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Lithuanians
Lithuanians
(Lithuanian: lietuviai, singular lietuvis/lietuvė) are a Baltic ethnic group, native to Lithuania, where they number around 2,561,300 people.[3] Another million or more make up the Lithuanian diaspora, largely found in countries such as the United States, Argentina, Brazil, Canada, Colombia, Russia, United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and Ireland. Their native language is Lithuanian, one of only two surviving members of the Baltic language
Baltic language
family. According to the census conducted in 2001, 83.45% of the population of Lithuania identified themselves as Lithuanians, 6.74% as Poles, 6.31% as Russians, 1.23% as Belarusians, and 2.27% as members of other ethnic groups. Most Lithuanians
Lithuanians
belong to the Roman Catholic Church, while the Lietuvininkai
Lietuvininkai
who lived in the northern part of East Prussia
East Prussia
prior to World War II, were mostly Evangelical Lutherans.

Contents

1 History 2 Ethnic composition of Lithuania

2.1 Cultural subgroups

3 Genetics 4 Lithuanian diaspora 5 Culture and traditions

5.1 Lithuanian cuisine 5.2 Lithuanian literature 5.3 Folk music

6 Lithuanian organizations in exile 7 See also 8 References

History[edit] The territory of the Balts, including modern Lithuania, was once inhabited by several Baltic tribal entities (Aukštaitians, Sudovians, Old Lithuanians, Curonians, Semigallians, Selonians, Samogitians, Skalvians, Old Prussians
Old Prussians
(Nadruvians)), as attested by ancient sources and dating from prehistoric times. Over the centuries, and especially under the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, some of these tribes consolidated into the Lithuanian nation, mainly as a defence against the marauding Teutonic Order
Teutonic Order
and Eastern Slavs. The last Pagan peoples in Europe, they were eventually converted to Christianity in 1387. The territory inhabited by the ethnic Lithuanians
Lithuanians
has shrunk over centuries; once Lithuanians
Lithuanians
made up a majority of the population not only in what is now Lithuania, but also in northwestern Belarus, in large areas of the territory of the modern Kaliningrad Oblast
Kaliningrad Oblast
of Russia, and in some parts of modern Latvia
Latvia
and Poland.[26] However, there is a current argument that the Lithuanian language
Lithuanian language
was considered non-prestigious enough by some elements in Lithuanian society, and a preference for the Polish language in certain territories of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, as well as a preference for the German language
German language
in territories of the former East Prussia (now Kaliningrad Oblast
Kaliningrad Oblast
of Russia) caused the number of Lithuanian speakers to decrease. The subsequent imperial Russian occupation accelerated this process; it pursued a policy of Russification, which included a ban on public speaking and writing in Lithuanian (see, e.g., Knygnešiai, the actions against the Catholic Church). It was believed by some at the time that the nation as such, along with its language, would become extinct within a few generations. At the end of the 19th century a Lithuanian cultural and linguistic revival occurred. Some of the Polish- and Belarusian-speaking persons from the lands of the former Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Lithuania
expressed their affiliation with the modern Lithuanian nation in the early 20th century, including Michał Pius Römer, Stanisław Narutowicz, Oscar Milosz and Tadas Ivanauskas. Lithuania
Lithuania
declared independence after World War I, which helped its national consolidation. A standardised Lithuanian language
