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Estonia
ESTONIA (/ɛˈstoʊniə/ ( listen ); Estonian : Eesti ), officially the REPUBLIC OF ESTONIA (Estonian: Eesti Vabariik), is a sovereign state in Northern Europe
Europe
. It is bordered to the north by the Gulf of Finland
Gulf of Finland
, to the west by the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
, to the south by Latvia
Latvia
(343 km), and to the east by Lake Peipus and Russia
Russia
(338.6 km). Across the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
lies Sweden
Sweden
in the west and Finland
Finland
in the north
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State Council Of The Soviet Union
Following the August 1991 Soviet coup d\'état attempt , the STATE COUNCIL OF THE UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS (USSR) (Russian : Государственный Совет СССР), but also known as the STATE SOVIET, was formed on 5 September 1991 and was designed to be one of the most important government offices in Mikhail Gorbachev 's Soviet Union
Soviet Union

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United Nations Security Council Resolution 709
Year 709
709
(DCCIX ) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar
Julian calendar
. The denomination 709
709
for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini
Anno Domini
calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years. EVENTSBY PLACEByzantine Empire * June – Emperor Justinian II
Justinian II
sends a punitive expedition to Italy under the patrikios Theodore, to intervene in the dispute between Pope Constantine I and the archbishop Felix of Ravenna , who claims to be independent of the pope 's authority. Theodore captures Ravenna
Ravenna
, and arrests Felix and other Italian leaders. He deports them to Constantinople
Constantinople
, from where they are exiled to Cherson (Crimea )
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United Nations
The UNITED NATIONS (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order. A replacement for the ineffective League of Nations , the organization was established on 24 October 1945 after World War II
World War II
with the aim of preventing another such conflict. At its founding, the UN had 51 member states ; there are now 193. The headquarters of the UN is in Manhattan
Manhattan
, New York City
New York City
, and is subject to extraterritoriality . Further main offices are situated in Geneva
Geneva
, Nairobi
Nairobi
, and Vienna
Vienna
. The organization is financed by assessed and voluntary contributions from its member states
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Gross Domestic Product
GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced in a period (quarterly or yearly) of time . Nominal GDP estimates are commonly used to determine the economic performance of a whole country or region, and to make international comparisons. Nominal GDP per capita
GDP per capita
does not, however, reflect differences in the cost of living and the inflation rates of the countries; therefore using a basis of GDP per capita
GDP per capita
at purchasing power parity (PPP) is arguably more useful when comparing differences in living standards between different nations
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Gini Coefficient
In economics , the GINI COEFFICIENT (sometimes expressed as a GINI RATIO or a normalized GINI INDEX) (/dʒini/ jee-nee ) is a measure of statistical dispersion intended to represent the income or wealth distribution of a nation's residents, and is the most commonly used measure of inequality. It was developed by the Italian statistician and sociologist Corrado Gini and published in his 1912 paper Variability and Mutability (Italian : Variabilità e mutabilità). The Gini coefficient
Gini coefficient
measures the inequality among values of a frequency distribution (for example, levels of income ). A Gini coefficient of zero expresses perfect equality, where all values are the same (for example, where everyone has the same income)
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Constitutional Republic
A REPUBLIC (Latin : res publica ) is a form of government in which the country is considered a "public matter", not the private concern or property of the rulers. The primary positions of power within a republic are not inherited. It is a form of government under which the head of state is not a monarch . In American English, the definition of a republic can also refer specifically to a government in which elected individuals represent the citizen body. and a republic that exercise power according to the rule of law with a constitution including separation of powers with a separate elected chief executive (a constitutional republic) or representative democracy (a democratic republic )
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Ethnic Groups
An ETHNIC GROUP, or an ETHNICITY, is a category of people who identify with each other based on similarities such as common ancestry , language , society , culture or nation . Ethnicity is usually an inherited status based on the society in which one lives. Membership of an ethnic group tends to be defined by a shared cultural heritage , ancestry , origin myth , history , homeland , language or dialect , symbolic systems such as religion , mythology and ritual , cuisine , dressing style, art , and physical appearance . Ethnic groups, derived from the same historical founder population , often continue to speak related languages and share a similar gene pool . By way of language shift , acculturation , adoption and religious conversion , it is sometimes possible for individuals or groups to leave one ethnic group and become part of another (except for ethnic groups emphasizing racial purity as a key membership criterion)
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Purchasing Power Parity
PURCHASING POWER PARITY (PPP) is an economic theory that states that the exchange rate between two currencies is equal to the ratio of the currencies' respective purchasing power . Theories that invoke purchasing power parity assume that in some circumstances (for example, as a long-run tendency) it would cost exactly the same number of, for example, US dollars to buy euros and then to use the difference in value to buy a market basket of goods as it would cost to directly purchase the market basket of goods with dollars. A fall in either currency's purchasing power would lead to a proportional decrease in that currency's valuation on the foreign exchange market . The concept of purchasing power parity allows one to estimate what the exchange rate between two currencies would have to be in order for the exchange to be at par with the purchasing power of the two countries' currencies
