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Ḥadīth (/ˈhædɪθ/[1] or /hɑːˈdiːθ/;[2] Arabic: حديث‎ ḥadīth, pl. Aḥādīth, أحاديث, ʼaḥādīth[3], also "Traditions") in Islam
Islam
denotes the words, actions, and the silent approval, of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. Within Islam
Islam
the authority of Ḥadīth as a source for religious law ranks inferior only to the Qur'an
Qur'an
— which Muslims hold to be the word of Allah
Allah
revealed to his messenger Muhammad. The significance of the hadith comes from the instruction of the Qur'an
Qur'an
(in verses such as 24:54, 33:21) to emulate, obey, and abide by, the judgement of Muhammad. Ḥadīth is the Arabic word for speech, report, account, narrative.[4] [3] [5]:471 Unlike the Qur'an, Ahadith accounts are not held to be divine revelation, and were not written down by Muhammad's followers immediately after his death but several generations later. They are not a single text by a single author, but from the early formation of the Islamic era they would come to be, collected, collated and compiled into a great corpus of Islamic literature, and the Aḥādīth, the Ḥadīth collections would come to differentiate the different branches of the Islamic faith. A small minority of Muslims called Quranists reject all Ḥadīth.[6][7] Because the vast number of ahadith include questionable and even contradictory statements, the authentication of ahadith became a major field of study in Islam.[8] A hadith has two parts in its classic form, the chain of narrators who have transmitted the report (the isnad), and the main text of the report (the matn).[9][10][11][12] Individual hadith are classified by Muslim clerics and jurists as sahih ("authentic"), hasan ("good") or da'if ("weak").[13] However, different groups and different scholars may classify a hadith differently.

A manuscript copy of al-Bukhari, Mamluk
Mamluk
era, 13th century, Egypt. Adilnor Collection, Sweden.

Among some scholars of Sunni Islam
Sunni Islam
the term hadith may include not only the words, advice, practices, etc. of Muhammad, but also those of his companions.[14][15] In Shia Islam
Shia Islam
Ḥadīth is the embodiment of the sunnah, the words and actions of the Prophet and his family the Ahl al-Bayt
Ahl al-Bayt
( The Twelve Imams
The Twelve Imams
and the Prophet's daughter, Fatimah).[16]

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Definition

2.1 Distinction with Sunnah

3 Hadith
Hadith
and Quran 4 Components, schools, types

4.1 Impact 4.2 Components 4.3 Different schools

5 History, tradition and usage

5.1 History 5.2 Shia and Sunni textual traditions

5.2.1 Extent and nature in the Sunni tradition 5.2.2 Extent and nature in the Shia tradition

5.3 Modern usage

6 Studies

6.1 Terminology: admissible and inadmissible hadiths 6.2 Biographical evaluation

7 Criticism 8 See also 9 References 10 Bibliography 11 Further reading 12 External links

Etymology[edit]

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In Arabic, the noun ḥadīth (حديث  IPA: [ħæˈdiːθ]) means "report", "account", or "narrative".[17][18] Its Arabic plural is aḥādīth (أحاديث [ʔæħæːˈdiːθ]).[3] Hadith
Hadith
also refers to the speech of a person.[19] Definition[edit] In Islamic terminology, according to Juan Campo, the term hadith refers to reports of statements or actions of Muhammad, or of his tacit approval or criticism of something said or done in his presence.[12] Classical hadith specialist Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani says that the intended meaning of hadith in religious tradition is something attributed to Muhammad
Muhammad
but that is not found in the Quran.[20] Other associated words possess similar meanings including: khabar (news, information) often refers to reports about Muhammad, but sometimes refers to traditions about his companions and their successors from the following generation; conversely, athar (trace, vestige) usually refers to traditions about the companions and successors, though sometimes connotes traditions about Muhammad. Collections of hadith are not necessarily exclusively hadith of Muhammad. Muwatta Imam Malik
Muwatta Imam Malik
is usually described as "the earliest written collection of hadith" but sayings of Muhamad are “blended with the sayings of the companions”[21] In Introduction to Hadith
Hadith
by Abd al-Hadi al-Fadli, Kitab Ali
Ali
is referred to as "the first hadith book of the Ahl al-Bayt
Ahl al-Bayt
to be written on the authority of the Prophet"[22] However, according to the Shia Islam
Shia Islam
Ahlul Bayt Digital Library Project, "... when there is no clear Qur’anic statement, nor is there a Hadith
Hadith
upon which Muslim schools have agreed. ... Shi’a ... refer to Ahlul-Bayt for deriving the Sunnah
Sunnah
of Prophet" — implying that while Hadith
Hadith
in limited to the "Traditions" of Muhammad, the Shia Sunna draws on the sayings, etc. of the Ahlul-Bayt or Imams of Shia Islam.[23] Distinction with Sunnah[edit] The word sunnah (custom or "all the traditions and practices" of the Islamic prophet that "have become models to be followed" by Muslims) is also used in reference to a normative custom of Muhammad
Muhammad
or the early Muslim community.[12] Some sources (Khaled Abou El Fadl) limit hadith to verbal reports, with the deeds of Muhammad
Muhammad
and reports about his companions being part of the Sunnah
Sunnah
not hadith.[24] Another source (Joseph A. Islam) distinguishes between the two saying:

