HOME
The Info List - Knyaz



--- Advertisement ---


(i) (i) (i)

KNYAZ or KNEZ is a historical Slavic title, used both as a royal and noble title, usually translated into English either as Prince
Prince
or less commonly as Duke
Duke
, and in Latin
Latin
sources as _comes _ or _princeps _, but the word was originally derived from the Proto-Germanic _kuningaz _ (king).

The female form transliterated from Bulgarian and Russian is _knyaginya_ (княгиня), _kniahynia_ (княгиня) in Ukrainian , _kneginja_ in Slovene , Croatian and Serbian (Serbian Cyrillic : кнегиња). In Russian, the daughter of a knyaz is _knyazhna_ (княжна), in Ukrainian is _kniazivna_ (князівна). In Russian, the son of a knyaz is _knyazhich_ (княжич) (old form).

The title is pronounced and written similarly in different European languages . In Croatian, Bosnian and West Slavic languages , such as Polish, the word has later come to denote "lord", and in Czech, Polish and Slovak also came to mean "priest" (kněz, ksiądz, kňaz) as well as "duke" (knez, kníže, książę, knieža). In Sorbian it means simply "Mister". Today the term _knez_ is still used as the most common translation of "prince" in Bosnian, Croatian and Serbian literature. "Knez " is also found as a surname in former Yugoslavia .

CONTENTS

* 1 Etymology * 2 Middle Ages * 3 Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth * 4 Russia

* 5 Balkans

* 5.1 Bulgaria * 5.2 Serbia * 5.3 Montenegro

* 6 See also * 7 References * 8 Sources * 9 External links

ETYMOLOGY

_ The title knyaz_ appeared in the early 12th-century Glagolitic Baška tablet inscription, found on the island of Krk , Croatia.

The etymology is ultimately a cognate of the English _king_, the German _König_, and the Swedish _konung_. The proto-Slavic form was кънѧѕь _kŭnędzĭ_, Old Church Slavonic : кънѧѕь _kŭnędzĭ_, Bulgarian : княз, Old East Slavic : князь _knyazĭ_, Polish : _książę_, Bosnian and Serbian : kнез, Bosnian , Croatian , Serbian , and Slovene : _knez_, Czech : _kníže_ etc., as it could be a very early borrowing from the already extinct Proto-Germanic _ Kuningaz
Kuningaz
_, a form also borrowed by Finnish and Estonian (_Kuningas_).

MIDDLE AGES

The meaning of the term changed over the course of history. Initially the term was used to denote the chieftain of a tribe. Later, with the development of feudal statehood, it became the title of a ruler of a state, and among East Slavs (Russian : княжество (_kniazhestvo_), Ukrainian : князівство (_knyazivstvo_) traditionally translated as duchy or principality ), for example, of Kievan Rus\' . In medieval Latin
Latin
sources the title was rendered as either _rex _ or _dux _.

In Bulgaria, Simeon took the title of tsar in 913. In Kievan Rus', as the degree of centralization grew, the ruler acquired the title _Velikii Knyaz
Knyaz
_ (Великий Князь) (translated as Grand Prince
Prince
or Grand duke
Grand duke
, see Russian Grand Dukes ). He ruled a _Velikoe Knyazivstvo_ (Велике Князiвcтво) (Grand Duchy
Duchy
), while a ruler of its vassal constituent (_udel_, _udelnoe knyazivstvo_ or _volost _) was called _udelny knyaz_ or simply _knyaz_.

When Kievan Rus' became fragmented in the 13th century, the title Kniaz continued to be used in East Slavic states, including Kiev
Kiev
, Chernigov , Novgorod
Novgorod
, Pereiaslav , Vladimir-Suzdal\' , Muscovy , Tver , Halych-Volynia , and in the Grand Duchy
Duchy
of Lithuania .

POLISH-LITHUANIAN COMMONWEALTH

As noted above, the title _knyaz_ or _kniaz_ became a hereditary noble title in the Grand Duchy
Duchy
of Moscow and the Grand Duchy
Duchy
of Lithuania . Following the union of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy
Duchy
of Lithuania , _kniaź_ became a recognised title in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth . By the 1630s - apart from the title _pan_, which indicated membership of the large _szlachta _ noble class - _kniaź_ was the only hereditary title that was officially recognised and officially used in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. Notable holders of the title _kniaź_ include Jeremi Wiśniowiecki .

RUSSIA

Kneaze Alexey Michailovitz, 1664 ( Tsar
Tsar
Alexis I of Russia ).

As the Tsardom of Russia gained dominion over much of former Kievan Rus', Velikii Kniaz (Great Kniaz) Ivan IV of Russia in 1547 was crowned as Tsar
Tsar
. From the mid-18th century onwards, the title Velikii Kniaz was revived to refer to (male-line) sons and grandsons of Russian Emperors. See titles for Tsar\'s family for details.

_Kniaz_ (Russian : Кня́зь, IPA: ) continued as a hereditary title of Russian nobility patrilineally descended from Rurik
Rurik
(e.g., Belozersky , Belosselsky-Belozersky , Repnin , Gorchakov ) or Gediminas (e.g., Galitzine , Troubetzkoy ). Members of Rurikid or Gedyminid families were called princes when they ruled tiny quasi-sovereign medieval principalities. After their demesnes were absorbed by Muscovy, they settled at the Moscow court and were authorised to continue with their princely titles.

