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Hokkien
HOKKIEN /hɒˈkiɛn/ (from Chinese : 福建話; Pe̍h-ōe-jī : _Hok-kiàn-oē_) is a Southern Min dialect group spoken throughout Southeastern China , Taiwan and Southeast Asia , and by other overseas Chinese . Hokkien originated in southern Fujian , the Min-speaking province. It is closely related to Teochew , though there is limited mutual intelligibility , and is somewhat more distantly related to Hainanese and Leizhou dialect . Besides Hokkien, there are also other Min and Hakka dialects in Fujian province, most of which are not mutually intelligible with Hokkien. Hokkien historically served as the lingua franca amongst overseas Chinese communities of all dialects and subgroups in Southeast Asia, and remains today as the most spoken variety of Chinese in the region, including in Singapore , Malaysia , Indonesia , Philippines and some parts of Indochina (particularly Thailand, Laos and Cambodia)
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Min Chinese
MIN or MIIN (simplified Chinese : 闽语; traditional Chinese : 閩語; pinyin : _Mǐn yǔ_; Pe̍h-ōe-jī : _Bân gú_; BUC : Mìng ngṳ̄) is a broad group of Chinese varieties spoken by over 70 million people in the southeastern Chinese province of Fujian as well as by migrants from this province in Guangdong (around Chaozhou - Swatou , or Chaoshan area, Leizhou peninsula and Part of Zhongshan ), Hainan , three counties in southern Zhejiang , Zhoushan archipelago off Ningbo , some towns in Liyang , Jiangyin City in Jiangsu province, and Taiwan . The name is derived from the Min River in Fujian. Min varieties are not mutually intelligible with any other varieties of Chinese. There are many Min speakers among overseas Chinese in Southeast Asia . The most widely spoken variety of Min outside Fujian is Hokkien (which includes Taiwanese and Amoy ). CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Geographic location and subgrouping * 2.1 Coastal Min * 2.2 Inland Min * 3 Vocabulary * 4 Writing system * 5 See also * 6 Notes * 7 References HISTORYThe Min homeland of Fujian was opened to Chinese settlement by the defeat of the Minyue state by the armies of Emperor Wu of Han in 110 BC
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Hokkien (other)
HOKKIEN is a dialect of Southern Min Chinese spoken in Southern Fujian, Taiwan, South-east Asia, and elsewhere. HOKKIEN (a local word corresponding to Standard Chinese "Fujian") may also refer to: * Min Chinese , the main branch of Chinese in Fujian Province * Fujian or Fukien, a province of China * Hoklo people , a group originating from Fujian provinceSEE ALSO * Hokkien mee This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title HOKKIEN. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the intended article. Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Hokkien_(other) additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy .® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc
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Southern Min
SOUTHERN MIN, or MINNAN (simplified Chinese : 闽南语; traditional Chinese : 閩南語), is a branch of Min Chinese
Min Chinese
spoken in certain parts of China
China
including southern Fujian
Fujian
(the Minnan region
Minnan region
), eastern Guangdong
Guangdong
, Hainan
Hainan
, and southern Zhejiang
Zhejiang
, and in Taiwan
Taiwan
. The Minnan dialects are also spoken by descendants of emigrants from these areas in diaspora , most notably the Philippines
Philippines
, Indonesia
Indonesia
, Malaysia
Malaysia
and Singapore
Singapore
. In common parlance, Southern Min
Southern Min
usually refers to Hokkien
Hokkien
, including Amoy and Taiwanese Hokkien
Hokkien
; both are combinations of Quanzhou
Quanzhou
and Zhangzhou speeches. The Southern Min
Southern Min
dialect group also includes Teochew , though Teochew has limited mutual intelligibility with Hokkien
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China
CHINA, officially the PEOPLE\'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA (PRC), is a unitary sovereign state in East Asia and the world\'s most populous country , with a population of over 1.381 billion . Covering approximately 9.6 million square kilometres (3.7 million square miles), it is the world's second-largest state by land area and third- or fourth-largest by total area . Governed by the Communist Party of China , it exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces , five autonomous regions , four direct-controlled municipalities (Beijing, Tianjin , Shanghai , and Chongqing ) and the Special Administrative Regions Hong Kong and Macau , also claiming sovereignty over Taiwan . China is a great power and a major regional power within Asia, and has been characterized as a potential superpower . China emerged as one of the world's earliest civilizations in the fertile basin of the Yellow River in the North China Plain . For millennia, China's political system was based on hereditary monarchies, or dynasties , beginning with the semi-legendary Xia dynasty . Since then, China has then expanded, fractured, and re-unified numerous times
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Taiwan
