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Hokkien
Hokkien
(/ˈhɒkiɛn, hɒˈkiɛn/;[a] from Chinese: 福建話; pinyin: Fújiànhuà; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Hok-kiàn-oē)[b] or Minnan Proper[citation needed] (閩南語/閩南話), is a Southern Min dialect group spoken in the Fujian
Fujian
Province in Southeastern China, Taiwan, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, the Philippines
Philippines
and other parts of Southeast Asia, and by other overseas Chinese. Hokkien originated in southern Fujian, the Min-speaking province. It is the mainstream form of Southern Min. It is closely related to Teochew, though it has limited mutual intelligibility with it, whereas it is more distantly related to other variants such as Hainanese
Hainanese
and Leizhou dialect. Besides Hokkien, there are also other Min and Hakka
Hakka
dialects in Fujian
Fujian
province, most of which are not mutually intelligible with Hokkien. Hokkien
Hokkien
historically served as the lingua franca amongst overseas Chinese communities of all dialects and subgroups in Southeast Asia, and remains today as the most spoken variety of Chinese in the region, including in Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia, Philippines
Philippines
and some parts of Indochina
Indochina
(particularly Thailand, Laos and Cambodia).[4]. The Betawi Malay language, spoken by some five million people in and around the Indonesian capital Jakarta, includes numerous Hokkien loanwords.

Contents

1 Names 2 Geographic distribution 3 Classification

3.1 Southeast Asia

4 History

4.1 Quanzhou 4.2 Zhangzhou 4.3 Xiamen 4.4 Early sources

5 Phonology

5.1 Initials 5.2 Finals 5.3 Vowels 5.4 Tones

6 Comparison

6.1 Mutual intelligibility

7 Grammar

7.1 Pronouns 7.2 Copula ("to be") 7.3 Negation

8 Vocabulary

8.1 Literary and colloquial readings 8.2 Semantic differences between Hokkien
Hokkien
and Mandarin 8.3 Words from Minyue 8.4 Loanwords

9 Standard Hokkien 10 Writing systems

10.1 Chinese script 10.2 Latin
Latin
script 10.3 Computing

11 Cultural and political role 12 See also 13 Notes 14 References 15 Further reading 16 External links

Names[edit] Chinese speakers of the Quanzhang variety of Southern Min
Southern Min
refer to the mainstream Southern Min
Southern Min
language as

Bân-lâm-gú / Bân-lâm-ōe (闽南语/闽南话; 閩南語/閩南話, literally 'language or speech of Southern Min') in Mainland China
China
and Taiwan.[5] Tâi-gí (臺語, literally 'Taiwanese language') in Taiwan. Hok-kiàn-ōe (福建话; 福建話, literally ' Fujian
Fujian
speech') in Singapore, Malaysia
Malaysia
and Indonesia. Lán-lâng-ōe (咱儂話, literally 'our people's language') in the Philippines.

In parts of Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
and in the English-speaking communities, the term Hokkien
Hokkien
([hɔk˥kiɛn˨˩]) is etymologically derived from the Southern Min
Southern Min
pronunciation for Fujian
Fujian
(福建), the province from which the language hails. In Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
and the English press, Hokkien
Hokkien
is used in common parlance to refer to the Southern Min dialects of southern Fujian, and does not include reference to dialects of other Sinitic branches also present in Fujian
Fujian
such as Eastern Min
Eastern Min
or Hakka. In Chinese linguistics, these dialects are known by their classification under the Quanzhang division (Chinese: 泉漳片; pinyin: Quánzhāng piàn) of Min Nan, which comes from the first characters of the two main Hokkien
Hokkien
urban centers of Quanzhou
Quanzhou
and Zhangzhou. Geographic distribution[edit] Hokkien
Hokkien
originated in the southern area of Fujian
Fujian
province, an important center for trade and migration, and has since become one of the most common Chinese varieties overseas. The major pole of Hokkien varieties outside of Fujian
Fujian
is Taiwan, where, during the 200 years of Qing dynasty rule, thousands of immigrants from Fujian
Fujian
arrived yearly. The Taiwanese version mostly have origins with the Quanzhou
Quanzhou
and Zhangzhou
Zhangzhou
variants, but since then, the Amoy dialect
Amoy dialect
is becoming the modern prestige standard for the language. There are many Minnan(Hokkien) speakers among overseas Chinese in Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
as well as in the United States
United States
(Hoklo Americans). Many ethnic Han Chinese
Han Chinese
emigrants to the region were Hoklo from southern Fujian, and brought the language to what is now Burma
Burma
(Myanmar), Indonesia
Indonesia
(the former Dutch East Indies) and present day Malaysia
Malaysia
and Singapore
Singapore
(formerly Malaya and the British Straits Settlements). Many of the Minnan dialects of this region are highly similar to Xiamen dialect(Amoy) and Taiwanese Hokkien
Taiwanese Hokkien
with the exception of foreign loanwords. Hokkien
Hokkien
is reportedly the native language of up to 80% of the Chinese people in the Philippines, among which is known locally as Lan-nang
Lan-nang
or Lán-lâng-oē ("Our people’s language"). Hokkien speakers form the largest group of overseas Chinese in Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia
Indonesia
and Philippines.[citation needed] Classification[edit]

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Quanzhou

Zhangzhou

Xiamen

Locations of Hokkien
Hokkien
(Quanzhang) varieties in Fujian

Southern Fujian
Fujian
is home to three principal Minnan Proper (Hokkien) dialects: Chinchew, Amoy, Chiangchew, originating from the cities of Quanzhou, Xiamen
Xiamen
and Zhangzhou(respectively). Traditionally speaking, Quanzhou dialect
Quanzhou dialect
spoken in Quanzhou
Quanzhou
is the Traditional Standard Minnan, it is the dialect that is used in Liyuan Opera (梨园戏) and Nanying music (南音). Being the Traditional Standard Minnan, Quanzhou dialect
Quanzhou dialect
is considered to have the purest accent and the most conservative Minnan dialect. In the late 18th to the early 19th century, Xiamen
Xiamen
(Amoy) became the principal[citation needed] city of southern Fujian. Xiamen
Xiamen
(Amoy) dialect is adopted as the Modern Standard Minnan. It is a hybrid of the Quanzhou
Quanzhou
and Zhangzhou
Zhangzhou
dialects. It has played an influential role in history, especially in the relations of Western nations with China, and was one of the most frequently learnt dialect of Quanzhang variety by Westerners during the second half of the 19th century and the early 20th century. Same as Amoy dialect, the Modern Standard form of Quanzhang accent spoken around the city of Tainan
Tainan
in Taiwan
Taiwan
is a hybrid of the Quanzhou and Zhangzhou
Zhangzhou
dialects. All Quanzhang dialects spoken throughout the whole of Taiwan
Taiwan
are collectively known as Taiwanese Hokkien
Taiwanese Hokkien
or just Taiwanese. Used by a majority of the population, it bears much importance from a socio-political perspective, forming the second (and perhaps today most significant) major pole of the language due to the popularity of Taiwanese-language media. Southeast Asia[edit] The varieties of Hokkien
Hokkien
in Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
originate from these dialects. The Singaporeans, Southern Malaysians and people in Indonesia's Riau and surrounding islands variant is from the Quanzhou
Quanzhou
area. They speak a distinct form of Quanzhou
Quanzhou
Hokkien
Hokkien
called Southern Peninsular Malaysian Hokkien
Hokkien
(SPMH). Among ethnic Chinese inhabitants of Penang, and other states in Northern Malaysia
Malaysia
and Medan, with other areas in North Sumatra, Indonesia, a distinct form of Zhangzhou
Zhangzhou
Hokkien
Hokkien
has developed. In Penang, it is called Penang Hokkien
Penang Hokkien
while across the Malacca Strait
Malacca Strait
in Medan, an almost identical variant is known as Medan
Medan
Hokkien. The Philippines
Philippines
variant is mostly from Quanzhou
Quanzhou
or Amoy (Xiamen), as most of their ancestors are from the aforementioned area. History[edit]

