Halal (Arabic: حلال ḥalāl, "permissible"), also spelled
hallal or halaal, refers to what is permissible or lawful in
traditional Islamic law. It is frequently applied to permissible food
In the Quran, the word halal is contrasted with haram (forbidden).
In Islamic jurisprudence, this binary opposition was elaborated into a
more complex classification known as "the five decisions": mandatory,
recommended, neutral, reprehensible, and forbidden. Islamic jurists
disagree on whether the term halal covers the first three or the first
four of these categories. In recent times, Islamic movements
seeking to mobilize the masses and authors writing for a popular
audience have emphasized the simpler distinction of halal and
The term halal is particularly associated with Islamic dietary laws.
1 In the Quran
2.1 Genetically modified organisms (GMO)
3 Method of slaughter
3.1 Meat slaughtered or prepared by non-Muslims
4 Lifestyle and tourism
5 See also
7 Further reading
8 External links
In the Quran
The words halal and haram are the usual terms used in the
designate the categories of lawful or allowed and unlawful or
Halal Market in Minneapolis, Minnesota.
In the Quran, the root h-l-l denotes lawfulness and may also indicate
exiting the ritual state of a pilgrim and entering a profane state.
In both these senses, it has an opposite meaning to that conveyed by
the root h-r-m (cf. haram and ihram). In a literal sense, the root
h-l-l may refer to dissolution (e.g., breaking of an oath) or
alighting (e.g., of God's wrath). Lawfulness is usually indicated
Quran by means of the verb ahalla (to make lawful), with God as
the stated or implied subject.
The terms halal and haram parallel the Hebrew terms mutar (permitted,
loosened) and asur (forbidden), and — particularly with respect to
dietary rules — the
Old Testament categories of clean and
Main article: Islamic dietary laws
A halal sign in Chinese (清真) at a restaurant in Taipei, Taiwan.
Several food companies offer halal processed foods and products,
including halal foie gras, spring rolls, chicken nuggets, ravioli,
lasagna, pizza, and baby food.
Halal ready meals are a growing
consumer market for Muslims in Britain and America and are offered by
an increasing number of retailers.
Vegetarian cuisine is halal if
it does not contain alcohol.
The most common example of non-halal (or haram) food is pork (pig meat
products). While pork is the only meat that categorically may not be
consumed by Muslims (the
Quran forbids it Sura 16:115 ), other
foods not in a state of purity are also considered haram. The criteria
for non-pork items include their source, the cause of the animal's
death, and how it was processed. It also depends on the Muslim's
Halal market store for groceries in
Woodbury, Minnesota in the
Muslims must also ensure that all foods (particularly processed
foods), as well as non-food items like cosmetics and pharmaceuticals,
are halal. Frequently, these products contain animal by-products or
other ingredients that are not permissible for Muslims to eat or use
on their bodies. Foods which are not considered halal for Muslims to
consume include blood and intoxicants such as alcoholic
beverages. A Muslim who would otherwise starve to death is allowed
to eat non-halal food if there is no halal food available.
Genetically modified organisms (GMO)
At a conference called "Agri-biotechnology: Shariah Compliance" held
in Malaysia in December 2010 by the Malaysian Biotechnology
Information Centre (MABIC) and International
Halal Integrity Alliance
(IHIA), participants "adopted a resolution that accepts GM crops and
products as halal should all ingredients used to develop them are from
halal sources....The only
Haram [forbidden] cases are limited to
products derived from
Haram origin retaining their original
characteristics that are not substantially changed."
An article from 2000 stated: "Should a product be brought to market
with a gene from a haram source [such as pig DNA in a soy product],
today it would at least be considered Mashbooh — questionable — if
not outright haram. However, all biotechnology-derived foods on the
market today are from approved sources."
Globally, halal food certification has been criticized by anti-Halal
lobby groups and individuals using social media. Critics have
argued that the practice results in added costs; a requirement to
officially certify intrinsically-halal foods leads to consumers
subsidising a particular religious belief. Australian Federation
of Islamic Councils spokesman
Keysar Trad told a journalist in July
2014 that this was an attempt to exploit anti-Muslim sentiments.