Whereas the 'Hadith' is an oral communication that is allegedly derived from the Prophet or his teachings, the 'Sunna' (quite literally: mode of life, behaviour or example) signifies the prevailing customs of a particular community or people. ... A 'Sunna' is a practice which has been passed on by a community from generation to generation en masse, whereas the Ahadith are reports collected by later compilers often centuries removed from the source. ... A practice which is contained within the Hadith
Hadith
may well be regarded as Sunna, but it is not necessary that a Sunna would have a supporting hadith sanctioning it.[25]

See also: Categories of Ahadith Hadith
Hadith
and Quran[edit] The theological importance of ahadith comes from several verses in the Quran
Quran
such as:

Say: Obey Allah
Allah
and obey the Messenger, but if you turn away, he (the Prophet) is only responsible for the duty placed on him (i.e. to convey Allah’s Message) and you for that placed on you. If you obey him, you shall be on the right guidance. The Messenger’s duty is only to convey (the message) in a clear way. (An-Nur 24:54)[26]

In God's messenger you have indeed a good example for everyone who looks forward with hope to God and the Last Day, and remembers God unceasingly. (Al-Ahzab 33: 21)[27]

Hadith
Hadith
are also regarded by Muslims as important tools for understanding the Quran
Quran
and commentaries (tafsir) written on it. Some important elements, which are today taken to be a long-held part of normative traditional Islamic practice and belief — for example, the detailed ritual practice of the five salat (obligatory Islamic prayers) — are in fact not mentioned in the Qur'an
Qur'an
at all, but are derived solely from the hadith.[28] Hadithists (i.e. believers in hadith, i.e. almost all Muslims), therefore, maintain that the ahadith are a necessary requirement for the true and proper practice of Islam, as it gives Muslims the nuanced details of Islamic practice and belief in areas where the Qur'an
Qur'an
is silent. Quranists, on the contrary, hold the critical view on hadith that anything on which the Qur'an
Qur'an
is silent is deliberate because Allah
Allah
did not hold its detail to be of consequence, and in the case of ahadith that contradict the Qur'an, more so should those ahadith be forcefully rejected outright as a corruption of Islam. In the classical example of salat (obligatory Islamic prayers), where salat is commanded in the Qur'an, all Muslims agree that salat is an obligatory part of Islamic religious practice. Divergence among Muslims arises, therefore, in how salat is performed. According to hadithists, the details and instructions of how to correctly perform salat, so as to, in their view, "validly" fulfill the Qur'anic command of performing salat, can only be found in the ahadith. Despite this, salat is nonetheless performed differently by different hadithist Islamic sects, depending on which hadith collection each hadithist sect relies upon. Quranists, for their part, leave the detail of salat to be a matter between each individual Muslim and Allah, with salat performance done to each Muslim's own individual understanding, interpretation and need. In the Quranists' view, as the Qur'an
Qur'an
is deliberately silent on the details of salat, Allah
Allah
did not hold its detail to be of consequence, so correctly performed salat lies not in any supposed correct details of the performance of prayer, but on a correct intention to perform the prayers, valid however it may be individually performed. Among most hadithists, the importance of ahadith is secondary to Qur'an
Qur'an
given that, at least in theory, an Islamic conflict of laws doctrine holds Qur'anic supremacy above ahadith in developing Islamic jurisprudence.[29] However, a minority of hadithists have historically placed ahadith on a par with the Qur'an. A smaller minority have upheld ahadith in contradiction to the Qur'an, thereby placing ahadith above Qur'an
Qur'an
and claiming that contradictory ahadith abrogate the parts of the Qur'an
Qur'an
where they conflict. The hadith literature is based on spoken reports in circulation after the death of Muhammad. Unlike the Qur'an, ahadith were not promptly written down during Muhammad's life or immediately after his death.[3] Hadith
Hadith
were evaluated and gathered into large collections during the 8th and 9th centuries, generations after the death of Muhammad, after the end of the era of the "rightful" Rashidun
Rashidun
Caliphate, over 1,000 km (620 mi) from where Muhammad
Muhammad
lived. Components, schools, types[edit] Impact[edit] The hadith had a profound and controversial influence on moulding the commentaries (tafsir) of the Quran. The earliest commentary of the Quran
Quran
known as Tafsir
Tafsir
Ibn Abbas is sometimes attributed to the companion Ibn Abbas. The hadith were used in forming the basis of Sharia
Sharia
(the religious law system forming part of the Islamic tradition), and the hadith are at the root of why there is no single Sharia
Sharia
system, but rather a collection of parallel Sharia
Sharia
systems within Islam. Much of early Islamic history available today is also based on the hadith and is challenged for lack of basis in primary source material, as well as internal contradictions of the secondary material available.

