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KING is the title given to a male monarch in a variety of contexts. The female equivalent is queen regnant (while the title of queen on its own usually refers to the consort of a king).

* In the context of prehistory, antiquity and contemporary indigenous peoples, the title may refer to tribal kingship . Germanic kingship is cognate with Indo-European traditions of tribal rulership (c.f. Indic _rājan _, Gothic _reiks _, and Old Irish _rí _, etc.) * In the context of classical antiquity, king may translate Latin _rex _ or either Greek _archon _ or _basileus _. * In classical European feudalism , the title of _king_ as the ruler of a KINGDOM is understood as the highest rank in the feudal order, potentially subject, at least nominally, only to an emperor (harking back to the client kings of the Roman Empire ). * In a modern context, the title may refer to the ruler of one of a number of modern monarchies (either absolute or constitutional). The title of _king_ is used alongside other titles for monarchs, in the West prince , emperor , archduke , duke or grand duke , in the Middle East sultan or emir ; etc.

King may also refer to a king consort , a title that is sometimes given to the husband of a ruling queen , however the title prince consort is sometimes granted instead.

CONTENTS

* 1 Etymology * 2 History * 3 Contemporary kings * 4 See also * 5 Notes * 6 References * 7 External links

ETYMOLOGY

Further information: Germanic King , Rex (title) , and Knyaz

_ Look up CYNING _ in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

The English term _King_ is derived from the Anglo-Saxon _cyning_, which in turn is derived from the Common Germanic *_kuningaz_. The Common Germanic term was borrowed into Estonian and Finnish at an early time, surviving in these languages as _kuningas_. The English term "King" translates, and is considered equivalent to, Latin _rēx _ and its equivalents in the various European languages . The Germanic term is notably different from the word for "King" in other Indo-European languages (_*rēks_ "ruler"; Latin _rēx _, Sanskrit _rājan _ and Irish _ríg _, but see Gothic _reiks _ and, e.g., modern German _Reich_ and modern Dutch _rijk_). It is a derivation from the term _*kunjom_ "kin" ( Old English _cynn_) by the _-inga-_ suffix. The literal meaning is that of a "scion of the kin", or perhaps "son or descendant of one of noble birth" ( OED ).

English _Queen_ translates Latin _regina_; it is from Old English _cwen_ "Queen, noble woman, wife" from the PIE word for "woman" (_*gwen-_). The Germanic term for "wife" appears to have been specialized to "wife of a King"; in Old Norse , the cognate _kvan_ still mostly refers to a wife generally. Scandinavian _drottning, dronning_ is a feminine derivation from _*druhtinaz_ "Lord".

HISTORY

The English word is of Germanic origin, and historically refers to Germanic kingship , in the pre-Christian period a type of tribal kingship . The monarchies of Europe in the Christian Middle Ages derived their claim from Christianisation and the divine right of kings , partly influenced by the notion of sacral kingship inherited from Germanic antiquity .

The Early Middle Ages begin with a fragmentation of the former Western Roman Empire into barbarian kingdoms . In Western Europe, the kingdom of the Franks developed into the Carolingian Empire by the 8th century, and the kingdoms of Anglo-Saxon England were unified into the kingdom of England by the 10th century.

With the breakup of the Carolingian Empire in the 9th century, the system of feudalism places kings at the head of a pyramid of relationships between liege lords and vassals, dependent on the regional rule of barons , and the intermediate positions of counts (or earls ) and dukes . The core of European feudal manorialism in the High Middle Ages were the territories of the kingdom of France , the Holy Roman Empire (centered on the nominal kingdoms of Germany and Italy ) and the kingdoms of England and Scotland .

In the course of the European Middle Ages, the European kingdoms underwent a general trend of centralisation of power, so that by the Late Middle Ages there were a number of large and powerful kingdoms in Europe, which would develop into the great powers of Europe in the Early Modern period .

* In the Iberian Peninsula , the remnants of the Visigothic Kingdom , the petty kingdoms of Asturias and Pamplona , expanded into the kingdom of Portugal , the Crown of Castile and the Crown of Aragon with the ongoing Reconquista . * In southern Europe , the kingdom of Sicily was established following the Norman conquest of southern Italy . The Kingdom of Sardinia was claimed as a separate title held by the Crown of Aragon in 1324. In the Balkans, the Kingdom of Serbia was established in 1217. * In eastern-central Europe , the Kingdom of Hungary was established in AD 1000 following the Christianisation of the Magyars . The kingdoms of Poland and Bohemia were established within the Holy Roman Empire in 1025 and 1198, respectively. In Eastern Europe, the Kievan Rus\' consolidated into the Grand Duchy of Moscow , which did not technically claim the status of kingdom until the early modern Tsardom of Russia . * In northern Europe , the tribal kingdoms of the Viking Age by the 11th century expanded into the North Sea Empire under Cnut the Great , king of Denmark, England and Norway. The Christianization of Scandinavia resulted in "consolidated" kingdoms of Sweden and Norway , and by the end of the medieval period the pan-Scandinavian Kalmar Union .

