FOOD is any substance consumed to provide nutritional support for an organism. It is usually of plant or animal origin, and contains essential nutrients , such as carbohydrates , fats , proteins , vitamins , or minerals . The substance is ingested by an organism and assimilated by the organism's cells to provide energy , maintain life, or stimulate growth.
Historically, humans secured food through two methods: hunting and gathering and agriculture . Today, the majority of the food energy required by the ever increasing population of the world is supplied by the food industry .
The right to food is a human right derived from the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights ( ICESCR ), recognizing the "right to an adequate standard of living , including adequate food", as well as the "fundamental right to be free from hunger ".
* 1.1 Plants * 1.2 Animals
* 2 Production
* 4.1 Presentation * 4.2 Contrast in texture * 4.3 Contrast in taste
* 4.4.3 Raw food preparation
* 4.5 Restaurants * 4.6 Food manufacturing
* 5 Commercial trade
* 5.1 International food imports and exports * 5.2 Marketing and retailing * 5.3 Prices * 5.4 As investment
* 6.1 Food aid
* 7 Safety
* 7.1 Allergies * 7.2 Other health issues
* 8 Diet
* 8.1 Cultural and religious diets * 8.2 Diet deficiencies * 8.3 Moral, ethical, and health-conscious diets
Most food has its origin in plants. Some food is obtained directly
from plants; but even animals that are used as food sources are raised
by feeding them food derived from plants.
Some foods not from animal or plant sources include various edible
fungi , especially mushrooms .
Many plants and plant parts are eaten as food and around 2,000 plant species are cultivated for food. Many of these plant species have several distinct cultivars .
Seeds of plants are a good source of food for animals, including humans, because they contain the nutrients necessary for the plant's initial growth, including many healthful fats, such as omega fats . In fact, the majority of food consumed by human beings are seed-based foods. Edible seeds include cereals (corn , wheat , rice , et cetera ), legumes (beans , peas , lentils , et cetera), and nuts . Oilseeds are often pressed to produce rich oils - sunflower , flaxseed , rapeseed (including canola oil ), sesame , et cetera .
Seeds are typically high in unsaturated fats and, in moderation, are considered a health food , although not all seeds are edible. Large seeds, such as those from a lemon , pose a choking hazard, while seeds from cherries and apples contain cyanide which could be poisonous only if consumed in large volumes.
Fruits are the ripened ovaries of plants, including the seeds within. Many plants and animals have coevolved such that the fruits of the former are an attractive food source to the latter, because animals that eat the fruits may excrete the seeds some distance away. Fruits, therefore, make up a significant part of the diets of most cultures. Some botanical fruits, such as tomatoes , pumpkins , and eggplants , are eaten as vegetables. (For more information, see list of fruits .)
Vegetables are a second type of plant matter that is commonly eaten as food. These include root vegetables (potatoes and carrots ), bulbs (onion family), leaf vegetables (spinach and lettuce ), stem vegetables (bamboo shoots and asparagus ), and inflorescence vegetables (globe artichokes and broccoli and other vegetables such as cabbage or cauliflower ).
Animals are used as food either directly or indirectly by the
products they produce.
Some cultures and people do not consume meat or animal food products for cultural, dietary, health, ethical, or ideological reasons. Vegetarians choose to forgo food from animal sources to varying degrees. Vegans do not consume any foods that are or contain ingredients from an animal source.
A tractor pulling a chaser bin Main articles:
Most food has always been obtained through agriculture . With
increasing concern over both the methods and products of modern
industrial agriculture , there has been a growing trend toward
sustainable agricultural practices. This approach, partly fueled by
consumer demand, encourages biodiversity , local self-reliance and
organic farming methods. Major influences on food production include
international organizations (e.g. the
World Trade Organization
In popular culture, the mass production of food, specifically meats
such as chicken and beef , has come under fire from various
documentaries , most recently
Food, Inc , documenting the mass
slaughter and poor treatment of animals, often for easier revenues
from large corporations . Along with a current trend towards
environmentalism , people in
Several organisations have begun calling for a new kind of
agriculture in which agroecosystems provide food but also support
vital ecosystem services so that soil fertility and biodiversity are
maintained rather than compromised. According to the International
Animals, specifically humans, have five different types of tastes: sweet , sour , salty , bitter , and umami . As animals have evolved , the tastes that provide the most energy (sugar and fats ) are the most pleasant to eat while others, such as bitter , are not enjoyable. Water, while important for survival, has no taste. Fats, on the other hand, especially saturated fats , are thicker and rich and are thus considered more enjoyable to eat.
