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An Aghlabid cistern in Kairouan
Gold dinar of
Ibrahim I ibn al-Aghlab
Ibrahim I ibn al-Aghlab (184-196 AH), anonymous (but
dynastic motto 'Ghalab' on the reverse), no mint name (probably
Kairouan, Ifriqiya). Struck in 192 AH (807/808 AD). Preserved at the
Musée national d'art islamique de Raqqada (fr).
Aghlabids (Arabic: الأغالبة) were an Arab dynasty of
emirs from Banu Tamim, who ruled Ifriqiya, nominally on behalf of the
Abbasid Caliph, for about a century, until overthrown by the new power
of the Fatimids.
1.1 Decline of the Aghlabids
2 Aghlabid rulers
3 See also
In 800, the
Harun al-Rashid appointed Ibrahim I ibn
al-Aghlab, son of a Khurasanian Arab commander from the Banu Tamim
tribe, as hereditary
Ifriqiya as a response to the anarchy
that had reigned in that province following the fall of the
Muhallabids. At that time there were perhaps 100,000 Arabs living in
Ifriqiya, although the Berbers still constituted the great
Ibrahim was to control an area that encompassed eastern Algeria,
Tunisia and Tripolitania. Although independent in all but name, his
dynasty never ceased to recognise
Abbasid overlordship. The Aghlabids
paid an annual tribute to the
Caliph and their suzerainty was
referenced in the khutba at Friday prayers.
After the pacification of the country Ibrahim ibn al Aghlab
established a residence at a new capital, al-Abbasiyya, which was
founded outside Kairouan, partly to distance himself from the
opposition of the
Malikite jurists and theologians, who condemned what
they saw as the luxurious life of the
Aghlabids (not to mention the
fact that the
Aghlabids were mu'tazilites in theology, and Hanafis in
fiqh-jurisprudence), and disliked the unequal treatment of the Muslim
Berbers. Additionally, border defenses (Ribat) were set up in Sousse
and Monastir. The
Aghlabids also built up the irrigation of the area
and enhanced the public buildings and mosques of al-Abbasiya. It
was recorded that 5,000 black
Zanj slaves were used which were
supplied from Trans Sahara trade route
One unique feature of the
Aghlabids is that despite the political
differences and rivalry between
Aghlabids who served under
the Umayyad Emirate of Cordoba, the Muslims in Spain were also sent a
fleet under Asba' ibn Wakil to aid the
Aghlabids conquest of Sicily.
Ibn Kathir recorded that a joint force of 300 Umayyad and Aghlabid
ships were present. the Aghlabid garrison at Mineo managed to get
into contact with the Andalusian
Umayyads whom immediately agreed to
the alliance, provided that Asbagh was recognized as the overall
commander, and together with fresh troops from
Ifriqiya they marched
on Mineo. Theodotus retreated to Enna and the siege of Mineo was
broken (July or August 830). The combined Ifriqiyan and
Andalusian army then torched Mineo and laid siege to another town,
possibly Calloniana (modern Barrafranca). However, a plague broke out
in their camp causing the death of Asbagh and many others. The town
fell later, in autumn, but the Arabs' numbers were depleted
subsequently they had to abandon it and retreat west. Theodotus
launched a pursuit and inflicted heavy casualties, so that most of the
Andalusians departed the island. However, Theodotus too was killed at
this time, possibly in one of these skirmishes.
Ziyadat Allah I
Ziyadat Allah I (817-838) came the crisis of a revolt of Arab
troops in 824, which was not quelled until 836 with the help of the
Berbers. The conquest of Byzantine
Sicily from 827 under Asad ibn
al-Furat was an attempt to keep the unruly troops under control - it
was only achieved slowly, and only in 902 was the last Byzantine
outpost taken. Plundering raids into mainland Italy, which included
the sack of the Roman basilicas in 846, took place until well into
the 10th century. Gradually the
Aghlabids lost control of the Arab
Sicily and a new dynasty, the Kalbids, emerged there.
The Aghlabid kingdom reached its high point under Ahmad ibn Muhammad
Ifriqiya was a significant economic power thanks
to its fertile agriculture, aided by the expansion of the Roman
irrigation system. It became the focal point of trade between the
Islamic world and Byzantium and Italy, especially the lucrative slave
trade. Kairuan became the most important centre of learning in the
Maghreb, most notably in the field of
Theology and Law, and a
gathering place for poets. The Aghlabid Emirs also sponsored building
projects, notably the rebuilding of the
Mosque of Uqba
Mosque of Uqba and the kingdom
developed an architectural style which combined
and Byzantine architecture.