Lithuanian language
was approved. However, the eastern parts of Lithuania, including the Vilnius
Vilnius
Region, were annexed by Poland, while the Klaipėda Region
Klaipėda Region
was taken over by Nazi Germany
Germany
in 1939. In 1940, Lithuania
Lithuania
was invaded and occupied by the Soviet Union, and forced to join it as the Lithuanian SSR. The Germans
Germans
and their allies attacked the USSR in June 1941, and from 1941—1944, Lithuania
Lithuania
was occupied by Germany. The Germans
Germans
retreated in 1944, and Lithuania
Lithuania
fell under Soviet rule once again. The long-standing communities of Lithuanians in the Kaliningrad Oblast
Kaliningrad Oblast
( Lithuania
Lithuania
Minor) were almost destroyed as a result. The Lithuanian nation as such remained primarily in Lithuania, few villages in northeastern Poland, southern Latvia
Latvia
and also in the diaspora of emigrants. Some indigenous Lithuanians
Lithuanians
still remain in Belarus
Belarus
and the Kaliningrad Oblast, but their number is small compared to what they used to be. Lithuania
Lithuania
regained its independence in 1990, and was recognized by most countries in 1991. It became a member of the European Union
European Union
on May 1, 2004. Ethnic composition of Lithuania[edit] Main article: Demographics of Lithuania Among the Baltic states, Lithuania
Lithuania
has the most homogeneous population. According to the census conducted in 2001, 83.45% of the population identified themselves as ethnic Lithuanians, 6.74% as Poles, 6.31% as Russians, 1.23% as Belarusians, and 2.27% as members of other ethnic groups such as Ukrainians, Jews, Germans, Tatars, Latvians, Romani, Estonians, Crimean Karaites, Scandinavians etc. Poles
Poles
are mostly concentrated in the Vilnius
Vilnius
Region. Especially large Polish communities are located in the Vilnius
Vilnius
District Municipality and the Šalčininkai District Municipality. This concentration allows Electoral Action of Poles
Poles
in Lithuania, an ethnic minority-based political party, to exert political influence. Due to the excessive pro-Pole political agenda, the party is known to cause friction between Lithuanians
Lithuanians
and Poles. However, it has only held 1 or 2 seats in the parliament of Lithuania
Lithuania
for the past decade. Thus, it is more active in local politics by having a majority in a few minor municipality councils. Russians, even though they are almost as numerous as Poles, are much more evenly scattered and do not have a strong political party. The most prominent community lives in the Visaginas Municipality
Visaginas Municipality
(52%). Most of them are workers who moved from Russia
Russia
to work at the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant. A number of ethnic Russians
Russians
left Lithuania
Lithuania
after the declaration of independence in 1990. In the past, the ethnic composition of Lithuania
Lithuania
has varied dramatically. The most prominent change was the extermination of the Jewish population during the Holocaust. Before World War II, about 7.5% of the population was Jewish[citation needed]; they were concentrated in cities and towns and had a significant influence on crafts and business. They were called Litvaks and had a strong culture. The population of Vilnius, which was sometimes nicknamed the northern Jerusalem, was about 30% Jewish.[citation needed] Almost all its Jews
Jews
were killed during the Holocaust in Nazi-occupied Lithuania, some 75,000 alone between the years 1941 – 1942,[27] while others later immigrated to the United States
United States
and Israel. Now there are about 3,200 Jews
Jews
living in Lithuania.[3]