Types

Hadith
Hadith
may be hadith qudsi (sacred hadith) — which some Muslims regard as the words of God (Arabic: Allah) — or hadith sharif (noble hadith), which are Muhammad's own utterances.[30] According to as-Sayyid ash-Sharif al-Jurjani, the hadith qudsi differ from the Quran
Quran
in that the former are "expressed in Muhammad's words", whereas the latter are the "direct words of God". A hadith qudsi need not be a sahih (sound hadith), but may be da‘if or even mawdu‘.[31] An example of a hadith qudsi is the hadith of Abu Hurairah
Abu Hurairah
who said that Muhammad
Muhammad
said:

When God decreed the Creation He pledged Himself by writing in His book which is laid down with Him: My mercy prevails over My wrath.[32][non-primary source needed]

Components[edit] The two major aspects of a hadith are the text of the report (the matn), which contains the actual narrative, and the chain of narrators (the isnad), which documents the route by which the report has been transmitted.[9][12] The isnad was an effort to document that a hadith had actually come from Muhammad, and Muslim scholars from the eighth century until today have never ceased repeating the mantra "The isnad is part of the religion — if not for the isnad, whoever wanted could say whatever they wanted."[9] The isnad means literally 'support', and it is so named due to the reliance of the hadith specialists upon it in determining the authenticity or weakness of a hadith.[33] The isnad consists of a chronological list of the narrators, each mentioning the one from whom they heard the hadith, until mentioning the originator of the matn along with the matn itself. The first people to hear hadith were the companions who preserved it and then conveyed it to those after them. Then the generation following them received it, thus conveying it to those after them and so on. So a companion would say, "I heard the Prophet say such and such." The Follower would then say, "I heard a companion say, 'I heard the Prophet.'" The one after him would then say, "I heard someone say, 'I heard a Companion say, 'I heard the Prophet..." and so on.[34] Different schools[edit] Different branches of Islam
Islam
refer to different collections of hadith, though the same incident may be found in hadith in different collections:

In the Sunni branch of Islam, the canonical hadith collections are the six books, of which Sahih al-Bukhari
Sahih al-Bukhari
and Sahih Muslim
Sahih Muslim
generally have the highest status. The other books of hadith are Sunan Abu Dawood, Jami` at-Tirmidhi, Al-Sunan al-Sughra
Al-Sunan al-Sughra
and Sunan ibn Majah. However the Malikis, one of the four Sunni "schools of thought" (madhhabs), traditionally reject Sunan ibn Majah
Sunan ibn Majah
and assert the canonical status of Muwatta Imam Malik. In the Twelver
Twelver
Shi'a branch of Islam, the canonical hadith collections are the Four Books: Kitab al-Kafi, Man la yahduruhu al-Faqih, Tahdhib al-Ahkam, and Al-Istibsar. In the Ibadi
Ibadi
branch of Islam, the main canonical collection is the Tartib al-Musnad. This is an expansion of the earlier Jami Sahih collection, which retains canonical status in its own right. The Ismaili
Ismaili
shia sects use the Daim al-Islam
Daim al-Islam
as hadith collections. The Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
sect generally rely on the Sunni canons. Some minor groups, collectively known as Quranists, reject the authority of the hadith collections altogether.[6][7]

