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King
King
King
is the title given to a male monarch in a variety of contexts. The female equivalent is queen regnant,[1] while the title of queen on its own usually refers to the consort of a king.In the context of prehistory, antiquity and contemporary indigenous peoples, the title may refer to tribal kingship. Germanic kingship
Germanic kingship
is cognate with Indo-European traditions of tribal rulership (c.f
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Absolute Monarchy In France
Absolute monarchy
Absolute monarchy
in France slowly emerged in the 16th century and became firmly established during the 17th century. Absolute monarchy is a variation of the governmental form of monarchy in which all governmental power and responsibility emanates from and is centered in the monarch. In France, Louis XIV
Louis XIV
was the most famous exemplar of absolute monarchy, with his court central to French political and cultural life during his reign.Contents1 Introduction 2 Establishing absolute monarchy in France 3 Consequences 4 See also 5 ReferencesIntroduction[edit] The 16th century was strongly influenced by religious conflicts[1] developing out of the establishment of Lutheranism
Lutheranism
and permanent wars. However, France’s critical position turned out to be of a central meaning for the formation and theoretical justification of absolute monarchy
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Edler
Edler
Edler
(German: [ˈeːdlɐ]) was until 1919 the lowest rank of nobility in Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
and Germany, just beneath a Ritter
Ritter
(hereditary knight), but above untitled nobles, who used only the nobiliary particle von before their surname. It was mostly given to civil servants and military officers, as well as those upon whom the lower rank of an Order had been conferred. The noun Edler
Edler
comes from the adjective edel ("noble"), and translated literally means "noble [person]". In accordance with the rules of German grammar, the word can also appear as Edle, Edlem, or Edlen depending on case, gender, and number. Originally, from the Middle Ages, under the feudal system (in Europe and elsewhere), the nobility were generally those who held a fief, often in the form of heritable land worked by vassals
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Ridder (title)
Ridder ([ˈrɪdər]; English: "Knight") is a noble title in the Netherlands
Netherlands
and Belgium. Traditionally it denotes the second lowest rank within the nobility, standing below Baron, but above the untitled nobility (Jonkheer) in these countries. "Ridder" is a literal translation of Latin Eques and originally meant "horseman" or "rider". For its historical association with warfare and the landed gentry in the Middle Ages, it can be considered roughly equal to the titles of "Knight" or "Baronet". In the Netherlands
Netherlands
and Belgium
Belgium
no female equivalent exists. The collective term for its holders in a certain area as an executive and legislative assembly is named the Ridderschap (e.g
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Châtelain
Châtelain
Châtelain
(Med. Lat. castellanus, from castellum, a castle) was originally merely the French equivalent of the English castellan, i.e. the commander of a castle. With the growth of the feudal system, however, the title gained in France
France
a special significance which it never acquired in England, as implying the jurisdiction of which the castle became the centre. The châtelain was originally, in Carolingian
Carolingian
times, an official of the count; with the development of feudalism the office became a fief, and so ultimately hereditary
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Ritter
Ritter
Ritter
(German for "knight") is a designation used as a title of nobility in German-speaking areas. Traditionally it denotes the second-lowest rank within the nobility, standing above "Edler" and below "Freiherr" (Baron). For its historical association with warfare and the landed gentry in the Middle Ages, it can be considered roughly equal to the titles of "Knight" or "Baronet". As with most titles and designations within the nobility in German-speaking areas, the rank was normally hereditary and generally was used with the nobiliary particle of von or zu before a family name. The wife of a Ritter
Ritter
was called a "Frau" (in this sense "Lady") and not Ritterin. In the Austrian Empire
Austrian Empire
the title of " Ritter
Ritter
von" was bestowed upon citizens who deserved more than the plain "von" but were not considered deserving enough as to be given a barony as "Freiherr"
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Vidame
Vidame
Vidame
(French: [vidam]) was a feudal title in France, a term descended from mediaeval Latin vicedominus.[1] Like the avoué or advocatus, the vidame was originally a secular official chosen by the bishop of the diocese—with the consent of the count—to perform functions on behalf of the church's earthly interest that were religiously inappropriate; this especially included violence, even in the service of justice, and to act as protector. Unlike the advocatus, however, the vice-dominus was at the outset an ecclesiastical official, who acted as the bishop's lieutenant (locum tenens) or vicar. But the causes that changed the character of the advocatus operated also in the case of the vidame
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Junker
Junker
Junker
(German: Junker, Dutch: Jonkheer, English: Yunker, Scandinavian: Junker) is a noble honorific, derived from Middle High German Juncherre, meaning "young nobleman"[1] or otherwise "young lord" (derivation of jung and Herr)