From the 18th century onwards, the title was occasionally granted by the Tsar, for the first time by Peter the Great to his associate Alexander Menshikov , and then by Catherine the Great
Catherine the Great
to her lover Grigory Potemkin . After 1801, with the incorporation of Georgia into the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
, various titles of numerous local nobles were controversially rendered in Russian as "kniazes". Similarly, many petty Tatar nobles asserted their right to style themselves "kniazes" because they descended from Genghis Khan .

See also " Velikiy Knyaz " article for more details.

Finally, within the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
of 1809-1917, Finland
Finland
was officially called _Grand Principality of Finland
Finland
_ (fi _Suomen suuriruhtinaskunta_, sv _Storfurstendömet Finland_, ru _Velikoye Knyazhestvo Finlyandskoye_).

BALKANS

In the 19th century, the Serbian term _knez_ (кнез) and the Bulgarian term _knyaz_ (княз) were revived to denote semi-independent rulers of those countries, such as Alexander Karađorđević and Alexander of Battenberg . In parts of Serbia and western Bulgaria, _knez_ was the informal title of the elder or mayor of a village or zadruga until around the 19th century. Those are officially called _градоначелник_ (gradonačelnik) (Serbia) and _градоначалник_ (gradonachalnik) or _кмет_ (kmet) (Bulgaria).

BULGARIA

Prior to Battenberg, the title _knyaz_ was born by Simeon I during the First Bulgarian Empire (9th-10th century). At the height of his power, Simeon adopted the title of _tsar _ ("emperor"), as did the Bulgarian rulers after the country became officially independent in 1908.

As of Bulgaria's independence in 1908, Knyaz
Knyaz
Ferdinand became Tsar Ferdinand, and the words _knyaz/knyaginya_ began to be used instead for the tsar's children – the heir to the throne, for example, held the title _ Knyaz
Knyaz
Tarnovski_ (" Knyaz
Knyaz
of Tarnovo ").

SERBIA

* _knez_ (кнез) is a common term used in Serbian historiography for Serbian rulers in the Early Middle Ages, who were titled _archon _ in Greek. * _knez_ (кнез) was a noble title used in the Middle Ages. * _knez_ (кнез) was a title borne by local Serbian chiefs under the Ottoman Empire. * _obor-knez _ (обор-кнез) was a title borne by elected local native Serbian chiefs of the _nahiyah _ (district of a group of villages) in the Ottoman Sanjak of Smederevo (also known as the Belgrade Pashaluk). The obor-knez was senior chief and responsible for his district's people and was their spokesman (intermediary) in direct relations with the Pasha, though usually through the _sipahi _, and was in charge of the transfer of taxes levied on the villages. * _knez_ (кнез) was the monarchial title used by Miloš Obrenović in Serbia , translated as "Prince". Serbia (known as _Kneževina Srbija_) was _de facto_ independent since 1817, becoming _de jure_ independent with the 1869 constitution. The successors of Miloš used the title until 1882 when Serbia was elevated into a kingdom .

MONTENEGRO

* _knjaz_ (књаз) was a title borne by local Montenegrin chiefs under the Ottoman Empire. * _knjaz_ (књаз) was the monarchial title used by the Petrović-Njegoš dynasty in Montenegro , translated as "Prince".

SEE ALSO

* Voivode
Voivode
* Boyar * Hospodar

REFERENCES

* ^ de Madariaga, I. (1997) " Tsar
Tsar
into emperor: the title of Peter the Great", in Hatton, R.M. et al. _Royal and Republican Sovereignty in Early Modern Europe_, Cambridge University Press: Cambridge. ISBN 9780521026512 , p. 354 * ^ Даль В. Толковый словарь живого великорусского языка в 4-х т. М., 1956. Т. 2, с. 126; Рабинович М. Г. Очерки этнографии феодального города. М., 1978, с. 228. * ^ _A_ _B_ "князь". "Vasmer\'s Etymological Dictionary" online * ^ Фроянов И. Я. Киевская Русь. Л., 1980. С. 17 * ^ Skok, Petar. _Etimologijski Rječnik Hrvatskoga ili Srpskoga Jezika_. 1972. * ^ Ed. Kurz, Josef. _Slovnik Jazyka Staroslověnskeho: Lexicon Linguae Palaeoslavonicae._ 1958. * ^ "knez". _Oxford English Dictionary_, 1989, online (subscription required) * ^ Великий князь // Слова давно минувших дней. Энциклопедия русской старины (speakrus.ru)

SOURCES

* Mihaljčić, R. (1999) Knez. in: Ćirković S.i R.Mihaljčić Leksikon srpskog srednjeg veka, Beograd, str. 299-301

EXTERNAL LINKS

* Media related to Knyaz
Knyaz
at Wikimedia Commons

Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title= Knyaz
Knyaz
additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy .® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. , a non-profit organization.

* Privacy policy * About * Disclaimers * Contact