In general, the difference between Shi'a and Sunni collections is that Shia give preference to ahadith credited to the Prophet's family and close associates (Ahl al-Bayt), while Sunnis do not consider family lineage in evaluating a Hadith
Hadith
and Sunnah
Sunnah
narrated by any of twelve thousand companions of Muhammad.[35] History, tradition and usage[edit] History[edit]

This assertion re Muslim historians citing Uthman on hadith needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (April 2011) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Traditions of the life of Muhammad
Muhammad
and the early history of Islam
Islam
were passed down mostly orally for more than a hundred years after Muhammad's death in AD 632. Muslim historians say that Caliph
Caliph
Uthman ibn Affan (the third khalifa (caliph) of the Rashidun
Rashidun
Caliphate, or third successor of Muhammad, who had formerly been Muhammad's secretary), is generally believed to urge Muslims to record the hadith just as Muhammad
Muhammad
suggested to some of his followers to write down his words and actions.[36][37] Uthman's labours were cut short by his assassination, at the hands of aggrieved soldiers, in 656. No sources survive directly from this period so we are dependent on what later writers tell us about this period.[38] According to British historian of Arab world Alfred Guillaume, it is "certain" that "several small collections" of hadith were "assembled in Umayyad times."[39] In 851 the rationalist Mu`tazila
Mu`tazila
school of thought fell from favor in the Abbasid Caliphate.[citation needed] The Mu`tazila, for whom the "judge of truth ... was human reason,"[40] had clashed with traditionists who looked to the literal meaning of the Quran
Quran
and hadith for truth. While the Quran
Quran
had been officially compiled and approved, hadiths had not. One result was the number of hadiths began "multiplying in suspiciously direct correlation to their utility" to the quoter of the hadith (Traditionists quoted hadith warning against listening to human opinion instead of Sharia; Hanafites quoted a hadith stating that "In my community there will rise a man called Abu Hanifa [the Hanafite
Hanafite
founder] who will be its guiding light". In fact one agreed upon hadith warned that, "There will be forgers, liars who will bring you hadiths which neither you nor your forefathers have heard, Beware of them."[41] In addition the number of hadith grew enormously. While Malik ibn Anas
Malik ibn Anas
had attributed just 1720 statements or deeds to the Muhammad, it was no longer unusual to find people who had collected a hundred times that number of hadith.[citation needed] Faced with a huge corpus of miscellaneous traditions supported differing views on a variety of controversial matters—some of them flatly contradicting each other—Islamic scholars of the Abbasid sought to authenticate hadith. Scholars had to decide which hadith were to be trusted as authentic and which had been invented for political or theological purposes. To do this, they used a number of techniques which Muslims now call the science of hadith.[42] Shia and Sunni textual traditions[edit]

