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Ramadan
Ramadan
(/ˌræməˈdɑːn/; Arabic: رمضان‎ Ramaḍān, IPA: [ramaˈdˤaːn];[note 1] also romanized as Ramzan, Ramadhan, or Ramathan) is the ninth month of the Islamic calendar,[3] and is observed by Muslims worldwide as a month of fasting (Sawm) to commemorate the first revelation of the Quran
Quran
to Muhammad according to Islamic belief.[4][5] This annual observance is regarded as one of the Five Pillars of Islam.[6] The month lasts 29–30 days based on the visual sightings of the crescent moon, according to numerous biographical accounts compiled in the hadiths.[7][8] The word Ramadan
Ramadan
comes from the Arabic
Arabic
root ramiḍa or ar-ramaḍ, which means scorching heat or dryness.[9] Fasting
Fasting
is fard (obligatory) for adult Muslims, except those who are suffering from an illness, travelling, are elderly, pregnant, breastfeeding, diabetic, chronically ill or menstruating.[10] Fasting
Fasting
the month of Ramadan
Ramadan
was made obligatory (wājib) during the month of Sha'ban, in the second year after the Muslims migrated from Mecca
Mecca
to Medina. Fatwas have been issued declaring that Muslims who live in regions with a natural phenomenon such as the midnight sun or polar night should follow the timetable of Mecca,[11] but the more commonly accepted opinion is that Muslims in those areas should follow the timetable of the closest country to them in which night can be distinguished from day.[12][13][14] While fasting from dawn until sunset, Muslims refrain from consuming food, drinking liquids, smoking, and engaging in sexual relations. Muslims are also instructed to refrain from sinful behavior that may negate the reward of fasting, such as false speech (insulting, backbiting, cursing, lying, etc.) and fighting except in self-defense.[15][16] Food and drinks are served daily, before dawn and after sunset, referred to as Suhoor and Iftar respectively.[17][18] Spiritual rewards (thawab) for fasting are also believed to be multiplied within the month of Ramadan.[19] Fasting
Fasting
for Muslims during Ramadan
Ramadan
typically includes the increased offering of salat (prayers), recitation of the Quran[20][21] and an increase of doing good deeds and charity.

Contents

1 History 2 Important dates

2.1 Beginning 2.2 Night of Power 2.3 End

3 Religious practices

3.1 Fasting

3.1.1 Suhur 3.1.2 Iftar

3.2 Charity 3.3 Nightly prayers 3.4 Recitation of the Quran

4 Cultural practices 5 Observance rates 6 Penalties for infraction

6.1 Other legal issues

7 Education 8 Health

8.1 Renal disease

9 Crime
Crime
rates 10 Ramadan
Ramadan
in polar regions 11 Employment during Ramadan 12 See also 13 Notes 14 References 15 External links

History[edit] Chapter 2, Verse 185, of the Quran
Quran
states:

The month of Ramadan
Ramadan
is that in which was revealed the Quran; a guidance for mankind, and clear proofs of the guidance, and the criterion (of right and wrong). And whosoever of you is present, let him fast the month, and whosoever of you is sick or on a journey, a number of other days. Allah
Allah
desires for you ease; He desires not hardship for you; and that you should complete the period, and that you should magnify Allah
Allah
for having guided you, and that perhaps you may be thankful.[Quran 2:185]

It is believed that the Quran
Quran
was first revealed to Muhammad during the month of Ramadan
Ramadan
which has been referred to as the "best of times". The first revelation was sent down on Laylat al-Qadr
Laylat al-Qadr
(The night of Power) which is one of the five odd nights of the last ten days of Ramadan.[22] According to hadith, all holy scriptures were sent down during Ramadan. The tablets of Ibrahim, the Torah, the Psalms, the Gospel
Gospel
and the Quran
Quran
were sent down on 1st, 6th, 12th, 13th[note 2] and 24th Ramadan
Ramadan
respectively.[23] According to the Quran, fasting was also obligatory for prior nations, and is a way to attain taqwa, fear of God.[24][Quran 2:183] God proclaimed to Muhammad that fasting for His sake was not a new innovation in monotheism, but rather an obligation practiced by those truly devoted to the oneness of God.[25] The pagans of Mecca
Mecca
also fasted, but only on tenth day of Muharram
Muharram
to expiate sins and avoid droughts.[26] The ruling to observe fasting during Ramadan
Ramadan
was sent down 18 months after Hijra, during the month of Sha'ban in the second year of Hijra in 624 CE.[23] Abu Zanad, an Arabic
Arabic
writer from Iraq
Iraq
who lived after the founding of Islam, in around 747 CE, wrote that at least one Mandaean community located in al-Jazira (modern northern Iraq) observed Ramadan
Ramadan
before converting to Islam.[27][not in citation given] According to historian Philip Jenkins, Ramadan
Ramadan
comes "from the strict Lenten
Lenten
discipline of the Syrian Churches", a postulation corroborated by other scholars, such as the theologian Paul-Gordon Chandler.[28][29] This suggestion is based on the Orientalist idea that the Qur'an itself has Syriac Christian origins, a claim to which some Muslim
Muslim
academics such as M. Al-Azami, object.[30] Important dates[edit] The beginning and end of Ramadan
Ramadan
are determined by the lunar Islamic calendar. Beginning[edit]

Ramadan
Ramadan
beginning dates between Gregorian years 1938 and 2038.

