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Fürst
Fürst
Fürst
(German pronunciation: [ˈfʏʁst] ( listen), female form Fürstin, plural Fürsten; from Old High German
Old High German
furisto, "the first", a translation of the Latin
Latin
princeps) is a German word for a ruler and is also a princely title
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Kaiser
Kaiser
Kaiser
is the German word for "emperor". Like the Bulgarian, Serbian and Russian Tsar
Tsar
it is directly derived from the Roman emperors' title of Caesar, which in turn is derived from the personal name of a branch of the gens (clan) Julia, to which Gaius Julius Caesar, the forebear of the first imperial family, belonged. Although the British monarchs styled " Emperor
Emperor
of India" were also called "Kaisar-i-Hind" in Hindi and Urdu, this word, although ultimately sharing the same Latin origin, is derived from the Greek: Καῖσαρ (kaisar), not the German Kaiser.[1] In English, the term 'the Kaiser' is usually reserved for the emperors of the German Empire
German Empire
and the emperors of the Austrian Empire
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Holy Roman Empire
The Holy Roman Empire
Roman Empire
(Latin: Sacrum Romanum Imperium; German: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages
Middle Ages
and continued until its dissolution in 1806.[6] The largest territory of the empire after 962 was the Kingdom of Germany, though it also came to include the Kingdom of Bohemia, the Kingdom of Burgundy, the Kingdom of Italy, and numerous other territories.[7][8][9] On 25 December 800, Pope Leo III crowned the Frankish king Charlemagne as Emperor, reviving the title in Western Europe, more than three centuries after the fall of the Western Roman Empire
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Middle Ages
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
(or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century. It began with the fall of the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
and merged into the Renaissance
Renaissance
and the Age of Discovery. The Middle Ages
Middle Ages
is the middle period of the three traditional divisions of Western history: classical antiquity, the medieval period, and the modern period. The medieval period is itself subdivided into the Early, High, and Late Middle Ages. Population decline, counterurbanisation, invasion, and movement of peoples, which had begun in Late Antiquity, continued in the Early Middle Ages. The large-scale movements of the Migration Period, including various Germanic peoples, formed new kingdoms in what remained of the Western Roman Empire
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German Language
No official regulation ( German orthography
German orthography
regulated by the Council for German Orthography[4]). Language
Language
codesISO 639-1 deISO 639-2 ger (B) deu (T)ISO 639-3 Variously: deu – German gmh&#
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Princeps
Princeps (plural: principes) is a Latin
Latin
word meaning "first in time or order; the first, foremost,[1] chief, the most eminent, distinguished, or noble; the first man, first person."[2] As a title, "princeps" originated in the Roman Republic wherein the leading member of the Senate was designated princeps senatus.[3] It is primarily associated with the Roman emperors as an unofficial title first adopted by Augustus
Augustus
in 23 BC. Its use in this context continued until the reign of Diocletian
Diocletian
at the end of the third century. He preferred the title of dominus, meaning "lord" or "master". As a result, the Roman Empire from Augustus
Augustus
to Diocletian
Diocletian
is termed the "principate" (principatus) and from Diocletian
Diocletian
onwards as the "dominate" (dominatus)
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Latin
Latin
Latin
(Latin: lingua latīna, IPA: [ˈlɪŋɡʷa laˈtiːna]) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. The Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets, and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet. Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium, in the Italian Peninsula.[3] Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire. Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin
developed into the Romance languages, such as Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, French, and Romanian. Latin, Greek and French have contributed many words to the English language
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Old High German
Old High German
Old High German
(OHG, German: Althochdeutsch, German abbr. Ahd.) is the earliest stage of the German language, conventionally covering the period from around 700 to 1050. Coherent written texts do not appear until the second half of the 8th century, and some treat the period before 750 as "prehistoric" and date the start of Old High German proper to 750 for this reason
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Heraldry
Heraldry
Heraldry
(/ˈhɛrəldri/) is a broad term, encompassing the design, display, and study of armorial bearings (known as armory), as well as related disciplines, such as vexillology, together with the study of ceremony, rank, and pedigree.[1][2][3] Armory is the most familiar branch of heraldry, concerning the design and transmission of the heraldic achievement, more commonly known as the coat of arms
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Ridder (title)
Ridder ([ˈrɪdər]; English: "Knight") is a noble title in the Netherlands