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Variants of Hokkien
Hokkien
dialects can be traced to two sources of origin: Quanzhou
Quanzhou
and Zhangzhou. Both Amoy and most Taiwanese are based on a mixture of Quanzhou
Quanzhou
and Zhangzhou
Zhangzhou
dialects, while the rest of the Hokkien
Hokkien
dialects spoken in South East Asia are either derived from Quanzhou
Quanzhou
and Zhangzhou, or based on a mixture of both dialects. Quanzhou[edit] During the Three Kingdoms
Three Kingdoms
period of ancient China, there was constant warfare occurring in the Central Plain of China. Northerners began to enter into Fujian
Fujian
region, causing the region to incorporate parts of northern Chinese dialects. However, the massive migration of northern Han Chinese
Han Chinese
into Fujian
Fujian
region mainly occurred after the Disaster of Yongjia. The Jìn court fled from the north to the south, causing large numbers of northern Han Chinese
Han Chinese
to move into Fujian
Fujian
region. They brought the Old Chinese
Old Chinese
spoken in Central Plain of China
China
from prehistoric era to 3rd century into Fujian. This then gradually evolved into the Quanzhou
Quanzhou
dialect. Zhangzhou[edit] In 677 (during the reign of Emperor Gaozong), Chen Zheng, together with his son Chen Yuanguang, led a military expedition to suppress a rebellion of the She people. In 885, (during the reign of Emperor Xizong of Tang), the two brothers Wang Chao and Wang Shenzhi, led a military expedition force to suppress the Huang Chao
Huang Chao
rebellion.[6] These two waves of migration from the north brought the language of northern Middle Chinese
Middle Chinese
into the Fujian
Fujian
region. This then gradually evolved into the Zhangzhou
Zhangzhou
dialect. Xiamen[edit] Amoy dialect
Amoy dialect
is the main dialect spoken in the Chinese city of Xiamen and its surrounding regions of Tong'an and Xiang'an, both of which are now included in the greater Xiamen
Xiamen
area. This dialect developed in the late Ming dynasty
Ming dynasty
when Xiamen
Xiamen
was increasingly taking over Quanzhou's position as the main port of trade in southeastern China. Quanzhou traders began travelling southwards to Xiamen
Xiamen
to carry on their businesses while Zhangzhou
Zhangzhou
peasants began traveling northwards to Xiamen
Xiamen
in search of job opportunities. A need for a common language arose. The Quanzhou
Quanzhou
and Zhangzhou
Zhangzhou
varieties are similar in many ways (as can be seen from the common place of Henan Luoyang where they originated), but due to differences in accents, communication can be a problem. Quanzhou
Quanzhou
businessmen considered their speech to be the prestige accent and considered Zhangzhou's to be a village dialect. Over the centuries, dialect leveling occurred and the two speeches mixed to produce the Amoy dialect. Early sources[edit] Several playscripts survive from the late 16th century, written in a mixture of Quanzhou
Quanzhou
and Chaozhou dialects. The most important is the Romance of the Litchi Mirror, with extant manuscripts dating from 1566 and 1581.[7][8] In the early 17th century, Spanish missionaries in the Philippines produced materials documenting the Hokkien
Hokkien
varieties spoken by the Chinese trading community who had settled there in the late 16th century:[7][9]

Diccionarium Sino-Hispanicum (1604), a Spanish- Hokkien
Hokkien
dictionary, giving equivalent words, but not definitions. Doctrina Christiana
Doctrina Christiana
en letra y lengua china (1607), a Hokkien translation of the Doctrina Christiana.[10][11] Bocabulario de la lengua sangleya (c. 1617), a Spanish-Hokkien dictionary, with definitions. Arte de la Lengua Chiõ Chiu (1620), a grammar written by a Spanish missionary in the Philippines.

These texts appear to record a Zhangzhou
Zhangzhou
dialect, from the area of Haicheng (an old port that is now part of Longhai).[12] Chinese scholars produced rhyme dictionaries describing Hokkien varieties at the beginning of the 19th century:[13]

Huìyīn Miàowù (彙音妙悟 "Understanding of the collected sounds") was written around 1800 by Huang Qian (黃謙), and describes the Quanzhou
Quanzhou
dialect. The oldest extant edition dates from 1831. Huìjí yǎsútōng shíwǔyīn (彙集雅俗通十五音 "Compilation of the fifteen elegant and vulgar sounds") by Xie Xiulan (謝秀嵐) describes the Zhangzhou
Zhangzhou
dialect. The oldest extant edition dates from 1818.

Walter Henry Medhurst
Walter Henry Medhurst
based his 1832 dictionary on the latter work. Phonology[edit] Hokkien
Hokkien
has one of the most diverse phoneme inventories among Chinese varieties, with more consonants than Standard Mandarin, Cantonese
Cantonese
and Shanghainese. Vowels are more-or-less similar to that of Standard Mandarin. Hokkien
Hokkien
varieties retain many pronunciations that are no longer found in other Chinese varieties. These include the retention of the /t/ initial, which is now /tʂ/ ( Pinyin
Pinyin
'zh') in Mandarin (e.g. 'bamboo' 竹 is tik, but zhú in Mandarin), having disappeared before the 6th century in other Chinese varieties.[14] Initials[edit] Southern Min
Southern Min
has aspirated, unaspirated as well as voiced consonant initials. For example, the word khui (開; "open") and kuiⁿ (關; "close") have the same vowel but differ only by aspiration of the initial and nasality of the vowel. In addition, Southern Min
Southern Min
has labial initial consonants such as m in m̄-sī (毋是; "is not"). Another example is cha-po͘-kiáⁿ (查埔囝; "boy") and cha-bó͘-kiáⁿ (查某囝; "girl"), which differ in the second syllable in consonant voicing and in tone. Finals[edit] Unlike Mandarin, Hokkien
Hokkien
retains all the final consonants corresponding to those of Middle Chinese. While Mandarin only preserves the n and ŋ finals, Southern Min
Southern Min
also preserves the m, p, t and k finals and developed the ʔ (glottal stop). Vowels[edit]

Front Near-front Central Near-back Back

Close

i (y) ɨ u       e o (ɤ) ə ɛ ɔ ɐ a

Near‑close

Close‑mid

Mid

Open‑mid

Near‑open

Open

The following table illustrates some of the more commonly seen vowel shifts. Characters with the same vowel are shown in parentheses.