Hilāl (the crescent) is typically a day (or more) after the astronomical new moon. Since the new moon marks the beginning of the new month, Muslims can usually safely estimate the beginning of Ramadan.[31] However, to many Muslims, this is not in accordance with authenticated Hadiths stating that visual confirmation per region is recommended. The consistent variations of a day have existed since the time of Muhammad.[32] Night of Power[edit] Main article: Laylat al-Qadr The Arabic
Arabic
Laylat al-Qadr, translated to English is "the night of power" or "the night of decree", is considered the holiest night of the year.[33][34] This is the night in which Muslims believe the first revelation of the Quran
Quran
was sent down to Muhammad stating that this night was "better than one thousand months [of proper worship]", as stated in Chapter 97:3 of the Qu'ran. Also, generally, Laylat al-Qadr
Laylat al-Qadr
is believed to have occurred on an odd-numbered night during the last ten days of Ramadan, i.e., the night of the 21st, 23rd, 25th, 27th or 29th. The Dawoodi Bohra Community believe that the 23rd night is laylat al Qadr.[35] [36] End[edit] Main articles: Eid al-Fitr
Eid al-Fitr
and Eid prayers The holiday of Eid al-Fitr
Eid al-Fitr
(Arabic:عيد الفطر) marks the end of Ramadan
Ramadan
and the beginning of the next lunar month, Shawwal. This first day of the following month is declared after another crescent new moon has been sighted or the completion of 30 days of fasting if no visual sighting is possible due to weather conditions. This first day of Shawwal is called Eid al-Fitr. Eid al-Fitr
Eid al-Fitr
may also be a reference towards the festive nature of having endured the month of fasting successfully and returning to the more natural disposition (fitra) of being able to eat, drink and resume intimacy with spouses during the day.[37] Religious practices[edit]

Azim Azimzade. Ramadan
Ramadan
of the poor people. 1938

The common practice during Ramadan
Ramadan
is fasting from dawn to sunset. The pre-dawn meal before the fast is called the suhur, while the meal at sunset that breaks the fast is the iftar. Muslims also engage in increased prayer and charity during Ramadan. Ramadan
Ramadan
is also a month where Muslims try to practice increased self-discipline. This is motivated by the Hadith, especially in Al-Bukhari[38] and Muslim,[39] that "When Ramadan
Ramadan
arrives, the gates of Paradise are opened and the gates of hell are locked up and devils are put in chains."[40] Fasting[edit] Main article: Sawm
Sawm
of Ramadan Ramadan
Ramadan
is a time of spiritual reflection, improvement and increased devotion and worship. Muslims are expected to put more effort into following the teachings of Islam. The fast (sawm) begins at dawn and ends at sunset. In addition to abstaining from eating and drinking, Muslims also increase restraint, such as abstaining from sexual relations[2] and generally sinful speech and behavior. The act of fasting is said to redirect the heart away from worldly activities, its purpose being to cleanse the soul by freeing it from harmful impurities. Ramadan
Ramadan
also teaches Muslims how to better practice self-discipline, self-control,[41] sacrifice, and empathy for those who are less fortunate; thus encouraging actions of generosity and compulsory charity (zakat).[42] It becomes compulsory for Muslims to start fasting when they reach puberty, so long as they are healthy and sane, and have no disabilities or illnesses. Many children endeavour to complete as many fasts as possible as practice for later life. Exemptions to fasting are travel, menstruation, severe illness, pregnancy, and breastfeeding. However, many Muslims with medical conditions insist on fasting to satisfy their spiritual needs, although it is not recommended by the hadith. Professionals should closely monitor such individuals who decide to persist with fasting.[43] Those who were unable to fast still must make up the days missed later.[44] Suhur[edit] Main article: Suhur

