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Ifriqiya
Ifriqiya
Ifriqiya
or Ifriqiyah (Arabic: إفريقية‎ Ifrīqya) or el-Maghrib el-Adna (Lower West) was the area during medieval history that comprises what is today Tunisia, Tripolitania
Tripolitania
(western Libya) and the Constantinois
Constantinois
(eastern Algeria); all part of what was previously included in the Africa Province of the Roman Empire.[1]. The southern boundary of Ifriqiya
Ifriqiya
was far more unchallenged as bounded by the semi-arid areas and the salt marshes called el-Djerid. The northern and western boundaries fluctuated; at times as far north as Sicily
Sicily
otherwise just along the coastline, and the western boundary usually went as far as Béjaïa
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Africa (Roman Province)
French Algeria
Algeria
(19th - 20th centuries)French conquest French governorsResistance PacificationEmir Abdelkader Fatma N'SoumerMokrani Revolt Cheikh BouamamaNationalism RCUA FLN GPRAAlgerian War 1958 putsch 1961 putschÉvian Accords Independence referendumPied-Noir Harkis Oujda GroupContemporary era 1960s–80sArab nationalism 1965 putschBerber Spring 1988 Riots1990s
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Béjaïa
Béjaïa
Béjaïa
(Arabic: بِجَايَة‎, Bijayah; Berber languages: Bgayet, Bgayeth, ⴱⴳⴰⵢⴻⵜ), formerly Bougie and Bugia, is a Mediterranean
Mediterranean
port city on the Gulf of Béjaïa
Béjaïa
in Algeria; it is the capital of Béjaïa
Béjaïa
Province, Kabylia. Béjaïa
Béjaïa
is the largest principally Kabyle-speaking city in the Kabylie
Kabylie
region of Algeria
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History Of French-era Tunisia
The History of French-era Tunisia
Tunisia
commenced in 1881 with the French protectorate and ended in 1956 with Tunisian independence. The French presence in Tunisia
Tunisia
came five decades after their occupation of neighboring Algeria. Both of these lands had been associated with the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
for three centuries, yet each had long since attained political autonomy. Before the French arrived, the Bey of Tunisia
Tunisia
had begun a process of modern reforms, but financial difficulties mounted, resulting in debt. A commission of European creditors then took over the finances. After the French conquest of Tunisia
Tunisia
the French government assumed Tunisia's international obligations
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Tunisian Revolution
Overthrow of the Ben Ali governmentResignation of Prime Minister Ghannouchi[1] Dissolution of the political police[2] Dissolution of the RCD, the former ruling party of Tunisia
Tunisia
and liquidation of its assets[3] Release of political prisoners[4] Elections to a Constituent Assembly on 23 October 2011[5] Subsequent protests against the interim Islamist-led constituent assembly
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Arabic Language
Arabic
Arabic
(Arabic: العَرَبِيَّة‎) al-ʻarabiyyah [ʔalʕaraˈbijːah] ( listen) or (Arabic: عَرَبِيّ‎) ʻarabī [ˈʕarabiː] ( listen) or [ʕaraˈbij]) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world.[4] It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
in the east to the Anti- Lebanon
Lebanon
mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic
Arabic
is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form (Modern Standard Arabic) [5]. The modern written language (Modern Standard Arabic) is derived from Classical Arabic
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Tripolitania
Tripolitania
Tripolitania
/trɪpɒlɪˈteɪniə/ or Tripolitana (Arabic: طرابلس‎ Ṭarābulus, Berber: Ṭrables, from Vulgar Latin *Trapoletanius, from Latin
Latin
Regio Tripolitana, from Greek Τριπολιτάνια) is a historic region and former province of Libya. Tripolitania
Tripolitania
was a separate Italian colony from 1927 to 1934
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Roman Empire
Mediolanum
Mediolanum
(286–402, Western) Augusta Treverorum Sirmium Ravenna
Ravenna
(402–476, Western)
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Sicily
Sicily
Sicily
(/ˈsɪsɪli/ SISS-i-lee; Italian: Sicilia [siˈtʃiːlja], Sicilian: Sicìlia) is the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea. It is an autonomous region of Italy, in Southern Italy
Italy
along with surrounding minor islands, officially referred to as Regione Siciliana. Sicily
Sicily