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Sunni and Shia hadith collections differ because scholars from the two traditions differ as to the reliability of the narrators and transmitters. Narrators who took the side of Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
and Umar
Umar
rather than Ali, in the disputes over leadership that followed the death of Muhammad, are seen as unreliable by the Shia; narrations sourced to Ali
Ali
and the family of Muhammad, and to their supporters, are preferred. Sunni scholars put trust in narrators, such as Aisha, whom Shia reject. Differences in hadith collections have contributed to differences in worship practices and shari'a law and have hardened the dividing line between the two traditions. Extent and nature in the Sunni tradition[edit] In the Sunni tradition, the number of such texts is ten thousand plus or minus a few thousand.[43] But if, say, ten companions record a text reporting a single incident in the life of Muhammad, hadith scholars can count this as ten hadiths. So Musnad Ahmad, for example, has over 30,000 hadiths—but this count includes texts that are repeated in order to record slight variations within the text or within the chains of narrations. Identifying the narrators of the various texts, comparing their narrations of the same texts to identify both the soundest reporting of a text and the reporters who are most sound in their reporting occupied experts of hadith throughout the 2nd century. In the 3rd century of Islam
Islam
(from 225/840 to about 275/889),[44] hadith experts composed brief works recording a selection of about two- to five-thousand such texts which they felt to have been most soundly documented or most widely referred to in the Muslim scholarly community.[45] The 4th and 5th century saw these six works being commented on quite widely. This auxiliary literature has contributed to making their study the place of departure for any serious study of hadith. In addition, Bukhari and Muslim in particular, claimed that they were collecting only the soundest of sound hadiths. These later scholars tested their claims and agreed to them, so that today, they are considered the most reliable collections of hadith.[46] Toward the end of the 5th century, Ibn al-Qaisarani formally standardized the Sunni canon into six pivotal works, a delineation which remains to this day.[47][48][49] Over the centuries, several different categories of collections came into existence. Some are more general, like the muṣannaf, the muʿjam, and the jāmiʿ, and some more specific, either characterized by the topics treated, like the sunan (restricted to legal-liturgical traditions), or by its composition, like the arbaʿīniyyāt (collections of forty hadiths).[50] Extent and nature in the Shia tradition[edit] Shi'a Muslims do not use the six major hadith collections followed by the Sunni, as they do not trust many of the Sunni narrators and transmitters. They have their own extensive hadith literature. The best-known hadith collections are The Four Books, which were compiled by three authors who are known as the 'Three Muhammads'.[51] The Four Books are: Kitab al-Kafi
Kitab al-Kafi
by Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Ya'qub al-Kulayni al-Razi (329 AH), Man la yahduruhu al-Faqih
Man la yahduruhu al-Faqih
by Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Babuya and Al-Tahdhib and Al-Istibsar
Al-Istibsar
both by Shaykh Muhammad
Muhammad
Tusi. Shi'a clerics also make use of extensive collections and commentaries by later authors. Unlike Sunnis, Shia do not consider any of their hadith collections to be sahih (authentic) in their entirety. Therefore, every individual hadith in a specific collection must be investigated separately to determine its authenticity.[52] Modern usage[edit] The mainstream sects consider hadith to be essential supplements to, and clarifications of, the Quran, Islam's holy book, as well as for clarifying issues pertaining to Islamic jurisprudence. Ibn al-Salah, a hadith specialist, described the relationship between hadith and other aspect of the religion by saying: "It is the science most pervasive in respect to the other sciences in their various branches, in particular to jurisprudence being the most important of them."