Iftar
Iftar
at Sultan Ahmed Mosque
Sultan Ahmed Mosque
in Istanbul, Turkey

Each day, before dawn, Muslims observe a pre-fast meal called the suhur. After stopping a short time before dawn, Muslims begin the first prayer of the day, Fajr.[45][46] Iftar[edit] Main article: Iftar At sunset, families hasten for the fast-breaking meal known as iftar. Dates are usually the first food to break the fast; according to tradition, Muhammad broke fast with three dates. Following that, Muslims generally adjourn for the Maghrib prayer, the fourth of the five daily prayers, after which the main meal is served.[47] Social gatherings, many times in a buffet style, are frequent at iftar. Traditional dishes are often highlighted, including traditional desserts, and particularly those made only during Ramadan. Water is usually the beverage of choice, but juice and milk are also often available, as are soft drinks and caffeinated beverages.[43] In the Middle East, the iftar meal consists of water, juices, dates, salads and appetizers, one or more main dishes, and various kinds of desserts. Usually, the dessert is the most important part during iftar. Typical main dishes are lamb stewed with wheat berries, lamb kebabs with grilled vegetables, or roast chicken served with chickpea-studded rice pilaf. A rich dessert, such as luqaimat, baklava or kunafeh (a buttery, syrup-sweetened kadaifi noodle pastry filled with cheese), concludes the meal.[48] Over time, iftar has grown into banquet festivals. This is a time of fellowship with families, friends and surrounding communities, but may also occupy larger spaces at masjid or banquet halls for 100 or more diners.[49] Charity[edit] Main articles: Zakāt
Zakāt
and Sadaqah

Men praying during Ramadan
Ramadan
at the Shrine of Ali
Shrine of Ali
or "Blue Mosque" in Mazar-i-Sharif, Afghanistan

Charity is very important in Islam, and even more so during Ramadan. Zakāt, often translated as "the poor-rate", is obligatory as one of the pillars of Islam; a fixed percentage of the person's savings is required to be given to the poor. Sadaqah is voluntary charity in giving above and beyond what is required from the obligation of zakāt. In Islam, all good deeds are more handsomely rewarded during Ramadan
Ramadan
than in any other month of the year. Consequently, many will choose this time to give a larger portion, if not all, of the zakāt that they are obligated to give. In addition, many will also use this time to give a larger portion of sadaqah in order to maximize the reward that will await them at the Last Judgment.[citation needed] Nightly prayers[edit] Main article: Tarawih Tarawih
Tarawih
(Arabic: تراويح‎) refers to extra prayers performed by Muslims at night in the Islamic month of Ramadan. Contrary to popular belief, they are not compulsory.[50] However, many Muslims pray these prayers in the evening during Ramadan. Some scholars[who?] maintain that Tarawih
Tarawih
is neither fard or a Sunnah, but is the preponed Tahajjud (night prayer) prayer shifted to post- Isha'
Isha'
for the ease of believers. But a majority of Sunni scholars regard the Tarawih
Tarawih
prayers as Sunnat al-Mu'akkadah, a salaat that was performed by the Islamic prophet Muhammad very consistently. Recitation of the Quran[edit] In addition to fasting, Muslims are encouraged to read the entire Quran. Some Muslims perform the recitation of the entire Quran
Quran
by means of special prayers, called Tarawih. These voluntary prayers are held in the mosques every night of the month, during which a whole section of the Quran
Quran
(juz', which is 1/30 of the Quran) is recited. Therefore, the entire Quran
Quran
would be completed at the end of the month. Although it is not required to read the whole Quran
Quran
in the Tarawih
Tarawih
prayers, it is common. Cultural practices[edit]

