KNYAZ or KNEZ is a historical Slavic title, used both as a royal and
noble title, usually translated into English either as
The female form transliterated from Bulgarian and Russian is _knyaginya_ (княгиня), _kniahynia_ (княгиня) in Ukrainian , _kneginja_ in Slovene , Croatian and Serbian (Serbian Cyrillic : кнегиња). In Russian, the daughter of a knyaz is _knyazhna_ (княжна), in Ukrainian is _kniazivna_ (князівна). In Russian, the son of a knyaz is _knyazhich_ (княжич) (old form).
The title is pronounced and written similarly in different European languages . In Croatian, Bosnian and West Slavic languages , such as Polish, the word has later come to denote "lord", and in Czech, Polish and Slovak also came to mean "priest" (kněz, ksiądz, kňaz) as well as "duke" (knez, kníže, książę, knieža). In Sorbian it means simply "Mister". Today the term _knez_ is still used as the most common translation of "prince" in Bosnian, Croatian and Serbian literature. "Knez " is also found as a surname in former Yugoslavia .
* 1 Etymology * 2 Middle Ages * 3 Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth * 4 Russia
* 5 Balkans
* 5.1 Bulgaria * 5.2 Serbia * 5.3 Montenegro
* 6 See also * 7 References * 8 Sources * 9 External links
The etymology is ultimately a cognate of the English _king_, the
German _König_, and the Swedish _konung_. The proto-Slavic form was
кънѧѕь _kŭnędzĭ_, Old Church Slavonic : кънѧѕь
_kŭnędzĭ_, Bulgarian : княз, Old East Slavic : князь
_knyazĭ_, Polish : _książę_, Bosnian and Serbian : kнез,
Bosnian , Croatian , Serbian , and Slovene : _knez_, Czech : _kníže_
etc., as it could be a very early borrowing from the already extinct
The meaning of the term changed over the course of history. Initially
the term was used to denote the chieftain of a tribe. Later, with the
development of feudal statehood, it became the title of a ruler of a
state, and among
East Slavs (Russian : княжество
(_kniazhestvo_), Ukrainian : князівство (_knyazivstvo_)
traditionally translated as duchy or principality ), for example, of
Kievan Rus\' . In medieval
In Bulgaria, Simeon took the title of tsar in 913. In Kievan Rus', as
the degree of centralization grew, the ruler acquired the title
Kievan Rus' became fragmented in the 13th century, the title
Kniaz continued to be used in East Slavic states, including
As noted above, the title _knyaz_ or _kniaz_ became a hereditary
noble title in the Grand
Tsardom of Russia gained dominion over much of former Kievan
Rus', Velikii Kniaz (Great Kniaz)
Ivan IV of Russia in 1547 was
_Kniaz_ (Russian : Кня́зь, IPA: ) continued as a hereditary
Russian nobility patrilineally descended from
From the 18th century onwards, the title was occasionally granted by
the Tsar, for the first time by Peter the Great to his associate
Alexander Menshikov , and then by
Catherine the Great
See also " Velikiy Knyaz " article for more details.
Finally, within the
In the 19th century, the Serbian term _knez_ (кнез) and the Bulgarian term _knyaz_ (княз) were revived to denote semi-independent rulers of those countries, such as Alexander Karađorđević and Alexander of Battenberg . In parts of Serbia and western Bulgaria, _knez_ was the informal title of the elder or mayor of a village or zadruga until around the 19th century. Those are officially called _градоначелник_ (gradonačelnik) (Serbia) and _градоначалник_ (gradonachalnik) or _кмет_ (kmet) (Bulgaria).
Prior to Battenberg, the title _knyaz_ was born by Simeon I during the First Bulgarian Empire (9th-10th century). At the height of his power, Simeon adopted the title of _tsar _ ("emperor"), as did the Bulgarian rulers after the country became officially independent in 1908.
As of Bulgaria's independence in 1908,
* _knez_ (кнез) is a common term used in Serbian historiography for Serbian rulers in the Early Middle Ages, who were titled _archon _ in Greek. * _knez_ (кнез) was a noble title used in the Middle Ages. * _knez_ (кнез) was a title borne by local Serbian chiefs under the Ottoman Empire. * _obor-knez _ (обор-кнез) was a title borne by elected local native Serbian chiefs of the _nahiyah _ (district of a group of villages) in the Ottoman Sanjak of Smederevo (also known as the Belgrade Pashaluk). The obor-knez was senior chief and responsible for his district's people and was their spokesman (intermediary) in direct relations with the Pasha, though usually through the _sipahi _, and was in charge of the transfer of taxes levied on the villages. * _knez_ (кнез) was the monarchial title used by Miloš Obrenović in Serbia , translated as "Prince". Serbia (known as _Kneževina Srbija_) was _de facto_ independent since 1817, becoming _de jure_ independent with the 1869 constitution. The successors of Miloš used the title until 1882 when Serbia was elevated into a kingdom .
* _knjaz_ (књаз) was a title borne by local Montenegrin chiefs under the Ottoman Empire. * _knjaz_ (књаз) was the monarchial title used by the Petrović-Njegoš dynasty in Montenegro , translated as "Prince".
* ^ de Madariaga, I. (1997) "
* Mihaljčić, R. (1999) Knez. in: Ćirković S.i R.Mihaljčić Leksikon srpskog srednjeg veka, Beograd, str. 299-301
* Media related to