Decline of the Aghlabids
The decline of the dynasty began under Ibrahim II ibn Ahmad (875-902).
An attack by the
Egypt had to be repelled and a revolt of
the Berbers put down with much loss of life. In addition, in 893 there
began amongst the
Kutama Berbers the movement of the
to overthrow the Aghlabids.
Ubaydalla Said captured the cities of
Raqqada and took an oath of allegiance from the people.
By 909, the Aghlabid Dynasty was overthrown and replaced with the
Ibrahim I ibn al-Aghlab
Ibrahim I ibn al-Aghlab ibn Salim (800–812)
Abdallah I ibn Ibrahim (812–817)
Ziyadat Allah I
Ziyadat Allah I ibn Ibrahim (817–838)
al-Aghlab Abu Iqal ibn Ibrahim (838–841)
Abu 'l-Abbas Muhammad I ibn al-Aghlab Abi Affan (841–856)
Ahmad ibn Muhammad al-Aghlabi (856–863)
Ziyadat Allah II ibn Abil-Abbas (863)
Abu 'l-Gharaniq Muhammad II ibn Ahmad (863–875)
Abu Ishaq Ibrahim II ibn Ahmad (875–902)
Abu 'l-Abbas Abdallah II ibn Ibrahim (902–903)
Abu Mudhar Ziyadat Allah III ibn Abdallah (903–909)
History of Islam in southern Italy
History of medieval Tunisia
List of Sunni Muslim dynasties
History of Algeria
History of Libya
^ Historical Dictionary of
Algeria - Phillip C. Naylor
^ Libya. Ediz. Inglese - Anthony Ham
^ Islam: An Illustrated History - Greville Stewart Parker
Freeman-Grenville, Stuart Christopher Munro-Hay 
^ Logistics of Warfare in the Age of the Crusades: Proceedings of a
Workshop - John H. Pryor, p187 
^ C.E. Bosworth, The New Islamic Dynasties, (Columbia University
Press, 1996), 31.
^ C.E. Bosworth, The New Islamic Dynasties, 31.
^ Julien, Histoire de L'Afrique du Nord (Paris: Payor 1931; revised by
de Tourneau 1952), translated as
History of North Africa
History of North Africa (London:
Routledge & Kegan Paul 1970; New York: Praeger 1970) at 42.
^ a b Goldschmidt, Arthur (2002). A concise history of the Middle
East. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press. p. 79.
^ Laroui, The History of the Maghrib (1970, 1977) at 116.
^ Lev, Yaacov (1991). State and Society in Fatimid
Egypt (Volume 1
dari Arab history and civilization. Studies and texts: 0925-2908 ed.).
BRILL. p. 5. ISBN 9004093443.
^ El Hareir, Mbaye, Idris, Ravane (2011). The Spread of Islam
Throughout the World. UNESCO. p. 441. ISBN 9231041533.
^ Bury (1912), p. 304
^ Treadgold (1988), pp. 273–274
^ Vasiliev (1935), pp. 127–128
^ Treadgold (1988), p. 274
^ Vasiliev (1935), pp. 128–129
^ Barbara M. Kreutz, Before the Normans: Southern
Italy in the Ninth
and Tenth Centuries, (University of Pennsylvania Press, 1991), 57.
^ "Aghlabids". Dictionary of Islamic Architecture. Archnet. Archived
from the original on 29 June 2011. Retrieved 23 January 2011.
^ Najeebabadi, Akbar (2001). The History of Islam V.3. Riyadh:
Darussalam. p. 235. ISBN 978-9960-89293-1.
Georges Marçais, "Aghlabids," Encyclopedia of Islam, 2nd ed., Vol. I,
Mohamed Talbi, Emirat Aghlabide, Paris: Adrien Maisonneuve, 1967.
Maurice Vonderheyden, La Berbérie orientale sous la dynastie des
Benoû l-Aṛlab, 800-909, Paris: Geuthner, 1927.
Islamic dynasties in
Idrisids (780–985 )
Banu Kanz (1004–1412)
Almohads (f. 1130, r. 1147–1269)
Marinids (f. 1244, r. 1269–1465)
Saadi (f. 1509, r. 1554–1659)
Kingdom of Ait Abbas
Kingdom of Ait Abbas (f. 1510, r. 1510–1872)
Kuku Sultanate (1515-1638)
Alaouites (f. 1631, r. 1666–present)