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Geomyoidea
†Eomyidae †Heliscomyidae †Florentiamyidae Geomyidae Heteromyidae Geomyoidea
Geomyoidea
is a superfamily of rodent that contains the pocket gophers (Geomyidae), the kangaroo rats and mice (Heteromyidae), and their fossil relatives.Contents1 Characteristics 2 Relation to other rodents 3 Taxonomy 4 ReferencesCharacteristics[edit] Although dissimilar in overall appearance, gophers have been united with kangaroo rats into a common superfamily for a considerable time. The superfamily Geomyoidea
Geomyoidea
is among the few superfamilial relationships in rodents that is not subject to much controversy. Overall morphology, the fossil record, molecular analyses, and biogeography all support this relationship. Geomyoids are most noticeably characterized by the position of the infraorbital canal
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Eocene
The Eocene
Eocene
( /ˈiːəˌsiːn, ˈiːoʊ-/[2][3]) Epoch, lasting from 56 to 33.9 million years ago, is a major division of the geologic timescale and the second epoch of the Paleogene Period in the Cenozoic
Cenozoic
Era. The Eocene
Eocene
spans the time from the end of the Paleocene Epoch to the beginning of the Oligocene
Oligocene
Epoch. The start of the Eocene is marked by a brief period in which the concentration of the carbon isotope 13C in the atmosphere was exceptionally low in comparison with the more common isotope 12C. The end is set at a major extinction event called the Grande Coupure (the "Great Break" in continuity) or the Eocene– Oligocene
Oligocene
extinction event, which may be related to the impact of one or more large bolides in Siberia and in what is now Chesapeake Bay
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Molecular Phylogeny
Molecular phylogenetics (/məˈlɛkjʊlər ˌfaɪloʊdʒəˈnɛtɪks, mɒ-, moʊ-/[1][2]) is the branch of phylogeny that analyses hereditary molecular differences, mainly in DNA
DNA
sequences, to gain information on an organism's evolutionary relationships. The result of a molecular phylogenetic analysis is expressed in a phylogenetic tree. Molecular phylogenetics is one aspect of molecular systematics, a broader term that also includes the use of molecular data in taxonomy and biogeography.Contents1 History 2 Techniques and applications 3 Theoretical background 4 Limitations of molecular systematics 5 See also 6 Notes and references 7 Further reading 8 External linksHistory[edit] Further information: History of molecular evolution The theoretical frameworks for molecular systematics were laid in the 1960s in the works of Emile Zuckerkandl, Emanuel Margoliash, Linus Pauling, and Walter M
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Euarchontoglires
Euarchontoglires
Euarchontoglires
(synonymous with Supraprimates) is a clade and a superorder of mammals, the living members of which belong to one of the five following groups: rodents, lagomorphs, treeshrews, colugos and primates.Contents1 Evolutionary relationships 2 Organization 3 References 4 Further readingEvolutionary relationships[edit] The Euarchontoglires
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Eutheria
Eutheria
Eutheria
(/juːˈθɪəriə/; from Greek εὐ-, eu- "good" or "right" and θηρίον, thēríon "beast" hence "true beasts") is one of two mammalian clades with extant members that diverged in the Early Cretaceous
Cretaceous
or perhaps the Late Jurassic. Except for the Virginia opossum, from North America, which is a metatherian, all post-Miocene mammals indigenous to Europe, Africa, Asia, and North America north of Mexico are eutherians. Extant eutherians, their last common ancestor, and all extinct descendants of that ancestor are members of Placentalia. Eutherians are distinguished from noneutherians by various phenotypic traits of the feet, ankles, jaws and teeth. All extant eutherians lack epipubic bones, which are present in all other living mammals (marsupials and monotremes)
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992 album by Vesta Williams "Special" (Garbage song), 1998 "Special
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International Standard Book Number
"ISBN" redirects here. For other uses, see ISBN (other).International Standard Book
Book
NumberA 13-digit ISBN, 978-3-16-148410-0, as represented by an EAN-13 bar codeAcronym ISBNIntroduced 1970; 48 years ago (1970)Managing organisation International ISBN AgencyNo. of digits 13 (formerly 10)Check digit Weighted sumExample 978-3-16-148410-0Website www.isbn-international.orgThe International Standard Book
Book
Number (ISBN) is a unique[a][b] numeric commercial book identifier. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.[1] An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007
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Incertae Sedis
Incertae sedis
Incertae sedis
( Latin
Latin
for "of uncertain placement")[1] is a term used for a taxonomic group where its broader relationships are unknown or undefined.[2] Alternatively, such groups are frequently referred to as "enigmatic taxa".[3] I
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Beaver
C. fiber – Eurasian beaver C. canadensis – North American
North American
beaver †C. californicusDistribution of C. fiber.Distribution of C. canadensis.Fossils of C. californicusThe beaver (genus Castor) is a large, primarily nocturnal, semiaquatic rodent. Castor includes two extant species, the North American
North American
beaver (Castor canadensis) (native to North America) and Eurasian beaver (Castor fiber) (Eurasia).[1] Beavers
Beavers
