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King
KING is the title given to a male monarch in a variety of contexts. The female equivalent is queen regnant (while the title of queen on its own usually refers to the consort of a king). * In the context of prehistory, antiquity and contemporary indigenous peoples, the title may refer to tribal kingship . Germanic kingship is cognate with Indo-European traditions of tribal rulership (c.f. Indic _rājan _, Gothic _reiks _, and Old Irish _rí _, etc.) * In the context of classical antiquity, king may translate Latin _rex _ or either Greek _archon _ or _basileus _. * In classical European feudalism , the title of _king_ as the ruler of a KINGDOM is understood as the highest rank in the feudal order, potentially subject, at least nominally, only to an emperor (harking back to the client kings of the Roman Empire ). * In a modern context, the title may refer to the ruler of one of a number of modern monarchies (either absolute or constitutional)
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Heraldic Crown
Heraldry portal * v * t * e A CROWN is often an emblem of the sovereign state, a monarch's government, or items endorsed by it; see The Crown . Crowns may also be used by some republics . A specific type of crown (or coronet for peerage in the British Isles) is employed in heraldry under strict rules. Indeed, some monarchies never had a physical crown, just a heraldic representation, as in the constitutional kingdom of Belgium . Crowns are also often used as symbols of religious status or veneration, by divinities (or their representation such as a statue) or by their representatives, e.g. the Black Crown of the Karmapa Lama, sometimes used a model for wider use by devotees. A crown can be a charge in a coat of arms, or set atop the shield to signify the status of its owner, as with the arms of Norway here
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King Of The Romans
KING OF THE ROMANS (Latin : _Romanorum Rex_; German : _Römisch-deutscher König_) was the title used by the German king following his election by the princes from the time of Emperor Henry II (1014–1024) onward. The title was predominantly a claim to become Holy Roman Emperor and was dependent upon coronation by the Pope . The title originally referred to any elected king who had not yet been granted the Imperial Regalia and title of "Emperor" at the hands of the Pope. Later it came to be used solely for the heir apparent to the Imperial throne between his election (during the lifetime of a sitting Emperor) and his succession upon the death of the Emperor
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Iron Crown Of The Lombards
The IRON CROWN OF LOMBARDY (Italian : _Corona Ferrea_; Latin : _Corona Ferrea Langobardiae_) is both a reliquary and one of the oldest royal insignias of Christendom. It was made in the Early Middle Ages
Early Middle Ages
, consisting of a circlet of gold fitted around a central silver band, which according to legend was made of iron and beaten out of a nail of the True Cross
True Cross
. The crown became one of the symbols of the Kingdom of the Lombards and later of the medieval Kingdom of Italy
Kingdom of Italy
. It is kept in the Cathedral of Monza
Cathedral of Monza
, outside Milan
Milan

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Theodoric The Great
THEODERIC THE GREAT (Gothic : 𐌸𐌹𐌿𐌳𐌰𐍂𐌴𐌹𐌺𐍃; Þiudareiks; Latin : Flāvius Theodericus; Greek : Θευδέριχος, Theuderikhos; Old English : Þēodrīc; Old Norse : Þjōðrēkr, Þīðrēkr; German : Theoderich; 454 – August 30, 526 AD), often referred to as THEODORIC, was king of the Ostrogoths (475–526), ruler of Italy (493–526), regent of the Visigoths
Visigoths
(511–526), and a patricius of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
. His Gothic name Þiudareiks translates into "people-king" or "ruler of the people". Theodoric was born in Pannonia
Pannonia
in 454, after his people had defeated the Huns
Huns
at the Battle of Nedao . His father was King Theodemir , a Germanic Amali nobleman, and his mother was Ereleuva
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Ostrogothic Kingdom
The OSTROGOTHIC KINGDOM, officially the KINGDOM OF ITALY ( Latin : _Regnum Italiae_), was established by the Ostrogoths in Italy and neighbouring areas from 493 to 553. In Italy the Ostrogoths, led by Theoderic the Great , killed and replaced Odoacer , a Germanic soldier, erstwhile-leader of the _foederati _ in Northern Italy , and the _de facto _ ruler of Italy , who had deposed the last emperor of the Western Roman Empire , Romulus Augustulus , in 476. Under Theoderic, its first king, the Ostrogothic kingdom reached its zenith, stretching from modern France in the west into modern Serbia in the southeast. Most of the social institutions of the late Western Roman Empire were preserved during his rule. Theodoric called himself _Gothorum Romanorumque rex_ ("King of the Goths and Romans"), demonstrating his desire to be a leader for both peoples
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Louis XIV Of France
LOUIS XIV (5 September 1638 – 1 September 1715), known as LOUIS THE GREAT (_Louis le Grand_) or the SUN KING (_le Roi Soleil_), was a monarch of the House of Bourbon
House of Bourbon
who reigned as King of France
King of France
from 1643 until his death in 1715. His reign of 72 years and 110 days is the longest recorded of any monarch of a sovereign country in European history . In the age of absolutism in Europe, Louis XIV's France
France
was a leader in the growing centralization of power. Louis began his personal rule of France
France
in 1661, after the death of his chief minister, the Italian Cardinal Mazarin . An adherent of the concept of the divine right of kings , which advocates the divine origin of monarchical rule, Louis continued his predecessors' work of creating a centralized state governed from the capital
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Absolute Monarchy In France