Striking the bedug in Indonesia

Fanous Ramadan
Fanous Ramadan
decorations in Cairo, Egypt

Ramadan
Ramadan
in the Old City of Jerusalem

In some Muslim
Muslim
countries today, lights are strung up in public squares, and across city streets, to add to the festivities of the month. Lanterns have become symbolic decorations welcoming the month of Ramadan. In a growing number of countries, they are hung on city streets.[51][52][53] The tradition of lanterns as a decoration becoming associated with Ramadan
Ramadan
is believed to have originated during the Fatimid Caliphate
Fatimid Caliphate
primarily centered in Egypt, where Caliph al-Mu'izz li-Din Allah
Allah
was greeted by people holding lanterns to celebrate his ruling. From that time, lanterns were used to light mosques and houses throughout the capital city of Cairo. Shopping malls, places of business, and people's homes can be seen with stars and crescents and various lighting effects, as well. As the nation with the world's largest Muslim
Muslim
population, Indonesia has diverse Ramadan
Ramadan
traditions. On the island of Java, many Javanese Indonesians bathe in holy springs to prepare for fasting, a ritual known as Padusan. The city of Semarang
Semarang
marks the beginning of Ramadan with the Dugderan carnival, which involves parading the Warak ngendog, a horse-dragon hybrid creature allegedly inspired by the Buraq. In the Chinese-influenced capital city of Jakarta, fire crackers were traditionally used to wake people up for morning prayer, until the 19th century. Towards the end of Ramadan, most employees receive a one-month bonus known as Tunjangan Hari Raya. Certain kinds of food are especially popular during Ramadan, such as beef in Aceh, and snails in Central Java. The iftar meal is announced every evening by striking the bedug, a giant drum, in the mosque. Common greetings during Ramadan
Ramadan
are " Ramadan
Ramadan
Mubarak" or "Ramadan Kareem", which wish the recipient a blessed or generous Ramadan.[54] Observance rates[edit] According to a 2012 Pew Research Centre
Pew Research Centre
study of 39 countries and territories, there is widespread Ramadan
Ramadan
observance, with a median of 93%.[55] Regions with high percentages of fasting among Muslims include Southeast Asia, South Asia, MENA and most of Sub-Saharan Africa.[55] Percentages are lower in Central Asia
Central Asia
and Southeast Europe.[55] According to The Economist, relatively few Iranians are believed to fast during Ramadan.[56] Penalties for infraction[edit] In some Muslim
Muslim
countries, failing to fast during Ramadan
Ramadan
is considered a crime and is prosecuted as such. For instance, in Algeria, in October 2008 the court of Biskra
Biskra
condemned six people to four years in prison and heavy fines.[57] In Kuwait, according to law number 44 of 1968, the penalty is a fine of no more than 100 Kuwaiti dinars, (about US$330, GB£260 in May 2017) or jail for no more than one month, or both penalties, for those seen eating, drinking or smoking during Ramadan
Ramadan
daytime.[58][59] In some places in the U.A.E., eating or drinking in public during the daytime of Ramadan
Ramadan
is considered a minor offence and would be punished by up to 150 hours of community service.[60] In neighbouring Saudi Arabia, described by The Economist
The Economist
as taking Ramadan
Ramadan
"more seriously than anywhere else",[61] there are harsher punishments including flogging, imprisonment and, for foreigners, deportation.[62] In Malaysia, however, there are no such punishments. Other legal issues[edit] Some countries have laws that amend work schedules during Ramadan. Under U.A.E.
U.A.E.
labor law, the maximum working hours are to be 6 hours per day and 36 hours per week. Qatar, Oman, Bahrain
Bahrain
and Kuwait
Kuwait
have similar laws.[63] In Egypt, alcohol sales are banned during Ramadan.[64] Education[edit]

The examples and perspective in this section deal primarily with the UK and Berlin
Berlin
and do not represent a worldwide view of the subject. You may improve this article, discuss the issue on the talk page, or create a new article, as appropriate. (July 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

The education departments of Berlin
Berlin
and the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
have discouraged students from fasting during Ramadan, as not eating or drinking can lead to concentration problems and bad grades.[65][66] Health[edit] Ramadan
Ramadan
fasting is safe for healthy people, but those with medical conditions should seek medical advice.[67] The fasting period is usually associated with modest weight loss, but the weight tends to return afterwards.[68] Renal disease[edit] A review of the literature by an Iranian group suggested fasting during Ramadan
Ramadan
might produce renal injury in patients with moderate (GFR <60 ml/min) or worse kidney disease, but was not injurious to renal transplant patients with good function or most stone-forming patients.[69] Crime
Crime
rates[edit] The correlation of Ramadan
Ramadan
with crime rates is mixed: some statistics show that crime rates drop during Ramadan, while others show that it rises. Decreases in crime rates have been reported by the police in some cities in Turkey
Turkey
(Istanbul[70] and Konya[71]) and the Eastern province of Saudi Arabia.[72] A 2012 study showed that crime rates decreased in Iran
Iran
during Ramadan, and that the decrease was statistically significant.[73] A 2005 study found that there was a decrease in assault, robbery and alcohol-related crimes during Ramadan in Saudi Arabia, but only the decrease in alcohol-related crimes was statistically significant.[74] Increases in crime rates during Ramadan have been reported in Turkey,[75] Jakarta,[76][77][78] parts of Algeria,[79] Yemen[80] and Egypt.[81] Various mechanisms have been proposed for the effect of Ramadan
Ramadan
on crime:

An Iranian cleric argues that fasting during Ramadan
Ramadan
makes people less likely to commit crimes due to spiritual reasons.[82] Gamal al-Banna argues that fasting can stress people out, which can make them more likely to commit crimes. He criticized Muslims who commit crimes while fasting during Ramadan
Ramadan
as "fake and superficial".[81] Police in Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
attributed a drop in crime rates to the "spiritual mood prevalent in the country".[72] In Jakarta, Indonesia, police say that the traffic due to 7 million people leaving the city to celebrate Eid al-Fitr
Eid al-Fitr
results in an increase in street crime. As a result, police deploy an additional 7,500 personnel.[78] During Ramadan, millions of pilgrims enter Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
to visit Mecca. According to the Yemen Times, such pilgrims are usually charitable, and consequently smugglers traffic children in from Yemen to beg on the streets of Saudi Arabia.[80]

Ramadan
Ramadan
in polar regions[edit]

During 2010 Middle East
Middle East
negotiations in the United States, Hosni Mubarak and Benjamin Netanyahu
Benjamin Netanyahu
check their watches to see if the sun has set.