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Gentleman
In modern parlance, a gentleman (from gentle + man, translating the Old French
Old French
gentilz hom[1]) is any man of good, courteous conduct. A gentleman may also simply be a polite term for any man, as in indications of gender-separated facilities, or as a sign of the speaker's own courtesy when addressing others. The modern female equivalent is lady. Originally, a gentleman was a man of the lowest rank of the English gentry, standing below an esquire and above a yeoman. By definition, this category included the younger sons of the younger sons of peers and the younger sons of baronets, knights, and esquires in perpetual succession, and thus the term captures the common denominator of gentility (and often armigerousness) shared by both constituents of the English aristocracy: the peerage and the gentry
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Landgrave
Landgrave
Landgrave
(Dutch: landgraaf, German: Landgraf; Swedish: lantgreve, French: landgrave; Latin: comes magnus, comes patriae, comes provinciae, comes terrae, comes principalis, lantgravius) was a noble title used in the Holy Roman Empire, and later on in its former territories. The German titles of Landgraf, Markgraf ("margrave"), and Pfalzgraf ("count palatine") are in the same class of ranks as Herzog ("duke") and above the rank of a Graf
Graf
("count").Contents1 Etymology 2 Description 3 Examples 4 Related terms 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External linksEtymology[edit] The English word landgrave is the equivalent of the German Landgraf, a compound of the words Land and Graf
Graf
(German: count). Description[edit] The title referred originally to a count who had imperial immediacy, or feudal duty owed directly to the Holy Roman Emperor
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Grand Prince
The title grand prince or great prince (Latin: magnus princeps, Greek: megas archon) ranked in honour below king and emperor and above a sovereign prince. Grand duke
Grand duke
is the usual and established, though not literal, translation of these terms in English and Romance languages, which do not normally use separate words for a "prince" who reigns as a monarch (e.g., Albert II, Prince
Prince
of Monaco) and a "prince" who does not reign, but belongs to a monarch's family (e.g., Prince
Prince
William, Duke
Duke
of Cambridge). German, Dutch, Slavic and Scandinavian languages do use separate words to express this concept, and in those languages grand prince is understood as a distinct title (for a cadet of a dynasty) from grand duke (hereditary ruler ranking below a king). The title of grand prince was once used for the sovereign of a "grand principality"
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Dame
Dame
Dame
is an honorific title and the feminine form of address for the honour of knighthood in the British honours system and the systems of several other Commonwealth countries, such as Australia
Australia
and New Zealand, with the masculine form of address being Sir
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Hyacinthe Rigaud
Hyacinthe Rigaud
Hyacinthe Rigaud
(French pronunciation: [ʁigo]; 18 July 1659 – 29 December 1743) was a French baroque painter most famous for his portraits of Louis XIV
Louis XIV
and other members of the French nobility.Contents1 Biography 2 Family2.1 Journey to Lyon3 Clientele 4 Legacy 5 Selected works 6 Paintings 7 References 8 External linksBiography[edit] Hyacinthe Rigaud
Hyacinthe Rigaud
selfportrait Hyacinthe Rigaud
Hyacinthe Rigaud
was born in Perpignan
Perpignan
(Pyrénées-Orientales), the grandson of painter-gilders from Roussillon
Roussillon
and the elder brother of another painter (Gaspard)
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Lady
The word lady is a civil term of respect for a woman among English speakers. It is the equivalent of gentleman. It is also a formal title in the United Kingdom. "Lady" is used before the surname of a woman with a title of nobility or honorary title suo jure, or the wife of a lord, a baronet, and a knight, and also before the first name of the daughter of a Duke, Marquess, or Earl
Earl
throughout the United Kingdom. Once used to describe only women of a high social class, race, community, and status in Europe; now the term is commonly used to refer to any adult woman among English-speakers globally
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Jonkheer
Jonkheer
Jonkheer
(female equivalent: jonkvrouw; French: Écuyer) is a honorific in the Low Countries
Low Countries
denoting the lowest rank within the nobility. In the Netherlands, this in general concerns a prefix used by the untitled nobility. In Belgium, this is the lowest title within the nobility system, recognised by the Court of Cassation.[1][citation needed] It is the cognate and equivalent of the German noble honorific Junker, which was historically used throughout the German-speaking part of Europe, and to some extent also within Scandinavia.Contents1 Honorific
Honorific
of nobility 2 Title of nobility 3 Coronet 4 Nickname 5 See also 6 References Honorific
Honorific
of nobility[edit] Jonkheer
Jonkheer
or jonkvrouw is literally translated as "young lord" or "young lady"
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Fürst
Fürst
Fürst
(German pronunciation: [ˈfʏʁst] ( listen), female form Fürstin, plural Fürsten; from Old High German
Old High German
furisto, "the first", a translation of the Latin
Latin
princeps) is a German word for a ruler and is also a princely title
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