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Ganglion
A ganglion is a nerve cell cluster[1] or a group of nerve cell bodies located in the autonomic nervous system and sensory system.[2][3] Ganglia house the cell bodies of afferent nerves and efferent nerves. A pseudoganglion looks like a ganglion, but only has nerve fibers and has no nerve cell bodies.Contents1 Structure1.1 Basal ganglia 1.2 Pseudoganglion2 See also 3 References 4 External linksStructure[edit] Ganglia are primarily made up of somata and dendritic structures which are bundled or connected. Ganglia often interconnect with other ganglia to form a complex system of ganglia known as a plexus
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Decussation
Decussation
Decussation
is used in biological contexts to describe a crossing (Latin: the roman numeral for ten, deca, is an uppercase 'X'). (In Latin anatomical terms the form decussatio is used, e.g. decussatio pyramidum.) Similarly, the anatomical term chiasma is named after the Greek uppercase 'Χ', chi). Examples include:In the brain, where nerve fibers obliquely cross from one lateral part to the other, that is to say they cross at a level other than their origin. See for examples Decussation of pyramids
Decussation of pyramids
and sensory decussation. Decussation
Decussation
describes the point where the nerves cross from one side of the brain to the other, and typically the nerves from the left side of the body decussate to the right side of the brain and the nerves from the right side of the body decussate to the left brain, however depending on the function of the nerves the level of decussation is variable
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992
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Dorland's Medical Reference Works
Dorland's is the brand name of a family of medical reference works (including dictionaries, spellers and word books, and spell-check software) in various media spanning printed books, CD-ROMs, and online content. The flagship products are Dorland's Illustrated Medical Dictionary
Dictionary
(currently in its 32nd edition) and Dorland's Pocket Medical Dictionary
Dictionary
(currently in its 29th edition). The principal dictionary was first published in 1890 as the American Illustrated Medical Dictionary, including 770 pages. The pocket edition, called the American Pocket Medical Dictionary, was first published in 1898, consisting of just over 500 pages. With the death of the editor William Alexander Newman Dorland, AM, MD in 1956, the dictionaries were retitled to incorporate his name, which was how they had generally come to be known
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The Free Dictionary
TheFreeDictionary.com is an American online dictionary and encyclopedia that gathers information from a variety of sources.Contents1 Content 2 Site operator 3 Mirroring 4 TheFreeLibrary.com 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksContent[edit] The site cross-references the contents of The American Heritage Dictionary
Dictionary
of the English Language, the Columbia Encyclopedia, the Computer Desktop Encyclopedia, the Hutchinson Encyclopedia (subscription) and, as well as the Acronym Finder database, several financial dictionaries, legal dictionaries and other content.[4] It has a feature that allows a user to preview an article while positioning the mouse cursor over a link
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Teres Minor Muscle
The teres minor ( Latin
Latin
teres meaning 'rounded') is a narrow, elongated muscle of the rotator cuff. The muscle originates from the lateral border and adjacent posterior surface of the corresponding right or left scapula and inserts at both the greater tubercle of the humerus and the posterior surface of the joint capsule.[1] The primary function of the Teres Minor is to modulate the action of the deltoid, preventing the humeral head from sliding upward as the arm is abducted
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Brainstem
The brainstem (or brain stem) is the posterior part of the brain, adjoining and structurally continuous with the spinal cord. In the human brain the brainstem includes the midbrain, the pons, and the medulla oblongata. Sometimes the diencephalon, the caudal part of the forebrain, is included.[1] The brainstem provides the main motor and sensory innervation to the face and neck via the cranial nerves. Of the twelve pairs of cranial nerves, ten pairs come from the brainstem. Though small, this is an extremely important part of the brain as the nerve connections of the motor and sensory systems from the main part of the brain to the rest of the body pass through the brainstem
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Thalamus
The thalamus (from Greek θάλαμος, "chamber")[1] is the large mass of gray matter in the dorsal part of the diencephalon of the brain with several functions such as relaying of sensory signals, including motor signals, to the cerebral cortex,[2][3][page needed] and the regulation of consciousness, sleep, and alertness.[4] It is a midline symmetrical structure of two halves, within the vertebrate brain, situated between the cerebral cortex and the midbrain. It is the main product of the embryonic diencephalon, as first assigned by Wilhelm His, Sr.