Structure of sucrose
Generally regarded as the most pleasant taste, sweetness is almost always caused by a type of simple sugar such as glucose or fructose , or disaccharides such as sucrose , a molecule combining glucose and fructose. Complex carbohydrates are long chains and thus do not have the sweet taste. Artificial sweeteners such as sucralose are used to mimic the sugar molecule, creating the sensation of sweet, without the calories. Other types of sugar include raw sugar , which is known for its amber color, as it is unprocessed. As sugar is vital for energy and survival, the taste of sugar is pleasant.
The stevia plant contains a compound known as steviol which, when extracted, has 300 times the sweetness of sugar while having minimal impact on blood sugar.
Sourness is caused by the taste of acids , such as vinegar in
Saltiness is the taste of alkali metal ions such as sodium and
potassium . It is found in almost every food in low to moderate
proportions to enhance flavor, although to eat pure salt is regarded
as highly unpleasant. There are many different types of salt, with
each having a different degree of saltiness, including sea salt ,
fleur de sel , kosher salt , mined salt, and grey salt. Other than
enhancing flavor, its significance is that the body needs and
maintains a delicate electrolyte balance, which is the kidney 's
Bitterness is a sensation often considered unpleasant characterized by having a sharp, pungent taste. Unsweetened dark chocolate , caffeine , lemon rind, and some types of fruit are known to be bitter.
Umami , the Japanese word for delicious, is the least known in Western popular culture but has a long tradition in Asian cuisine. Umami is the taste of glutamates , especially monosodium glutamate (MSG). It is characterized as savory, meaty, and rich in flavor. Salmon and mushrooms are foods high in umami.
Many scholars claim that the rhetorical function of food is to represent the culture of a country, and that it can be used as a form of communication. According to Goode, Curtis and Theophano, food "is the last aspect of an ethnic culture to be lost".
Many cultures have a recognizable cuisine, a specific set of cooking traditions using various spices or a combination of flavors unique to that culture, which evolves over time. Other differences include preferences (hot or cold, spicy, etc.) and practices, the study of which is known as gastronomy . Many cultures have diversified their foods by means of preparation, cooking methods, and manufacturing. This also includes a complex food trade which helps the cultures to economically survive by way of food, not just by consumption.
Some popular types of ethnic foods include Italian , French ,
Japanese , Chinese , American , Cajun , Thai , African , Indian and
Nepalese . Various cultures throughout the world study the dietary
analysis of food habits . While evolutionarily speaking, as opposed to
culturally, humans are omnivores , religion and social constructs such
as morality , activism , or environmentalism will often affect which
foods they will consume.
A French basil salmon terrine , with eye-appealing garnishes Main article: Food presentation
Aesthetically pleasing and eye-appealing food presentations can
encourage people to consume foods. A common saying is that people "eat
with their eyes".
CONTRAST IN TEXTURE
Texture plays a crucial role in the enjoyment of eating foods. Contrasts in textures, such as something crunchy in an otherwise smooth dish, may increase the appeal of eating it. Common examples include adding granola to yogurt , adding croutons to a salad or soup , and toasting bread to enhance its crunchiness for a smooth topping, such as jam or butter.
CONTRAST IN TASTE
Another universal phenomenon regarding food is the appeal of contrast in taste and presentation. For example, such opposite flavors as sweetness and saltiness tend to go well together, as in kettle corn and nuts .