[53] "The intended meaning of 'other sciences' here are those pertaining to religion," explains Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani, "Quranic exegesis, hadith, and jurisprudence. The science of hadith became the most pervasive due to the need displayed by each of these three sciences. The need hadith has of its science is apparent. As for Quranic exegesis, then the preferred manner of explaining the speech of God is by means of what has been accepted as a statement of Muhammad. The one looking to this is in need of distinguishing the acceptable from the unacceptable. Regarding jurisprudence, then the jurist is in need of citing as an evidence the acceptable to the exception of the later, something only possible utilizing the science of hadith."[29] Studies[edit] Main article: Hadith
Hadith
studies According to Bernard Lewis, "in the early Islamic centuries there could be no better way of promoting a cause, an opinion, or a faction than to cite an appropriate action or utterance of the Prophet." To fight these forgeries, the elaborate science of hadith studies was devised.[54] Hadith studies
Hadith studies
use a number of methods of evaluation developed by early Muslim scholars in determining the veracity of reports attributed to Muhammad. This is achieved by analyzing the text of the report, the scale of the report's transmission, the routes through which the report was transmitted, and the individual narrators involved in its transmission. On the basis of these criteria, various classifications were devised for hadith. The earliest comprehensive work in hadith studies was Abu Muhammad
Muhammad
al-Ramahurmuzi's al-Muhaddith al-Fasil, while another significant work was al-Hakim al-Naysaburi's Ma‘rifat ‘ulum al-hadith. Ibn al-Salah's ʻUlum al-hadith is considered the standard classical reference on hadith studies.[12] Terminology: admissible and inadmissible hadiths[edit] Main article: Hadith
Hadith
terminology By means of hadith terminology, hadith are categorized as ṣaḥīḥ (sound, authentic), ḍaʿīf (weak), or mawḍūʿ (fabricated). Other classifications used also include: ḥasan (good), which refers to an otherwise ṣaḥīḥ report suffering from minor deficiency, or a weak report strengthened due to numerous other corroborating reports; and munkar (denounced) which is a report that is rejected due to the presence of an unreliable transmitter contradicting another more reliable narrator.[55] Both sahīh and hasan reports are considered acceptable for usage in Islamic legal discourse. Classifications of hadith may also be based upon the scale of transmission. Reports that pass through many reliable transmitters at each point in the isnad up until their collection and transcription are known as mutawātir. These reports are considered the most authoritative as they pass through so many different routes that collusion between all of the transmitters becomes an impossibility. Reports not meeting this standard are known as aahad, and are of several different types.[12] Biographical evaluation[edit] Main article: Biographical evaluation Another area of focus in the study of hadith is biographical analysis (‘ilm al-rijāl, lit. "science of people"), in which details about the transmitter are scrutinized. This includes analyzing their date and place of birth; familial connections; teachers and students; religiosity; moral behaviour; literary output; their travels; as well as their date of death. Based upon these criteria, the reliability (thiqāt) of the transmitter is assessed. Also determined is whether the individual was actually able to transmit the report, which is deduced from their contemporaneity and geographical proximity with the other transmitters in the chain.[56] Examples of biographical dictionaries include: Abd al-Ghani al-Maqdisi's Al-Kamal fi Asma' al-Rijal, Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani's Tahdhīb al-Tahdhīb and al-Dhahabi's Tadhkirat al-huffaz.[57] Criticism[edit] Main article: Criticism of Hadith Related article: Goldziher
Goldziher
on Hadīth The major points of intra-Muslim criticism of the Hadith
Hadith
literature is based in questions regarding its authenticity.[58] However, Muslim criticism of ahadith is also based on theological and philosophical Islamic grounds of argument and critique. Muslim scholars have a long history of questioning the Hadith literature throughout Islamic history. Western academics also became active in the field later on. See also[edit]

