuokas (2nd time)
Juozas Imbrasas (2nd time)
2009 – Vilius Navickas
2010 – Raimundas Alekna
Artūras Zuokas (3rd time)
2015 – Remigijus Šimašius
Elderships, a statewide administrative division, function as municipal
districts. The 21 elderships are based on neighbourhoods:
Vilnius elderships. Numbers on the map correspond with numbers
in the list
Verkiai — includes Baltupiai, Jeruzalė, Santariškės, Balsiai,
Antakalnis — includes Valakampiai, Turniškės, Dvarčionys
Pašilaičiai — includes Tarandė
Fabijoniškės — includes Bajorai
Žirmūnai — includes Šiaurės miestelis
Grigiškės — a separate town
Vilkpėdė — includes Vingis Park
Naujamiestis — includes bus and train stations
Senamiestis (Old Town) — includes Užupis
Naujoji Vilnia — includes Pavilnys, Pūčkoriai
Paneriai — includes Trakų Vokė, Gariūnai
Naujininkai — includes Kirtimai, Salininkai,
Rasos — includes Belmontas, Markučiai
Twin towns – sister cities
See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Lithuania
Vilnius is twinned with:
Chicago, United States
Duisburg, Germany, since 1985
Edinburgh, United Kingdom
Gdańsk, Poland, since 1998
Madison, United States
Saint Petersburg, Russia
Traditional street fair Kaziuko mugė.
Lithuanian Song Festival.
Daylight panorama of the city of Vilnius
Significant depictions in popular culture
Vilnius is mentioned in the movie The Hunt for Red October (1990) as
being the boyhood home of the sub commander Marko Ramius, and as being
where his grandfather taught him to fish; he is also referenced once
in the movie as "The
Vilnius Schoolmaster". Ramius is played by Sean
Author Thomas Harris' character
Hannibal Lecter is revealed to be from
Vilnius and its aristocracy in the movie Hannibal Rising. Lecter is
portrayed more popularly and often by Sir Anthony Hopkins, although
Brian Cox played Lecter in the movie Manhunter.
The memoir A Partisan from Vilna (2010) details the life and
struggles of Rachel Margolis. Her family's sole survivor, she escaped
Vilna Ghetto with other members of the resistance movement,
the FPO (United Partisan Organization), and joined the Soviet
partisans in the Lithuanian forests to sabotage the Nazis.
Vilnius is classified as a city-state in the turn-based strategy game
Main article: List of people from Vilnius
Archdiocese of Vilnius
Coat of arms of Vilnius
List of monuments in Vilnius
List of Vilnians
Vilnius Elderships in other languages
Neighborhoods of Vilnius
^ Widespread nickname of Vilnius, that appeared because of a strong
Litvak community. Today it is used primarily speaking about the past
of the Jewish community of Vilnius, e.g. A book "Vilnius, in search of
Jerusalem of Lithuania".
^ Widespread use of the nickname from the XVI c. to this day as a
reference to the many Catholic churches and monasteries in
overall religious atmosphere in the centre. This nickname was/is used
not only by the foreigners, but also by the local population, e.g.
Lithuanian cultural figure of the XIX c.
Dionizas Poška nicknamed
Rome of the North", as, according to him,
Vilnius is "the old
religious centre, that transformed from a pagan city into the bastion
of Christianity". D. Poška, ‘Raštai’, Vilnius, 1959, p. 67
^ Cultural newspaper, that is published in
Vilnius from 1990, is named
„Šiaurės Atėnai“ (The
Athens of the North) as a reference to
one of the nicknames of Vilnius, that was widespread nickname of the
city, esp. in the first half of the XIX c. and the first half of the
XX c. mostly because of
Vilnius University. During the interwar
period, Polish scientific newspaper, published in Vilnius, was also
named "Atheneum Wileńskie".
^ Esp. in the 16th–17th centuries,
Vilnius was referred to as the
‘New Babylon’ because of many languages, spoken in the city as
well as many religions presented (there were various Christian
communities as well as Jews and even Muslim Tatar community). E.g.: S.