Outline of food preparation
While many foods can be eaten raw, many also undergo some form of preparation for reasons of safety, palatability , texture , or flavor . At the simplest level this may involve washing, cutting, trimming, or adding other foods or ingredients, such as spices. It may also involve mixing, heating or cooling, pressure cooking , fermentation, or combination with other food. In a home, most food preparation takes place in a kitchen . Some preparation is done to enhance the taste or aesthetic appeal; other preparation may help to preserve the food; others may be involved in cultural identity. A meal is made up of food which is prepared to be eaten at a specific time and place. A refrigerator helps to keep foods fresh.
The preparation of animal-based food usually involves slaughter ,
evisceration , hanging, portioning, and rendering . In developed
countries, this is usually done outside the home in slaughterhouses ,
which are used to process animals en masse for meat production. Many
countries regulate their slaughterhouses by law. For example, the
On the local level, a butcher may commonly break down larger animal meat into smaller manageable cuts, and pre-wrap them for commercial sale or wrap them to order in butcher paper. In addition, fish and seafood may be fabricated into smaller cuts by a fish monger. However fish butchery may be done on board a fishing vessel and quick-frozen for preservation of quality.
The term "cooking" encompasses a vast range of methods, tools, and
combinations of ingredients to improve the flavor or digestibility of
A stainless steel frying pan A traditional asado (barbecue) Main article: Cookware and bakeware
There are many different types of equipment used for cooking.
Ovens are mostly hollow devices that get very hot (up to 500 °F (260
°C)) and are used for baking or roasting and offer a dry-heat cooking
method. Different cuisines will use different types of ovens. For
example, Indian culture uses a tandoor oven, which is a cylindrical
clay oven which operates at a single high temperature. Western
kitchens use variable temperature convection ovens , conventional
ovens, toaster ovens , or non-radiant heat ovens like the microwave
oven . Classic
Various types of cook-tops are used as well. They carry the same variations of fuel types as the ovens mentioned above. Cook-tops are used to heat vessels placed on top of the heat source, such as a sauté pan , sauce pot, frying pan , or pressure cooker . These pieces of equipment can use either a moist or dry cooking method and include methods such as steaming , simmering , boiling , and poaching for moist methods, while the dry methods include sautéing , pan frying , and deep-frying .
In addition, many cultures use grills for cooking. A grill operates
with a radiant heat source from below, usually covered with a metal
grid and sometimes a cover. An open pit barbecue in the American south
is one example along with the American style outdoor grill fueled by
wood, liquid propane, or charcoal along with soaked wood chips for
smoking. A Mexican style of barbecue is called barbacoa , which
involves the cooking of meats such as whole sheep over an open fire.
Many types of fish ready to be eaten, including salmon and tuna
Certain cultures highlight animal and vegetable foods in a raw state
. Salads consisting of raw vegetables or fruits are common in many
Restaurants employ trained chefs who prepare food, and trained
waitstaff to serve the customers. The term restaurant is credited to
the French from the 19th century, as it relates to the restorative
nature of the bouillons that were once served in them. However, the
concept pre-dates the naming of these establishments, as evidence
suggests commercial food preparation may have existed during the age
of the city of
Packaged household food items Main article: Food manufacture
Packaged foods are manufactured outside the home for purchase. This
can be as simple as a butcher preparing meat, or as complex as a
modern international food industry . Early food processing techniques
were limited by available food preservation, packaging, and
transportation. This mainly involved salting , curing , curdling,
drying , pickling , fermenting , and smoking .
At the start of the 21st century, a two-tier structure has arisen, with a few international food processing giants controlling a wide range of well-known food brands . There also exists a wide array of small local or national food processing companies. Advanced technologies have also come to change food manufacture. Computer-based control systems, sophisticated processing and packaging methods, and logistics and distribution advances can enhance product quality, improve food safety , and reduce costs.
INTERNATIONAL FOOD IMPORTS AND EXPORTS
In 1994, over 100 countries became signatories to the Uruguay Round
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
MARKETING AND RETAILING
Food marketing brings together the producer and the consumer. It is the chain of activities that brings food from "farm gate to plate". The marketing of even a single food product can be a complicated process involving many producers and companies. For example, fifty-six companies are involved in making one can of chicken noodle soup. These businesses include not only chicken and vegetable processors but also the companies that transport the ingredients and those who print labels and manufacture cans. The food marketing system is the largest direct and indirect non-government employer in the United States.