English Chinese character Accent Pe̍h-ōe-jī IPA Teochew Peng'Im

two 二 Quanzhou, Taipei lī li˧ jĭ (zi˧˥)[15]

Xiamen, Zhangzhou, Tainan jī dzi˧

sick 病 (生) Quanzhou, Xiamen, Taipei pīⁿ pĩ˧ pēⁿ (pẽ˩)

Zhangzhou, Tainan pēⁿ pẽ˧

egg 卵 (遠) Quanzhou, Xiamen, Taiwan nn̄g nŋ˧ nn̆g (nŋ˧˥)

Zhangzhou nūi nui˧

chopsticks 箸 (豬) Quanzhou tīr tɯ˧ tēu (tɤ˩)

Xiamen, Taipei tū tu˧

Zhangzhou, Tainan tī ti˧

shoes 鞋 (街)

Quanzhou, Xiamen, Taipei oê ue˧˥ ôi (tɤ˩)

Zhangzhou, Tainan ê e˧˥

leather 皮 (未) Quanzhou phêr pʰə˨˩ phuê (pʰue˩)

Xiamen, Taipei phê pʰe˨˩

Zhangzhou, Tainan phôe pʰue˧

chicken 雞 (細) Quanzhou, Xiamen, Taipei koe kue˥˥ koi

Zhangzhou, Tainan ke ke˥˥

hair 毛 (兩) Quanzhou, Taiwan, Xiamen mn̂g mŋ mo

Zhangzhou, Taiwan mo͘ mõ

return 還 Quanzhou hoan huaⁿ huêng

Xiamen hâiⁿ hãɪ²⁴

Zhangzhou, Taiwan hêng hîŋ

Speech 話 (花) Quanzhou, Taiwan oe ue

Zhangzhou oa ua

Tones[edit] In general, Hokkien
Hokkien
dialects have 5 to 7 phonemic tones. According to the traditional Chinese system, however, there are 7 to 9 tones if the two additional entering tones (see the discussion on Chinese tone). Tone sandhi
Tone sandhi
is extensive.[16] There are minor variations between the Quanzhou
Quanzhou
and Zhangzhou
Zhangzhou
tone systems. Taiwanese tones follow the patterns of Amoy or Quanzhou, depending on the area of Taiwan. Many dialects have an additional phonemic tone ("tone 9" according to the traditional reckoning), used only in special or foreign loan words.[17]

Tones 平 上 去 入

陰平 陽平 陰上 陽上 陰去 陽去 陰入 陽入

Tone Number 1 5 2 6 3 7 4 8

調值 Xiamen, Fujian 44 24 53 - 21 22 32 4

東 taŋ1 銅 taŋ5 董 taŋ2 - 凍 taŋ3 動 taŋ7 觸 tak4 逐 tak8

Taipei, Taiwan 44 24 53 - 11 33 32 4

-

Tainan, Taiwan 44 23 41 - 21 33 32 44

-

Zhangzhou, Fujian 34 13 53 - 21 22 32 121

-

Quanzhou, Fujian 33 24 55 22 41 5 24

-

Penang, Malaysia[18] 33 23 445 - 21 3 4

-

Comparison[edit] The Amoy dialect
Amoy dialect
(Xiamen) is a hybrid of the Quanzhou
Quanzhou
and Zhangzhou dialects. Taiwanese is also a hybrid of these two dialects. Taiwanese in northern and coastal Taiwan
Taiwan
tends to be based on the Quanzhou variety, whereas the Taiwanese spoken in central, south and inland Taiwan
Taiwan
tends to be based on Zhangzhou
Zhangzhou
speech. There are minor variations in pronunciation and vocabulary between Quanzhou
Quanzhou
and Zhangzhou
Zhangzhou
dialects. The grammar is generally the same. Additionally, extensive contact with the Japanese language
Japanese language
has left a legacy of Japanese loanwords in Taiwanese Hokkien. On the other hand, the variants spoken in Singapore
Singapore
and Malaysia
Malaysia
have a substantial number of loanwords from Malay and to a lesser extent, from English and other Chinese varieties, such as the closely related Teochew and some Cantonese. Penang Hokkien
Penang Hokkien
and Medan Hokkien
Medan Hokkien
are based on Zhangzhou
Zhangzhou
dialect, whereas Southern Peninsular Malaysian Hokkien
Southern Peninsular Malaysian Hokkien
is based on Quanzhou dialect. Mutual intelligibility[edit] The Quanzhou
Quanzhou
dialect, Xiamen
Xiamen
dialect, Zhangzhou
Zhangzhou
dialect, Taiwanese are mutually intelligible. The overseas variants such as Penang
Penang
Hokkien and Singaporean Hokkien
Singaporean Hokkien
are slightly less mutually intelligible to mainland Min Nan
Min Nan
dialects and Taiwanese dialects due to the existence of foreign loanwords. The Min Nan
Min Nan
varieties of Teochew and Amoy are 84% phonetically similar,[citation needed] and 34% lexically similar,[citation needed] whereas Mandarin and Amoy Min Nan
Min Nan
are 62% phonetically similar[citation needed] and 15% lexically similar.[citation needed] In comparison, German and English are 60% lexically similar.[19] Hainanese, which is sometimes considered Southern Min, has almost no mutual intelligibility with any form of Hokkien.[citation needed] Grammar[edit] Hokkien
Hokkien
is an analytic language; in a sentence, the arrangement of words is important to its meaning.[20] A basic sentence follows the subject–verb–object pattern (i.e. a subject is followed by a verb then by an object), though this order is often violated because Hokkien
Hokkien
dialects are topic-prominent. Unlike synthetic languages, seldom do words indicate time, gender and plural by inflection. Instead, these concepts are expressed through adverbs, aspect markers, and grammatical particles, or are deduced from the context. Different particles are added to a sentence to further specify its status or intonation. A verb itself indicates no grammatical tense. The time can be explicitly shown with time-indicating adverbs. Certain exceptions exist, however, according to the pragmatic interpretation of a verb's meaning. Additionally, an optional aspect particle can be appended to a verb to indicate the state of an action. Appending interrogative or exclamative particles to a sentence turns a statement into a question or shows the attitudes of the speaker. Hokkien
Hokkien
dialects preserve certain grammatical reflexes and patterns reminiscent of the broad stage of Archaic Chinese. This includes the serialization of verb phrases (direct linkage of verbs and verb phrases) and the infrequency of nominalization, both similar to Archaic Chinese
Archaic Chinese
grammar.[21]

你(Lí) 去(khì) 買(bé) 有(ū) 錶仔(pió-á) 無(bo)? You-go-buy-have watch-no (Gloss) "Did you go to buy a watch?"

Choice of grammatical function words also varies significantly among the Hokkien
Hokkien
dialects. For instance, 乞 khit (denoting the causative, passive or dative) is retained in Jinjiang (also unique to the Jinjiang dialect is 度 thoo) and in Jieyang, but not in Longxi and Xiamen, whose dialects use 互 (hoo) instead.[22] Pronouns[edit] Hokkien
Hokkien
dialects differ in their preferred choice of pronouns. For instance, while the second person pronoun lí (你) is standard in Taiwanese Hokkien, the Teochew loanword lú (汝) is more common among Hokkien-speaking communities in Southeast Asia. The plural personal pronouns tend to be nasalized forms of the singular ones. Personal pronouns found in the Hokkien
Hokkien
dialects are listed below:

Person Singular Plural

First person 我 góa 阮1, 3gún, góan

咱2, 3 or 俺 lán or án

我儂 góa-lâng

Second person 你 lí

汝 lú 恁 lín

恁儂 lín lâng

Third person 伊 i 𪜶 in

伊儂 i lâng

1 Inclusive 2 Exclusive 3 儂 (-lâng) is typically suffixed in Southeast Asian Hokkien dialects

Possessive pronouns are marked by the particle ê (的), or its literary version chi (之). Plural pronouns are typically unmarked (the nasalized final serves as the possessive indicator):[23]

阮(góan) 翁(ang) 姓(sèⁿ) 陳(Tân)。 "My husband's surname is Tan."