Historical ethnographic regions

Cultural subgroups[edit] Main article: Regions of Lithuania Apart from the various religious and ethnic groups currently residing in Lithuania, Lithuanians
Lithuanians
themselves retain and differentiate between their regional identities; there are 5 historic regional groups: Žemaičiai, Suvalkiečiai, Aukštaičiai, Dzūkai and Prūsai,[28] the last of which is virtually extinct. City dwellers are usually considered just Lithuanians, especially ones from large cities such as Vilnius
Vilnius
or Kaunas. The four groups are delineated according to certain region-specific traditions, dialects, and historical divisions. There are some stereotypes used in jokes about these subgroups, for example, Sudovians
Sudovians
are supposedly frugal while Samogitians
Samogitians
are stubborn. Genetics[edit]

Genetic distance of Balto-Slavs by A (atDNA), B (Y-DNA) and C (mtDNA plot).

Since the Neolithic
Neolithic
period the native inhabitants of the Lithuanian territory have not been replaced by migrations from outside, so there is a high probability that the inhabitants of present-day Lithuania have preserved the genetic composition of their forebears relatively undisturbed by the major demographic movements,[29] although without being actually isolated from them.[30] The Lithuanian population appears to be relatively homogeneous, without apparent genetic differences among ethnic subgroups.[31] A 2004 analysis of mtDNA in a Lithuanian population revealed that Lithuanians
Lithuanians
are close to both Indo-European and Uralic-speaking populations of Northern Europe. Y-chromosome
Y-chromosome
SNP haplogroup analysis showed Lithuanians
Lithuanians
to be closest to Balts, Russians, Belarusians
Belarusians
and Finnish people. Autosomal
Autosomal
SNP analysis situates Lithuanians
Lithuanians
most proximal to Latvians, followed by the East Slavs, furthermore, all Slavic peoples
Slavic peoples
and Germans
Germans
are situated more proximal to Lithuanians than Finns and northern Russians.[32] Lithuanian Ashkenazi
Ashkenazi
Jews
Jews
also have interesting genetics, since they display a number of unique genetic characteristics; the utility of these variations has been the subject of debate.[33] One variation, which is implicated in familial hypercholesterolemia, has been dated to the 14th century, corresponding to the establishment of Ashkenazi settlements in response to the invitation extended by Vytautas
Vytautas
the Great in 1388.[34] Lithuanians, like most other Baltic/Scandinavian cultures, have been known for being people of above average height. At the end of the 19th century, the average height of males was 163.5 cm (5 ft 4 in) and the average height of females was 153.3 cm (5 ft 0 in). By the end of the 20th century, heights averaged 181.3 cm (5 ft 11 in) for males and 167.5 cm (5 ft 6 in) for females.[35] Lithuanian diaspora[edit]

Regions with largest Lithuanian populations

Lithuanian settlement extends into adjacent countries that are now outside the modern Lithuanian state. A small Lithuanian community exists in the vicinity of Puńsk
Puńsk
and Sejny
Sejny
in the Suwałki
Suwałki
area of Poland, an area associated with the Lithuanian writer and cleric Antanas Baranauskas. Although most of the Lithuanian inhabitants in the region of Lithuania
Lithuania
Minor that formed part of East Prussia
East Prussia
were expelled when the area was annexed by the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
as the Kaliningrad Oblast, small groups of Lithuanians
Lithuanians
subsequently settled that area as it was repopulated with new Soviet citizens. Apart from the traditional communities in Lithuania
Lithuania
and its neighboring countries, Lithuanians
Lithuanians
have emigrated to other continents during the 19th, 20th and 21st centuries.

Communities in the United States
United States
make up the largest part of this diaspora; as many as one million Americans can claim Lithuanian descent. Emigration to America began in the 19th century, with an interruption during the Soviet occupation, when travel and emigration were severely restricted. The largest concentrations of Lithuanian Americans are in the Great Lakes
Great Lakes
area and the Northeast. Nearly 20,000 Lithuanians
Lithuanians
have immigrated to the United States
United States
since the fall of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
in 1991.[36] Lithuanian communities in Canada
Canada
are among the largest in the world along with the United States
United States
(See Lithuanian Canadian). Lithuanian communities in Mexico
Mexico
and South America (Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, and Uruguay) developed before World War II, beginning in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Currently, there is no longer a flow of emigrants to these destinations, since economic conditions in those countries are not better than those in Lithuania
Lithuania
(see Lithuanians
Lithuanians
in Brazil). Lithuanian communities were formed in South Africa during the late 19th and 20th century, the majority being Jewish. Lithuanian communities in other regions of the former Soviet Union were formed during the Soviet occupation; the numbers of Lithuanians in Siberia
Siberia
and Central Asia increased dramatically when a large portion of Lithuanians
Lithuanians
were involuntarily deported into these areas. After de-Stalinization, however, most of them returned. Later, some Lithuanians
Lithuanians
were relocated to work in other areas of the Soviet Union; some of them did not return to Lithuania, after it became independent. The Lithuanian communities in Western Europe (UK, Ireland, Spain, Sweden, and Norway) are very new and began to appear after the restoration of independence to Lithuania
Lithuania
in 1990; this emigration intensified after Lithuania
Lithuania
became part of the European Union. London and Glasgow
Glasgow
(especially the Bellshill
Bellshill
and Coatbridge
Coatbridge
areas of Greater Glasgow) have long had large Catholic and Jewish Lithuanian populations. The Republic of Ireland
Republic of Ireland
probably has the highest concentration of Lithuanians
Lithuanians
relative to its total population size in Western Europe; its estimated 45,000 Lithuanians
Lithuanians
(about half of whom are registered) form over 1% of Ireland’s total population. Lithuanian communities in Australia
Australia
exist as well; due to its great distance from Europe, however, emigration there was minuscule. There are Lithuanian communities in Melbourne, Geelong, Sydney, Adelaide, Brisbane, Hobart
Hobart
and Perth.