TAIWAN (/ˌtaɪˈwɑːn/ ( listen )), officially the REPUBLIC OF CHINA (ROC), is a state in East Asia . Its neighbors include China (officially the People's Republic of China, PRC) to the west, Japan to the northeast, and the Philippines to the south. Taiwan is the most populous state that is not a member of the United Nations and the largest economy outside the UN. The island of Taiwan , formerly known as Formosa, was inhabited by Taiwanese aborigines before the 17th century, when Dutch and Spanish colonies opened the island to mass Han immigration. After a brief rule by the Kingdom of Tungning , the island was annexed by the Qing dynasty , the last dynasty of China. The Qing ceded Taiwan to Japan in 1895 after the Sino-Japanese War . While Taiwan was under Japanese rule, the Republic of China (ROC) was established on the mainland in 1912 after the fall of the Qing dynasty . Following the Japanese surrender to the Allies in 1945, the ROC took control of Taiwan. However, the resumption of the Chinese Civil War led to the ROC's loss of the mainland to the Communists , and the flight of the ROC government to Taiwan in 1949
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Hong Kong
HONG KONG, officially the HONG KONG SPECIAL ADMINISTRATIVE REGION OF THE PEOPLE\'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA, is an autonomous territory on the Pearl River Delta of China. It has an area of 1,104 km2 and shares its northern border with the Guangdong Province of Mainland China . With around 7.2 million Hongkongers of various nationalities, Hong Kong is the world\'s fourth most densely populated country or territory . Hong Kong used to be a British colony with the perpetual cession of Hong Kong Island from the Qing Empire after the First Opium War (1839–42). The colony expanded to the Kowloon Peninsula in 1860 and acquired a 99-year lease of the New Territories from 1898. Hong Kong was later occupied by Japan during the Second World War until British control resumed in 1945. The Sino-British Joint Declaration signed between the United Kingdom and China in 1984 paved way for the transfer of sovereignty of Hong Kong in 1997, when it became a special administrative region (SAR) of the Peoples Republic of China with a high degree of autonomy. Under the principle of "one country, two systems ", Hong Kong maintains a separate political and economic system from China
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Macau
MACAU (/məˈkaʊ/ ( listen ); 澳門; 澳门; literally: "Bay Gate"), also spelled MACAO, is an autonomous region on the western side of the Pearl River estuary in East Asia
East Asia
. Macau
Macau
is bordered by the city of Zhuhai
Zhuhai
in Mainland China
China
to the north and the Pearl River Delta to the east and south. Hong Kong
Hong Kong
lies about 64 kilometres (40 mi) to its east across the Delta. With a population of 650,900 living in an area of 30.5 km2 (11.8 sq mi), it is the most densely populated region in the world. A former Portuguese colony, it was returned to Chinese sovereignty on 20 December 1999. Macau
Macau
was administered by the Portuguese Empire and its inheritor states from the mid-16th century until late 1999, when it constituted the last remaining European colony in Asia. Portuguese traders first settled in Macau
Macau
in the 1550s. In 1557, Macau
Macau
was leased to Portugal from Ming China
China
as a trading port. The Portuguese Empire administered the city under Chinese authority and sovereignty until 1887, when Macau, through a mutual agreement between the two countries, became a colony. Sovereignty over Macau
Macau
was transferred back to China
China
on 20 December 1999
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Overseas Chinese
OVERSEAS CHINESE (traditional Chinese : 海外華人; simplified Chinese : 海外华人; pinyin : _Hǎiwài Huárén_) are people of Chinese birth or descent who live outside the People\'s Republic of China (the Mainland , Hong Kong , Macau ) and Republic of China (Taiwan) . People of partial Chinese ancestry living outside the Greater China Area may also consider themselves overseas Chinese. Overseas Chinese can be of the Han Chinese ethnic majority, or from any of the other ethnic groups in China . Unlike other countries, overseas Chinese in South Korea are mostly from the Korean ethnic group in China
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Fujian
FUJIAN (Chinese : 福建; pinyin : _Fújiàn_; pronounced ( listen )), formerly romanised as Foken, Fouken, Fukien, and Hokkien, is a province on the southeast coast of mainland China
China
. Fujian
Fujian
is bordered by Zhejiang
Zhejiang
to the north, Jiangxi
Jiangxi
to the west, and Guangdong
Guangdong
to the south. The name Fujian
Fujian
came from the combination of Fuzhou
Fuzhou
and Jianzhou (a former name for Jian\'ou ) two cities in Fujian, during the Tang dynasty
Tang dynasty
. While its population is chiefly of Han origin, it is one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse provinces in China. Most of Fujian
Fujian
is administered by the People\'s Republic of China (PRC). However, the archipelagos of Kinmen
Kinmen
and Matsu are under the control of the Republic of China
Republic of China
(ROC, aka Taiwan
Taiwan
). Thus, there are two provinces (in the sense of government organizations): the Fujian Province administered by the PRC and the Fujian
Fujian
Province of the ROC
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Southeast Asia
SOUTHEAST ASIA or SOUTHEASTERN ASIA is a subregion of Asia
Asia
, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China
China
, east of India
India
, west of New Guinea
