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King
KING is the title given to a male monarch in a variety of contexts. The female equivalent is queen regnant in (while the title of queen on its own usually refers to the consort of a king). * In the context of prehistory, antiquity and contemporary indigenous peoples, the title may refer to tribal kingship . Germanic kingship is cognate with Indo-European traditions of tribal rulership (c.f. Indic rājan , Gothic reiks , and Old Irish rí , etc.) * In the context of classical antiquity, king may translate Latin rex or either Greek archon or basileus . * In classical European feudalism , the title of king as the ruler of a KINGDOM is understood as the highest rank in the feudal order, potentially subject, at least nominally, only to an emperor (harking back to the client kings of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
). * In a modern context, the title may refer to the ruler of one of a number of modern monarchies (either absolute or constitutional)
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Indo-European Languages
Pontic Steppe * Domestication of the horse * Kurgan * Kurgan culture * Steppe cultures * Bug-Dniester * Sredny Stog * Dnieper-Donets * Samara * Khvalynsk * Yamna * Mikhaylovka culture Caucasus * Maykop East-Asia * Afanasevo Eastern Europe * Usatovo * Cernavodă * Cucuteni Northern Europe* Corded ware * Bad
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Feudalism
FEUDALISM was a combination of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries. Broadly defined, it was a way of structuring society around relationships derived from the holding of land in exchange for service or labour. Although derived from the Latin word feodum or feudum (fief), then in use, the term feudalism and the system it describes were not conceived of as a formal political system by the people living in the Middle Ages. In its classic definition, by François-Louis Ganshof (1944), feudalism describes a set of reciprocal legal and military obligations among the warrior nobility revolving around the three key concepts of lords , vassals and fiefs
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Absolute Monarchy In France
ABSOLUTE MONARCHY IN FRANCE slowly emerged in the 16th century and became firmly established during the 17th century. Absolute monarchy is a variation of the governmental form of monarchy in which all governmental power and responsibility emanates from and is centered in the monarch . In France, Louis XIV was the most famous exemplar of absolute monarchy, with his court central to French political and cultural life during his reign. CONTENTS * 1 Introduction * 2 Establishing absolute monarchy in France * 3 Consequences * 4 See also * 5 References INTRODUCTIONThe 16th century was strongly influenced by religious conflicts developing out of the establishment of Lutheranism and permanent wars. However, France’s critical position turned out to be of a central meaning for the formation and theoretical justification of absolute monarchy
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Vidame
VIDAME (French: ) was a feudal title in France
France
, a term descended from mediaeval Latin vicedominus. Like the avoué or advocatus , the vidame was originally a secular official chosen by the bishop of the diocese —with the consent of the count —to perform functions on behalf of the church's earthly interest that were religiously inappropriate; this especially included violence, even in the service of justice, and to act as protector. Unlike the advocatus, however, the vice-dominus was at the outset an ecclesiastical official, who acted as the bishop's lieutenant (locum tenens ) or vicar . But the causes that changed the character of the advocatus operated also in the case of the vidame
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Tribal Kingship
A TRIBAL CHIEF is the leader of a tribal society or chiefdom . CONTENTS * 1 Description * 2 History * 3 Specific tribal chiefdoms * 3.1 Americas * 3.2 Sub-Saharan Africa
Sub-Saharan Africa
* 3.3 Oceania
Oceania
"> Arminius
Arminius
, a chieftain of the Germanic Cherusci tribe who defeated three Roman legions in the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest . Anthropologist Elman Service distinguishes two stages of tribal societies: simple societies organized by limited instances of social rank and prestige, and more stratified societies led by chieftains or tribal kings (chiefdoms ). Historically, tribal societies represent an intermediate stage between the band society of the Paleolithic
Paleolithic
stage and civilization with centralized, super-regional government based in cities
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Archon
ARCHON (Gr. ἄρχων, pl. ἄρχοντες) is a Greek word that means "ruler", frequently used as the title of a specific public office. It is the masculine present participle of the verb stem αρχ-, meaning "to rule", derived from the same root as monarch and hierarchy . CONTENTS * 1 Ancient Greece
Ancient Greece
* 2 Byzantine
Byzantine
Empire * 3 Archons of the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople * 4 Gnostic Archons * 5 Other uses * 5.1 Present time * 5.2 Books * 5.3 Movies and television * 5.4 Role-playing games * 5.5 Video games * 5.6 Others * 6 References ANCIENT GREECEIn the early literary period of ancient Greece the chief magistrates of various Greek city states were called Archon. The term was also used throughout Greek history in a more general sense, ranging from "club leader" to "master of the tables" at syssitia to "Roman governor"
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Emir
An EMIR (/əˈmɪər, eɪˈmɪər, ˈeɪmɪər/ ; Arabic
Arabic
: أمير‎‎ ʾAmīr ), sometimes transliterated AMIR, AMIER, or AMEER, is an aristocratic or noble title of high office used in a variety of places in the Arab countries and Afghanistan
Afghanistan
. It means "commander", "general", or "prince". The feminine form is EMIRA (أميرة ʾAmīrah). When translated as "prince", the word "emirate " is analogous to a sovereign principality . CONTENTS * 1 Origins * 2 Princely, ministerial and noble titles * 3 Military ranks and titles * 4 Other uses * 5 Emirs in fiction * 6 See also * 7 Notes ORIGINS Emir
Emir
Dost Mohammad Khan , the first Emir
Emir
of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
, whose reign started in 1826, with his youngest son Emir
Emir
Sher Ali Khan
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Landgrave