Reflexive pronouns are made by appending the pronouns ka-kī, ka-tī (家己) or chū-kí (自己). Hokkien
Hokkien
dialects use a variety of differing demonstrative pronouns, which are as follows:

this - che (這, 即), chit-ê (這個, 即個) that - he (許, 彼), hit-ê (彼個) here - chia (者), hia/hiâ (遮, 遐), chit-tau 這兜) there - hia (許, 遐), hit-tau (彼兜)

The interrogative pronouns are:

what - siáⁿ-mih (啥物), sīm-mi̍h (甚麼) when - tī-sî (底時), kī-sî (幾時), tang-sî (當時), sīm-mi̍h-sî-chūn (甚麼時陣) where - to-lo̍h (倒落), tó-uī (佗位, 叨位) who - siáⁿ-lâng (啥人) or siáⁿ (啥) why - án-chóaⁿ (按怎), khah (盍) how - án-chóaⁿ (按怎) lû-hô (如何) chóaⁿ-iūⁿ (怎樣)

Copula ("to be")[edit] States and qualities are generally expressed using stative verbs that do not require the verb "to be":

我(goá) 腹肚(pak-tó͘) 枵(iau)。 "I am hungry." (lit. I-stomach-hungry)

With noun complements, the verb sī (是) serves as the verb "to be".

昨昏(cha-hng) 是(sī) 八月節(peh-go̍eh-cheh)。 "Yesterday was the Mid-Autumn festival."

To indicate location, the words tī (佇) tiàm (踮), teh/leh (咧), which are collectively known as the locatives or sometimes coverbs in Chinese linguistics, are used to express "(to be) at":

我(goá) 踮(tiàm) 遮(chia) 等(tán) 你(lí)。 "I am here waiting for you."

伊(i) 這馬(chit-má) 佇(tī) 厝(chhù) 裡(lí) 咧(teh) 睏(khùn)。 "He's sleeping at home now."

Negation[edit] Hokkien
Hokkien
dialects have a variety of negation particles that are prefixed or affixed to the verbs they modify. There are five primary negation particles in Hokkien
Hokkien
dialects:

m̄ (毋, 呣, 唔) bē, bōe (袂, 未) mài (莫, 勿) bô (無) put (不) - literary

Other negative particles include:

biàu (嫑) - a contraction of bô iàu (無要), as in biàu-kín (嫑緊)[citation needed] bàng (甭) bián (免) thài (汰)

The particles m̄ (毋, 呣, 唔) is general and can negate almost any verb:

伊(i) 毋(m̄) 捌(bat) 字(jī)。 "He cannot read." (lit. he-not-know-word)

The particle mài (莫, 勿), a concatenation of m-ài (毋愛) is used to negate imperative commands:

莫(mài) 講(kóng)! "Don't speak!"

The particle bô (無) indicates the past tense:

伊(i) 無(bô) 食(chia̍h)。 "He did not eat."

The verb 'to have', ū (有) is replaced by bô (無) when negated (not 無有):

伊(i) 無(bô) 錢(chîⁿ)。 "He does not have any money."

The particle put (不) is used infrequently, mostly found in literary compounds and phrases:

伊(i) 真(chin) 不孝(put-hàu)。 "He is truly unfilial."

Vocabulary[edit] The majority of Hokkien
Hokkien
vocabulary is monosyllabic.[24][better source needed] Many Hokkien
Hokkien
words have cognates in other Chinese varieties. That said, there are also many indigenous words that are unique to Hokkien
Hokkien
and are potentially not of Sino-Tibetan
Sino-Tibetan
origin, while others are shared by all the Min dialects (e.g. 'congee' is 糜 mê, bôe, bê, not 粥 zhōu, as in other dialects). As compared to Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese
(Mandarin), Hokkien
Hokkien
dialects prefer to use the monosyllabic form of words, without suffixes. For instance, the Mandarin noun suffix 子 (zi) is not found in Hokkien
Hokkien
words, while another noun suffix, 仔 (á) is used in many nouns. Examples are below:

'duck' - 鸭 ah or 鴨仔 ah-á (SC: 鸭子 yāzi) 'color' - 色 sek (SC: 顏色 yán sè)

In other bisyllabic morphemes, the syllables are inverted, as compared to Standard Chinese. Examples include the following:

'guest' - 人客 lâng-kheh (SC: 客人 kèrén)

In other cases, the same word can have different meanings in Hokkien and standard written Chinese. Similarly, depending on the region Hokkien
Hokkien
is spoken in, loanwords from local languages (Malay, Tagalog, Burmese, among others), as well as other Chinese dialects
Chinese dialects
(such as Southern Chinese dialects
Chinese dialects
like Cantonese
Cantonese
and Teochew), are commonly integrated into the vocabulary of Hokkien
Hokkien
dialects. Literary and colloquial readings[edit] The existence of literary and colloquial readings is a prominent feature of some Hokkien
Hokkien
dialects and indeed in many Sinitic varieties in the south. The bulk of literary readings (文讀, bûn-tha̍k), based on pronunciations of the vernacular during the Tang Dynasty, are mainly used in formal phrases and written language (e.g. philosophical concepts, surnames, and some place names), while the colloquial (or vernacular) ones (白讀, pe̍h-tha̍k) are basically used in spoken language and vulgar phrases. Literary readings are more similar to the pronunciations of the Tang standard of Middle Chinese
Middle Chinese
than their colloquial equivalents. However, some dialects of Hokkien, such as Penang Hokkien
Penang Hokkien
as well as Philippine Hokkien
Philippine Hokkien
overwhelmingly favor colloquial readings. For example, in both Penang Hokkien
Penang Hokkien
and Philippine Hokkien, the characters for 'university,' 大學, are pronounced tōa-o̍h (colloquial readings for both characters), instead of the literary reading tāi-ha̍k, which is common in Taiwanese and Mainland Chinese dialects. The pronounced divergence between literary and colloquial pronunciations found in Hokkien
Hokkien
dialects is attributed to the presence of several strata in the Min lexicon. The earliest, colloquial stratum is traced to the Han dynasty
Han dynasty
(206 BCE - 220 CE); the second colloquial one comes from the period of the Southern and Northern Dynasties
Southern and Northern Dynasties
(420 - 589 CE); the third stratum of pronunciations (typically literary ones) comes from the Tang Dynasty
Tang Dynasty
(618–907 CE) and is based on the prestige dialect of Chang'an
Chang'an
(modern day Xi'an), its capital.[25] Some commonly seen sound correspondences (colloquial → literary) are as follows:

p- ([p-], [pʰ-]) → h ([h-]) ch-, chh- ([ts-], [tsʰ-], [tɕ-], [tɕʰ-]) → s ([s-], [ɕ-]) k-, kh- ([k-], [kʰ-]) → ch ([tɕ-], [tɕʰ-]) -ⁿ ([-ã], [-uã]) → n ([-an]) -h ([-ʔ]) → t ([-t]) i ([-i]) → e ([-e]) e ([-e]) → a ([-a]) ia ([-ia]) → i ([-i])

This table displays some widely used characters in Hokkien
Hokkien
that have both literary and colloquial readings:[26][27]

Chinese character Reading pronunciations Spoken pronunciations / †explications English

白 pe̍k pe̍h white

面 biān bīn face

書 su chu book

生 seng seⁿ / siⁿ student

不 put m̄† not

返 hóan tńg† return

學 ha̍k o̍h to study

人 jîn / lîn lâng person

少 siàu chió few

轉 chóan tńg to turn

This feature extends to Chinese numerals, which have both literary and colloquial readings.[27] Literary readings are typically used when the numerals are read out loud (e.g. phone numbers), while colloquial readings are used for counting items.