Book: Hadith Book: Islam

Prophetic biography List of hadith authors and commentators

References[edit]

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Oxford English Dictionary
(3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. September 2005.  (Subscription or UK public library membership required.) ^ "Hadith". Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House. Retrieved 2011-08-13.  ^ a b c d Brown, Jonathan A.C. (2009), p. 3. ^ Hans Wehr English&Arabic Dictionary.  ^ Mohammad Taqi al-Modarresi
Mohammad Taqi al-Modarresi
(26 March 2016). The Laws of Islam
Islam
(PDF). Enlight Press. ISBN 978-0994240989. Retrieved 22 December 2017.  ^ a b Aisha
Aisha
Y. Musa, The Qur’anists, Florida International University, accessed May 22, 2013. ^ a b Neal Robinson (2013), Islam: A Concise Introduction, Routledge, ISBN 978-0878402243, Chapter 7, pp. 85-89 ^ Lewis, Bernard (1993). Islam
Islam
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Hadith
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Hadith
(2nd ed.). London: ICAS Press. p. 59. ISBN 9781904063476.  ^ al-Fadli, Abd al-Hadi (2011). Introduction to Hadith
Hadith
(2nd ed.). London: ICAS Press. p. 62. ISBN 9781904063476.  ^ "The Major Difference Between the Shi'a and the Sunni". Ahlul Bayt Digital Library Project. Retrieved 28 March 2018.  ^ Abou El Fadl, Khaled (22 March 2011). "What is Shari'a?". ABC RELIGION AND ETHICS. Retrieved 20 June 2015.  ^ Islam, Joseph A. "THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN HADITH AND SUNNA". The Quran
Quran
and Its Message. Retrieved 26 March 2018.  ^ Hameed, Shahul. "Store of Prophet's Legacy: Why Hadith
Hadith
is Important". About Islam. Retrieved 28 March 2018.  ^ Hashmi, Tariq Mahmood (2 April 2015). "Role, Importance And Authenticity Of The Hadith". Mawrid.org. Retrieved 28 March 2018.  ^ Brown, Jonathan A.C. (2014). Misquoting Muhammad: The Challenge and Choices of Interpreting the Prophet's Legacy. Oneworld Publications. p. 18. ISBN 978-1780744209.  ^ a b Ibn Hajar, Ahmad. al-Nukat ala Kitab ibn al-Salah, vol. 1, p. 90. Maktabah al-Furqan. ^ Glasse, Cyril (1989, 2001). The New Encyclopedia of Islam. Altamira. p. 159.  Check date values in: date= (help) ^ "Qu'est-ce que le hadith Qudsi ?". aslamna.info.  ^ Related by al-Bukhari, Muslim, an-Nasa'i and Ibn Majah. ^ Tadrib al-Rawi, vol. 1, pp. 39–41 with abridgement. ^ Ilm al-Rijal wa Ahimiyatih, by Mualami, p. 16, Dar al-Rayah. ^ "Religions. Sunni and Shi'a". BBC. Retrieved 28 March 2018.  ^ ^ Tirmidhi, "‘Ilm," 12. ^ ^ Collected in the Musnad of Ahmad (1015-6 6510 and also nos. 6930, 7017 and 1720), Sunan Abu Dawud (Mukhtasar Sunan Abi Dawud (52463499) and elsewhere. ^ Roman, provincial and Islamic law, Patricia Crone, p2 ^ Guillaume, Alfred (1954). Islam
Islam
(2nd (Revised) ed.). Penguin. p. 89.  ISBN 0140135553 ^ Martin, Matthew (2013). Mu'tazila - use of reason in Islamic theology. Amazon. Retrieved 8 September 2015.  ^ Goldziher, Ignác (1967). Muslim Studies, Vol. 1. SUNY Press. p. 127.  ISBN 0873952340 ^ Islam
Islam
– the Straight Path, John Eposito, p.81 ^ See the references and discussion by Abdul Fattah Abu Ghuddah Thalathatu rasa'il fi ulum al-hadith; risalat abi dawud ila ahl makkata fi wasf sunanihi, pg 36, footnote. Beirut: Maktaba al-Matbu'at al-Islamiyah: 2nd ed 1426/2005. ^ The earliest book, Bukhari's Sahih was composed by 225/840 since he states that he spent sixteen years composing it (Hady al-Sari, introduction to Fath al-Bari, p. 489, Lahore: Dar Nashr al-Kutub al-Islamiya, 1981/1401) and also that he showed it to Yahya ibn Ma'in (p. 8, ibid.) who died in 233. Nasa'i, the last to die of the authors of the six books, died in 303/915. He probably completed this work a few decades before his death: by 275 or so. ^ Counting multiple narrations of the same texts as a single text, the number of hadiths each author has recorded roughly as follows: Bukhari (as in Zabidi's Mukhtasar of Bukhari's book) 2134, Muslim (as in Mundhiri's Mukhtasar of Muslim's book) 2200, Tirmidhi 4000, Abu Dawud 4000, Nasa'i 4800, Ibn Majah
Ibn Majah
4300. There is considerable overlap amongst the six books so that Ibn al-Athir's Jami' al-Usul, which gathers together the hadiths texts of all six books deleting repeated texts, has about 9500 hadiths. ^ Muqaddimah Ibn al-Salah, p. 160 Dar al-Ma’aarif edition ^ Ignác Goldziher, Muslim Studies, vol. 2, p. 240. Halle, 1889-1890. ISBN 0-202-30778-6 ^ Scott C. Lucas, Constructive Critics, Ḥadīth Literature, and the Articulation of Sunnī Islam, p. 106. Leiden: Brill Publishers, 2004. ^ Ibn Khallikan's Biographical Dictionary, translated by William McGuckin de Slane. Paris: Oriental Translation Fund of Great Britain and Ireland. Sold by Institut de France
Institut de France
and Royal Library of Belgium. Vol. 3, p. 5. ^ Muhammad
Muhammad
Zubayr Siddiqi, Hadith
Hadith
Literature, Cambridge, Islamic Texts Society, 1993, edited and revised by Abdal Hakim Murad. ^ Momen, Moojan, Introduction to Shi'i Islam, Yale University Press, 1985, p.174. ^ Mohammad A. Shomali (2003). Shi'i Islam: Origins, Faith and Practices (reprint ed.). ICAS Press. p. 35. ISBN 9781904063117.  ^ Ulum al- Hadith
Hadith
by Ibn al-Salah, p. 5, Dar al-Fikr, with the verification of Nur al-Din al-‘Itr. ^ Lewis, Bernard (2011). The End of Modern History in the Middle East. Hoover Institution Press. p. 79-80. Retrieved 28 March 2018.  ^ See:

"Hadith," Encyclopedia of Islam
Islam
Online; "Hadith," Encyclopedia of Islam
Islam
and the Muslim world.