is located in the central Mediterranean Sea, south of the Italian Peninsula, from which it is separated by the narrow Strait of Messina. Its most prominent landmark is Mount Etna, the tallest active volcano in Europe,[4] and one of the most active in the world, currently 3,329 m (10,922 ft) high
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Beni Hammad Fort
Beni Hammad Fort, also called Al Qal'a of Beni Hammad (Arabic: قلعة بني حماد‎) is a fortified palatine city in Algeria. Now in ruins, in the 11th century, it served as the first capital of the Hammadid
Hammadid
dynasty. It is in the Hodna Mountains
Hodna Mountains
northeast of M'Sila, at an elevation of 1,418 metres (4,652 ft), and receives abundant water from the surrounding mountains. Beni Hammad Fort
Beni Hammad Fort
is near the town of Maadid
Maadid
(aka Maadhid), about 225 kilometres (140 mi) southeast of Algiers, in the Maghreb. In 1980, it was inscribed as a World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
by UNESCO, and described as "an authentic picture of a fortified Muslim city". The town includes a 7-kilometre (4 mi) long line of walls
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Beylik Of Tunis
The Beylik of Tunis
Tunis
was a largely autonomous beylik of the Ottoman Empire founded on July 15, 1705, after the Husainid Dynasty
Husainid Dynasty
led by
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Cyrenaica
Cyrenaica
Cyrenaica
(/saɪrəˈneɪ.ɪkə/ SY-rə-NAY-ik-ə; Latin: Cyrenaica (Provincia), Ancient Greek: Κυρηναία (ἐπαρχία) Kyrēnaíā (eparkhíā), after the city of Cyrene; Arabic: برقة‎ Barqah) is the eastern coastal region of Libya. Also known as Pentapolis ("Five Cities") in antiquity, it formed part of the Roman province
Roman province
of Crete
Crete
and Cyrenaica, later divided into Libya Pentapolis and Libya
Libya
Sicca. During the Islamic period, the area came to be known as Barqa, after the city of Barca. Cyrenaica
Cyrenaica
was the name of an administrative division of Italian Libya from 1927 until 1943, then under British military and civil administration from 1943 until 1951, and finally in the Kingdom of Libya
Libya
from 1951 until 1963
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Tripolitana
Tripolitania
Tripolitania
/trɪpɒlɪˈteɪniə/ or Tripolitana (Arabic: طرابلس‎ Ṭarābulus, Berber: Ṭrables, from Vulgar Latin *Trapoletanius, from Latin
Latin
Regio Tripolitana, from Greek Τριπολιτάνια) is a historic region and former province of Libya. Tripolitania
Tripolitania
was a separate Italian colony from 1927 to 1934
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Amr Ibn Al-As
'Amr ibn al-'As
'Amr ibn al-'As
(Arabic: عمرو بن العاص‎; c. 585 – 6 January 664) was an Arab military commander who is most noted for leading the Muslim conquest of Egypt
Muslim conquest of Egypt
in 640. He was contemporary of Muhammad
Muhammad
and one of the Sahaba
Sahaba
("Companions") who rose quickly through the Muslim
Muslim
hierarchy following his conversion to Islam in the year 8 AH (629)
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Barca (ancient City)
Barca, also called Barce) (Greek: Βάρκη, Arabic: برقة‎, Berber: Berqa) is an Ancient city and former bishopric, which survives in both Latin Catholic and Orthodox titular see.Contents1 History1.1 Antiquity 1.2 Since the Arab
Arab
conquest2 Barca and Christianity2.1 Orthodox titular see 2.2 Latin catholic titular see3 See also 4 References 5 Sources and referencesHistory[edit] Antiquity[edit] Barca was an ancient Greek colony and later a Roman and a Byzantine city in North Africa. It was in the coastal area of what is today Libya. As a Greek city, it was part of the Cyrenaican Pentapolis along with the city of Cyrene itself
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Uqba Ibn Nafi
Rashidun Caliphate Umayyad CaliphateService/branch ArmyYears of service 635–683Rank GeneralʿUqbah ibn Nāfiʿ (Arabic: عقبة بن نافع‎, also referred to as Oqba ibn Nafi, Uqba bin Nafe, Uqba ibn al Nafia, or Akbah; 622–683) was an Arab general serving the Rashidun Caliphate
Rashidun Caliphate
since the Reign of Umar
Umar
and later on the Umayyad Caliphate
Umayyad Caliphate
during the reigns of Muawiyah I and Yazid I, leading the Muslim conquest of the Maghreb, including present-day Algeria, Tunisia, Libya
Libya
and Morocco. ʿUqbah was the nephew of 'Amr ibn al-'As. He is often surnamed al-Fihri in reference to the Banu Fihri, a clan connected to the Quraysh
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