The length of the dawn to sunset time varies in different parts of the world according to summer or winter solstices of the sun. Most Muslims fast for 11–16 hours during Ramadan. However, in polar regions, the period between dawn and sunset may exceed 22 hours in summers. For example, in 2014, Muslims in Reykjavik, Iceland, and Trondheim, Norway, fasted almost 22 hours, while Muslims in Sydney, Australia, fasted for only about 11 hours. Muslims in areas where continuous night or day is observed during Ramadan
Ramadan
follow the fasting hours in the nearest city where fasting is observed at dawn and sunset. Alternatively, Muslims may follow Mecca
Mecca
time.[12][13][14] Employment during Ramadan[edit] Muslims will continue to work during Ramadan. The prophet Muhammad said that it is important to keep a balance between worship and work. In some Muslim
Muslim
countries, such as Oman, however, working hours are shortened during Ramadan.[83][84] It is often recommended that working Muslims inform their employers if they are fasting, given the potential for the observance to impact performance at work.[85] The extent to which Ramadan
Ramadan
observers are protected by religious accommodation varies by country. Policies putting them at a disadvantage compared to other employees have been met with discrimination claims in the UK and the US.[86][87][88] See also[edit]

Islam
Islam
portal

Fasting Five Pillars of Islam

Notes[edit]

^ In Arabic
Arabic
phonology, it can be [rɑmɑˈdˤɑːn, ramadˤɑːn, ræmæˈdˤɑːn], depending on the region. ^ The hadith of Jabir ibn Abdullah mentions that the Gospel
Gospel
was sent down on the 18th of Ramadan. Aliyev, Rafig Y. (June 2013). Loud Thoughts on Religion: A Version of the System Study of Religion. Useful Lessons for Everybody. Trafford Publishing. ISBN 9781490705217. 

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Fast, Huffington Post, 15 June 2015 ^ a b c "Most Muslims say they fast during Ramadan". Pew Research Center. 9 July 2013. Retrieved 14 November 2017.  ^ " Iran
Iran
comes out of the cold: The special Ramadan
Ramadan
feast". The Economist. 18 July 2015. Retrieved 14 November 2017.  ^ "Algerians jailed for breaking Ramadan
Ramadan
fast". Al Arabiya News. 7 October 2008.  ^ Press release by Kuwait
Kuwait
Ministry Of Interior ^ "KD 100 fine, one month prison for public eating, drinking". Friday Times. Kuwait
Kuwait
Times Newspaper. 21 August 2009. Retrieved 17 November 2009.  ^ Salama, Samir (16 July 2009). "New penalty for minor offences in UAE". Gulf News. Dubai, UAE: Al Nisr Publishing LLC. Retrieved 17 November 2009.  ^ " Ramadan
Ramadan
in Saudi Arabia: Taking it to heart". The Economist. 11 June 2016. Retrieved 11 June 2016.  ^ " Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
Threatens Non- Muslim
Muslim
Foreigners Who Eat or Drink in Public during Ramadan". The Blaze. Archived from the original on 31 May 2017. Retrieved 31 May 2017.  ^ Employment Issues During Ramadan
Ramadan
– The Gulf Region, DLA Piper Middle East. ^ "Egypt's tourism minister 'confirms' alcohol prohibition on Islamic holidays beyond Ramadan," Al-Ahram, 22 July 2012. ^ "Schools say Muslim
Muslim
students 'should break Ramadan
Ramadan
fast' to avoid bad grades". The Telegraph. Retrieved 2017-06-25.  ^ Prof. Dr. E. Jürgen Zöllner (Summer 2017). "Education in Berlin: Islam
Islam
and School" (PDF). Senatsverwaltung für Bildung, Wissenschaft und Forschung.  ^ Azizi F (2010). "Islamic fasting and health". Ann. Nutr. Metab. 56 (4): 273–82. doi:10.1159/000295848. PMID 20424438.  ^ Sadeghirad B, Motaghipisheh S, Kolahdooz F, Zahedi MJ, Haghdoost AA (2014). "Islamic fasting and weight loss: a systematic review and meta-analysis". Public Health Nutr. 17 (2): 396–406. doi:10.1017/S1368980012005046. PMID 23182306.  ^ Emami-Naini A, Roomizadeh P, Baradaran A, Abedini A, Abtahi M (August 2013). " Ramadan
Ramadan
fasting and patients with renal diseases: A mini review of the literature". J Res Med Sci. Official Journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. 18 (8): 711–716. ISSN 1735-1995. PMC 3872613 . PMID 24379850.  ^ " Crime
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rate falls during Ramadan". Today's Zaman. 21 August 2011. Retrieved 15 July 2014.  ^ " Crime
Crime
rate drops over Ramadan". Turkish Daily News. 16 November 2002. Retrieved 24 June 2015.  ^ a b "Eastern Province crime falls 40% during Ramadan". 28 July 2013. Retrieved 16 July 2014.  ^ Tavakoli, Nasrin (2012), "Effect of spirituality on decreasing crimes and social damages: A case study on Ramadan" (PDF), International Research Journal of Applied and Basic Sciences: 518–524  ^ "The effect of Ramadan
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on crime rates in Saudi Arabia, Hattab Ben Thawab Al-Sobaye" (PDF). Naif Arab University for Social Sciences, Thesis publication. 23 March 2011.  ^ "129 women killed in six months in Turkey, lawmaker says". Hurriyet Daily News. 11 July 2014. Retrieved 12 July 2014.  ^ " Crime
Crime
rates increase during Ramadhan". Jakarta
Jakarta
Post. 19 August 2011. Retrieved 15 July 2014.  ^ "4 Gold Shop Robbers Killed, 2 Caught During Police Raids Across the City". Jakarta
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Post. 29 August 2009. Archived from the original on 12 July 2011. Retrieved 16 July 2014.  ^ a b "Anticipating Crime, 7,500 Policemen Put on Standby Along Ramadan". Department of Communication, Informatics and Public Relations of Jakarta
Jakarta
Capital City. 16 July 2014. Archived from the original on 16 July 2014. Retrieved 16 July 2014.  ^ "Comment le Ramadhan bouleverse la vie des Algériens". El Watan, French. 24 August 2010. Retrieved 16 July 2014.  ^ a b "Yemen child trafficking to increase during Ramadan". Yemen Times. 20 August 2009. Archived from the original on 12 July 2011.  ^ a b " Ramadan
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saw rise in violent domestic crimes". Daily News, Egypt. 2 November 2006. Archived from the original on 12 July 2011.  ^ " Ramadan
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and lower crime rates: The Ayatollah says that during Ramadan
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the number of criminal cases in the Judiciary diminish by a great degree". 11 July 2013. Archived from the original on 16 July 2014. Retrieved 16 July 2014.  ^ " Ramadan
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External links[edit]