The Dubai Chamber of Commerce estimated the global industry value of
halal food consumer purchases to be $1.1 trillion in 2013, accounting
for 16.6 percent of the global food and beverage market, with an
annual growth of 6.9 percent. Growth regions include Indonesia
($197 million market value in 2012) and
Turkey ($100 million). The
European Union market for halal food has an estimated annual growth of
around 15 percent and is worth an estimated $30 billion.
Method of slaughter
Main article: Dhabihah
The food must come from a supplier that uses halal practices.
Dhabīḥah (ذَبِيْحَة) is the prescribed method of slaughter
for all meat sources, excluding fish and other sea-life, per Islamic
law. This method of slaughtering animals consists of using a
well-sharpened knife to make a swift, deep incision that cuts the
front of the throat, the carotid artery, trachea, and jugular
veins. The head of an animal that is slaughtered using halal
methods is aligned with the qiblah. In addition to the direction,
permitted animals should be slaughtered upon utterance of the Islamic
prayer 'Bismillah' "in the name of God".
The slaughter must be performed by a Muslim. Blood must be drained
from the veins.
Carrion (carcasses of dead animals, such as animals
who died in the wild) cannot be eaten. Additionally, an animal that
has been strangled, beaten (to death), killed by a fall, gored (to
death), savaged by a beast of prey (unless finished off by a human),
or sacrificed on a stone altar cannot be eaten.
The animal may be stunned prior to having its throat cut. The UK Food
Standards Agency figures from 2011 suggest that 84% of cattle, 81% of
sheep and 88% of chickens slaughtered for halal meat were stunned
before they died. Supermarkets selling halal products also report that
all animals are stunned before they are slaughtered. Tesco, for
example, says "the only difference between the halal meat it sells and
other meat is that it was blessed as it was killed." The British
Veterinary Association, along with citizens who have assembled a
petition with 100,000 signatures, have raised concerns regarding a
proposed halal abattoir in Wales, in which animals are not to be
stunned prior to killing. Concerns about animal suffering from
slaughter without prior stunning has resulted in the ban of slaughter
of unstunned animals in Denmark, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, Norway,
Sweden and Switzerland. Generally, killing animals in
only permissible for two main reasons, to be eaten and to
eliminate a danger, e.g. a rabid dog.
Meat slaughtered or prepared by non-Muslims
Islamic and Jewish dietary laws compared
Islamic and Jewish dietary laws compared and Christian
In Sunni Islam, animals slaughtered by Christians or Jews is halal
only if the slaughter is carried out by jugular slice and mentioned
before slaughter that the purpose is of permissible consumption and
the slaughter is carried out following the name of the God (indicating
that you are grateful for God's blessings), unless explicitly
prohibited, like pork. The requirement to invoke Allah's name is a
must. In other words, the word ṭaʻām refers to dhabīḥah meat;
i.e., the meat prepared after the slaughter of an animal by cutting
the throat (i.e., the jugular vein, the carotid arteries, and the
trachea) and during slaughter Allâh's name is invoked (Ibn ʻAbbās,
Mujāhid, ʻIkrimah—all quoted by Ṭabarī, Ibn Kathīr).
Kosher meats, which are consumed by Jews, are permitted to be eaten by
Muslims. This is due to the similarity between both methods of
slaughter and the similar principles of kosher meat which are observed
by some Jews today.
Lifestyle and tourism
Halal tourism and Islamic banking and finance
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (August
Halal lifestyle can include travel, finance, clothing, media,
recreation, and cosmetics as well as halal food and diet.
Animal rights portal
Al-Jamia, Shia text which contains all the details of halal things.
Christian dietary laws
Halal certification in Australia
Islamic dietary laws
Kashrut (Jewish dietary laws)
List of foods
Scottish pork taboo
Taboo food and drink
^ a b Juan Eduardo Campo, ed. (2009). "Halal". Encyclopedia of Islam.
Infobase Publishing. p. 284.
