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Geomyoidea
Eomyidae
Eomyidae
Heliscomyidae Florentiamyidae Geomyidae Heteromyidae
Heteromyidae
GEOMYOIDEA is a superfamily of rodent that contains the pocket gophers ( Geomyidae ), the kangaroo rats and mice ( Heteromyidae
Heteromyidae
), and their fossil relatives. CONTENTS * 1 Characteristics * 2 Relation to other rodents * 3 Taxonomy * 4 References CHARACTERISTICSAlthough dissimilar in overall appearance, gophers have been united with kangaroo rats into a common superfamily for a considerable time. The superfamily Geomyoidea
Geomyoidea
is among the few superfamilial relationships in rodents that is not subject to much controversy. Overall morphology , the fossil record, molecular analyses , and biogeography all support this relationship. Geomyoids are most noticeably characterized by the position of the infraorbital canal
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Zygomatic Arch
The ZYGOMATIC ARCH or CHEEK BONE is formed by the zygomatic process of temporal bone (a bone extending forward from the side of the skull , over the opening of the ear) and the temporal process of the zygomatic bone (the side of the cheekbone), the two being united by an oblique suture (zygomaticotemporal suture ); the tendon of the temporalis passes medial to the arch to gain insertion into the coronoid process of the mandible . The JUGAL POINT is the point at the anterior end of the upper border of the zygomatic arch where the masseteric and maxillary edges meet at an angle. The jugal point is the anterior end of upper border of the zygomatic arch where it meets the process of the zygomatic bone
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Rostrum (anatomy)
In anatomy, the term ROSTRUM (from the Latin
Latin
rostrum meaning beak ) is used for a number of phylogenetically unrelated structures in different groups of animals. CONTENTS * 1 Invertebrates * 2 Vertebrates * 3 See also * 4 References INVERTEBRATES * In crustaceans , the rostrum is the forward extension of the carapace in front of the eyes. It is generally a rigid structure, but can be connected by a hinged joint, as seen in Leptostraca . * Among insects , the rostrum is the name for the piercing mouthparts of the order Hemiptera
Hemiptera
. The long snout of weevils may also be called a rostrum. * Gastropod
Gastropod
molluscs have a rostrum or proboscis . * Cephalopod
Cephalopod
molluscs have hard beak-like mouthparts referred to as the rostrum
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Skull
The SKULL is a bony structure that forms of the head in most vertebrates . It supports the structures of the face and provides a protective cavity for the brain . The skull is composed of two parts: the CRANIUM and the mandible . In the human these two parts are the neurocranium and the viscerocranium or facial skeleton that includes the mandible as its largest bone . The skull forms the anterior most portion of the skeleton and is a product of cephalisation —housing the brain , and several sensory structures such as the eyes , ears , nose , and mouth . In humans these sensory structures are part of the facial skeleton. Functions of the skull include protection of the brain, fixing the distance between the eyes to allow stereoscopic vision , and fixing the position of the ears to enable sound localisation of the direction and distance of sounds
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Anterior
Standard ANATOMICAL TERMS OF LOCATION deal unambiguously with the anatomy of animals , including humans. All vertebrates (including humans) have the same basic body plan – they are strictly bilaterally symmetrical in early embryonic stages and largely bilaterally symmetrical in adulthood. That is, they have mirror-image left and right halves if divided down the centre. For these reasons, the basic directional terms can be considered to be those used in vertebrates. By extension, the same terms are used for many other (invertebrate ) organisms as well. While these terms are standardized within specific fields of biology , there are unavoidable, sometimes dramatic, differences between some disciplines. For example, differences in terminology remain a problem that, to some extent, still separates the terminology of human anatomy from that used in the study of various other zoological categories
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Infraorbital Canal
The INFRAORBITAL CANAL is a canal found at the base of the orbit that opens on to the maxilla . It is continuous with the infraorbital groove and opens onto the maxilla at the infraorbital foramen . The infraorbital nerve and infraorbital artery travel through the canal. CONTENTS * 1 Structure * 2 Function * 3 References * 4 External links STRUCTUREOne of the canals of the orbital surface of the maxilla , the infraorbital canal, opens just below the margin of the orbit , the area of the skull containing the eye and related structures. It should not be confused with the infraorbital foramen , with which it is continuous. FUNCTIONIt transmits the infraorbital nerve as well as infraorbital artery , both of which enter this canal at the infraorbital groove and after coursing through the maxillary sinus exit via the infraorbital foramen . Before exiting, the anterior superior alveolar nerve , middle superior alveolar nerve and corresponding arteries will branch off