ABSOLUTE MONARCHY IN FRANCE slowly emerged in the 16th century and became firmly established during the 17th century. Absolute monarchy is a variation of the governmental form of monarchy in which all governmental power and responsibility emanates from and is centered in the monarch . In France, Louis XIV was the most famous exemplar of absolute monarchy, with his court central to French political and cultural life during his reign. CONTENTS * 1 Introduction * 2 Establishing absolute monarchy in France * 3 Consequences * 4 See also * 5 References INTRODUCTIONThe 16th century was strongly influenced by religious conflicts developing out of the establishment of Lutheranism and permanent wars. However, France’s critical position turned out to be of a central meaning for the formation and theoretical justification of absolute monarchy
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Hyacinthe Rigaud
HYACINTHE RIGAUD (French pronunciation: ; 18 July 1659 – 29 December 1743) was a French baroque painter of Catalan origin whose career was based in Paris. CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Family * 2.1 Journey to Lyon
Lyon
* 3 Clientele * 4 Legacy * 5 Selected works * 6 Paintings * 7 References * 8 External links BIOGRAPHY Hyacinthe Rigaud
Hyacinthe Rigaud
selfportrait Hyacinthe Rigaud
Hyacinthe Rigaud
was born in Perpignan
Perpignan
( Pyrénées-Orientales
Pyrénées-Orientales
), the grandson of painter-gilders from Roussillon
Roussillon
and the elder brother of another painter (Gaspard ). He was trained in tailoring in his father's workshop but perfected his skills as a painter under Antoine Ranc at Montpellier from 1671 onwards, before moving to Lyon
Lyon
four years later
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Monarch
A MONARCH is a sovereign head of state in a monarchy . A monarch may exercise the highest authority and power in the state , or others may wield that power on behalf of the monarch. Typically a monarch either personally inherits the lawful right to exercise the state's sovereign rights (often referred to as _the throne_ or _the crown _) or is selected by an established process from a family or cohort eligible to provide the nation's monarch. Alternatively, an individual may become monarch by conquest, acclamation or a combination of means. A monarch usually reigns for life or until abdication
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Queen Regnant
A QUEEN REGNANT (plural: queens regnant) is a female monarch , equivalent in rank to a king , who reigns in her own right, in contrast to a queen consort , who is the wife of a reigning king, or a queen regent , who is the guardian of a child monarch reigning temporarily in their stead. An EMPRESS REGNANT is a female monarch who reigns in her own right over an empire . A queen regnant possesses and exercises sovereign powers. A queen consort shares her husband's rank and titles, but does not share the sovereignty of her husband. The husband of a queen regnant traditionally does not share his wife's rank, title or sovereignty. However, the concept of a king consort is not unheard of in contemporary or classical periods. A queen dowager is the widow of a king. A queen mother is a queen dowager who is also the mother of a reigning sovereign
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Tribal Kingship
A TRIBAL CHIEF is the leader of a tribal society or chiefdom . CONTENTS * 1 Description * 2 History * 3 Specific tribal chiefdoms * 3.1 Americas * 3.2 Sub-Saharan Africa * 3.3 Oceania "> Arminius , a chieftain of the Germanic Cherusci tribe who defeated three Roman legions in the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest . Anthropologist Elman Service distinguishes two stages of tribal societies: simple societies organized by limited instances of social rank and prestige, and more stratified societies led by chieftains or tribal kings (chiefdoms ). Historically, tribal societies represent an intermediate stage between the band society of the Paleolithic stage and civilization with centralized, super-regional government based in cities
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Indo-European Languages
_Pontic Steppe_ * Domestication of the horse * Kurgan * Kurgan culture * Steppe cultures * Bug-Dniester * Sredny Stog * Dnieper-Donets * Samara * Khvalynsk * Yamna * Mikhaylovka culture _Caucasus_ * Maykop East-Asia * Afanasevo _Eastern Europe_ * Usatovo * Cernavodă * Cucuteni _Northern Europe_* Corded ware * Baden
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Rājan
RAJA (/ˈrɑːdʒɑː/ ; also spelled RAJAH, from Sanskrit राजन् rājan-), is a title for a Monarch
Monarch
or princely ruler in South and Southeast Asia. The female form RANI (sometimes spelled RANEE) applies equally to the wife of a Raja
Raja
(or of an equivalent style such as Rana), usually as queen consort and occasionally as regent. The title has a long history in the Indian subcontinent and South East Asia , being attested from the Rigveda , where a rājan- is a ruler , see for example the dāśarājñá , the "battle of ten kings"
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Reiks
REIKS (pronunciation /ri:ks/; Latinized as rix) is a Gothic title for a tribal ruler, often translated as "king ". In the Gothic Bible , it translates to the Greek árchōn (ἄρχων). It is presumably translated as basiliskos (βασιλίσκος "petty king") in the Passio of Sabbas the Goth . The Gothic Thervingi were divided into subdivisions of territory and people called *kunja (singular kuni, cognate with English kin), by a reiks. In times of a common threat, one of the reiks would be selected as a kindins , or head of the Empire (translated as "judge", Latin iudex, Greek δικαστής). Herwig Wolfram suggested the position was different from the Roman definition of a rex ("king"), and is better described as that of a tribal chief (see Germanic king )
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