^ Berg (2000) p. 8 ^ See:

Robinson (2003) pp. 69–70; Lucas (2004) p. 15

^ B. Hallaq, Wael (1999). "The Authenticity of Prophetic Ḥadîth: A Pseudo-Problem". Studia Islamica. No. 89 (1999): 75–90. JSTOR 1596086. (Registration required (help)). 

Bibliography[edit]

Berg, H. (2000). The development of exegesis in early Islam: the authenticity of Muslim literature from the formative period. Routledge. ISBN 0-7007-1224-0.  Brown, Jonathan A. C. (2004). "Criticism of the Proto- Hadith
Hadith
Canon: Al-daraqutni's Adjustment of the Sahihayn". Journal of Islamic Studies. 15 (1): 1–37. doi:10.1093/jis/15.1.1.  Brown, Jonathan A.C. (2007). The Canonization of al-Bukhārī and Muslim (PDF). Leiden, Netherlands: Brill. ISBN 9789004158399. Retrieved 3 October 2017.  Brown, Jonathan A.C. (2009). Hadith: Muhammad's Legacy in the Medieval and Modern World (Foundations of Islam). Oneworld Publications. ISBN 978-1851686636.  Lucas, S. (2004). Constructive Critics, Hadith
Hadith
Literature, and the Articulation of Sunni Islam. Brill Academic Publishers. ISBN 90-04-13319-4.  Robinson, C. F. (2003). Islamic Historiography. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-62936-5.  Robson, J. "Hadith". In P.J. Bearman; Th. Bianquis; C.E. Bosworth; E. van Donzel; W.P. Heinrichs. Encyclopaedia of Islam
Islam
Online. Brill Academic Publishers. ISSN 1573-3912.  Senturk, Recep (2005). Narrative Social Structure: Anatomy of the Hadith
Hadith
Transmission Network, 610-1505. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. ISBN 9780804752077.  Swarup, Ram (1983). Understanding Islam
Islam
through Hadis. New Delhi: Voice of India. ISBN 9788185990736. Retrieved 3 October 2017. 

Further reading[edit]

1000 Qudsi Hadiths: An Encyclopedia of Divine Sayings; New York: Arabic Virtual Translation Center; (2012) ISBN 978-1-4700-2994-4 Hallaq, Wael B. (1999). "The Authenticity of Prophetic Ḥadîth: A Pseudo-Problem". Studia Islamica (89): 75–90. doi:10.2307/1596086. ISSN 0585-5292. JSTOR 1596086.  Brown, J. (2007). The Canonization of al-Bukhari and Muslim: The Formation and Function of the Sunni Hadith
Hadith
Canon. Leiden: Brill, 2007. Brown, J. (2009). Hadith: Muhammad's Legacy in the Medieval and Modern World. Oneworld Publications. ISBN 978-1851686636. Juynboll, G. H. A. (2007). Encyclopedia of Canonical Hadith. Leiden: Brill, 2007. Lucas, S. (2002). The Arts of Hadith
Hadith
Compilation and Criticism. University of Chicago. OCLC 62284281.  Musa, A. Y. Hadith
Hadith
as Scripture: Discussions on The Authority Of Prophetic Traditions in Islam, New York: Palgrave, 2008. ISBN 0-230-60535-4 Fred M. Donner, Narratives of Islamic Origins (1998) Tottoli, Roberto, "Hadith", in Muhammad
Muhammad
in History, Thought, and Culture: An Encyclopedia of the Prophet of God (2 vols.), Edited by C. Fitzpatrick and A. Walker, Santa Barbara, ABC-CLIO, 2014, Vol I, pp. 231–236.

External links[edit]

Look up hadith in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Hadith

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Hadith.

Importance of hadith Hadith
Hadith
– Search by keyword and find hadith by narrator Hadith
Hadith
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Hadith
Advanced Search – Search by keyword Hadith
Hadith
app, All 13 ahadith books  "Hadith". New International Encyclopedia. 1905.   "Hadis". Encyclopedia Americana. 1920. 

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