Numeral Reading Numeral Reading

Literary Colloquial Literary Colloquial

一 it chi̍t 六 lio̍k la̍k

二 jī, lī 七 chhit

三 sam saⁿ 八 pat peh, poeh

四 sù, sìr sì 九 kiú káu

五 ngó gō 十 si̍p cha̍p

Semantic differences between Hokkien
Hokkien
and Mandarin[edit] Quite a few words from the variety of Old Chinese
Old Chinese
spoken in the state of Wu, where the ancestral language of Min and Wu dialect families originated, and later words from Middle Chinese
Middle Chinese
as well, have retained the original meanings in Hokkien, while many of their counterparts in Mandarin Chinese
Mandarin Chinese
have either fallen out of daily use, have been substituted with other words (some of which are borrowed from other languages while others are new developments), or have developed newer meanings. The same may be said of Hokkien
Hokkien
as well, since some lexical meaning evolved in step with Mandarin while others are wholly innovative developments. This table shows some Hokkien
Hokkien
dialect words from Classical Chinese, as contrasted to the written Chinese standard, Mandarin:

Meaning Hokkien Mandarin

Hanji POJ Hanzi Pinyin

eye 目睭/目珠 ba̍k-chiu 眼睛 yǎnjīng

chopstick 箸 tī, tū 筷子 kuàizi

to chase 逐 jiok, lip 追 zhuī

wet 潤 jūn, lūn 濕 shī

black 烏 o͘ 黑 hēi

book 冊 chheh 書 shū

For other words, the classical Chinese meanings of certain words, which are retained in Hokkien
Hokkien
dialects, have evolved or deviated significantly in other Chinese dialects. The following table shows some words that are both used in both Hokkien
Hokkien
dialects and Mandarin Chinese, while the meanings in Mandarin Chinese
Mandarin Chinese
have been modified:

Word Hokkien Mandarin

POJ Meaning (and Classical Chinese) Pinyin Meaning

走 cháu to flee zǒu to walk

細 sè, sòe tiny, small, young xì thin, slender

鼎 tiáⁿ pot dǐng tripod

食 chia̍h to eat shí food

懸 kôan tall, high xuán to hang, to suspend

喙 chhuì mouth huì beak

Words from Minyue[edit] Some commonly used words, shared by all[citation needed][dubious – discuss] Min Chinese
Min Chinese
dialects, came from the ancient Minyue languages. Jerry Norman suggested that these languages were Austroasiatic. Some terms are thought be cognates with words in Tai Kadai
Tai Kadai
and Austronesian languages. They include the following examples, compared to the Fuzhou dialect, a Min Dong language:

Word Hokkien
Hokkien
POJ Foochow Romanized Meaning

骹 kha [kʰa˥] kă [kʰa˥] foot and leg

囝 kiáⁿ [kiã˥˩] giāng [kiaŋ˧] son, child, whelp, a small amount

睏 khùn [kʰun˨˩] káung [kʰɑuŋ˧] to sleep

骿 phiaⁿ [pʰiã˥] piăng [pʰiaŋ˥] back, dorsum

厝 chhù [tsʰu˨˩] chuó, chió [tsʰuɔ˥˧] home, house

刣 thâi [tʰai˨˦] tài [tʰai˥˧] to kill, to slaughter

(肉) bah, mah — meat

媠 suí — beautiful

Loanwords[edit] Loanwords are not unusual among Hokkien
Hokkien
dialects, as speakers readily adopted indigenous terms of the languages they came in contact with. As a result, there is a plethora of loanwords that are not mutually comprehensible among Hokkien
Hokkien
dialects. Taiwanese Hokkien, as a result of linguistic contact with Japanese[28] and Formosan languages, contains many loanwords from these languages. Many words have also been formed as calques from Mandarin, and speakers will often directly use Mandarin vocabulary through codeswitching. Among these include the following examples:

'toilet' - piān-só͘ (便所) from Japanese benjo (便所)

Other Hokkien
Hokkien
variants: 屎礐 (sái-ha̍k), 廁所 (chhek-só͘)

'car' - chū-tōng-chhia (自動車) from Japanese jidōsha (自動車)

Other Hokkien
Hokkien
variants: 風車 (hong-chhia), 汽車 (khì-chhia)

'to admire' - kám-sim (感心) from Japanese kanshin (感心)

Other Hokkien
Hokkien
variants: 感動 (kám-tōng)

'fruit' - chúi-ké / chúi-kóe / chúi-kér (水果) from Mandarin (Chinese: 水果; pinyin: shuǐguǒ)

Other Hokkien
Hokkien
variants: 果子 (ké-chí / kóe-chí / kér-chí)

Singaporean Hokkien, Penang Hokkien
Penang Hokkien
and other Malaysian Hokkien dialects tend to draw loanwords from Malay, English as well as other Chinese dialects, primarily Teochew. Examples include:

'but' - tapi, from Malay

Other Hokkien
Hokkien
variants: 但是 (tān-sī)

'doctor' - 老君 lu-gun, from Malay dukun

Other Hokkien
Hokkien
variants: 醫生(i-sing)

'stone/rock' - batu, from Malay batu

Other Hokkien
Hokkien
variants: 石头(tsio-tau)

'market' - 巴剎 pa-sat, from Malay pasar from Persian bazaar (بازار)[29]

Other Hokkien
Hokkien
variants: 市場 (chhī-tiûⁿ)

'they' - 伊儂 i lâng from Teochew (i1 nang5)

Other Hokkien
Hokkien
variants: 𪜶 (in)

'together' - 做瓠 chò-bú from Teochew 做瓠 (jo3 bu5)

Other Hokkien
Hokkien
variants: 做夥 (chò-hóe), 同齊 (tâng-chê) or 鬥陣 (tàu-tīn)

茶箍 (Sap-bûn) from Malay sabun from Arabic ṣābūn (صابون).[29][30][31]

Philippine Hokkien
Philippine Hokkien
dialects, as a result of centuries-old contact with both Philippine language and Spanish also incorporate words from these languages. Examples include:

'cup' - ba-su, from Spanish vaso and Tagalog baso

Other Hokkien
Hokkien
variants: 杯子 (poe-á)

'office' - o-pi-sin, from Spanish oficina and Tagalog opisina

Other Hokkien
Hokkien
variants: 辦公室 (pān-kong-sek)

'soap' - sa-bun, from Spanish jabon and Tagalog sabon

Other Hokkien
Hokkien
variants:

'but' - ka-so, from Tagalog kaso

Other Hokkien
Hokkien
variants: 但是 (tan-si) (em-ko)

