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Fruit
In botany, a fruit is the seed-bearing structure in flowering plants (also known as angiosperms) formed from the ovary after flowering. Fruits are the means by which angiosperms disseminate seeds. Edible fruits, in particular, have propagated with the movements of humans and animals in a symbiotic relationship as a means for seed dispersal and nutrition; in fact, humans and many animals have become dependent on fruits as a source of food.[1] Accordingly, fruits account for a substantial fraction of the world's agricultural output, and some (such as the apple and the pomegranate) have acquired extensive cultural and symbolic meanings. In common language usage, "fruit" normally means the fleshy seed-associated structures of a plant that are sweet or sour, and edible in the raw state, such as apples, bananas, grapes, lemons, oranges, and strawberries
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Bean
A bean is a seed of one of several genera of the flowering plant family Fabaceae, which are used for human or animal food.Contents1 Terminology 2 Cultivation 3 History 4 Types 5 Health concerns5.1 Toxins 5.2 Bacterial infection from bean sprouts 5.3 Antinutrients6 Nutrition 7 Flatulence 8 Production 9 See also 10 References 11 Bibliography 12 External linksTerminology The word "bean" and its Germanic cognates (e.g., Bohne) have existed in common use in West Germanic languages
West Germanic languages
since before the 12th century,[1] referring to broad beans and other pod-borne seeds. This was long before the New World
New World
genus Phaseolus
Phaseolus
was known in Europe. After Columbian-era contact between Europe and the Americas, use of the word was extended to pod-borne seeds of Phaseolus, such as the common bean and the runner bean, and the related genus Vigna
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Medici
The House of Medici
Medici
(/ˈmɛdɪtʃi/ MED-i-chee; Italian pronunciation: [ˈmɛːditʃi]) was an Italian banking family and political dynasty that first began to gather prominence under Cosimo de' Medici
Medici
in the Republic of Florence
Republic of Florence
during the first half of the 15th century
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Bartolomeo Bimbi
Bartolomeo Bimbi
Bartolomeo Bimbi
(1648–1723) was a Florentine painter of still lifes, commissioned by his patrons including Cosimo III, Grand Duke of Tuscany to paint large canvases of flora and fauna for the Medici Villa dell'Ambrogiana and della Topaia, now conserved in the Pitti Palace and the Museo Botanico dell'Universita. Life and Work[edit] Son of Nicolò, he was born in Settignano
Settignano
on May 15, 1648; in about 1661 he entered the workshop of Lorenzo Lippi, where he remained until the death of the master (1665); then he joined Onorio Marinari
Onorio Marinari
as his apprentice. After a trip to Rome with Cardinal Leopoldo de' Medici, he began working for the Florentine court and aristocracy
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Symbiosis
Symbiosis
Symbiosis
(from Greek συμβίωσις "living together", from σύν "together" and βίωσις "living")[2] is any type of a close and long-term biological interaction between two different biological organisms, be it mutualistic, commensalistic, or parasitic. The organisms, each termed a symbiont, may be of the same or of different species. In 1879, Heinrich Anton de Bary defined it as "the living together of unlike organisms"
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Cucurbitaceae
See text.The Cucurbitaceae, also called cucurbits and the gourd family, are a plant family consisting of about 965 species in around 95 genera,[2] the most important of which are: Cucurbita
Cucurbita
– squash, pumpkin, zucchini, some gourds Lagenaria
Lagenaria
– calabash, and others that are inedible Citrullus
Citrullus
– watermelon (C. lanatus, C. colocynthis) and others Cucumis
Cucumis
– cucumber (C. sativus), various melons Luffa
Luffa
– the common name is also luffa, sometimes spelled loofah (when fully ripened, two species of this fibrous fruit are the source of the loofah scrubbing sponge)The plants in this family are grown around the tropics and in temperate areas, where those with edible fruits were among the earliest cultivated plants in both the Old and New Worlds
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Umami
Umami
Umami
(/uˈmɑːmi/), or savory taste, is one of the five basic tastes (together with sweetness, sourness, bitterness, and saltiness).[1][2] It has been described as savory, and characteristic of broths and cooked meats.[3][4] People taste umami through taste receptors that typically respond to glutamate
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Venn Diagram
A Venn diagram
Venn diagram
(also called primary diagram, set diagram or logic diagram) is a diagram that shows all possible logical relations between a finite collection of different sets. These diagrams depict elements as points in the plane, and sets as regions inside closed curves. A Venn diagram
Venn diagram
consists of multiple overlapping closed curves, usually circles, each representing a set. The points inside a curve labelled S represent elements of the set S, while points outside the boundary represent elements not in the set S. Thus, for example, the set of all elements that are members of both sets S and T, S ∩ T, is represented visually by the area of overlap of the regions S and T. In Venn diagrams the curves are overlapped in every possible way, showing all possible relations between the sets. They are thus a special case of Euler diagrams, which do not necessarily show all relations