Find more aboutRamadanat's sister projects

Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons News from Wikinews Travel guide from Wikivoyage Data from Wikidata

Complete Guide to Ramadhan including Rules, Duas, Itikaaf, Laylatul Qadr, Sadaqatul Fitr etc 15 Hadiths on Ramadan Articles on Ramadan Ramadan
Ramadan
Articles & Resources Purpose of Fasting
Fasting
in Islam: "And Fast Until The Onset Of Night" Ramadan
Ramadan
Customs, Observance and Practices

v t e

Ramadan

Background

Ramadan
Ramadan
(calendar month) Fasting
Fasting
during Ramadan Zakat
Zakat
al-Fitr

Fidyah and Kaffara

Meals

Suhur
Suhur
(before sunrise) Iftar
Iftar
(after sunset)

Prayers
Prayers
and observances

Tarawih Iʿtikāf Laylat al-Qadr Jumu'atul-Wida Eid al-Fitr

Ramadan
Ramadan
culture

Date (fruit) Chaand Raat Fanous Fast-a-Thon Gargee'an Mheibes Ramadan
Ramadan
tent

v t e

Islamic holidays
Islamic holidays
and observances

The two Eids

Eid al-Fitr Eid al-Adha

Other holidays and observances

Day of Arafah Day of Ashura Islamic New Year Arba'een1 Mawlid Lailat al Miraj Mid-Sha'ban Ramadan Laylat al-Qadr Eid al-Ghadir1 Mubahala1 Promised Messiah Day2 Promised Reformer Day2 Caliphate Day2

1 Shia Muslim
Muslim
only 2 Ahmadi Muslim
Muslim
only

v t e

Holidays, observances, and celebrations in Algeria

January

New Year's Day
New Year's Day
(1) Yennayer
Yennayer
(12)

February

Valentine's Day
Valentine's Day
(14) Tafsut (28)

March

International Women's Day
International Women's Day
(8) Victory Day (19) World Water Day
World Water Day
(22) Maghrebi Blood Donation Day (30) Spring vacation (2 last weeks)

April

April Fools' Day
April Fools' Day
(1) Knowledge Day (16) Berber Spring (20) Earth Day
Earth Day
(22) Election Day (Thursday)