Standard Hokkien[edit] Hokkien-Taiwanese originated from Quanzhou.[32][better source needed] After the Opium War
Opium War
in 1842, Xiamen
Xiamen
(Amoy) became one of the major treaty ports to be opened for trade with the outside world. From mid-19th century onwards, Xiamen
Xiamen
slowly developed to become the political and economical center of the Hokkien-Taiwanese speaking region in China. This caused Amoy dialect to gradually replace the position of dialect variants from Quanzhou
Quanzhou
and Zhangzhou. From mid-19th century until the end of World War II,[citation needed] western diplomats usually learned Amoy as the preferred dialect if they were to communicate with the Hokkien-speaking populace in China
China
or South-East Asia. In the 1940s and 1950s, Taiwan[who?] also held Amoy Minnan as its standard and tended to incline towards Amoy dialect. However, from the 1980s onwards, the development of Taiwanese Min Nan pop music and media industry in Taiwan
Taiwan
caused the Hokkien
Hokkien
cultural hub to shift from Xiamen
Xiamen
to Taiwan.[citation needed] The flourishing Taiwanese Min Nan
Min Nan
entertainment and media industry from Taiwan
Taiwan
in the 1990s and early 21st century led Taiwan
Taiwan
to emerge as the new significant cultural hub for Hokkien. In the 1990s, marked by the liberalization of language development and mother tongue movement in Taiwan, Taiwanese Hokkien
Taiwanese Hokkien
had undergone a fast pace in its development. In 1993, Taiwan
Taiwan
became the first region in the world to implement the teaching of Taiwanese Hokkien
Taiwanese Hokkien
in Taiwanese schools. In 2001, the local Taiwanese language program was further extended to all schools in Taiwan, and Taiwanese Hokkien became one of the compulsory local Taiwanese languages to be learned in schools.[33] The mother tongue movement in Taiwan
Taiwan
even influenced Xiamen
Xiamen
(Amoy) to the point that in 2010, Xiamen
Xiamen
also began to implement the teaching of Hokkien
Hokkien
dialect in its schools.[34] In 2007, the Ministry of Education in Taiwan
Taiwan
also completed the standardization of Chinese characters
Chinese characters
used for writing Hokkien
Hokkien
and developed Tai-lo as the standard Hokkien
Hokkien
pronunciation and romanization guide. A number of universities in Taiwan
Taiwan
also offer Taiwanese degree courses for training Hokkien-fluent talents to work for the Hokkien
Hokkien
media industry and education. Taiwan
Taiwan
also has its own Hokkien
Hokkien
literary and cultural circles whereby Hokkien
Hokkien
poets and writers compose poetry or literature in Hokkien. Thus by the 21st century, Taiwan
Taiwan
has truly emerged as one of the most significant Hokkien
Hokkien
cultural hubs of the world. The historical changes and development in Taiwan
Taiwan
had led Taiwanese Hokkien
Taiwanese Hokkien
to become the more influential pole of the Hokkien
Hokkien
dialect after mid-20th century. Today, Taiwanese prestige dialect (Taiyu Youshiqiang/Tongxinqiang 台語優勢腔/通行腔), which is based on Tainan
Tainan
variant and heard on Taiwanese Hokkien
Taiwanese Hokkien
media. Writing systems[edit] Main article: Written Hokkien Further information: Comparison of Hokkien
Hokkien
writing systems Chinese script[edit] Hokkien
Hokkien
dialects are typically written using Chinese characters (漢字, Hàn-jī). However, the written script was and remains adapted to the literary form, which is based on classical Chinese, not the vernacular and spoken form. Furthermore, the character inventory used for Mandarin (standard written Chinese) does not correspond to Hokkien
Hokkien
words, and there are a large number of informal characters (替字, thè-jī or thòe-jī; 'substitute characters') which are unique to Hokkien
Hokkien
(as is the case with Cantonese). For instance, about 20 to 25% of Taiwanese morphemes lack an appropriate or standard Chinese character.[26] While most Hokkien
Hokkien
morphemes have standard designated characters, they are not always etymological or phono-semantic. Similar-sounding, similar-meaning or rare characters are commonly borrowed or substituted to represent a particular morpheme. Examples include "beautiful" (美 bí is the literary form), whose vernacular morpheme suí is represented by characters like 媠 (an obsolete character), 婎 (a vernacular reading of this character) and even 水 (transliteration of the sound suí), or "tall" (高 ko is the literary form), whose morpheme kôan is 懸.[35] Common grammatical particles are not exempt; the negation particle m̄ (not) is variously represented by 毋, 呣 or 唔, among others. In other cases, characters are invented to represent a particular morpheme (a common example is the character 𪜶 in, which represents the personal pronoun "they"). In addition, some characters have multiple and unrelated pronunciations, adapted to represent Hokkien
Hokkien
words. For example, the Hokkien
Hokkien
word bah ("meat") has been reduced to the character 肉, which has etymologically unrelated colloquial and literary readings (he̍k and jio̍k, respectively).[36][37] Another case is the word 'to eat,' chia̍h, which is often transcribed in Taiwanese newspapers and media as 呷 (a Mandarin transliteration, xiā, to approximate the Hokkien
Hokkien
term), even though its recommended character in dictionaries is 食.[38] Moreover, unlike Cantonese, Hokkien
Hokkien
does not have a universally accepted standardized character set. Thus, there is some variation in the characters used to express certain words and characters can be ambiguous in meaning. In 2007, the Ministry of Education of the Republic of China
China
formulated and released a standard character set to overcome these difficulties.[39] These standard Chinese characters
Chinese characters
for writing Taiwanese Hokkien
Taiwanese Hokkien
are now taught in schools in Taiwan. Latin
Latin
script[edit] Hokkien, especially Taiwanese Hokkien, is sometimes written in the Latin script
Latin script
using one of several alphabets. Of these the most popular is POJ, developed first by Presbyterian
Presbyterian
missionaries in China
China
and later by the indigenous Presbyterian
Presbyterian
Church in Taiwan. Use of this script and orthography has been actively promoted since the late 19th century. The use of a mixed script of Han characters and Latin
Latin
letters is also seen, though remains uncommon. Other Latin-based alphabets also exist. Min Nan
Min Nan
texts, all Hokkien, can be dated back to the 16th century. One example is the Doctrina Christiana
Doctrina Christiana
en letra y lengua china, presumably written after 1587 by the Spanish Dominicans in the Philippines. Another is a Ming Dynasty
Ming Dynasty
script of a play called Tale of the Lychee Mirror (1566), supposedly the earliest Southern Min
Southern Min
colloquial text, although it is written in Teochew dialect. Taiwan
Taiwan
has developed a Latin
Latin
alphabet for Taiwanese Hokkien, derived from POJ, known as Tai-lo. Since 2006, it has been officially promoted by Taiwan's Ministry of Education and taught in Taiwanese schools. Xiamen
Xiamen
University has also developed an alphabet based on Pinyin called Bbánlám pìngyīm. Computing[edit]

The character for the third person pronoun (they) in some Hokkien dialects, 𪜶 (in), is now supported by the Unicode
Unicode
Standard at U+2A736.

Hokkien
Hokkien
is registered as "Southern Min" per RFC 3066 as zh-min-nan.[40] When writing Hokkien
Hokkien
in Chinese characters, some writers create 'new' characters when they consider it impossible to use directly or borrow existing ones; this corresponds to similar practices in character usage in Cantonese, Vietnamese chữ nôm, Korean hanja and Japanese kanji. Some of these are not encoded in Unicode
Unicode
(or the corresponding ISO/IEC 10646: Universal Character Set), thus creating problems in computer processing. All Latin
Latin
characters required by Pe̍h-ōe-jī
Pe̍h-ōe-jī
can be represented using Unicode
Unicode
(or the corresponding ISO/IEC 10646: Universal Character Set), using precomposed or combining (diacritics) characters. Prior to June 2004, the vowel akin to but more open than o, written with a dot above right, was not encoded. The usual workaround was to use the (stand-alone; spacing) character Interpunct
Interpunct
(U+00B7, ·) or less commonly the combining character dot above (U+0307). As these are far from ideal, since 1997 proposals have been submitted to the ISO/IEC working group in charge of ISO/IEC 10646—namely, ISO/IEC JTC1/SC2/WG2—to encode a new combining character dot above right. This is now officially assigned to U+0358 (see documents N1593, N2507, N2628, N2699, and N2713). Font support is expected to follow. Cultural and political role[edit] See also: Hokkien
Hokkien
culture Hokkien
Hokkien
(or Min Nan) can trace its roots through the Tang Dynasty
Tang Dynasty
and also even further to the people of the Baiyue, the indigenous non-Han people of modern-day southern China.[41] Min Nan
Min Nan
(Hokkien) people call themselves "Tang people," (唐人; Tn̂g-lâng) which is synonymous to "Chinese people". Because of the widespread influence of the Tang culture during the great Tang dynasty, there are today still many Min Nan pronunciations of words shared by the Vietnamese, Korean and Japanese languages. In 2002, the Taiwan
Taiwan
Solidarity Union, a party with about 10% of the Legislative Yuan
Legislative Yuan
seats at the time, suggested making Taiwanese a second official language.[42] This proposal encountered strong opposition not only from Mainlander groups but also from Hakka
Hakka
and Taiwanese aboriginal
Taiwanese aboriginal
groups who felt that it would slight their home languages, as well as others including Hoklo who objected to the proposal on logistical grounds and on the grounds that it would increase ethnic tensions. Because of these objections, support for this measure was lukewarm among moderate Taiwan
Taiwan
independence supporters, and the proposal did not pass.