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Molecular Phylogeny
MOLECULAR PHYLOGENETICS (/məˈlɛkjʊlər ˌfaɪloʊdʒəˈnɛtɪks, mɒ-, moʊ-/ ) is the branch of phylogeny that analyses hereditary molecular differences, mainly in DNA
DNA
sequences, to gain information on an organism's evolutionary relationships. The result of a molecular phylogenetic analysis is expressed in a phylogenetic tree . Molecular phylogenetics is one aspect of MOLECULAR SYSTEMATICS, a broader term that also includes the use of molecular data in taxonomy and biogeography
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Biogeography
BIOGEOGRAPHY is the study of the distribution of species and ecosystems in geographic space and through geological time . Organisms and biological communities often vary in a regular fashion along geographic gradients of latitude , elevation , isolation and habitat area . Phytogeography is the branch of biogeography that studies the distribution of plants. Zoogeography is the branch that studies distribution of animals. Knowledge of spatial variation in the numbers and types of organisms is as vital to us today as it was to our early human ancestors , as we adapt to heterogeneous but geographically predictable environments . Biogeography
Biogeography
is an integrative field of inquiry that unites concepts and information from ecology , evolutionary biology , geology , and physical geography
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Eocene
The EOCENE ( /ˈiːəˌsiːn, ˈiːoʊ-/ ) Epoch, lasting from 56 to 33.9 million years ago, is a major division of the geologic timescale and the second epoch of the Paleogene Period in the Cenozoic Era. The Eocene
Eocene
spans the time from the end of the Paleocene Epoch to the beginning of the Oligocene
Oligocene
Epoch. The start of the Eocene
Eocene
is marked by a brief period in which the concentration of the carbon isotope 13C in the atmosphere was exceptionally low in comparison with the more common isotope 12C . The end is set at a major extinction event called the Grande Coupure (the "Great Break" in continuity) or the Eocene– Oligocene
Oligocene
extinction event , which may be related to the impact of one or more large bolides in Siberia and in what is now Chesapeake Bay
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Laurasia
LAURASIA ( /lɔːˈreɪʒə/ or /lɔːˈreɪʃiə/ ) was the more northern of two supercontinents (the other being Gondwana
Gondwana
) that formed part of the Pangaea
Pangaea
supercontinent around 335 to 175 million years ago (Mya ). It separated from Gondwana
Gondwana
215 to 175 Mya (beginning in the late Triassic
Triassic
period ) during the breakup of Pangaea, drifting farther north after the split. The name combines the names of Laurentia
Laurentia
, the name given to the North American craton , and Eurasia
Eurasia

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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * Special (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials
The Specials
, a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on The Blind Leading the Naked * "Special", a song on
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Eutheria
EUTHERIA (/juːˈθɪəriə/ ; from Greek εὐ-, eu- "true/good" and θηρίον, thēríon "beast" hence "true beasts") is one of two mammalian clades with extant members that diverged in the Early Cretaceous or perhaps the Late Jurassic . Except for the Virginia opossum , from North America, which is a metatherian , all post- Miocene
Miocene
mammals indigenous to Europe, Africa, Asia, and North America north of Mexico are eutherians. Extant eutherians, their last common ancestor, and all extinct descendants of that ancestor are members of Placentalia
Placentalia
. Eutherians are distinguished from noneutherians by various phenotypic traits of the feet, ankles, jaws and teeth. All extant eutherians lack epipubic bones , which are present in all other living mammals (marsupials and monotremes ). This allows for expansion of the abdomen during pregnancy
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Euarchontoglires
EUARCHONTOGLIRES (synonymous with SUPRAPRIMATES) is a clade and a superorder of mammals , the living members of which belong to one of the five following groups: rodents , lagomorphs , treeshrews , colugos and primates . CONTENTS * 1 Evolutionary relationships * 2 Organization * 3 References * 4 Further reading EVOLUTIONARY RELATIONSHIPSThe Euarchontoglires
Euarchontoglires
clade is based on DNA
DNA
sequence analyses and retrotransposon markers that combine the clades Glires (Rodentia + Lagomorpha) and Euarchonta
Euarchonta
( Scandentia + Primates
Primates
+ Dermoptera). So far, few if any anatomical features that support Euarchontoglires
Euarchontoglires
have been recognized, nor does any strong evidence from anatomy support alternative hypotheses
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International Standard Book Number
The INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BOOK NUMBER (ISBN) is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book , a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based u