LANDGRAVE (Dutch : landgraaf, German : Landgraf; Swedish : lantgreve, French : landgrave; Latin : comes magnus, comes patriae, comes provinciae, comes terrae, comes principalis, lantgravius) was a noble title used in the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
, and later on in its former territories. The German titles of Landgraf, Markgraf ("margrave "), and Pfalzgraf ("count palatine ") are in the same class of ranks as Herzog ("duke") and above the rank of a Graf
Graf
("count"). CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 Description * 3 Examples * 4 Related terms * 5 References * 6 Further reading * 7 External links ETYMOLOGYThe English word LANDGRAVE is the equivalent of the German LANDGRAF, a compound of the words Land and Graf
Graf
(German: count). DESCRIPTIONThe title referred originally to a count who had imperial immediacy , or feudal duty owed directly to the Holy Roman Emperor
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Grand Prince
The title GRAND PRINCE or GREAT PRINCE ( Latin
Latin
: magnus princeps, Greek : megas archon) ranked in honour below king and emperor and above a sovereign prince . Grand duke
Grand duke
is the usual and established, though not literal , translation of these terms in English and Romance languages , which do not normally use separate words for a "prince" who reigns as a monarch (e.g., Albert II, Prince
Prince
of Monaco ) and a "prince" who does not reign, but belongs to a monarch's family (e.g., Prince
Prince
William, Duke of Cambridge ). German, Dutch, Slavic and Scandinavian languages do use separate words to express this concept, and in those languages grand prince is understood as a distinct title (for a cadet of a dynasty ) from grand duke (hereditary ruler ranking below a king). The title of grand prince was once used for the sovereign of a "grand principality"
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Reiks
REIKS (pronunciation /ri:ks/; Latinized as rix) is a Gothic title for a tribal ruler, often translated as "king ". In the Gothic Bible
Gothic Bible
, it translates to the Greek árchōn (ἄρχων). It is presumably translated as basiliskos (βασιλίσκος "petty king") in the Passio of Sabbas the Goth . The Gothic Thervingi
Thervingi
were divided into subdivisions of territory and people called *kunja (singular kuni, cognate with English kin), by a reiks. In times of a common threat, one of the reiks would be selected as a kindins , or head of the Empire (translated as "judge", Latin iudex, Greek δικαστής). Herwig Wolfram suggested the position was different from the Roman definition of a rex ("king"), and is better described as that of a tribal chief (see Germanic king
Germanic king
)
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Hyacinthe Rigaud
HYACINTHE RIGAUD (French pronunciation: ; 18 July 1659 – 29 December 1743) was a French baroque painter of Catalan origin whose career was based in Paris. CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Family * 2.1 Journey to Lyon
Lyon
* 3 Clientele * 4 Legacy * 5 Selected works * 6 Paintings * 7 References * 8 External links BIOGRAPHY Hyacinthe Rigaud
Hyacinthe Rigaud
selfportrait Hyacinthe Rigaud
Hyacinthe Rigaud
was born in Perpignan
Perpignan
( Pyrénées-Orientales ), the grandson of painter-gilders from Roussillon
Roussillon
and the elder brother of another painter (Gaspard ). He was trained in tailoring in his father's workshop but perfected his skills as a painter under Antoine Ranc at Montpellier from 1671 onwards, before moving to Lyon
Lyon
four years later
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Gentleman
In modern parlance, the term GENTLEMAN (from gentle + man, translating the Old French
Old French
gentilz hom ) refers to any man of good, courteous conduct. It may also refer to all men collectively, as in indications of gender-separated facilities, or as a sign of the speaker's own courtesy when addressing others. The modern female equivalent is lady . In its original meaning, the term denoted a man of the lowest rank of the English gentry , standing below an esquire and above a yeoman . By definition, this category included the younger sons of the younger sons of peers and the younger sons of baronets , knights , and esquires in perpetual succession, and thus the term captures the common denominator of gentility (and often armigerousness ) shared by both constituents of the English aristocracy : the peerage and the gentry
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Fürst
FüRST (German pronunciation: ( listen ), female form FüRSTIN, plural FüRSTEN; from Old High German
Old High German
furisto, "the first", a translation of the Latin
Latin
princeps ) is a German word for a ruler and is also a princely title. Fürsten were, since the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
, members of the highest nobility who ruled over states of the Holy Roman Empire and later its former territories, below the ruling Kaiser (emperor ) or König (king ). A Prince
Prince
of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
was the reigning sovereign ruler of an Imperial State that held imperial immediacy in the boundaries of the Holy Roman Empire
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Princess
PRINCESS is a regal rank and the feminine equivalent of prince (from Latin
Latin
princeps , meaning principal citizen). Most often, the term has been used for the consort of a prince or for the daughters of a king or sovereign prince. CONTENTS * 1 Princess
Princess
as a substantive title * 2 Princess
Princess
as a courtesy title * 2.1 Descendants of monarchs * 2.2 Wives of princes * 3 See also * 4 References PRINCESS AS A SUBSTANTIVE TITLESome princesses are reigning monarchs of principalities. There have been fewer instances of reigning princesses than reigning princes, as most principalities excluded women from inheriting the throne. Examples of princesses regnant have included Constance of Antioch
Constance of Antioch
, princess regnant of Antioch in the 12th century
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Archduke
ARCHDUKE (feminine: ARCHDUCHESS; German: Erzherzog, feminine form: Erzherzogin) was the title borne from 1358 by the Habsburg
Habsburg
rulers of the Archduchy of Austria
Archduchy of Austria
, and later by all senior members of that dynasty. It denotes a rank within the former Holy Roman Empire (962–1806), which was below that of Emperor
Emperor
and King
King
and above that of (debatably) a Grand Duke
Grand Duke
, Duke
Duke
and Prince
Prince
. The territory ruled by an Archduke
Archduke
or Archduchess was called an Archduchy. All remaining Archduchies ceased to exist in 1918
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