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Haraam
Haram (/ˈhɛərəm, ˈhær-/; Arabic: حَرَام‎ ḥarām [ħaˈraːm]) is an Arabic term meaning "forbidden".[1]:471 Thus it may refer to: either something sacred to which access is forbidden to the people who are not in a state of purity or who are not initiated into the sacred knowledge; or to an evil thus "sinful action that is forbidden to be done". The term also denotes something "set aside", thus being the Arabic equivalent of the Hebrew concept קָדוֹש‬ qadoš, and the concept of sacer (cf. sacred) in Roman law
Roman law
and religion
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Harem
Harem
Harem
(Arabic: حريم‎ ḥarīm, "a sacred inviolable place; harem; female members of the family"), also known as zenana in South Asia, properly refers to domestic spaces that are reserved for the women of the house in a Muslim
Muslim
family and are inaccessible to adult males except for close relations. Similar institutions have been common in other Mediterranean
Mediterranean
and Middle Eastern civilizations, especially among royal and upper-class families and the term is sometimes used in non-Islamic contexts. The structure of the harem and the extent of monogamy or polygamy has varied depending on the family's personalities, socio-economic status, and local customs. This private space has been traditionally understood as serving the purposes of maintaining the modesty, privilege, and protection of women
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Shaykh Al-Islām
Shaykh al-Islām
Shaykh al-Islām
(Arabic: شيخ الإسلام‎, Šayḫ al-Islām; Ottoman Turkish: Şeyḫülislām‎) was used in the classical era as an honorific title for outstanding scholars of the Islamic sciences.[1]:399[2] It first emerged in Khurasan
Khurasan
towards the end of the 4th Islamic century.[1]:399 In the central and western lands of Islam, it was an informal title given to jurists whose fatwas were particularly influential, while in the east it came to be conferred by rulers to ulama who played various official roles but were not generally muftis. Sometimes, as in the case of Ibn Taymiyya, the use of the title was subject to controversy
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Halal
Halal
Halal
(Arabic: حلال‎ ḥalāl, "permissible"), also spelled hallal or halaal, refers to what is permissible or lawful in traditional Islamic law
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Istishhad
Istishhad
Istishhad
(Arabic: استشهاد‎) is the Arabic
Arabic
word for "martyrdom", "death of a martyr", or "heroic death".[1] In recent years the term has been said to "emphasize... heroism in the act of sacrifice" rather than "victimization", and has "developed...into a military and political strategy", often called "martyrdom operations".[2] One who martyrs themselves is given the honorific shahid.Contents1 History 2 Martyrdom
Martyrdom
operation 3 Scholarship3.1 Against suicide attacks 3.2 Proponents of suicide operations4 Public opinion 5 See also 6 Notes 7 References 8 External linksHistory[edit] Muslim Acehnese from the Aceh Sultanate
Aceh Sultanate
performed suicide attacks known as Parang-sabil against Dutch invaders during the Aceh War. It was considered as part of personal jihad in the Islamic religion of the Acehnese
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Jihad
Jihad
Jihad
(English: /dʒɪˈhɑːd/; Arabic: جهاد‎ jihād [dʒɪˈhaːd]) is an Arabic
Arabic
word which literally means striving or struggling, especially with a praiseworthy aim.[1][2][3][4] It can have many shades of meaning in an Islamic context, such as s
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Moharebeh
Ḥirābah (Arabic: حرابة‎) is an Arabic
Arabic
word for “piracy”, or “unlawful warfare”. Hirabah comes from the root ḥrb, which means “to become angry and enraged”. The noun ḥarb (حَرْب, pl
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Mubah
Mubah (Arabic: مباح) is an Arabic word meaning "permitted",[1] which has technical uses in Islamic law. In uṣūl al-fiqh (principles of Islamic jurisprudence), mubah is one of the five degrees of approval (ahkam), and is commonly translated as "neutral",[2][3] "indifferent"[4] or "(merely) permitted".[4][5] It refers to an action that is not mandatory, recommended, reprehensible or forbidden, and thus involves no judgement from God.[2] Assigning acts to this legal category reflects a deliberate choice rather than an oversight on the part of jurists.[3] In Islamic property law, the term mubah refers to things which have no owner. It is similar to the concept res nullius used in Roman law and common law.[6] See also[edit]HalalReferences[edit]^ Hans Wehr, J. Milton Cowan (1976). A Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic (3rd ed.). Spoken Language Services. p. 81.  ^ a b Vikør, Knut S. (2014). "Sharīʿah". In Emad El-Din Shahin
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Mustahabb
Mustahabb (Arabic: مستحبّ‎, lit. 'recommended') is an Islamic term
Islamic term
referring to recommended, favoured or virtuous actions. Mustahabb actions are those whose status of approval in Islamic law (ahkam) falls between mubah (neither encouraged nor discouraged) and wajib (compulsory). One definition is "duties recommended, but not essential; fulfilment of which is rewarded, though they may be neglected without punishment".[1] Synonyms of mustahabb include masnun and mandub. The opposite of mustahabb is makruh (discouraged).Contents1 Examples 2 References 3 See also 4 External linksExamples[edit] There are thousands of mustahabb acts,[2] including: As-Salamu Alaykum (a traditional Islamic greeting, Arabic for "peace be upon you") Sadaqah (charity outside of zakat) UmrahReferences[edit]^ Reuben Levy, The Social Structure of Islam, p. 202 ^ Turner, Colin (2013-12-19)