May

International Workers' Day
International Workers' Day
(1) World Press Freedom Day (3) Mother's Day
Mother's Day
(last Sunday)

June–July–August

Summer vacation (varies)

June

Children's Day
Children's Day
(1) Father's Day
Father's Day
(21)

July

Independence Day (5)

September

International Day of Peace
International Day of Peace
(21)

October

International Day of Non-Violence
International Day of Non-Violence
(2) Halloween
Halloween
(31)

November

Revolution Day (1)

December

Christmas Eve
Christmas Eve
(24) Christmas
Christmas
(25) New Year's Eve
New Year's Eve
(31) Winter vacation (2 last weeks)

Varies (year round)

Hijri New Year's Day
New Year's Day
( Muharram
Muharram
1) Ashura
Ashura
( Muharram
Muharram
10) Mawlid
Mawlid
(Rabi' al-Awwal 12) Ramadan
Ramadan
( Ramadan
Ramadan
1) Laylat al-Qadr
Laylat al-Qadr
( Ramadan
Ramadan
27) Eid al-Fitr
Eid al-Fitr
( Shawwal 1) Day of Arafah
Day of Arafah
(Dhu al-Hijjah 9) Eid al-Adha
Eid al-Adha
(Dhu al-Hijjah 10) Holi
Holi
(varies)

Bold indicates major holidays commonly celebrated in Algeria, which often represent the major celebrations of the month. See also: Lists of holidays.

v t e

Holidays, observances, and celebrations in the United States

January

New Year's Day
New Year's Day
(federal) Martin Luther King Jr. Day
Martin Luther King Jr. Day
(federal)

Confederate Heroes Day (TX) Fred Korematsu Day
Fred Korematsu Day
(CA, FL, HI, VA) Idaho Human Rights Day (ID) Inauguration Day (federal quadrennial, DC area) Kansas Day (KS) Lee–Jackson Day
Lee–Jackson Day
(formerly Lee–Jackson–King Day) (VA) Robert E. Lee Day
Robert E. Lee Day
(FL) Stephen Foster Memorial Day (36) The Eighth (LA, former federal)

January–February

Super Bowl Sunday

February American Heart Month Black History Month

Washington's Birthday/Presidents' Day (federal) Valentine's Day

Georgia Day (GA) Groundhog Day Lincoln's Birthday
Lincoln's Birthday
(CA, CT, IL, IN, MO, NJ, NY, WV) National Girls and Women in Sports Day National Freedom Day (36) Primary Election Day (WI) Ronald Reagan Day
Ronald Reagan Day
(CA) Rosa Parks Day
Rosa Parks Day
(CA, MO) Susan B. Anthony Day
Susan B. Anthony Day
(CA, FL, NY, WI, WV, proposed federal)

February–March

Mardi Gras

Ash Wednesday
Ash Wednesday
(religious) Courir de Mardi Gras
Mardi Gras
(religious) Super Tuesday

March Irish-American Heritage Month National Colon Cancer Awareness Month Women's History Month

St. Patrick's Day (religious) Spring break
Spring break
(week)

Casimir Pulaski Day
Casimir Pulaski Day
(IL) Cesar Chavez Day
Cesar Chavez Day
(CA, CO, TX, proposed federal) Evacuation Day (Suffolk County, MA) Harriet Tubman Day
Harriet Tubman Day
(NY) Holi
Holi
(NY, religious) Mardi Gras
Mardi Gras
(AL (in two counties), LA) Maryland Day
Maryland Day
(MD) National Poison Prevention Week
National Poison Prevention Week
(week) Prince Jonah Kūhiō Kalanianaʻole Day (HI) Saint Joseph's Day
Saint Joseph's Day
(religious) Seward's Day (AK) Texas Independence Day
Texas Independence Day
(TX) Town Meeting Day (VT)

March–April

Easter
Easter
(religious)

Palm Sunday
Palm Sunday
(religious) Passover
Passover
(religious) Good Friday
Good Friday
(CT, NC, PR, religious) Easter
Easter
Monday (religious)

April Confederate History Month

420 Day April Fools' Day Arbor Day Confederate Memorial Day
Confederate Memorial Day
(AL, MS) Days of Remembrance of the Victims of the Holocaust
Days of Remembrance of the Victims of the Holocaust
(week) Earth Day Emancipation Day
Emancipation Day
(DC) Thomas Jefferson's Birthday
Jefferson's Birthday
(AL) Pascua Florida (FL) Patriots' Day
Patriots' Day
(MA, ME) San Jacinto Day
San Jacinto Day
(TX) Siblings Day Walpurgis Night
Walpurgis Night
(religious)

