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Estonia
ESTONIA (/ɛˈstoʊniə/ (_ listen ); Estonian : Eesti_ ), officially the REPUBLIC OF ESTONIA (Estonian: _Eesti Vabariik_), is a country in the Baltic region of Northern Europe . It is bordered to the north by the Gulf of Finland , to the west by the Baltic Sea , to the south by Latvia (343 km), and to the east by Lake Peipus and Russia (338.6 km). Across the Baltic Sea lies Sweden in the west and Finland in the north. The territory of Estonia consists of a mainland and 2,222 islands and islets in the Baltic Sea, covering 45,339 km2 (17,505 sq mi) of land and water, and is influenced by a humid continental climate . The territory of Estonia has been inhabited since at least 6500 BC, with Finno-Ugric speakers – the linguistic ancestors of modern Estonians – arriving no later than around 1800 BC
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Estonian Language
ESTONIAN (_eesti keel_ ( listen )) is the official language of Estonia , spoken natively by about 922,000 people in Estonia and 160,000 outside Estonia. It belongs to the Finnic branch of the Uralic language family . CONTENTS * 1 Classification * 2 History * 2.1 Estonian literature * 2.2 State language * 3 Dialects * 4 Writing system * 4.1 Alphabet * 4.2 Orthography * 5 Phonology * 6 Grammar * 7 Vocabulary * 7.1 _Ex nihilo_ lexical enrichment * 8 Sample text * 9 See also * 10 References * 11 Further reading * 12 External links CLASSIFICATIONEstonian belongs to the Finnic branch of the Uralic languages , along with Finnish , Karelian , and other nearby languages. The Uralic languages do not belong to the Indo-European languages . Estonian is distantly related to Hungarian and to the Sami languages
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Flag Of Estonia
The national FLAG OF ESTONIA (Estonian : Eesti lipp) is a tricolour featuring three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), black , and white . The normal size is 105 × 165 cm. In Estonian it is colloquially called the "sinimustvalge" (literally "blue-black-white"), after the colours of the bands. First adopted on 21 November 1918 after its independence, it was used as an national flag until 1940 when the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and Nazi Germany (1941–44) illegally occupied Estonia. After World War II, from 1944 to 1990, the Soviet Estonian flag consisted first of a generic red Soviet flag with the name of the republic, then changed to the red flag with a band of blue water waves near the bottom. The Estonian flag, which was also used by the Estonian government-in-exile , was officially re-adopted 7 August 1990 one year before its official restoration of independence
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Coat Of Arms Of Estonia
The current COAT OF ARMS OF ESTONIA is a golden shield which includes a picture of three blue lions with red tongues in the middle, with golden oak branches placed on both sides of the shield. The insignia derive from the coat of arms of Denmark
Denmark
, which ruled northern Estonia in the thirteenth century. CONTENTS * 1 Description * 2 Symbology * 3 Gallery * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 Templates DESCRIPTIONThe coat of arms of Estonia
Estonia
depicts a golden shield, which includes three slim blue lions passant gardant with red tongues in the middle and golden oak branches along both sides of the shield. The lesser coat of arms lacks these oak branches. The three lions derive from the arms of Danish king Valdemar II who had conquered northern Estonia
Estonia
in 1219
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Mu Isamaa, Mu õnn Ja Rõõm
MU ISAMAA, MU õNN JA RõõM ("My Fatherland, My Happiness and Joy"; Estonian pronunciation: ) was officially adopted as the national anthem (Estonian : (riigi)hümn) of the Republic of Estonia
Estonia
in 1920. The lyrics were written by Johann Voldemar Jannsen and are set to a melody composed in 1848 by Fredrik (Friedrich) Pacius which is also that of the national anthem of Finland
Finland
: Maamme ("Vårt Land" in Swedish). The only difference between the two anthems is the key signature they are in. It is also considered to be national anthem for Livonian people
Livonian people
with text Min izāmō, min sindimō , My Fatherland, my native land
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Europe
EUROPE —a concept dating back to classical antiquity — is a continent that comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia . Europe is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. The eastern boundary with Asia is an arbitrary historical and social construct , as there is no clear physical and geographical separation between them. The primarily physiographic term "continent" as applied to Europe also incorporates cultural and political elements whose discontinuities and lines of demarcation are not reflected by the continent's current overland boundaries with Asia
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European Union
The EUROPEAN UNION (EU) is a political and economic union of 28 member states that are located primarily in Europe . It has an area of 4,475,757 km2 (1,728,099 sq mi), and an estimated population of over 510 million. The EU has developed an internal single market through a standardised system of laws that apply in all member states. EU policies aim to ensure the free movement of people, goods, services, and capital within the internal market, enact legislation in justice and home affairs, and maintain common policies on trade, agriculture , fisheries , and regional development . Within the Schengen Area , passport controls have been abolished. A monetary union was established in 1999 and came into full force in 2002, and is composed of 19 EU member states which use the euro currency
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Tallinn
TALLINN (/ˈtɑːlɪn/ or /ˈtælɪn/ , Estonian pronunciation: ; names in other languages ) is the capital and largest city of Estonia . It is situated on the northern coast of the country, on the shore of the Gulf of Finland , 80 km (50 mi) south of Helsinki , east of Stockholm and west of Saint Petersburg in Harju County . From the 13th century until 1918 (and briefly during the Nazi occupation of Estonia from 1941 to 1944), the city was known as REVAL. Tallinn occupies an area of 159.2 km2 (61.5 sq mi) and has a population of 426,538 . Tallinn, first mentioned in 1219, received city rights in 1248, but the earliest human settlements date back 5,000 years. The initial claim over the land was laid by the Danes in 1219 after a successful raid of Lyndanisse led by Valdemar II of Denmark , followed by a period of alternating Scandinavian and German rule
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Ethnic Groups
An ETHNIC GROUP or ETHNICITY is a category of people who identify with each other based on similarities such as common ancestral , language , social , cultural or national experiences . Ethnicity is often an inherited status based on the society in which one lives. In some cases, it can be adopted if a person moves into another society. Membership of an ethnic group tends to be defined by a shared cultural heritage , ancestry , origin myth , history , homeland , language or dialect , symbolic systems such as religion , mythology and ritual , cuisine , dressing style, art , and physical appearance . Ethnic groups, derived from the same historical founder population , often continue to speak related languages and share a similar gene pool
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Estonians
ESTONIANS (Estonian : _eestlased_) are a Finnic ethnic group related to the Finns that mainly inhabit Estonia , a country located south of Finland and the Finnish Gulf . Their national language belongs to Finnic branch and is known as Estonian (Estonian : _eesti keel_). Although Estonia is often geopolitically categorized as one of the Baltics , Estonians are linguistically, culturally and historically related to the neighboring Finns—both belonging to the Finnic people —differing from the non-Finnic Indo-European speaking Baltic peoples of Latvia and Lithuania
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Russians
RUSSIANS (Russian : русские, _russkiye_) are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Eastern Europe . The majority of Russians inhabit the nation state of Russia
Russia
, while notable minorities exist in other former Soviet
Soviet
states such as Ukraine
Ukraine
, Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
, and Belarus . A large Russian diaspora exists all over the world, with notable numbers in the United States, Germany, Israel, and Canada. Russians are the most numerous ethnic group in Europe. The Russians
Russians
share many cultural traits with their fellow East Slavic counterparts, specifically Belarusians
Belarusians
and Ukrainians as well as with certain South Slavs such as Bulgarians , Macedonians , Montenegrins and Serbs
Serbs