Bodniak, ‘Polska w relacji włoskiej z roku 1604’, Pamiętnik
biblioteki kórnickiej, 2, (Kórnik, 1930), p. 37.
^ This nickname was very popular among the Lithuanian nobility,
Vilnius and used among the poets, esp. during the Baroque
period. Many poets of the period, including Maciej Kazimierz
Vilnius "the capital of Palemon" or "the city of
Palemon". Živilė Nedzinskaitė,
Vilnius XVII-XVIII a. LDK
lotyniškojoje poezijoje, Acta Academiae Artium Vilnensis, Vilnius,
2010, p. 16; Eugenija Ulčinaitė, Motiejus Kazimieras Sarbievijus:
Antikos ir krikščionybės sintezė; Vilniaus pasveikinimas,
Lietuvių literatūros ir tautosakos institutas, Vilnius, 2001, p. 47,
59, 61, 63; etc.
^ a b "
Vilnius auga: per metus – 7,5 tūkst. daugiau gyventojų"
Vilnius is growing: 7.5 thousand more population in the year].
Vilnius (in Lithuanian). Vilniaus miesto savivaldybės administracija
Vilnius City Municipality
Vilnius City Municipality Administration]. 2017-01-27. Retrieved
^ a b "Statistinių rodiklių analizė". Statistics Lithuania.
^ a b "Lithuania".
UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Archived from the
original on 14 January 2018.
^ Jonathan Steele (19 June 2008). "In the Jerusalem of the North, the
Jewish story is forgotten". Opinion. The Guardian. Archived from the
original on 14 January 2018. Retrieved 2018-03-04.
^ "Ex-Post Evaluation of 2009 European Capitals of Culture" (PDF).
ECOTEC Research and Consulting Ltd. Archived (PDF) from the original
on 14 January 2018.
^ "Portrait of the Regions of
municipality". Department of Statistics. Retrieved 1 August
^ Лавринец, Павел (20 October 2004). Русская
Вильна: идея и формула. Балканская
Русистика (in Russian). Вильнюс. Retrieved 18 August
^ Васютинский, А.М.; Дживелегов, А.К.;
Мельгунов, С.П. (1912). "Фон Зукков, По
дороге в Вильно". Французы в России. 1812
г. По воспоминаниям
современников-иностранцев. (in Russian).
1–3. Москва: "Задруга". Retrieved 18 August 2009.
^ The Legend of the Founding of Vilnius
^ Rowell, Stephen Christopher (2003). Chartularium Lithuaniae res
gestas magni ducis Gedeminne illustrans – Gedimino laiškai (PDF).
Vilnius: Leidykla Vaga. Retrieved 7 June 2017.
Vilnius legend". Municipality of Vilnius. Archived from the
original on 11 December 2007.
^ a b c d Laimonas Briedis (2008). Vilnius: City of Strangers. Baltos
Lankos. ISBN 978-9955-23-160-8.
^ Piotr S. Wandycz, The lands of partitioned Poland, 1795–1918,
University of Washington Press, 1974, p. 166.
^ Egidijus Aleksandravičius; Antanas Kulakauskas (1996). Carų
valdžioje: Lietuva XIX amžiuje [Under the Tzars:
Lithuania in the
19th Century] (in Lithuanian). Vilnius: Baltos lankos. Archived from
the original on 12 August 2006. Polish translation: Pod władzą
carów: Litwa w XIX wieku, Universitas,
Kraków 2003, page 90,
^ Dirk Hoerder; Inge Blank; Horst Rössler (1994). Roots of the
Transplanted. East European Monographs. p. 69.
^ Joshua D. Zimmerman (2004). Poles, Jews, and the politics of
nationality. Univ of Wisconsin Press. p. 16.