May Asian Pacific American Heritage Month Jewish American Heritage Month

Memorial Day
Memorial Day
(federal) Mother's Day
Mother's Day
(36) Cinco de Mayo

Harvey Milk Day
Harvey Milk Day
(CA) Law Day (36) Loyalty Day (36) Malcolm X Day
Malcolm X Day
(CA, IL, proposed federal) May Day Military Spouse Day National Day of Prayer
National Day of Prayer
(36) National Defense Transportation Day (36) National Maritime Day (36) Peace Officers Memorial Day
Memorial Day
(36) Truman Day
Truman Day
(MO)

June Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Pride Month

Father's Day
Father's Day
(36)

Bunker Hill Day
Bunker Hill Day
(Suffolk County, MA) Carolina Day
Carolina Day
(SC) Emancipation Day
Emancipation Day
In Texas / Juneteenth
Juneteenth
(TX) Flag Day (36, proposed federal) Helen Keller Day
Helen Keller Day
(PA) Honor America Days (3 weeks) Jefferson Davis Day
Jefferson Davis Day
(AL, FL) Kamehameha Day
Kamehameha Day
(HI) Odunde Festival
Odunde Festival
(Philadelphia, PA) Senior Week (week) West Virginia Day
West Virginia Day
(WV)

July

Independence Day (federal)

Lā Hoʻihoʻi Ea (HI, unofficial) Parents' Day
Parents' Day
(36) Pioneer Day (UT)

July–August

Summer vacation

August

American Family Day (AZ) Barack Obama Day
Barack Obama Day
(IL) Bennington Battle Day (VT) Hawaii Admission Day / Statehood Day (HI) Lyndon Baines Johnson Day
Lyndon Baines Johnson Day
(TX) National Aviation Day
National Aviation Day
(36) Service Reduction Day (MD) Victory over Japan Day (RI, former federal) Women's Equality Day
Women's Equality Day
(36)

September Prostate Cancer Awareness Month

Labor Day
Labor Day
(federal)

California Admission Day
California Admission Day
(CA) Carl Garner Federal Lands Cleanup Day (36) Constitution Day (36) Constitution Week (week) Defenders Day
Defenders Day
(MD) Gold Star Mother's Day
Mother's Day
(36) National Grandparents Day
National Grandparents Day
(36) National Payroll Week (week) Native American Day (CA, TN, proposed federal) Patriot Day
Patriot Day
(36)

September–October Hispanic Heritage Month

Oktoberfest

Rosh Hashanah
Rosh Hashanah
(religious) Yom Kippur
Yom Kippur
(religious)

October Breast Cancer Awareness Month Disability Employment Awareness Month Filipino American History Month LGBT History Month

Columbus Day
Columbus Day
(federal) Halloween

Alaska Day (AK) Child Health Day (36) General Pulaski Memorial Day German-American Day Indigenous Peoples' Day
Indigenous Peoples' Day
(VT) International Day of Non-Violence Leif Erikson Day
Leif Erikson Day
(36) Missouri Day (MO) National School Lunch Week Native American Day (SD) Nevada Day
Nevada Day
(NV) Sweetest Day White Cane Safety Day
White Cane Safety Day
(36)

October–November

Diwali
Diwali
(religious)

November Native American Indian Heritage Month

Veterans Day
Veterans Day
(federal) Thanksgiving (federal)

Day after Thanksgiving (24) Election Day (CA, DE, HI, KY, MT, NJ, NY, OH, PR, WV, proposed federal) Family Day (NV) Hanukkah
Hanukkah
(religious) Lā Kūʻokoʻa (HI, unofficial) Native American Heritage Day (MD, WA) Obama Day
Obama Day
(Perry County, AL)

December

Christmas
Christmas
(religious, federal)

Alabama Day (AL) Christmas Eve
Christmas Eve
(KY, NC, SC) Day after Christmas
Christmas
(KY, NC, SC, TX) Festivus Hanukkah
Hanukkah
(religious, week) Indiana Day
Indiana Day
(IN) Kwanzaa
Kwanzaa
(religious, week) National Pearl Harbor Remembrance Day
National Pearl Harbor Remembrance Day
(36) New Year's Eve Pan American Aviation Day (36) Rosa Parks Day
Rosa Parks Day
(OH, OR) Wright Brothers Day (36)

Varies (year round)

Eid al-Adha
Eid al-Adha
(religious) Eid al-Fitr
Eid al-Fitr
(religious) Ramadan
Ramadan
(religious, month)

Legend: (federal) = federal holidays, (state) = state holidays, (religious) = religious holidays, (week) = weeklong holidays, (month) = monthlong holidays, (36) = Title 36 Observances and Ceremonies Bold indicates major holidays commonly celebrated in the United States, which often represent the major celebrations of the month. See also: Lists of holidays, Hallmark holidays, public holidays in the United States, New Jersey, New York, Puerto Rico and the United Stat

.