The Info List - Knyaz

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or knez is a historical Slavic title, used both as a royal and noble title in different times of history and different ancient Slavic lands. It is usually translated into English as prince, duke or count, depending on specific historical context and the potentially known Latin
equivalents of the title for each bearer of the name. In Latin, sources the title is usually translated as comes or princeps, but the word was originally derived from the Proto-Germanic
kuningaz (king).[1] The female form transliterated from Bulgarian and Russian is knyaginya (княгиня), kniahynia (княгиня) in Ukrainian, kneginja in Slovene, Croatian and Serbian (Serbian Cyrillic: кнегиња). In Russian, the daughter of a knyaz is knyazhna (княжна), in Ukrainian is kniazivna (князівна). In Russian, the son of a knyaz is knyazhich (княжич) (old form).[2] The title is pronounced and written similarly in different European languages. In Croatian, Bosnian and West Slavic languages, such as Polish, the word has later come to denote "lord", and in Czech, Polish and Slovak also came to mean "priest" (kněz, ksiądz, kňaz) as well as "duke" (knez, kníže, książę, knieža).[3] In Sorbian it means simply "Mister" (from "Master". Cf French "monsieur" from "mon sieur" "my lord"). Today the term knez is still used as the most common translation of "prince" in Bosnian, Croatian and Serbian literature. "Knez" is also found as a surname in former Yugoslavia.[4]


1 Etymology 2 Middle Ages 3 Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth 4 Russia 5 South Slavic countries

5.1 Bulgaria 5.2 Croatia 5.3 Montenegro 5.4 Serbia

6 See also 7 References 8 Sources 9 External links


The title knez appeared in the early 12th-century Glagolitic Baška tablet inscription, found on the island of Krk, Croatia.

The etymology is ultimately a cognate of the English king, the German König, and the Swedish konung. The proto-Slavic form was кънѧѕь kŭnędzĭ,[5] Church Slavonic: кънѧѕь[6] kŭnędzĭ, Bulgarian: княз, Old East Slavic: князь knyazĭ, Polish: książę, Bosnian and Serbian: kнез, Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian, and Slovene: knez, Czech: kníže etc., as it could be a very early borrowing from the already extinct Proto-Germanic
Kuningaz, a form also borrowed by Finnish and Estonian (Kuningas).[3][7] Middle Ages[edit] The meaning of the term changed over the course of history. Initially the term was used to denote the chieftain of a tribe. Later, with the development of feudal statehood, it became the title of a ruler of a state, and among East Slavs
East Slavs
(Russian: княжество (kniazhestvo), Ukrainian: князівство (knyazivstvo) traditionally translated as duchy or principality), for example, of Kievan Rus'. In medieval Latin
sources the title was rendered as either rex or dux. In Bulgaria, Simeon took the title of tsar in 913. In Kievan Rus', as the degree of centralization grew, the ruler acquired the title Velikii Knyaz
Velikii Knyaz
(Великий Князь) (translated as Grand Prince or Grand Duke, see Russian Grand Dukes). He ruled a Velyke Knyazivstvo (Велике Князiвcтво) (Grand Duchy), while a ruler of its vassal constituent (udel, udelnoe knyazivstvo or volost) was called udelny knyaz or simply knyaz. When Kievan Rus'
Kievan Rus'
became fragmented in the 13th century, the title Kniaz continued to be used in East Slavic states, including Kiev, Chernigov, Novgorod, Pereiaslav, Vladimir-Suzdal', Muscovy, Tver, Halych-Volynia, and in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.[8] Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth[edit] As noted above, the title knyaz or kniaz became a hereditary noble title in the Grand Duchy of Moscow and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Following the union of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, kniaź became a recognised title in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. By the 1630s - apart from the title pan, which indicated membership of the large szlachta noble class - kniaź was the only hereditary title that was officially recognised and officially used in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. Notable holders of the title kniaź include Jeremi Wiśniowiecki. Russia[edit]

Kneaze Alexey Michailovitz, 1664 ( Tsar
Alexis I of Russia).

As the Tsardom of Russia
Tsardom of Russia
gained dominion over much of former Kievan Rus', Velikii Kniaz (Great Kniaz) Ivan IV of Russia
Ivan IV of Russia
in 1547 was crowned as Tsar. From the mid-18th century onwards, the title Velikii Kniaz was revived to refer to (male-line) sons and grandsons of Russian Emperors. See titles for Tsar's family for details. Kniaz (Russian: Кня́зь, IPA: [ˈknʲæsʲ]) continued as a hereditary title of Russian nobility
Russian nobility
patrilineally descended from Rurik
(e.g., Belozersky, Belosselsky-Belozersky, Repnin, Gorchakov) or Gediminas
(e.g., Galitzine, Troubetzkoy). Members of Rurikid
or Gedyminid
families were called princes when they ruled tiny quasi-sovereign medieval principalities. After their demesnes were absorbed by Muscovy, they settled at the Moscow court and were authorised to continue with their princely titles. From the 18th century onwards, the title was occasionally granted by the Tsar, for the first time by Peter the Great to his associate Alexander Menshikov, and then by Catherine the Great
Catherine the Great
to her lover Grigory Potemkin. After 1801, with the incorporation of Georgia into the Russian Empire, various titles of numerous local nobles were controversially rendered in Russian as "kniazes". Similarly, many petty Tatar nobles asserted their right to style themselves "kniazes" because they descended from Genghis Khan. See also "Velikiy Knyaz" article for more details. Finally, within the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
of 1809-1917, Finland
was officially called Grand Principality
of Finland
(fi Suomen suuriruhtinaskunta, sv Storfurstendömet Finland, ru Velikoye Knyazhestvo Finlyandskoye). South Slavic countries[edit] In the 19th century, the Serbian term knez (кнез) and the Bulgarian term knyaz (княз) were revived to denote semi-independent rulers of those countries, such as Alexander Karađorđević and Alexander of Battenberg. In parts of Serbia and western Bulgaria, knez was the informal title of the elder or mayor of a village or zadruga until around the 19th century. Those are officially called градоначелник (gradonačelnik) (Serbia) and градоначалник (gradonachalnik) or кмет (kmet) (Bulgaria). Bulgaria[edit]

