TALLINN (/ˈtɑːlɪn/ or /ˈtælɪn/ , Estonian pronunciation: ; names in other languages ) is the capital and largest city of Estonia . It is situated on the northern coast of the country, on the shore of the Gulf of Finland , 80 km (50 mi) south of Helsinki , east of Stockholm and west of Saint Petersburg in Harju County . From the 13th century until 1918 (and briefly during the Nazi occupation of Estonia from 1941 to 1944), the city was known as REVAL. Tallinn occupies an area of 159.2 km2 (61.5 sq mi) and has a population of 426,538 .
Tallinn, first mentioned in 1219, received city rights in 1248, but the earliest human settlements date back 5,000 years. The initial claim over the land was laid by the Danes in 1219 after a successful raid of Lyndanisse led by Valdemar II of Denmark , followed by a period of alternating Scandinavian and German rule. Due to its strategic location, the city became a major trade hub, especially from the 14th to the 16th century, when it grew in importance as part of the Hanseatic League .
Tallinn's Old Town is one of the best preserved medieval cities in Europe and is listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site . Tallinn is the major political, financial, cultural and educational center of Estonia . Often dubbed the Silicon Valley of Europe , it has the highest number of startups per person in Europe and is a birthplace of many international companies, including Skype . The city is to house the headquarters of the European Union\'s IT agency. Providing to the global cybersecurity it is the home to the NATO Cyber Defence Centre of Excellence . It is ranked as a global city and has been listed among the top 10 digital cities in the world. According to the Global Financial Centres Index Tallinn is the most competitive financial hub in Northern Europe and ranks 42nd internationally. The city was a European Capital of Culture for 2011, along with Turku in Finland.
* 1 Toponymy
* 1.1 Historical names * 1.2 Modern name
* 2 History * 3 Geography * 4 Geology * 5 Climate * 6 Administrative districts * 7 Demographics
* 8 Economy
* 8.6 Manufacturing sector
* 8.6.1 Food processing
* 8.7 Retail * 8.8 Notable headquarters
* 9 Education
* 10 Culture
* 10.1 Museums * 10.2 Lauluväljak * 10.3 Tallinn Black Nights Film Festival * 10.4 Cuisine
* 11 Tourism
* 12 Transport
* 12.1 City transport * 12.2 Air * 12.3 Ferry * 12.4 Railroad
* 13 Notable people
* 13.1 Pre 1900 * 13.2 1900 to 1930 * 13.3 1930 to 1950 * 13.4 1950 to 1970 * 13.5 1970 to Date * 13.6 Architects and Conductors * 13.7 Sport
* 14 International relations
* 14.1 Twin towns – sister cities
* 15 Image gallery * 16 See also * 17 References * 18 Bibliography * 19 External links
In 1154, a town called _Qlwn_ or _Qalaven_ (which may be derivations of _Kalevan_ or _Kolyvan_) was put on the world map of the Almoravid by the Arab cartographer Muhammad al-Idrisi , who described it as "a small town like a large castle" among the towns of 'Astlanda'. It was suggested that Quwri may have denoted a predecessor of the modern city. The earliest names of Tallinn include _Kolyvan_ (Russian : Колывань), which is known from East Slavic chronicles and which may have come from the Estonian mythical hero Kalev .
However, modern historians consider connecting al-Idrisi placename(s) with Tallinn unfounded and erroneous.
Up to the 13th century, the Scandinavians and Henry of Livonia in his chronicle called the town _Lindanisa_ (or _Lyndanisse_ in Danish , _Lindanäs_ in Swedish and _Ledenets_ in Old East Slavic . According to some poetical suggestions, this name was derived from Linda, the mythical wife of Kalev and the mother of Kalevipoeg , who in an Estonian legend carried rocks to her husband's grave, which formed the Toompea hill. It has been also suggested that the archaic Estonian word _linda_ is similar to the Votic word _lidna_, meaning a castle or town. According to this suggestion, _nisa_ would have the meaning 'niemi' (or 'peninsula '), producing _Kesoniemi_, the old Finnish name for the city. Another ancient historical name for Tallinn in Finnish is _Rääveli_. The Icelandic _Njal\'s saga _ mentions Tallinn and calls it _Rafala_, which is a variant of the name _Raphael_.
After the Danish conquest in 1219, the town became known in the German , Swedish and Danish languages as Reval (Latin : _Revalia_). The name originated from (Latin) _Revelia_ (Estonian) _ Revala _ or _Rävala_, the adjacent ancient name of the surrounding area.
See also: Names of Tallinn in different languages The lesser coat of arms of Tallinn, which depicts the Dannebrog cross.