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Taghut
Taghut (ar. طاغوت, ṭāġūt, pl. ṭawāġīt) is an Islamic terminology denoting a focus of worship other than Allah. In traditional theology, the term often connotes idols, Satan
Satan
and jinn. The term is also applied to earthly tyrannical power, as implied in surah An-Nisa
An-Nisa
verse 60.[1] The modern Islamic philosopher
Islamic philosopher
Abul A'la Maududi defines taghut in his Qur'anic commentary as a creature who not only rebels against God
God
but transgresses his will.[2] Due to these associations, the term may refer to any person or group accused of being anti-Islamic and an agent of Western cultural imperialism
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Thawab
Sawāb or Thawāb (Arabic: ثواب‎) is an Arabic term meaning "reward". Specifically, in the context of an Islamic worldview, thawab refers to spiritual merit or reward that accrues from the performance of good deeds and piety.[1]Contents1 Pronunciation 2 Activities for earning thawab 3 See also 4 ReferencesPronunciation[edit] The word thawab is used throughout the Islamic world, so the spelling and pronunciation is slightly different from one region to another. In Kazakh society, for instance, it may be pronounced as "sauap", in Iran as "savab", in Arab areas as "thawab" and in India
India
and Pakistan
Pakistan
as "savab" or "sawab".[2][3] In Bosnian and Turkish the word becomes sevap. Activities for earning thawab[edit] Usually any and all good acts are considered to contribute towards earning sawab, but for a Muslim there are certain acts that are more rewarding than others
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Sayyid
Sayyid
Sayyid
(also spelt Syed, Saiyed, Seyd, Sayed, Sayyad, Sayyed, Saiyid, Seyed, Said and Seyyed) (pronounced [səj.jɪd], Arabic: سيد‎; meaning Mister) (plural Sadah Arabic: سادة‎, Sāda(h), also spelled Sadat) is an honorific title denoting people ( Sayyid
Sayyid
for males, Sayyida for females) accepted as descendants of the Islamic prophet
Islamic prophet
Muhammad
Muhammad
through his grandsons, Hasan ibn Ali
Hasan ibn Ali
and Husayn ibn Ali
Husayn ibn Ali
(combined Hasnain),[1]:31 sons of Muhammad's daughter Fatimah
Fatimah
and his son-in-law Ali
Ali
( Ali
Ali
ibn Abi Talib).[2]:149 Female sayyids are given the titles Sayyida, Alawiyah or Sharifa
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Herem (other)
Herem (or Chērem חרם) is a Hebrew word and may refer to: Herem (commercial), boycott, withdraw from commercial or social relations as a punishment or protest Herem (censure), expulsion from the Jewish community Herem (war or property), a belief that any property imperiling Jewish religious life should be destroyed
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Sharif
Sharif (also transliterated Sharīf or Sherif) / Shareef Alsharif or Alshareef (Arabic: شريف‎ šarīf) or Chérif (Darija: Chorfa) is a traditional Arab
Arab
title. The origin of the word is an adjective meaning "noble", "highborn". The feminine singular is sharifa(h) or shareefa(h) (Arabic: شريفة‎ šarīfah). The masculine plural is Ashraf
Ashraf
(Arabic: اشراف‎ ʾašrāf). Sunnis in the Arab
Arab
world reserve the term sharif or shareef for descendants of Hasan ibn Ali, while sayyid is used for descendants of Husayn ibn Ali, Hasan's younger brother.[citation needed] Both Hasan and Husayn are grandchildren of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad, through the marriage of his cousin Ali
Ali
and his daughter Fatima
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Ashraf
Ashraf
Ashraf
(Arabic: أشراف‎), with long ā in the second system , is the plural of sharīf "noble", from sharafa "to be highborn", but ašhraf (‏أشرف‎), with short a, is the elative of sharīf meaning "very noble", "nobler", "noblest". Like the Sadah (plural of Sayyid), Ashraf
Ashraf
often take their names from ancestry from Muhammad, Fatima and Ali
Ali
and have in many Muslim societies Ashraf
Ashraf
evolved into an honorific denoting "master" or "gentry". More precisely, the Ashraf
Ashraf
are descendants of Ali's elder son, Hassan, and the Sadah those of Ali's younger son Hussain. During the Abbasid
Abbasid
period, the term was applied to all Ahl al-Bayt, basically Muhammad's own family, including, for example, the descendants of Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn al-Hanafiyya, of Ali's second wife and of the Hashemites
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Ulama
The Arabic
Arabic
term ulama (/ˈuːləˌmɑː/; Arabic: علماء‎ ʿUlamāʾ, singular عالِم ʿĀlim, "scholar", literally "the learned ones",[1] also spelled ulema; feminine: alimah [singular] and uluma [plural]), according to the Encyclopedia of Islam
Islam
(2000), in its original meaning "denotes scholars of almost all disciplines".[2] More specifically, in the context of Sunni Islam, ulama are regarded as "the guardians, transmitters and interpreters of religious knowledge, of Islamic doctrine and law".[2] By longstanding tradition, ulama are educated in religious institutions (madrasas)
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