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Ukrainians
UKRAINIANS (Ukrainian : українці, _ukrayintsi_, ) are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Ukraine
Ukraine
, which is by total population the sixth-largest nation in Europe
Europe
. The Constitution of Ukraine
Ukraine
applies the term 'Ukrainians' to all its citizens. Also among historical names of the people of Ukraine, Rusyns (Ruthenians), Cossacks
Cossacks
, etc. can be found. According to most dictionary definitions, a descriptive name for the "inhabitants of Ukraine" is _Ukrainian_ or _Ukrainian people_. Rusyns are another related group found in western Ukraine, which are frequently referred to as being an ethnic subgroup of Ukrainians. The Rusyns are also further divided into subgroups of tribes consisiting of the Hutsuls
Hutsuls
, Boykos , and Lemkos
Lemkos

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Belarusians
BELARUSIANS (Belarusian : беларусы, _bielarusy_, or BYELORUSSIANS (from the Byelorussian SSR
Byelorussian SSR
), are an East Slavic ethnic group who are native to modern-day Belarus
Belarus
and the immediate region. There are over 9.5 million people who proclaim Belarusian ethnicity worldwide, with overwhelming majority residing either in Belarus
Belarus
or the adjacent countries where they are an autochthonous minority. CONTENTS * 1 Location * 2 Languages * 3 History * 4 Cuisine * 5 See also * 6 Notes * 7 References * 8 External links LOCATION See also: Belarusian diaspora Ethnic territory of Belarusians According to Y. Karskiy (1903) According to M. Dovnar-Zapol\'skiy (1919) Modern state boundaries Belarusians
Belarusians
are an East Slavic ethnic group who populate the majority of the Belarus
Belarus

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Finns
b No official statistics are kept on ethnicity. However, statistics of the Finnish population according to first language and citizenship are documented and available. c Finnish born population resident in Sweden. This figure likely includes Finnish-born ethnic Swedes repatriated to Sweden
Sweden
and as such might be a misleading figure. d Swedish population with at least partial Finnish background. FINNS or FINNISH PEOPLE (Finnish : _suomalaiset_, Swedish : _finnar_) are a Finnic ethnic group native to Finland
Finland
. Finns
Finns
are traditionally divided into smaller regional groups that span several countries adjacent to Finland, both those who are native to these countries as well as those who have resettled. Also, some of these may be classified as separate ethnic groups, rather than subgroups of Finns
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Demonym
A DEMONYM (/ˈdɛmənɪm/ ; δῆμος _dẽmos_ "people, tribe", ὄνομα _ónoma_ "name") is a word that identifies residents or natives of a particular place, which is derived from the name of that particular place. It is a neologism (i.e., a recently minted term); previously _GENTILIC_ was recorded in English dictionaries, e.g., the _ Oxford English Dictionary _ and _Chambers Twentieth Century Dictionary_. Examples of demonyms include a _ Pakistani _ for a person from Pakistan , _Swahili _ for a person of the Swahili coast , the colloquial _Kiwi _ for a person from New Zealand , and a _Cochabambino_ for a person from the city of Cochabamba . Demonyms do not always clearly distinguish place of origin or ethnicity from place of residence or citizenship, and many demonyms overlap with the ethnonym for the ethnically dominant group of a region
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