In the pre-modern era, the sale of surplus food took place once a week when farmers took their wares on market day into the local village marketplace. Here food was sold to grocers for sale in their local shops for purchase by local consumers. With the onset of industrialization and the development of the food processing industry, a wider range of food could be sold and distributed in distant locations. Typically early grocery shops would be counter-based shops, in which purchasers told the shop-keeper what they wanted, so that the shop-keeper could get it for them.
In the 20th century, supermarkets were born. Supermarkets brought with them a self service approach to shopping using shopping carts , and were able to offer quality food at lower cost through economies of scale and reduced staffing costs. In the latter part of the 20th century, this has been further revolutionized by the development of vast warehouse-sized, out-of-town supermarkets, selling a wide range of food from around the world.
Unlike food processors, food retailing is a two-tier market in which a small number of very large companies control a large proportion of supermarkets. The supermarket giants wield great purchasing power over farmers and processors, and strong influence over consumers. Nevertheless, less than 10% of consumer spending on food goes to farmers, with larger percentages going to advertising , transportation, and intermediate corporations.
Some essential food products including bread , rice and pasta See also: Food vs. fuel Food, meat, dairy, cereals, vegetable oil, and sugar price indices, deflated using the World Bank Manufactures Unit Value Index (MUV)
It is rare for price spikes to hit all major foods in most countries
Food prices rose 4% in the
Rising food prices over recent years have been linked with social
unrest around the world, including rioting in
In 2013 Overseas Development Institute researchers showed that rice has more than doubled in price since 2000, rising by 120% in real terms. This was as a result of shifts in trade policy and restocking by major producers. More fundamental drivers of increased prices are the higher costs of fertiliser, diesel and labour. Parts of Asia see rural wages rise with potential large benefits for the 1.3 billion (2008 estimate) of Asia's poor in reducing the poverty they face. However, this negatively impacts more vulnerable groups who don't share in the economic boom, especially in Asian and African coastal cities. The researchers said the threat means social-protection policies are needed to guard against price shocks. The research proposed that in the longer run, the rises present opportunities to export for Western African farmers with high potential for rice production to replace imports with domestic production.
Institutions such as hedge funds , pension funds and investment banks
Barclays Capital ,
Some experts have said that speculation has merely aggravated other
factors, such as climate change , competition with bio-fuels and
overall rising demand. However, some such as
Jayati Ghosh , professor
of economics at Jawaharlal Nehru University in
FAMINE AND HUNGER
Starvation is a significant international problem. Approximately 815
million people are undernourished, and over 16,000 children die per
day from hunger-related causes.
Main article: Food aid
Food aid can benefit people suffering from a shortage of food. It can
be used to improve peoples' lives in the short term, so that a society
can increase its standard of living to the point that food aid is no
longer required. Conversely, badly managed food aid can create
problems by disrupting local markets, depressing crop prices, and
discouraging food production. Sometimes a cycle of food aid dependence
can develop. Its provision, or threatened withdrawal, is sometimes
used as a political tool to influence the policies of the destination
country, a strategy known as food politics . Sometimes, food aid
provisions will require certain types of food be purchased from
certain sellers, and food aid can be misused to enhance the markets of
donor countries. International efforts to distribute food to the
neediest countries are often coordinated by the
World Food Programme
Foodborne illness , commonly called "food poisoning", is caused by
bacteria , toxins , viruses , parasites , and prions . Roughly 7
million people die of food poisoning each year, with about 10 times as
many suffering from a non-fatal version. The two most common factors
leading to cases of bacterial foodborne illness are
cross-contamination of ready-to-eat food from other uncooked foods and
improper temperature control. Less commonly, acute adverse reactions
can also occur if chemical contamination of food occurs, for example
from improper storage, or use of non-food grade soaps and
Food poisoning has been recognized as a disease since as early as
Hippocrates. The sale of rancid , contaminated, or adulterated food
was commonplace until the introduction of hygiene , refrigeration, and
vermin controls in the 19th century. Discovery of techniques for
killing bacteria using heat, and other microbiological studies by
scientists such as
Recommended measures for ensuring food safety include maintaining a clean preparation area with foods of different types kept separate, ensuring an adequate cooking temperature, and refrigerating foods promptly after cooking.