Netherlands
and Belgium. Traditionally it denotes the second lowest rank within the nobility, standing below Baron, but above the untitled nobility (Jonkheer) in these countries. "Ridder" is a literal translation of Latin Eques and originally meant "horseman" or "rider". For its historical association with warfare and the landed gentry in the Middle Ages, it can be considered roughly equal to the titles of "Knight" or "Baronet". In the Netherlands
Netherlands
and Belgium
Belgium
no female equivalent exists. The collective term for its holders in a certain area as an executive and legislative assembly is named the Ridderschap (e.g
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Burgrave
Burgrave
Burgrave
(from German: Burggraf, Latin: burggravius, burcgravius, burgicomes) was since the medieval period a title for the ruler of a castle, especially a royal or episcopal castle, as well as a castle district (castellany) or fortified settlement or city.[1][2] The burgrave was a count in rank (German Graf, Latin Comes) equipped with judicial powers.[1][2] The title became hereditary in certain feudal families and was associated with a territory or domain called a Burgraviate (German Burggrafschaft, Latin Prefectura)
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Esquire
Esquire
Esquire
(British English: /ɪˈskwaɪə/;[1] American English: /ˈɛsˌkwaɪr/ or /ɪˈskwaɪr/;[2] abbreviated Esq.)[3] is usually a courtesy title. In the United Kingdom, Esquire
Esquire
historically was a title of respect accorded to men of higher social rank, particularly members of the landed gentry above the rank of gentleman and below the rank of knight. In 1826, William Blackstone
William Blackstone
reiterated that, "the title should be limited to those only who bear an office of trust under the Crown and who are styled esquires by the king in their commissions and appointments; and all, I conceive, who are once honoured by the king with the title of esquire have a right to that distinction for life."[4][5] By the early 20th century, it came to be used as a general courtesy title for any man in a formal setting, usually as a suffix to his name, as in "Todd Smith, Esq.", with no precise significance
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Ritter
Ritter
Ritter
(German for "knight") is a designation used as a title of nobility in German-speaking areas. Traditionally it denotes the second-lowest rank within the nobility, standing above "Edler" and below "Freiherr" (Baron). For its historical association with warfare and the landed gentry in the Middle Ages, it can be considered roughly equal to the titles of "Knight" or "Baronet". As with most titles and designations within the nobility in German-speaking areas, the rank was normally hereditary and generally was used with the nobiliary particle of von or zu before a family name. The wife of a Ritter
Ritter
was called a "Frau" (in this sense "Lady") and not Ritterin. In the Austrian Empire
Austrian Empire
the title of " Ritter
Ritter
von" was bestowed upon citizens who deserved more than the plain "von" but were not considered deserving enough as to be given a barony as "Freiherr"
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Knight
A knight is a person granted an honorary title of knighthood by a monarch or other political leader for service to the monarch or country, especially in a military capacity. Historically, in Europe, knighthood was conferred upon mounted warriors.[1] During the High Middle Ages, knighthood was considered a class of lower nobility. By the Late Middle Ages, the rank had become associated with the ideals of chivalry, a code of conduct for the perfect courtly Christian warrior. Often, a knight was a vassal who served as a fighter for a lord, with payment in the form of land holdings.[2] The lords trusted the knights, who were skilled in battle on horseback. Knighthood
Knighthood
in the Middle Ages was closely linked with horsemanship (and especially the joust) from its origins in the 12th century until its final flowering as a fashion among the high nobility in the Duchy of Burgundy in the 15th century
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Dame
Dame
Dame
is an honorific title and the feminine form of address for the honour of knighthood in the British honours system and the systems of several other Commonwealth countries, such as Australia
Australia
and New Zealand, with the masculine form of address being Sir
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Knighthood
A knight is a person granted an honorary title of knighthood by a monarch or other political leader for service to the monarch or country, especially in a military capacity. Historically, in Europe, knighthood was conferred upon mounted warriors.[1] During the High Middle Ages, knighthood was considered a class of lower nobility. By the Late Middle Ages, the rank had become associated with the ideals of chivalry, a code of conduct for the perfect courtly Christian warrior. Often, a knight was a vassal who served as a fighter for a lord, with payment in the form of land holdings.[2] The lords trusted the knights, who were skilled in battle on horseback. Knighthood
Knighthood
in the Middle Ages was closely linked with horsemanship (and especially the joust) from its origins in the 12th century until its final flowering as a fashion among the high nobility in the Duchy of Burgundy in the 15th century
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