^ a b Vikør, Knut S. (2014). "Sharīʿah". In Emad El-Din Shahin. The
Oxford Encyclopedia of
Islam and Politics. Oxford University
^ a b c d e f g Lowry, Joseph E (2006). "Lawful and Unlawful". In Jane
Dammen McAuliffe. Encyclopaedia of the Qurʾān. Brill. (Subscription
^ a b "USDA Foreign Agricultural Service –
Halal Food Market" (PDF).
Retrieved Aug 30, 2016.
Halal la carte". The Economist. ISSN 0013-0613. Retrieved
Pork (لَحم الخنزير) From the Quranic Arabic Corpus –
Ontology of Quranic Concepts". Retrieved 29 December 2015.
^ a b c "Surah Al-Baqarah – The Noble Qur'an - القرآن
Quran Surah Al-Maaida ( Verse 3 )
Quran Surah Al-Maaida ( Verse 90 )
^ Maqsood, Rubaiyat Waris (2004). Islam. Teach Yourself World Faiths.
London: Hodder & Stoughton. p. 204.
^ "Resolution on
Halal Solution on
Halal Status of GM Crops and Foods
adopted at Agri-Biotech Workshop for Islamic Scholars". Crop Biotech
Update (Dec. 10, 2010). Retrieved 6 December 2017.
^ Hazzah, K. "Are GMO's Halal?". AG Bio World (Aug. 4, 2000).
Retrieved 6 December 2017.
^ Hansen, Damien (7 March 2012). "
Halal Certification Stamp – Today
Tonight (Australia)". Today Tonight. Retrieved 20 February 2015.
^ Johnson, Chris (28 December 2014). "Why halal certification is in
turmoil". Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 8 January 2015.
^ Masanauskas, John (18 July 2014). "
Halal food outrage from
Islam critics". Herald Sun. Retrieved 6 January 2015.
^ "Dubai Chamber Report shows increasing preference for halal food as
global market grows to US$1.1 trn Zawya". www.zawya.com. Retrieved
^ "REPORT: Consumer Demand for
Halal is On the Rise".
www.fdfworld.com. Retrieved 2016-08-31.
^ a b www.halalcertification.ie. "Islamic Method of Slaughtering –
Halal Certification". halalcertification.ie.
^ [Quran 5:3]
^ Eardley, Nick (12 May 2014). "What is halal meat?" – via
^ Wilkinson, Ben (30 January 2015). "Millions more animals are
slaughtered for halal food: Numbers rise 60 per cent amid calls for
them to be stunned before death". Daily Mail. Retrieved 1 February
^ Rahman, Khaleda (25 January 2015). "Fury over plans to use
taxpayers' money to fund halal abattoir that refuses to stun its
animals before killing them". Daily Mail. Retrieved 26 January
^ Sekularac, Ivana (28 June 2011). "Dutch vote to ban religious
slaughter of animals". Reuters. Retrieved 26 January 2015.
^ "Comment: Danish halal, kosher ban leaves religious groups with
nowhere to turn".
Special Broadcasting Service. 25 February 2014.
Retrieved 26 January 2015.
Sunan an-Nasa'i 4349, Book:42, Hadith:87;
Sahih al-Bukhari 3314, Book:59, Hadith:120
^ "Lawful Foods". Just Islam. Retrieved 2 May 2014. Now in the case of
Jews this is very easy. As long as the Jew is a practising Jew and the
meat is slaughtered in accordance with Jewish law (Torat Moshe) then
this meat and other
Kosher food is lawful (Halal) and can be eaten by
^ "Islamic ruling on Christian food". islamqa. Retrieved
Halal Lifestyle in
Indonesia – UN World Tourism Organization"
(PDF). Retrieved Aug 30, 2016.
Yungman, Limor, "Food", in
Muhammad in History, Thought, and Culture:
An Encyclopedia of the Prophet of God (2 vols.), Edited by C.
Fitzpatrick and A. Walker, Santa Barbara, ABC-CLIO, 2014, Vol I.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Halal.
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Halal World certificate
ASIDCOM report. Benefits of Religious Slaughter
A Database of halal restaurants in America
Consumers increasingly perceive kosher and halal food as safer
Haram from an Islamic perspective
(in French) Jurisprudence of the
Halal food according to the Maliki
school (from Sharḥ Muqaddimat al-ʻIzzīyah by
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