Culture and traditions[edit] Main article: Culture of Lithuania The Lithuanian national sport is usually considered to be basketball (krepšinis), which is popular among Lithuanians
Lithuanians
in Lithuania
Lithuania
as well as in the diasporic communities. Basketball
Basketball
came to Lithuania
Lithuania
through the Lithuanian-American community in the 1930s. Lithuanian basketball teams were bronze medal winners in the 1992, 1996, and 2000 Summer Olympics. Joninės
Joninės
(also known as Rasos) is a traditional national holiday, celebrated on the summer solstice. It has pagan origins. Užgavėnės (Shrove Tuesday) takes place on the day before Ash Wednesday, and is meant to urge the retreat of winter. There are also national traditions for Christian holidays such as Easter
Easter
and Christmas. Lithuanian cuisine[edit] Main article: Lithuanian cuisine Lithuanian cuisine
Lithuanian cuisine
has much in common with other European cuisines and features the products suited to its cool and moist northern climate: barley, potatoes, rye, beets, greens, and mushrooms are locally grown, and dairy products are one of its specialties. Nevertheless, it has its own distinguishing features, which were formed by a variety of influences during the country’s rich history. Since shared similarities in history and heritage, Lithuanians, Jews and Poles
Poles
have developed many similar dishes and beverages: dumplings ( koldūnai), doughnuts (spurgos), and crepes (lietiniai blynai). German traditions also influenced Lithuanian cuisine, introducing pork and potato dishes, such as potato pudding (kugelis) and potato sausages (vėdarai), as well as the baroque tree cake known as šakotis. Traditional dishes of Lithuanian Tatars
Tatars
and Lithuanian Karaites like Kibinai
Kibinai
and čeburekai, that are similar to pasty, are popular in Lithuania. For Lithuanian Americans
Lithuanian Americans
both traditional Lithuanian dishes of virtinukai (cabbage and noodles) and balandėliai (rolled cabbage) are growing increasingly more popular. There are also regional cuisine dishes, e.g. traditional kastinys in Žemaitija, Western Lithuania, Skilandis
Skilandis
in Western and Central Lithuania, Kindziukas
Kindziukas
in Eastern and Southern Lithuania
Lithuania
(Dzūkija).

Lithuanian šakotis

Cepelinai, a stuffed potato creation, is the most popular national dish. It is popular among Lithuanians
Lithuanians
all over the world. Other national foods include dark rye bread, cold beet soup (šaltibarščiai), and kugelis (a baked potato pudding). Some of these foods are also common in neighboring countries. Lithuanian cuisine is generally unknown outside Lithuanian communities. Most Lithuanian restaurants outside Lithuania
Lithuania
are located in cities with a heavy Lithuanian presence. Lithuanians
Lithuanians
in the early 20th century were among the thinnest people in the developed countries of the world.[37] In Lithuanian cuisine there is some emphasis on attractive presentation of freshly prepared foods. Lithuanian ancestors Balts
Balts
were using Midus a type of Lithuanian Mead for thousands of years.[38] Locally brewed beer (alus), vodka (degtinė), and kvass (gira) are popular drinks in Lithuania. Lithuanian traditional beer of Northern Lithuania, Biržai, Pasvalys
Pasvalys
regions is well appreciated in Lithuania and abroad.[39] Starka
Starka
is a part of the Lithuanian heritage, still produced in Lithuania. Lithuanian literature[edit] Main article: Lithuanian literature When the ban against printing the Lithuanian language
Lithuanian language
was lifted in 1904, various European literary movements such as Symbolism, impressionism, and expressionism each in turn influenced the work of Lithuanian writers. The first period of Lithuanian independence (1918–40) gave them the opportunity to examine themselves and their characters more deeply, as their primary concerns were no longer political. An outstanding figure of the early 20th century was Vincas Krėvė-Mickevičius, a novelist and dramatist. His many works include Dainavos šalies senų žmonių padavimai (Old Folks Tales of Dainava, 1912) and the historical dramas Šarūnas (1911), Skirgaila
Skirgaila
(1925), and Mindaugo mirtis (The Death of Mindaugas, 1935). Petras Vaičiūnas was another popular playwright, producing one play each year during the 1920s and 1930s. Vincas Mykolaitis-Putinas
Vincas Mykolaitis-Putinas
wrote lyric poetry, plays, and novels, including the novel Altorių šešėly (In the Shadows of the Altars, 3 vol., 1933), a remarkably powerful autobiographical novel. Keturi vėjai movement started with publication of The Prophet of the Four Winds by talented poet Kazys Binkis
Kazys Binkis
(1893—1942). It was rebellion against traditional poetry. The theoretical basis of Keturi vėjai initially was futurism which arrived through Russia
Russia
from the West and later cubism, dadaism, surrealism, unanimism, and German expressionism. The most influensive futurist for Lithuanian writers was Russian poet Vladimir Mayakovsky.[40] Oskaras Milašius (1877–1939) is a paradoxical and interesting phenomenon in Lithuanian culture. He never lived in Lithuania
Lithuania
but was born and spent his childhood in Cereja (near Mogilev, Belarus) and graduated from Lycée Janson de Sailly
Lycée Janson de Sailly
in Paris. His longing for his fatherland was more metaphysical. Having to choose between two conflicting countries — Lithuania
Lithuania
and Poland — he preferred Lithuania
Lithuania
which for him was an idea even more than a fatherland. In 1920 when France
France
recognized the independence of Lithuania, he was appointed officially as Chargé d'Affaires for Lithuania. He published: 1928, a collection of 26 Lithuanian songs; 1930, Lithuanian Tales and Stories; 1933, Lithuanian Tales; 1937, The origin of the Lithuanian Nation. Folk music[edit] Main article: Music of Lithuania