CONTEMPORARY KINGS

Further information: List of current sovereign monarchs , List of current reigning monarchies , List of current constituent monarchs , and Queen_regnant § Current_queens_regnant

Part of a series of articles on

MONARCHY

Central concepts

*

* Monarch * Monarchism

*

* Divine right of kings * Mandate of Heaven

Types

* Absolute * Composite * Constitutional * Diarchy * Dual * Elective * Emirate * Ethnarch * Federal * Hereditary * Legalist * Non-sovereign * Popular * Regency * Tetrarch * Universal

History

* Birth of the Roman Empire * Magna Carta * Foundation of the Ottoman Empire

*

* Glorious Revolution * French Revolution

*

* Trienio Liberal * First French Empire

*

* Liberal Wars * Second French Empire

*

* Italian unification * Meiji Restoration

* German unification * 5 October 1910 Revolution * Proclamation of the Republic in Brazil

*

* Xinhai Revolution * Russian Revolution

* Siamese revolution of 1932 * Birth of the Italian Republic * Spanish transition to democracy

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* Iranian Revolution * Modern Cambodia

* Nepalese Civil War

Related topics

* Aristocracy * Autocracy * Crowned republic * Conservatism * Thomas Hobbes * Legitimists * Oligarchy * Philosopher king * Primogeniture * Royalism * Regicide * Regnal number * Royal family * Ultra-royalist

Politics portal

* v * t * e

Currently (as of 2016 ), fifteen kings and two queens regnant are recognized as the heads of state of sovereign states (i.e. English _king_ or _queen_ is used as official translation of the respective native titles held by the monarchs).

Most of these are heads of state of constitutional monarchies ; kings ruling over absolute monarchies are the King of Saudi Arabia , the King of Bahrain and the King of Swaziland .

MONARCH HOUSE TITLE KINGDOM EST.

Elizabeth II Queen of the United Kingdom and the Commonwealth realms Windsor _queen_ United Kingdom and Commonwealth realms 1707 / 9th c.

Margrethe II Queen of Denmark Glücksburg _dronning_ Kingdom of Denmark 10th c.

Harald V King of Norway Glücksburg _konge_ Kingdom of Norway 11th c.

Carl XVI Gustaf King of Sweden Bernadotte _konung_ Kingdom of Sweden 12th c.

Felipe VI King of Spain Bourbon _rey_ Kingdom of Spain 1978 / 1479

Willem-Alexander King of the Netherlands Amsberg _koning_ Kingdom of the Netherlands 1815

Philippe King of the Belgians Saxe-Coburg and Gotha _koning / roi_ Kingdom of Belgium 1830

Salman King of Saudi Arabia Saud ملك _malik_ Kingdom of Saudi Arabia 1932

Abdullah II King of Jordan Hashim ملك _malik_ Kingdom of Jordan 1946

Mohammed VI King of Morocco Alaoui ملك _malik_ Kingdom of Morocco 1956

Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa King of Bahrain Khalifa ملك _malik_ Kingdom of Bahrain 1971

Vajiralongkorn designate King of Thailand Chakri กษัตริย์ _kasat_ Kingdom of Thailand 1782

Jigme Khesar Namgyel Wangchuck King of Bhutan Wangchuck འབྲུག་རྒྱལ་པོ་ _druk gyalpo_ Kingdom of Bhutan 1907

Norodom Sihamoni King of Cambodia Norodom ស្ដេច _sdac_ Kingdom of Cambodia 1993 / 1953

Tupou VI King of Tonga Tupou _king_ Kingdom of Tonga 1970

Letsie III King of Lesotho Moshesh _king / morena_ Kingdom of Lesotho 1966

Mswati III King of Swaziland Dlamini _ngwenyama _ Kingdom of Swaziland 1968

SEE ALSO

Royal, noble and chivalric ranks

Emperor

King

Archduke

Grand Prince Grand Duke

Prince / Infante

Duke

Sovereign Prince / Fürst

Marquess / Marquis / Margrave / Landgrave / Count palatine

Count / Earl

Viscount / Vidame

Baron

Baronet Hereditary Knight

Knight

Esquire

Gentleman

* v * t * e

* Royal and noble ranks * Royal family * Realm * Designation * Divine right of kings * Sacred king * Anointing * Coronation * High King * King of Kings * King consort * Great King * Petty king * Client king * Germanic kingship * Buddhist kingship * Tribal kingship * Big man (anthropology)

titles translated as "king"

* Rex (king) * Archon * Basileus * Raja * * Shah * Mepe (title) * Malik/Melekh * Lugal * Negus * Mwami * Queen * Kingda Ka

NOTES

* ^ The notion of a king being below an emperor in the feudal order, just as a duke is the rank below the king, is more theoretical than historical: the only kingdom within the Holy Roman Empire was the Kingdom of Bohemia ; the Austrian Empire technically contained the kingdom of Hungary , but the emperor and the king were the same person. The modern Russian Empire and German Empire did not include any kingdoms; only the short-lived First French Empire (1804–1814/5) did include a number of client kingdoms under Napoleon I , such as the Kingdom of Italy or the Kingdom of Westphalia . * ^ Pine, L.G. (1992). _Titles: How the King became His Majesty_. New York: Barnes & Noble. p. 86. ISBN 978-1-56619-085-5 . * ^ The distinction of the title of "king" from "sultan" or "emir" in oriental monarchies is largely stylistics; the Sultanate of Oman , the State of Qatar , the State of Kuwait and the United Arab Emirates are also categorised as absolute monarchies.

REFERENCES

* Thomas J. Craughwell, _5,000 Years of Royalty: Kings, Queens, Princes, Emperors & Tsars_ (2009). * David Cannadine, Simon Price (eds.), _Rituals of Royalty: Power and Ceremonial in Traditional Societies_ (1992). * Jean Hani, _Sacred Royalty: From the Pharaoh to the Most Christian King_ (2011).

EXTERNAL LINKS

* _ Media related to Kings at Wikimedia Commons * Media