Foods that spoil easily, such as meats , dairy , and seafood , must be prepared a certain way to avoid contaminating the people for whom they are prepared. As such, the rule of thumb is that cold foods (such as dairy products) should be kept cold and hot foods (such as soup) should be kept hot until storage. Cold meats, such as chicken, that are to be cooked should not be placed at room temperature for thawing, at the risk of dangerous bacterial growth, such as Salmonella or E. coli .
Main article: Food allergy
Some people have allergies or sensitivities to foods which are not problematic to most people. This occurs when a person's immune system mistakes a certain food protein for a harmful foreign agent and attacks it. About 2% of adults and 8% of children have a food allergy. The amount of the food substance required to provoke a reaction in a particularly susceptible individual can be quite small. In some instances, traces of food in the air, too minute to be perceived through smell, have been known to provoke lethal reactions in extremely sensitive individuals. Common food allergens are gluten , corn , shellfish (mollusks), peanuts , and soy . Allergens frequently produce symptoms such as diarrhea , rashes , bloating, vomiting , and regurgitation . The digestive complaints usually develop within half an hour of ingesting the allergen .
Rarely, food allergies can lead to a medical emergency , such as anaphylactic shock , hypotension (low blood pressure), and loss of consciousness. An allergen associated with this type of reaction is peanut, although latex products can induce similar reactions. Initial treatment is with epinephrine (adrenaline), often carried by known patients in the form of an Epi-pen or Twinject .
OTHER HEALTH ISSUES
Anticarcinogens that may help prevent cancer can also be found in many food especially fruit and vegetables. Antioxidants are important groups of compounds that may help remove potentially harmful chemicals. It is however often difficult to identify the specific components in diet that serve to increase or decrease cancer risk since many food, such as beef steak and broccoli, contain low concentrations of both carcinogens and anticarcinogens. There are many international certifications in cooking field, such as Monde Selection 、A.A.Certification、iTQi. They use the high quality evaluation methods to make the food become more safe.
Changes of food supply (by energy) Other area (Yr 2010) * Africa, sub-Sahara - 2170 kcal/capita/day * N.E. and N. Africa - 3120 kcal/capita/day * South Asia - 2450 kcal/capita/day * East Asia - 3040 kcal/capita/day * Latin America / Caribbean - 2950 kcal/capita/day * Developed countries - 3470 kcal/capita/day Main article: Diet (nutrition)
CULTURAL AND RELIGIOUS DIETS
Dietary habits are the habitual decisions a person or culture makes
when choosing what foods to eat. Many cultures hold some food
preferences and some food taboos . Dietary choices can also define
cultures and play a role in religion. For example, only kosher foods
are permitted by
Main article: Avitaminosis
Dietary habits play a significant role in the health and mortality of
all humans. Imbalances between the consumed fuels and expended energy
results in either starvation or excessive reserves of adipose tissue,
known as body fat. Poor intake of various vitamins and minerals can
lead to diseases that can have far-reaching effects on health. For
instance, 30% of the world's population either has, or is at risk for
developing, iodine deficiency . It is estimated that at least 3
million children are blind due to vitamin A deficiency.
MORAL, ETHICAL, AND HEALTH-CONSCIOUS DIETS
Many individuals limit what foods they eat for reasons of morality,
or other habit. For instance, vegetarians choose to forgo food from
animal sources to varying degrees. Others choose a healthier diet ,
avoiding sugars or animal fats and increasing consumption of dietary
fiber and antioxidants .