Prior to Battenberg, the title knyaz was born by Simeon I during the First Bulgarian Empire
First Bulgarian Empire
(9th-10th century). At the height of his power, Simeon adopted the title of tsar ("emperor"), as did the Bulgarian rulers after the country became officially independent in 1908.[citation needed] As of Bulgaria's independence in 1908, Knyaz
Ferdinand became Tsar Ferdinand, and the words knyaz/knyaginya began to be used instead for the tsar's children – the heir to the throne, for example, held the title Knyaz
Tarnovski (" Knyaz
of Tarnovo").[citation needed]


knez was the monarchial title used by the medieval rulers of the Duchy of Pannonian Croatia and the Duchy of Littoral Croatia from the 7th to the 10th century, who were mostly titled as dux[9][10] and rarely as princeps[11][12] in Latin
sources and translated as Dukes in English ones. knez[13] was, in the Late Middle Ages, a hereditary feudal title borne by Croatian vassal noble families who were great territorial magnates of high social class (such as knezovi Bribirski (Counts of Bribir), knezovi Krčki (Counts of Krk) and knezovi Zrinski (Counts of Zrin)) and went by the title of comes in Latin
and Count
in English.


knjaz (књаз) was the ruler title used by the Petrović-Njegoš dynasty in Principality
of Montenegro from 1852 until the establishment of Kingdom of Montenegro
Kingdom of Montenegro
in 1905, translated as "Prince".


knez (кнез) is a common term used in Serbian historiography for Serbian rulers in the Early Middle Ages, who were titled archon in Greek. knez (кнез) was a noble title used in the Middle Ages. knez (кнез) was a title borne by local Serbian chiefs under the Ottoman Empire. It was another name for the Ottoman Turkish rank of kodjabashi, held by local Christian chiefs.[14] obor-knez (обор-кнез) was a title borne by elected local native Serbian chiefs of the nahiyah (district of a group of villages) in the Ottoman Sanjak of Smederevo
Sanjak of Smederevo
(also known as the Belgrade Pashaluk). The obor-knez was senior chief and responsible for his district's people and was their spokesman (intermediary) in direct relations with the Pasha, though usually through the sipahi, and was in charge of the transfer of taxes levied on the villages. knez (кнез) was the monarchial title used by Miloš Obrenović in Serbia, translated as "Prince". Serbia (known as Kneževina Srbija) was de facto independent since 1817, becoming de jure independent with the 1869 constitution. The successors of Miloš used the title until 1882 when Serbia was elevated into a kingdom.

See also[edit]

Voivode Boyar Hospodar


^ de Madariaga, I. (1997) " Tsar
into emperor: the title of Peter the Great", in Hatton, R.M. et al. Royal and Republican Sovereignty in Early Modern Europe, Cambridge University Press: Cambridge. ISBN 9780521026512, p. 354 ^ Даль В. Толковый словарь живого великорусского языка в 4-х т. М., 1956. Т. 2, с. 126; Рабинович М. Г. Очерки этнографии феодального города. М., 1978, с. 228. ^ a b "князь". "Vasmer's Etymological Dictionary" online ^ Фроянов И. Я. Киевская Русь. Л., 1980. С. 17 ^ Skok, Petar. Etimologijski Rječnik Hrvatskoga ili Srpskoga Jezika. 1972. ^ Ed. Kurz, Josef. Slovnik Jazyka Staroslověnskeho: Lexicon Linguae Palaeoslavonicae. 1958. ^ "knez". Oxford English Dictionary, 1989, online [1] (subscription required) ^ Великий князь // Слова давно минувших дней. Энциклопедия русской старины (speakrus.ru) ^ "Borna". Croatian Biographical Lexicon by Miroslav Krleža Institute of Lexicography (online edition). Retrieved 2017-10-17.  ^ "Trpimir I". Croatian Biographical Lexicon by Miroslav Krleža Institute of Lexicography (online edition). Retrieved 2017-10-17.  ^ "Domagoj". Croatian Biographical Lexicon by Miroslav Krleža Institute of Lexicography (online edition). Retrieved 2017-10-17.  ^ "Branimir". Croatian Biographical Lexicon by Miroslav Krleža Institute of Lexicography (online edition). Retrieved 2017-10-17.  ^ "knez". Croatian Encyclopedia
Croatian Encyclopedia
by Miroslav Krleža Institute of Lexicography (online edition). Retrieved 2017-10-17.  ^ Stavrianos, Leften Stavros (2000) [1958]. The Balkans Since 1453. C. Hurst & Co. Publishers. p. 224. ISBN 1850655510. 


Mihaljčić, R. (1999) Knez. in: Ćirković S.i R.Mihaljčić [ed.] Leksikon srpskog srednjeg veka, Beograd, str. 299-301

External links[edit]

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