New Guinea
and north of Australia
Australia
. The region lies near the intersection of geological plates , with heavy seismic and volcanic activity
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Hoklo People
The HOKLO PEOPLE are Han Chinese people whose traditional ancestral homes are in southern Fujian
Fujian
of South China
China
. They are also known by various endonyms ( Pe̍h-ōe-jī : _Hok-ló-lâng / Hō-ló-lâng / Ho̍h-ló-lâng / Hô-ló-lâng_), or other related terms such as BANLAM (MINNAN) PEOPLE (閩南儂; _Bân-lâm-lâng_) or HOKKIEN PEOPLE (福建儂; _Hok-kiàn-lâng_). In the narrowest scope, "Hoklo people" refers mainly to people who speak and use the Hokkien
Hokkien
dialect of Min Nan Chinese spoken in southern Fujian
Fujian
, Taiwan
Taiwan
, Malaysia
Malaysia
, Singapore
Singapore
, Indonesia
Indonesia
and by many overseas Chinese throughout Southeast Asia. In a wider scope, "Hoklo people" can include speakers of other Min Nan dialects, such as Zhongshan Min , Zhenan Min , Teochew dialect , and Hainanese . There have been many famous Hoklo people
Hoklo people
throughout history, notably Lee Kuan Yew
Lee Kuan Yew
, Koxinga and Su Song
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Han Chinese
The HAN CHINESE, HAN PEOPLE or simply HAN (漢族; pinyin : _Hànzú_, literally "Han ethnicity" or "Han ethnic group"; or 漢人; pinyin: _Hànrén_, literally "Han people" ) are an ethnic group native to East Asia . They constitute approximately 92% of the population of China , 95% of Taiwan ( Han Taiwanese ), 76% of Singapore , 23% of Malaysia and about 18% of the global population . Han Chinese are the world\'s largest ethnic group with over 1.3 billion people. CONTENTS * 1 Terms and etymology * 2 Distribution * 2.1 People\'s Republic of China * 2.2 Taiwan * 2.3 Southeast Asia * 2.4 Others * 3 History * 3.1 Prehistory * 3.2 Early history * 3.3 Imperial history * 4 Culture * 4.1 Language * 4.2 Names * 4.3 Dress * 4.4 Family * 4.5 Food * 4.6 Literature * 4.7 Contributions to humanity * 4.8 Religion * 5 Historical southward migration of the Han people * 6 DNA analysis * 7 Notes * 8 References * 9 Further reading * 10 External links TERMS AND ETYMOLOGYThe name _Han_ was derived from the Han dynasty , which succeeded the short-lived Qin dynasty , and is historically considered to be the first golden age of China's Imperial era due to the power and influence it projected over much of Asia
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Language Family
A LANGUAGE FAMILY is a group of languages related through descent from a common _ancestral language_ or _parental language_, called the proto-language of that family. The term "family" reflects the tree model of language origination in historical linguistics , which makes use of a metaphor comparing languages to people in a biological family tree , or in a subsequent modification, to species in a phylogenetic tree of evolutionary taxonomy . Linguists therefore describe the _daughter languages_ within a language family as being _genetically related_. Estimates of the number of living languages vary from 5,000 to 8,000, depending on the precision of one's definition of "language", and in particular on how one classifies dialects . The 2013 edition of Ethnologue catalogs just over 7,000 living human languages. A "living language" is simply one that is used as the primary form of communication of a group of people. There are also many dead and extinct languages, as well as some that are still insufficiently studied to be classified, or are even unknown outside their respective speech communities. Membership of languages in a language family is established by comparative linguistics . Sister languages are said to have a "genetic" or "genealogical" relationship. The latter term is older
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Sino-Tibetan Languages
The SINO-TIBETAN LANGUAGES, in a few sources also known as TIBETO-BURMAN or TRANS-HIMALAYAN, are a family of more than 400 languages spoken in East Asia , Southeast Asia and South Asia . The family is second only to Indo-European in terms of the number of native speakers. The Sino-Tibetan languages with the most native speakers are the varieties of Chinese (1.3 billion speakers, the most of any language on Earth if counted as a single language), Burmese (33 million), and the Tibetic languages (8 million); but many Sino-Tibetan languages are spoken by small communities in remote mountain areas and as such are poorly documented. Several low-level groupings are well established, but the higher-level structure of the family remains unclear. Although the family is often presented as divided into Sinitic and Tibeto-Burman branches, a common origin of the non- Sinitic languages has never been demonstrated and is rejected by an increasing number of researchers
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Chinese Language
LEGEND: Countries identified Chinese as a primary, administrative, or native language Countries with more than 5,000,000 Chinese speakers Countries with more than 1,000,000 Chinese speakers Countries with more than 500,000 Chinese speakers Countries with more than 100,000 Chinese speakers Major Chinese-speaking settlements THIS ARTICLE CONTAINS IPA PHONETIC SYMBOLS. Without proper rendering support , you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters
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