NUTRITION AND DIETARY PROBLEMS
Between the extremes of optimal health and death from starvation or malnutrition , there is an array of disease states that can be caused or alleviated by changes in diet. Deficiencies, excesses, and imbalances in diet can produce negative impacts on health, which may lead to various health problems such as scurvy , obesity , or osteoporosis , diabetes , cardiovascular diseases as well as psychological and behavioral problems. The science of nutrition attempts to understand how and why specific dietary aspects influence health.
Nutrients in food are grouped into several categories. Macronutrients are fat, protein, and carbohydrates. Micronutrients are the minerals and vitamins . Additionally, food contains water and dietary fiber .
As previously discussed, the body is designed by natural selection to enjoy sweet and fattening foods for evolutionary diets, ideal for hunters and gatherers . Thus, sweet and fattening foods in nature are typically rare and are very pleasurable to eat. In modern times, with advanced technology , enjoyable foods are easily available to consumers. Unfortunately, this promotes obesity in adults and children alike.
Some countries list a legal definition of food, often referring them with the word foodstuff. These countries list food as any item that is to be processed, partially processed, or unprocessed for consumption. The listing of items included as food include any substance intended to be, or reasonably expected to be, ingested by humans . In addition to these foodstuffs, drink, chewing gum , water, or other items processed into said food items are part of the legal definition of food. Items not included in the legal definition of food include animal feed , live animals (unless being prepared for sale in a market), plants prior to harvesting, medicinal products, cosmetics , tobacco and tobacco products, narcotic or psychotropic substances , and residues and contaminants.
TYPES OF FOOD
Food and Bioprocess Technology
* Category:Lists of foods
Food Inc. , a 2009 documentary
* ^ "food". Encyclopedia Britannica. Archived from the original on
2017-07-27. Retrieved 2017-05-25.
* ^ Society, National Geographic (2011-03-01). "food". National
Geographic Society. Archived from the original on 2017-03-22.
* ^ "ProdSTAT". FAOSTAT. Archived from the original on 2012-02-09.
Retrieved 2008. Check date values in: access-date= (help )
* ^ Favour, Eboh. "DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF A MILL PULVERIZER".
Archived from the original on 2017-12-26.
* ^ Engineers, NIIR Board of Consultants & (2006-04-01). The
Complete Book on Spices & Condiments (with Cultivation, Processing &
Uses) 2nd Revised Edition: With Cultivation, Processing & Uses. ASIA
PACIFIC BUSINESS PRESS Inc. ISBN 9788178330389 . Archived from the
original on 2017-12-26.
* ^ McGee, 333–334.
* ^ McGee, 253.
* ^ McGee, Chapter 9.
* ^ "Are apple cores poisonous?". The Naked Scientists, University
of Cambridge. 26 Sep 2010. Archived from the original on 6 May 2014.
Retrieved 12 May 2014.
* ^ McGee, Chapter 7.
* ^ McGee, Chapter 6.
* ^ Davidson, 81–82.
* ^ Mason
* ^ A B Messer, 53–91.
* ^ "Popular Culture,
* Aguilera, Jose Miguel and David W. Stanley. Microstructural
* The dictionary definition of food at Wiktionary
* Media related to food at Wikimedia Commons
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* Pies, tarts and flans
* v * t * e
POLLUTION / QUALITY
* Ambient standards (USA) * Index
* developing nations
* Clean Air Act (USA)
* Airshed * Trading * Deforestation (REDD)
* Law * Resources * Fossil fuels (peak oil ) * Geothermal * Nuclear
* sunlight * shade
* Tidal * Wave * Wind
* peak farmland
* habitat conservation
* law * sand
* peak * rights
* conservation * fertility * health * resilience
* planning * reserve
* law * management
* genetic resources * law * management
* conservation * management
TYPES / LOCATION
* storage and recovery
* Drinking * Fresh
* pollution * recharge * remediation
* bergs * glacial * polar
* management * policy
* enclosure * global * land * tragedy of
* ecological * land
* overexploitation * Earth Overshoot Day
* Common-pool * Conflict (perpetuation) * Curse * Depletion * Extraction * Nationalism * Renewable / Non-renewable
* agencies * law * management * ministries * organizations
* Colleges * Natural resources
* GND : 4034870-2 * NDL