The name Tallinn(a) is Estonian . It is usually thought to be derived from _Taani-linn(a)_, (meaning 'Danish-town) (Latin : _Castrum Danorum _), after the Danes built the castle in place of the Estonian stronghold at Lindanisse. However, it could also have come from _tali-linna_ ('winter-castle or town'), or _talu-linna_ ('house/farmstead-castle or town'). The element _-linna_, like Germanic _-burg_ and Slavic _-grad _ / _-gorod_, originally meant 'fortress', but is used as a suffix in the formation of town names.
The previously-used official names in German _ REVAL (help ·info ) and Russian REVEL (Ревель_), were replaced after Estonia became independent in 1918. At first both forms _Tallinna_ and _Tallinn_ were used. The United States Board on Geographic Names adopted the form Tallinn between June 1923 and June 1927. Tallinna in Estonian denotes the genitive case of the name, as in Tallinna Reisisadam ('the Port of Tallinn').
In Russian, the spelling of the name was changed from Таллинн to Таллин (_Tallin_) by the Soviet authorities in the 1950s, and this spelling is still officially sanctioned by the Russian government, while Estonian authorities have been using the spelling Таллинн in Russian-language publications since the restoration of independence. The form _Таллин_ is also used in several other languages using the Cyrillic script. Due to the Russian spelling, the form _Tallin_ is sometimes found in international publications; it is also the official form in Spanish .
Other variations of modern spellings include TALLINNA in Finnish , TALLINA in Latvian and TALINAS in Lithuanian .
See also: Timeline of Tallinn
UNESCO WORLD HERITAGE SITE
LOCATION Harju County , Danish Estonia , Danish Estonia , Duchy of Estonia , Q620851, Reval Viceroyalty, Estonia Governorate , Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic , Republic of Estonia (1918–1940) , Estonia
COORDINATES 59°26′14″N 24°44′42″E / 59.4372°N 24.745°E / 59.4372; 24.745
AREA 159 km2 (1.71×109 sq ft)
CRITERIA ii, iv
INSCRIPTION 1997 (21st Session )
Location of Tallinn
The Danish flag falling from the sky in the 1219 Battle of Lyndanisse . Seal of Reval, 1340
The first traces of human settlement found in Tallinn's city center by archeologists are about 5,000 years old. The comb ceramic pottery found on the site dates to about 3000 BCE and corded ware pottery c. 2500 BCE. Old Thomas is one of the symbols and guardians of Tallinn Port of Reval in 1853
As an important port for trade between Russia and Scandinavia, it became a target for the expansion of the Teutonic Knights and the Kingdom of Denmark during the period of Northern Crusades in the beginning of the 13th century when Christianity was forcibly imposed on the local population. Danish rule of Tallinn and Northern Estonia started in 1219.
In 1285, the city, then known as Reval, became the northern most member of the Hanseatic League – a mercantile and military alliance of German -dominated cities in Northern Europe. The Danes sold Reval along with their other land possessions in northern Estonia to the Teutonic Knights in 1346. Medieval Reval enjoyed a strategic position at the crossroads of trade between Western and Northern Europe and Russia. The city, with a population of 8,000, was very well fortified with city walls and 66 defence towers .
During the Great Northern War , plague stricken Tallinn along with Swedish Estonia and Livonia capitulated to Imperial Russia in 1710, but the local self-government institutions (Magistracy of Reval and Chivalry of Estonia) retained their cultural and economical autonomy within Imperial Russia as the Governorate of Estonia . The Magistracy of Reval was abolished in 1889. The 19th century brought industrialization of the city and the port kept its importance. During the last decades of the century Russification measures became stronger. Off the coast of Reval, in June 1908, Tsar Nicholas II and Tsarina Alexandra of Russia, along with their children, met their mutual uncle and aunt, Britain's King Edward VII and Queen Alexandra , an act which was seen as a royal confirmation of the Anglo-Russian Entente of the previous year, and which was the first time a reigning British monarch had visited Russia.
On 24 February 1918, the Independence Manifesto was proclaimed in Reval, soon to be Tallinn, followed by Imperial German occupation and a war of independence with Russia. On 2 February 1920, the Tartu Peace Treaty was signed with Soviet Russia, wherein Russia acknowledged the independence of the Estonian Republic. Tallinn became the capital of an independent Estonia. After World War II started, Estonia acceded to the Soviet Union (USSR) in 1940, and later occupied by Nazi Germany from 1941 to 1944. After the Nazi retreat in 1944, it was annexed by the USSR. After annexation into the Soviet Union, Tallinn became the capital of the Estonian SSR .