Lithuanian folklore band Kulgrinda performing in Vilnius

Lithuanian folk music is based around songs (dainos), which include romantic and wedding songs, as well as work songs and archaic war songs. These songs used to be performed either in groups or alone, and in parallel chords or unison. Duophonic songs are common in the renowned sutartinės tradition of Aukštaitija. Another style of Lithuanian folk music is called rateliai, a kind of round dance. Instrumentation includes kanklės, a kind of zither that accompanies sutartinės, rateliai, waltzes, quadrilles and polkas, and fiddles, (including a bass fiddle called the basetle) and a kind of whistle called the lumzdelis; recent importations, beginning in the late 19th century, including the concertina, accordion and bandoneon. Sutartinė can be accompanied by skudučiai, a form of panpipes played by a group of people, as well as wooden trumpets (ragai and dandytės). Kanklės is an extremely important folk instrument, which differs in the number of strings and performance techniques across the country. Other traditional instruments include švilpas whistle, drums and tabalas (a percussion instrument like a gong), sekminių ragelis (bagpipe) and the pūslinė, a musical bow made from a pig’s bladder filled with dried peas.[41] Lithuanian organizations in exile[edit]

Ateitis – a Catholic youth organization whose members are called ateitininkai, started in Lithuania
Lithuania
in 1910: During the occupation of Lithuania
Lithuania
by the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
between 1945 and 1990 no Catholic organizations were allowed in Lithuania. The organization, however, continued to function in exile outside Lithuania. After Lithuania regained its independence in 1990, Ateitis returned to Lithuania
Lithuania
as an official youth organization.[42] Many of the branches outside Lithuania
Lithuania
continue to function serving Lithuanian emigrees and descendants.[43]

See also[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to People of Lithuania.

Lithuania Little Lithuania Baltic states List of Lithuanians List of Lithuanian philosophers Lithuanian American Lithuanians
Lithuanians
in the United Kingdom Lithuanian Scots Lithuanians
Lithuanians
in Brazil

References[edit]