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Demonym
A DEMONYM (/ˈdɛmənɪm/ ; δῆμος dẽmos "people, tribe", ὄόνομα ónoma "name") is a word that identifies residents or natives of a particular place, which is derived from the name of that particular place. It is a neologism (i.e., a recently minted term); previously GENTILIC was recorded in English dictionaries, e.g., the Oxford
Oxford
English Dictionary and Chambers Twentieth Century Dictionary. Examples of demonyms include a Swahili for a person of the Swahili coast , the colloquial Kiwi for a person from New Zealand
New Zealand
, and a Cochabambino for a person from the city of Cochabamba
Cochabamba
. Demonyms do not always clearly distinguish place of origin or ethnicity from place of residence or citizenship, and many demonyms overlap with the ethnonym for the ethnically dominant group of a region
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List Of Countries And Territories By Population Density
This is a LIST OF COUNTRIES AND DEPENDENCIES RANKED BY HUMAN POPULATION DENSITY and measured by the number of human inhabitants per square kilometer or square mile . CONTENTS * 1 Methodology * 2 Main table * 3 Density amongst the most populous * 4 See also * 5 Notes METHODOLOGYThe list includes sovereign states and self-governing dependent territories based upon the ISO standard ISO 3166-1 . The list also includes but does not rank unrecognized but de facto independent countries. The figures in the following table are based on areas including inland water bodies (lakes, reservoirs, rivers). Figures used in this article are mainly based on the latest censuses and official estimates (or projections). Where there is not such updated national data available, figures are based on the 2015 estimates provided by the Population Division of the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs
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Unitary State
A UNITARY STATE is a state governed as a single power in which the central government is ultimately supreme and any administrative divisions (sub-national units) exercise only the powers that the central government chooses to delegate. The majority of states in the world have a unitary system of government. Of the 193 UN member states , 165 are governed as unitary states. In a unitary state, sub-national units are created and abolished (an example being the 22 mainland regions of France
France
being merged into 13), and their powers may be broadened and narrowed, by the central government. Although political power may be delegated through devolution to local governments by statute , the central government remains supreme; it may abrogate the acts of devolved governments or curtail their powers
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Belarusians
BELARUSIANS (Belarusian : беларусы, biełarusy, or BYELORUSSIANS (from the Byelorussian SSR ), are an East Slavic ethnic group who are native to modern-day Belarus
Belarus
and the immediate region. There are over 9.5 million people who proclaim Belarusian ethnicity worldwide, with the overwhelming majority residing either in Belarus or the adjacent countries where they are an autochthonous minority. CONTENTS * 1 Location * 2 Languages * 3 History * 4 Cuisine * 5 See also * 6 References * 6.1 Bibliography * 7 External links LOCATION See also: Belarusian diaspora Ethnic territory of Belarusians According to Y. Karskiy (1903) According to M. Dovnar-Zapol\'skiy (1919) Modern state boundaries Belarusians
Belarusians
are an East Slavic ethnic group who populate the majority of the Belarus
Belarus

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List Of Countries And Dependencies By Area
This is a list of the world 's countries and their dependent territories by area, ranked by total area . Entries in this list, include, but are not limited to, those in the ISO standard 3166-1 , which includes sovereign states and dependent territories. Largely unrecognised states not in ISO 3166-1 are included in the list in ranked order, but are not given a rank number. The areas of such largely unrecognised states are in most cases also included in the areas of the more widely recognised states that claim the same territory; see the notes in the "Notes" column for each country for clarification
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List Of Countries And Dependencies By Population
This is a list of countries and dependent territories by population . It includes sovereign states , inhabited dependent territories and, in some cases, constituent countries of sovereign states, with inclusion within the list being primarily based on the ISO standard ISO 3166-1 . For instance, the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
is considered as a single entity while the constituent countries of the Kingdom of the Netherlands are considered separately. In addition, this list includes certain states with limited recognition not found in ISO 3166-1. The population figures do not reflect the practice of countries that report significantly different populations of citizens domestically and overall. Some countries, notably Thailand
Thailand
, do not report total population, exclusively counting citizens; for total populations an international agency must issue an estimate
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Ukrainians
UKRAINIANS (Ukrainian : українці, ukrayintsi, ) are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Ukraine
Ukraine
, which is by total population the sixth-largest nation in Europe
Europe
. The Constitution of Ukraine applies the term 'Ukrainians' to all its citizens. Also among historical names of the people of Ukraine, Rusyns (Ruthenians), Cossacks
Cossacks
, etc. can be found. According to most dictionary definitions, a descriptive name for the "inhabitants of Ukraine" is Ukrainian or Ukrainian people. Rusyns are another related group found in western Ukraine, which are frequently referred to as being an ethnic subgroup of Ukrainians. The Rusyns are also further divided into subgroups of tribes consisiting of the Hutsuls
Hutsuls
, Boykos
Boykos
, and Lemkos
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