^ Timothy Snyder (2003). The Reconstruction of Nations. Poland,
Belarus 1569–1999. Yale University Press.
p. 306. ISBN 978-0-300-10586-5. A 1909 official count of the
city found 205,250 inhabitants, of whom 1.2 percent were Lithuanian;
20.7 percent Russian; 37.8 percent Polish; and 36.8 percent
^ "The First German Occupation, 1915-1918" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from
the original on 14 January 2018.
Lithuania finds lost declaration of independence". World. The
Guardian. 30 March 2017. Archived from the original on 14 January
^ Łossowski, Piotr (1995). Konflikt polsko-litewski 1918–1920 (in
Polish). Warszawa: Książka i Wiedza. pp. 126–128.
^ Rawi Abdelal (2001). National Purpose in the World Economy:
Post-Soviet States in Comparative Perspective. Cornell University
Press. ISBN 978-0-8014-8977-8. At the same time,
to Lithuanian authority over
Vilnius in the 1920 Suwałki
^ Glanville Price (1998). Encyclopedia of the Languages of Europe.
Blackwell Publishing. ISBN 978-0-8014-8977-8. In 1920, Poland
annexed a third of Lithuania's territory (including the capital,
Vilnius) in a breach of the Treaty of Suvalkai of 7 October 1920, and
it was only in 1939 that
Vilnius and about a
quarter of the territory previously occupied by Poland.
^ Smith, David James; Pabriks, Artis; Purs, Aldis; Lane, Thomas
(2002). The Baltic States. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-28580-3.
Fighting continued until the agreement at Suwałki between Lithuania
Poland on 7 October 1920, which drew a line of demarcation which
was incomplete but indicated that the
Vilnius area would be part of
^ Eudin, Xenia Joukoff; Fisher, Harold H.; Jones, Rosemary Brown
Russia and the West, 1920–1927. Stanford University.
ISBN 978-0-8047-0478-6. The League effected an armistice, signed
at Suwałki, 7 October 1920, by the terms of which the city was to
remain under Lithuanian jurisdiction.
^ Eidintas, Alfonsas; Tuskenis, Edvardas; Zalys,
Lithuania in European Politics. Macmillan.
ISBN 978-0-312-22458-5. The
Lithuanians and the Poles signed an
agreement at Suwałki on 7 October. Both sides were to cease
hostilities and to peacefully settle all disputes. The demarcation
line was extended only in the southern part of the front, to Bastunai.
Vilnius was thus left on the Lithuanian side, but its security was not
^ Hirsz Abramowicz; Dobkin, Eva Zeitlin; Shandler, Jeffrey; Fishman,
David E. (1999). Profiles of a Lost World: Memoirs of East European
Jewish Life Before World War II.
Wayne State University
Wayne State University Press.
ISBN 978-0-8143-2784-5. Before long there was a change of
authority: Polish legionnaires under the command of General Lucian
Zeligowski 'did not agree' with the peace treaty signed with Lithuania
in Suwałki, which ceded Vilna to Lithuania.
^ Michael Brecher; Jonathan Wilkenfeld (1997). A Study of Crisis.
University of Michigan
University of Michigan Press. ISBN 978-0-472-10806-0. Mediation
by the League Council led to an agreement on the 20th providing for a
cease-fire and Lithuania's neutrality in the Polish–Russian War;
Vilna remained part of Lithuania. The (abortive) Treaty of Suwałki,
incorporating these terms, was signed on 7 October.
^ Raymond Leslie Buell (2007).
Poland – Key to Europe. Alfred Knopf,
republished by Read Books. ISBN 978-1-4067-4564-1. Clashes
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Wikimedia Commons has media related to Vilnius.
Vilnius travel guide from Wikivoyage
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The Jerusalem of Lithuania: The Story of the Jewish Community of Vilna
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Vilnius from bird flight
Comprehensive photo gallery of
Vilnius by Baltic Reports editor
Video preview of
Vilnius Capital of Culture
Virtual Historical Vilnius
Public transportation schedules and timetables in Vilnius
Vilnius and info
Lithuania at JewishGen
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