Wilhelm His, Sr.
in 1893.[5]Conte
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Cerebral Cortex
The cerebral cortex is the largest region of the cerebrum in the mammalian brain and plays a key role in memory, attention, perception, cognition, awareness, thought, language, and consciousness.[1] The cerebral cortex is the most anterior (rostral) brain region and consists of an outer zone of neural tissue called gray matter, which contains neuronal cell bodies
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PubMed Central
PubMed
PubMed
Central (PMC) is a free digital repository that archives publicly accessible full-text scholarly articles that have been published within the biomedical and life sciences journal literature. As one of the major research databases within the suite of resources that have been developed by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), PubMed
PubMed
Central is much more than just a document repository
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PubMed Identifier
PubMed
PubMed
is a free search engine accessing primarily the MEDLINE database of references and abstracts on life sciences and biomedical topics. The United States National Library of Medicine
United States National Library of Medicine
(NLM) at the National Institutes of Health
National Institutes of Health
maintains the database as part of the Entrez
Entrez
system of information retrieval. From 1971 to 1997, MEDLINE online access to the MEDLARS Online computerized database primarily had been through institutional facilities, such as university libraries
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Cranial Nerve Ganglia
In neuroanatomy, the cranial nerve ganglia are either parasympathetic or sensory ganglia of the cranial nerves .[1] Parasympathetic[edit] The four cranial autonomic ganglia are:Ciliary ganglion Pterygopalatine ganglion Otic ganglion Submandibular ganglionHowever, the autonomic ganglia of the Vagus nerve
Vagus nerve
(X) form lie outside of the head, frequently within the organ which they innervate. In the case of the gut, for example, the autonomic neurones do not form distinct ganglia, but rather the preganglionic neurons synapse within the Enteric nervous system. Sensory[edit]Trigeminal ganglion Spiral ganglion Vestibular ganglion Geniculate ganglion Superior ganglia of glossopharyngeal Inferior (petrosal) ganglia of glossopharyngeal Superior (jugular) ganglion of vagus nerve Inferior (nodose) ganglion of vagus nerveReferences[edit]^ Purves, Dale, George J. Augustine, David Fitzpatrick, William C. Hall, Anthony-Samuel LaMantia, James O
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Projection Fiber
Projection, projector, or projective may refer to:Contents1 Chemistry 2 Mathematics 3 Other 4 See alsoProjection, the display of images by a projector, using devices such asMovie projector Video projector Overhead projector Slide projector Camera obscura Projection screenMap projection, reducing the surface of a three-dimensional planet to a flat map (geography) Graphical projection, the production of a two-dimensional image of a three-dimensional objectParallel projectionOrthographic projection, including:Multiview projectionPlan, or floor plan view Elevation, usually a side view of an exterior Section, a view of the interior at a particular cutting planeAxonometric projection, including:Isometric projection Dimetric projection Trimetric
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Peripheral Nervous System
The peripheral nervous system (PNS) is one of the two components of the nervous system, the other part is the central nervous system (CNS). The PNS consists of the nerves and ganglia outside the brain and spinal cord.[1] The main function of the PNS is to connect the CNS to the limbs and organs, essentially serving as a relay between the brain and spinal cord and the rest of the body.[2] Unlike the CNS, the PNS is not protected by the vertebral column and skull, or by the blood–brain barrier, which leaves it exposed to toxins and mechanical injuries. The peripheral nervous system is divided into the somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system. In the somatic nervous system, the cranial nerves are part of the PNS with the exception of the optic nerve (cranial nerve II), along with the retina. The second cranial nerve is not a true peripheral nerve but a tract of the diencephalon.[3] Cranial nerve
Cranial nerve
ganglia originated in the CNS
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Nerve Plexus
A nerve plexus is a plexus (branching network) of intersecting nerves. A nerve plexus is composed of afferent and efferent fibers that arise from the merging of the anterior rami of spinal nerves and blood vessels. There are five spinal nerve plexuses, except in the thoracic region, as well as other forms of autonomic plexuses, many of which are a part of the enteric nervous system. The nerves that arise from the plexuses have both sensory and motor functions. These functions include muscle contraction, the maintenance of body coordination and control, and the reaction to sensations such as heat, cold, pain, and pressure
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