English Chinese characters Mandarin Chinese Taiwanese Hokkien[43] Korean Vietnamese Japanese

Book 冊 Cè Chheh Chaek Tập/Sách Saku/Satsu/Shaku

Bridge 橋 Qiáo Kiô Kyo Cầu/Kiều Kyō

Dangerous 危險 Wēixiǎn Guî-hiám Wiheom Nguy hiểm Kiken

Flag 旗 Qí Kî Ki Cờ/Kỳ Ki

Insurance 保險 Bǎoxiǎn Pó-hiám Boheom Bảo hiểm Hoken

News 新聞 Xīnwén Sin-bûn Shinmun Tân Văn Shinbun

Student 學生 Xuéshēng Ha̍k-seng Haksaeng Học sinh Gakusei

University 大學 Dàxué Tāi-ha̍k (Tōa-o̍h) Daehak Đại học Daigaku

See also[edit]

China
China
portal Taiwan
Taiwan
portal Languages portal

Penang
Penang
Hokkien Taiwanese Hokkien Medan
Medan
Hokkien Singaporean Hokkien Amoy dialect Lan-nang
Lan-nang
(Philippine dialect of Hokkien) Teochew dialect Languages of China Languages of Taiwan Amoy Min Nan
Min Nan
Swadesh list

Notes[edit]

^ They are the most common pronunciations while there is another one cited from OxfordDictionaries.com, /hoʊˈkiːn/, which is almost never used actually. ^ also Quanzhang (Quanzhou- Zhangzhou
Zhangzhou
/ Chinchew–Changchew; BP: Zuánziū–Ziāngziū)

References[edit]

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Glottolog
3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.  ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Fukienese". Glottolog
Glottolog
3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.  ^ West (2010), pp. 289-90. ^ "臺灣閩南語漢字之選用原則" (PDF).  ^ Yan, Margaret Mian (2006). Introduction to Chinese Dialectology. LINCOM Europa. p. 120. ISBN 978-3-89586-629-6.  ^ a b Chappell, Hilary; Peyraube, Alain (2006). "The analytic causatives of early modern Southern Min
Southern Min
in diachronic perspective". In Ho, D.-a.; Cheung, S.; Pan, W.; Wu, F. Linguistic Studies in Chinese and Neighboring Languages. Taipei: Institute of Linguistics, Academia Sinica. pp. 973–1011.  ^ Lien, Chinfa (2015). "Min languages". In Wang, William S.-Y.; Sun, Chaofen. The Oxford Handbook of Chinese Linguistics. Oxford University Press. pp. 160–172. ISBN 978-0-19-985633-6.  ^ Klöter, Henning (2011). The Language of the Sangleys: A Chinese Vernacular in Missionary Sources of the Seventeenth Century. BRILL. ISBN 978-90-04-18493-0.  ^ Yue, Anne O. (1999). "The Min translation of the Doctrina Christiana". Contemporary Studies on the Min Dialects. Journal of Chinese Linguistics Monograph Series. 14. Chinese University Press. pp. 42–76. JSTOR 23833463.  ^ Van der Loon, Piet (1966). "The Manila Incunabula and Early Hokkien Studies, Part 1" (PDF). Asia Major New Series. 12 (1): 1–43.  ^ Van der Loon, Piet (1967). "The Manila Incunabula and Early Hokkien Studies, Part 2" (PDF). Asia Major New Series. 13 (1): 95–186.  ^ Klöter, Henning (2005). Written Taiwanese. Otto Harrassowitz. pp. 64–65. ISBN 978-3-447-05093-7.  ^ Kane, Daniel (2006). The Chinese language: its history and current usage. Tuttle Publishing. pp. 100–102. ISBN 978-0-8048-3853-5.  ^ for Teochew Peng'Im on the word 'two', ri6 can also be written as dzi6. ^ 無標題文件 (in Chinese). Ntcu.edu.tw. August 1, 2007. Retrieved September 16, 2010.  ^ 周長楫 (2006). 闽南方言大词典 (in Chinese). 福建人民出版社. pp. 17, 28. ISBN 7-211-03896-9.  ^ https://www.academia.edu/5132554/Complete_and_not-so-complete_tonal_neutralization_in_Penang_Hokkien ^ "German". Ethnologue. Retrieved 16 September 2010.  ^ Ratte, Alexander T. (May 2009). "A DIALECTAL AND PHONOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF PENGHU TAIWANESE" (PDF). Williamstown, Massachusetts: Williams College: 4.  ^ Li, Y.C. (1986). "Historical significance of certain distinct grammatical features in Taiwanese". In John McCoy, Timothy Light. Contributions to Sino-Tibetan
Sino-Tibetan
studies. Brill Archive. ISBN 978-90-04-07850-5.  ^ Lien, Chinfa (2002). "Grammatical Function Words 乞, 度, 共, 甲, 將 and 力 in Li Jing Ji 荔鏡記 and their Development in Southern Min" (PDF). Papers from the Third International Conference on Sinology. National Tsing Hua University: 179–216.  ^ Klöter, Henning (2005). Written Taiwanese. Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. ISBN 978-3-447-05093-7.  ^ Lim, Beng Soon. "Malay Lexicalized Items in Penang
Penang
Peranakan Hokkien" (PDF). Singapore: Regional Language Centre (RELC): 165.  ^ Chappell, Hilary; Alain Peyraube. "The Analytic Causatives Of Early Modern Southern Min
Southern Min
In Diachronic Perspective" (PDF). Linguistic studies in Chinese and neighboring languages. Paris, France: Centre de Recherches Linguistiques sur l’Asie Orientale: 1–34.  ^ a b Mair, Victor H. (2010). "How to Forget Your Mother Tongue and Remember Your National Language". University of Pennsylvania. Retrieved 2 July 2011.  ^ a b 臺灣閩南語常用詞辭典 [Dictionary of Frequently-Used Taiwan
Taiwan
Minnan]. Ministry of Education, R.O.C. 2011.  ^ 臺灣閩南語外來詞 [Dictionary of Frequently-Used Taiwan Minnan] (in Chinese). Taiwan: Ministry of Education, R.O.C. 2011. Retrieved 8 July 2011.  ^ a b 似懂非懂 (8 December 2006). 卑南覓. Hyweb Technology Co. Ltd. pp. 1873–. GGKEY:TPZ824QU3UG.  ^ http://banlam.tawa.asia/2012/10/soap-feizhao-hokkien-sabun.html ^ Thomas Watters (1889). Essays on the Chinese Language. Presbyterian Mission Press. pp. 346–.  ^ http://www.taiwan.cn/twzlk/twgk/yywz/200512/t20051226_222977.htm ^ "《網路社會學通訊期刊》第45期,2005年03月15日". Nhu.edu.tw. Retrieved 16 September 2010.  ^ 有感于厦门学校“闽南语教学进课堂”_博客臧_新浪博客 ^ Iûⁿ, Ún-giân. 台語線頂字典 [ Taiwanese Hokkien
Taiwanese Hokkien
Online Character Dictionary] (in Taiwanese and Chinese). CS1 maint: Unrecognized language (link) ^ Klöter (2005), p. 21. ^ 臺灣閩南語常用詞辭典 [Dictionary of Frequently-Used Taiwan Minnan] (in Chinese). Ministry of Education, R.O.C. 2013. #2607.  ^ Hsieh, Shelley Ching-yu (October 2005). "Taiwanese Loanwords in Mandarin Chinese: Language Interaction in Taiwan" (PDF). Taiwan Papers. Southern Taiwan
Taiwan
University of Technology. 5. Retrieved 1 July 2011.  ^ 參、臺灣閩南語 (PDF). National Languages Committee (in Chinese). ROC Ministry of Education. Retrieved 2 July 2011.  ^ "RFC 3066 Language code assignments". Evertype.com. Retrieved 16 September 2010.  ^ Norman, Jerry; Mei, Tsu-lin (1976), "The Austroasiatics in Ancient South China: Some Lexical Evidence" (PDF), Monumenta Serica, 32: 274–301, JSTOR 40726203.  ^ Lin Mei-chun (10 Mar 2002). " Hokkien
Hokkien
should be given official status, says TSU". Taipei
Taipei
Times. p. 1.  ^ Iûⁿ, Ún-giân. "Tâi-bûn/Hôa-bûn Sòaⁿ-téng Sû-tián" 台文/華文線頂辭典 [Taiwanese/Chinese Online Dictionary]. Retrieved 1 October 2014. 