are known for building dams, canals, and lodges (homes). They are the second-largest rodent in the world (after the capybara). Their colonies create one or more dams to provide still, deep water to protect against predators, and to float food and building material. The North American beaver
North American beaver
population was once more than 60 million, but as of 1988 was 6–12 million
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Masseter Muscle
In human anatomy, the masseter[help 1] is one of the muscles of mastication. Found only in mammals, it is particularly powerful in herbivores to facilitate chewing of plant matter.[5] The most obvious muscle of mastication is the masseter muscle, since it is the most superficial and one of the strongest.Contents1 Structure1.1 Superficial head 1.2 Deep head 1.3 Innervation2 Function 3 Clinical significance3.1 Examination 3.2 Pathology4 Additional images 5 See also 6 Notes 7 ReferencesStructure[edit] The masseter is a thick, somewhat quadrilateral muscle, consisting of two heads, superficial and deep
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Great American Interchange
The Great American Interchange
Great American Interchange
was an important late Cenozoic paleozoogeographic event in which land and freshwater fauna migrated from North America via Central America to South America
South America
and vice versa, as the volcanic Isthmus of Panama
Isthmus of Panama
rose up from the sea floor and bridged the formerly separated continents. The migration peaked dramatically around three million years (Ma) ago during the Piacenzian age. It resulted in the joining of the Neotropic (roughly South America) and Nearctic (roughly North America) ecozones definitively to form the Americas. The interchange is visible from observation of both biostratigraphy and nature (neontology)
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Skull
The skull is a bony structure that forms the head in most vertebrates. It supports the structures of the face and provides a protective cavity for the brain.[1] The skull is composed of two parts: the cranium and the mandible. In the human these two parts are the neurocranium and the viscerocranium or facial skeleton that includes the mandible as its largest bone. The skull forms the anterior most portion of the skeleton and is a product of cephalisation—housing the brain, and several sensory structures such as the eyes, ears, nose, and mouth.[2] In humans these sensory structures are part of the facial skeleton. Functions of the skull include protection of the brain, fixing the distance between the eyes to allow stereoscopic vision, and fixing the position of the ears to enable sound localisation of the direction and distance of sounds
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Rostrum (anatomy)
In anatomy, the term rostrum (from the Latin
Latin
rostrum meaning beak) is used for a number of phylogenetically unrelated structures in different groups of animals.Contents1 Invertebrates 2 Vertebrates 3 See also 4 ReferencesInvertebrates[edit]In crustaceans, the rostrum is the forward extension of the carapace in front of the eyes.[1] It is generally a rigid structure, but can be connected by a hinged joint, as seen in Leptostraca.[2] Among insects, the rostrum is the name for the piercing mouthparts of the order Hemiptera
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Zygomatic Arch
The zygomatic arch, or cheek bone, is formed by the zygomatic process of the temporal bone (a bone extending forward from the side of the skull, over the opening of the ear) and the temporal process of the zygomatic bone (the side of the cheekbone), the two being united by an oblique suture (zygomaticotemporal suture);[1] the tendon of the temporalis passes medial to the arch to gain insertion into the coronoid process of the mandible. The jugal point is the point at the anterior end of the upper border of the zygomatic arch where the masseteric and maxillary edges meet at an angle
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Anterior
Standard anatomical terms of location deal unambiguously with the anatomy of animals, including humans. All vertebrates (including humans) have the same basic body plan – they are strictly bilaterally symmetrical in early embryonic stages and largely bilaterally symmetrical in adulthood.[1] That is, they have mirror-image left and right halves if divided down the centre.[2] For these reasons, the basic directional terms can be considered to be those used in vertebrates. By extension, the same terms are used for many other (invertebrate) organisms as well. While these terms are standardized within specific fields of biology, there are unavoidable, sometimes dramatic, differences between some disciplines
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Infraorbital Canal
The infraorbital canal is a canal found at the base of the orbit that opens on to the maxilla. It is continuous with the infraorbital groove and opens onto the maxilla at the infraorbital foramen.[1] The infraorbital nerve and infraorbital artery travel through the canal.Contents1 Structure 2 Function 3 References 4 External linksStructure[edit] One of the canals of the orbital surface of the maxilla, the infraorbital canal, opens just below the margin of the orbit, the area of the skull containing the eye and related structures. It should not be confused with the infraorbital foramen, with which it is continuous.[1] Function[edit] It transmits the infraorbital nerve as well as infraorbital artery, both of which enter this canal at the infraorbital groove and after coursing through the maxillary sinus exit via the infraorbital foramen
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