^ a b "Lietuviai Pasaulyje" (PDF). Lietuvos statistikos departamentas. Retrieved 5 May 2015.  ^ Lietuviai Lietuvoje ir užsienyje: kur ir kiek mūsų yra Archived 2015-07-29 at the Wayback Machine. ^ a b c "M3010215: Population at the beginning of the year by ethnicity". Data of 2011 Population Census. Lietuvos statistikos departamentas. Archived from the original on 1 January 2016. Retrieved 17 October 2013.  ^ "2014 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2 February 2016.  ^ "Um atalho para a Europa". Epoca. Editora Globo S.A. 24 June 2002. Archived from the original on 3 July 2013.  ^ Pidd, Helen (7 January 2013). "Baltic exchange: meet the Lithuanians who have made Britain their home". The Guardian.  ^ "Statistics Canada" ^ Innvandrere og norskfødte med innvandrerforeldre, 1. januar 2013 (in Norwegian) SSB, retrieved 9 June 2013 ^ Immigration to Norway ^ Statistisches Bundesamt Deutschland - GENESIS-Online: Links ^ Number of foreign nationals living in Ireland up 30% in last five years BreakingNews.ie ^ Russians#cite note-gks-1 ^ On key provisional results of Population and Housing Census 2011 Latvijas statistika ^ Lithuanians
Lithuanians
in Argentina
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(contribute to & edit this article) ^ "Statistics Denmark:FOLK2: Population 1. January by sex, age, ancestry, country of origin and citizenship".  ^ 2054.0 Australian Census Analytic Program: Australians' Ancestries (2001 (Corrigendum)) ^ "Statistics Sweden:FOLK2: Population 1. January by sex, age, ancestry, country of origin and citizenship".  ^ "INE. Anuario Estadístico de España 2006" [Statistical Yearbook of Spain
Spain
2006] (PDF). Spanish Statistical Office (INE) (in Spanish). 2006. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 July 2008.  ^ "Raport z wyników: Narodowy Spis Powszechny Ludności i Mieszkań 2011" [Report from the results: National Census of Population and Housing] (PDF). Central Statistical Office (Poland)
Central Statistical Office (Poland)
(in Polish). 2012. p. 106. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 October 2012.  ^ State statistics committee of Ukraine – National composition of population, 2001 census (Ukrainian) ^ Общая численность населения, его состав по возрасту, полу, состоянию в браке, уровню образования, национальностям, языку и источникам средств к существованию, Статистический бюллетень 2009, p.22[dead link] ^ "Popolazione residente in Italia proveniente dalla Lituania al 1° gennaio 2011". ISTAT. 2011. Retrieved 2013-12-26.  ^ "Population by ethnic nationality, 1 January, years". Statistics Estonia. 2012. Retrieved 7 June 2013.  ^ "Population by country of citizenship, sex and age 1 January 1998-2014". Reykjavík, Iceland: Statistics Iceland.  ^ "Table 16: Total migrant stock at mid-year by origin and by major area, region, country or area of destination, 2015" (XLS). United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. December 2015. Retrieved 20 March 2016.  ^ Glanville Price. Encyclopedia of the languages of Europe, 2000, pp.304–306 ^ Sönke Neitzel
Sönke Neitzel
& Harald Welzer, Soldaten (Protokolle vom Kämpfen, Töten und Sterben), Frankfurt am Main 2011, pp. 118–120 (Hebrew edition translated from the German) ISBN 978-965-552-818-3 ^ Vyšniauskaitė, Angelė (2005). "LIETUVIŲ ETNINĖ KULTŪRA – AKCENTAS DAUGIALYPĖJE EUROPOS KULTŪROJE" (in Lithuanian). Archived from the original on 2008-01-25. Retrieved 2008-01-26.  ^ Česnys G. Anthropological roots of the Lithuanians. Science, Arts and Lithuania
Lithuania
1991; 1: p. 4-10. ^ Daiva Ambrasienė, Vaidutis Kučinskas Genetic variability of the Lithuanian human population according to Y chromosome microsatellite markers Archived 2008-02-27 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Mitochondrial DNA Sequence Analysis in the Lithuanian Population Archived 2008-02-27 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Kushniarevich, A; et al. (2015). "Genetic Heritage of the Balto-Slavic Speaking Populations: A Synthesis of Autosomal, Mitochondrial and Y-Chromosomal Data". PLoS ONE. 10 (9): e0135820. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0135820. PMC 4558026 . PMID 26332464. CS1 maint: Explicit use of et al. (link) ^ Genetic diseases among the Ashkenazi ^ Durst, Ronen; Colombo, Roberto; Shpitzen, Shoshi; Ben Avi, Liat; Friedlander, Yechiel; Wexler, Roni; Raal, Frederick J.; Marais, David A.; Defesche, Joep C.; Mandelshtam, Michail Y.; Kotze, Maritha J.; Leitersdorf, Eran; Meiner, Vardiella (2001). "Recent Origin and Spread of a Common Lithuanian Mutation, G197del LDLR, Causing Familial Hypercholesterolemia: Positive Selection Is Not Always Necessary to Account for Disease Incidence among Ashkenazi
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