Further reading[edit]

Branner, David Prager (2000). Problems in Comparative Chinese Dialectology — the Classification of Miin and Hakka. Trends in Linguistics series, no. 123. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. ISBN 3-11-015831-0.  Chung, R.-f (196). The segmental phonology of Southern Min
Southern Min
in Taiwan. Taipei: Crane Pub. Co. ISBN 957-9463-46-8.  DeBernardi, Jean (1991). "Linguistic nationalism: the case of Southern Min". Sino-Platonic Papers. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania. 25. OCLC 24810816.  Ding, Picus Sizhi (2016). Southern Min
Southern Min
(Hokkien) as a Migrating Language. Springer. ISBN 978-981-287-593-8. 

Francis, Norbert (2014). " Southern Min
Southern Min
(Hokkien) as a Migrating Language: A Comparative Study of Language Shift and Maintenance across National Borders by Picus Sizhi Ding (review)". China
China
Review International. 21 (2): 128–133. doi:10.1353/cri.2014.0008. 

Klöter, Henning (2011). The Language of the Sangleys: A Chinese Vernacular in Missionary Sources of the Seventeenth Century. BRILL. ISBN 978-90-04-18493-0.  An analysis and facsimile of the Arte de la Lengua Chio-chiu (1620), the oldest extant grammar of Hokkien.

External links[edit]

Lìzhī jì 荔枝記 [Litchi Mirror Tale].  A playscript from the late 16th century. Doctrina Christiana. Manila. 1607.  Hokkien
Hokkien
translation of the Doctrina Christiana. Arte de la Lengua Chio-chiu. Manila. 1620.  A manual for learning Hokkien
Hokkien
written by a Spanish missionary in the Philippines. Huìjí yǎ sú tōng shíwǔ yīn 彙集雅俗通十五音 [Compilation of the fifteen elegant and vulgar sounds]. 1818.  The oldest known rhyme dictionary of a Zhangzhou
Zhangzhou
dialect. Douglas, Carstairs (1899). Chinese-English dictionary of the vernacular or spoken language of Amoy. London: Presbyterian
Presbyterian
Church of England.  Medhurst, Walter Henry (1832). A dictionary of the Hok-këèn dialect of the Chinese language, according to the reading and colloquial idioms. Macao: C.J. Steyn.  當代泉州音字彙, a dictionary of Quanzhou
Quanzhou
speech Voyager - Spacecraft - Golden Record - Greetings From Earth - Amoy, includes translation and sound clip

(The voyager clip says: Thài-khong pêng-iú, lín-hó. Lín chia̍h-pá--bē? Ū-êng, to̍h lâi gún chia chē--ô͘! 太空朋友,恁好。恁食飽未?有閒著來阮遮坐哦!)

v t e

Southern Min

Datian Min

Qianlu dialect Houlu dialect

Hokkien

East Asia

Quanzhou
Quanzhou
dialect

Anxi dialect Hui'an dialect Jinjiang dialect Nan'an dialect Tong'an dialect

Amoy dialect Zhangzhou
Zhangzhou
dialect

Longhai dialect

Taiwanese Longyan Min

Zhangping dialect

Toubei dialect

Southeast Asia

Philippine Hokkien Northern Malaysian Hokkien

Penang
Penang
Hokkien Medan
Medan
Hokkien

Southern Peninsular Malaysian Hokkien

Riau
Riau
Hokkien Singaporean Hokkien

Teo-Swa (Chaoshan)

East Asia

Teochew

Raoping dialect

Shantou dialect
Shantou dialect
(Swatow)

Chenghai dialect Nan'ao dialect

Jieyang
Jieyang
dialect Chaoyang dialect

Puning dialect Huilai dialect

Haifeng dialect

Southeast Asia

Bangkok Teochew Cambodia Teochew Kalimantan Teochew

Zhenan Min

Cangnan dialect Pingyang dialect Dongtou dialect Yuhuan dialect

Zhongshan Min

Longdu dialect Nanlang dialect Sanxiang dialect Zhangjiabian dialect

Unclassified

Yixing dialect Zhoushan dialect

v t e

Min Chinese

Languages

Eastern Min

Southern subgroup

Fuzhou dialect Minhou dialect Lianjiang dialect Fuqing dialect Changle dialect Gutian dialect Pingtan dialect Luoyuan dialect Yongtai dialect Youxi dialect Ningde dialect Weili dialect Matsu dialect

Northern subgroup

Xiapu dialect Fu'an dialect Zherong dialect Fuding dialect Shouning dialect Zhouning dialect

Mango dialect

Taishun Manjiang Cangnan Manhua

Southern Min

Datian Min Hokkien Teochew Zhenan Min Zhongshan Min ... (Detail)

Pu-Xian Min (Hinghwa)

Putian dialect Xianyou dialect

Northern Min

Jian'ou dialect Jianyang dialect Chong'an dialect Songxi dialect Zhenghe dialect

Shao-Jiang Min

Shaowu dialect Jiangle dialect Guangze dialect Shunchang dialect

Central Min

Sanming dialect Shaxian dialect Yong'an dialect

Leizhou Min

Leizhou Min

Hainanese

Fucheng subgroup

Haikou dialect Ding'an dialect Chengmai dialect Tunchang dialect

Wenchang subgroup

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Transliteration Scheme

Mixed

Hàn-lô

Research

Proto-languages

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Rime dictionaries

Qi Lin Bayin Anqiang Bayin Qiyin Zihui Bayin Dingjue Paizhang Zhiyin Dujiangshu Shiwuyin Huiyin Miaowu Zengbu Huiyin Chaosheng Shiwuyin Jimu Zhiyin Chaoyu Shiwuyin Jianzhou Bayin

v t e

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.