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Fungus
Dikarya
Dikarya
(inc. Deuteromycota)Ascomycota Pezizomycotina Saccharomycotina Taphrinomycotina Basidiomycota Agaricomycotina Pucciniomycotina Ustilaginomycotina Subphyla incertae sedisEntomophthoromycotina Kickxellomycotina Mucoromycotina ZoopagomycotinaA fungus (plural: fungi[3] or funguses[4]) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms. These organisms are classified as a kingdom, fungi, which is separate from the other eukaryotic life kingdoms of plants and animals. A characteristic that places fungi in a different kingdom from plants, bacteria, and some protists is chitin in their cell walls. Similar to animals, fungi are heterotrophs; they acquire their food by absorbing dissolved molecules, typically by secreting digestive enzymes into their environment. Fungi do not photosynthesize
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Bell Pepper
The bell pepper (also known as sweet pepper, pepper or capsicum) /ˈkæpsɪkəm/[1] is a cultivar group of the species Capsicum annuum.[2] Cultivars of the plant produce fruits in different colors, including red, yellow, orange, green, white, and purple. Bell peppers are sometimes grouped with less pungent pepper varieties as "sweet peppers". Peppers are native to Mexico, Central America, and northern South America. Pepper seeds were imported to Spain in 1493, and from there, spread to Europe and Asia. China
China
is the world's largest pepper producer. Preferred growing conditions for bell peppers include warm, moist soil in a temperate range of 21 to 29 °C (70 to 84 °F).[3]Contents1 Nomenclature 2 Colors 3 Nutritional value 4 Production 5 Gallery 6 See also 7 ReferencesNomenclature[edit] The misleading name "pepper" was given by Europeans when Christopher Columbus brought the plant back to Europe
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Wheat
References:   Serial No. 42236 ITIS 2002-09-22 Wheat
Wheat
is a grass widely cultivated for its seed, a cereal grain which is a worldwide staple food.[1][2][3] There are many species of wheat which together make up the genus Triticum; the most widely grown is common wheat (T. aestivum). The archaeological record suggests that wheat was first cultivated in the regions of the Fertile Crescent
Fertile Crescent
around 9600 BCE
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Chili Pepper
The chili pepper (also chile pepper, chilli pepper, or simply chilli[1]) from Nahuatl
Nahuatl
chīlli Nahuatl pronunciation: [ˈt͡ʃiːli] ( listen)) is the fruit of plants from the genus Capsicum, members of the nightshade family, Solanaceae.[2] They are widely used in many cuisines to add spiciness to dishes
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Agriculture
Agriculture
Agriculture
is the cultivation and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.[1] Agriculture
Agriculture
was the key development in the rise of sedentary human civilization, whereby farming of domesticated species created food surpluses that enabled people to live in cities. The study of agriculture is known as agricultural science. The history of agriculture dates back thousands of years; people gathered wild grains at least 105,000 years ago, and began to plant them around 11,500 years ago, before they became domesticated. Pigs, sheep, and cattle were domesticated over 10,000 years ago. Crops originate from at least 11 regions of the world
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Allspice
Allspice, also called pimenta,[a] Jamaica
Jamaica
pimenta, or myrtle pepper is the dried unripe fruit (berries, used as a spice) of Pimenta dioica, a midcanopy tree native to the Greater Antilles, southern Mexico, and Central America, now cultivated in many warm parts of the world.[2] The name "allspice" was coined as early as 1621 by the English, who thought it combined the flavour of cinnamon, nutmeg, and cloves.[3] Several unrelated fragrant shrubs are called "Carolina allspice" (Calycanthus floridus), "Japanese allspice" (Chimonanthus praecox), or "wild allspice" (Lindera benzoin). "Allspice" is also sometimes used to refer to the herb costmary (Tanacetum balsamita).[citation needed]Contents1 Production 2 Uses 3 Cultivation 4 Western history 5 References 6 External linksProduction[edit]Whole allspice berries Allspice
Allspice
is the dried fruit of the P. dioica plant
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Peanut
The peanut, also known as the groundnut and the goober[2] and taxonomically classified as Arachis
Arachis
hypogaea, is a legume crop grown mainly for its edible seeds. It is widely grown in the tropics and subtropics, being important to both small and large commercial producers. It is classified as both a grain legume[3] and, because of its high oil content, an oil crop.[4] World annual production of shelled peanuts was 42 million tonnes in 2014. Atypically among crop plants, peanut pods develop underground rather than aboveground
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Eggplant
Solanum
Solanum
ovigerum Dunal Solanum
Solanum
trongum Poir. and see text Eggplant
Eggplant
( Solanum
Solanum
melongena) or aubergine is a species of nightshade grown for its edible fruit. Eggplant
Eggplant
is the common name in North America, Australia and New Zealand; in British English, it is aubergine,[1] and in South Asia
South Asia
and South Africa, brinjal.[2] The fruit is widely used in cooking. As a member of the genus Solanum, it is related to the tomato and the potato. It was originally domesticated from the wild nightshade species, the thorn or bitter apple, S
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