During the 1980 Summer Olympics , the sailing (then known as yachting) events were held at Pirita , north-east of central Tallinn. Many buildings, such as the "Olümpia" hotel, the new Main Post Office building, and the Regatta Centre, were built for the Olympics.
In August 1991, an independent democratic Estonian state was established and a period of quick development to a modern European capital ensued. Tallinn became the capital of a de facto independent country once again on 20 August 1991.
Tallinn has historically consisted of three parts:
* The Toompea (_Domberg_) or "Cathedral Hill", which was the seat of the central authority: first the Danish captains, then the komturs of the Teutonic Order, and Swedish and Russian governors. It was until 1877 a separate town (_Dom zu Reval_), the residence of the aristocracy; it is today the seat of the Estonian parliament , government and some embassies and residencies. * The Old Town, which is the old Hanseatic town, the "city of the citizens", was not administratively united with Cathedral Hill until the late 19th century. It was the centre of the medieval trade on which it grew prosperous. * The Estonian town forms a crescent to the south of the Old Town, where the Estonians came to settle. It was not until the mid-19th century that ethnic Estonians replaced the local Baltic Germans as the majority among the residents of Tallinn.
The city of Tallinn has never been razed and pillaged; that was the fate of Tartu, the university town 200 km (124 mi) south, which was pillaged in 1397 by the Teutonic Order. Around 1524 Catholic churches in many towns in Estonia, including Tallinn, were pillaged as part of the Reformational fervor: this occurred throughout Europe. Although extensively bombed by Soviet air forces during the later stages of World War II, much of the medieval Old Town still retains its charm. The Tallinn Old Town (including _Toompea_) became a UNESCO World Cultural Heritage site in 1997.
At the end of the 15th century a new 159 m (521.65 ft) high Gothic spire was built for St. Olaf\'s Church . Between 1549 and 1625 it may have been the tallest building in the world . After several fires and subsequent periods of rebuilding, its overall height is now 123 m (403.54 ft). Toompea Castle ( Toompea loss)
Panorama of Tallinn's City Centre
The largest lake in Tallinn is Lake Ülemiste (9.44 km2 (3.6 sq mi)). It is the main source of the city's drinking water. Lake Harku is the second largest lake within the borders of Tallinn and its area is 1.6 square kilometres (0.6 sq mi). Tallinn does not lie on a major river. The only significant river in Tallinn is Pirita River in Pirita , a city district counted as a suburb. Historically, the small Härjapea River flowed from Lake Ülemiste through the town into the sea, but the river was diverted for sewage in the 1930s and has since completely disappeared from the cityscape. References to it still remain in the street names Jõe (from Jõgi, river) and Kivisilla (from Kivisild, stone bridge).
The length of the coast is 46 kilometres (29 miles). It comprises three bigger peninsulas : Kopli peninsula, Paljassaare peninsula and Kakumäe peninsula. The city has a number of public beaches, including those at Pirita, Stroomi, Kakumäe, Harku and Pikakari.
The geology under the city of Tallin is made up of rocks and sediments of different composition and age. Youngest are the Quaternary deposits. These deposits are made up of till , varved clay , sand , gravel and pebbles that are of glacial , marine and lacustrine origin. Some of the Quaternary deposits are valuable as they constitute aquifers or, as in the case of gravels and sands, are used as construction materials. The Quaternary deposits are the fill of valleys that are now buried. The buried valleys of Tallin are carved into older rock likely by ancient rivers to be later modified by glaciers. While the valley fill is made up of Quaternary sediments the valley themselves originated from erosion that took place before the Quaternary. The substrate into which the buried valleys were carved is made up of hard sedimentary rock of Ediacaran , Cambrian and Ordovician age. Only the upper layer of Ordovician rocks protrudes from the cover of younger deposits croping out in the Baltic Klint at the coast and at a few places inland. The Ordovician rocks are made up of from top to bottom of a thick layer of limestone and marlstone , then a first layer of argillite followed by first layer of sandstone and siltstone and then another layer of argillite also followed by sandstone and siltstone. In other places of the city hard sedimentary rock is only to be found beneath Quaternary sediments at depths reaching as much as 120 meters below sea level. Underlying the sedimentary rock are the rocks of the Fennoscandian Craton including gneisses and other metamorphic rocks with volcanic rock protoliths and rapakivi granites . The mentioned rocks are much older than the rest ( Paleoproterozoic age) and do not crop out anywhere in Estonia.
Tallinn has a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification _Dfb_) with warm, mild summers and cold, snowy winters. Winters are cold but mild for its latitude, owing to its coastal location. The average temperature in February, the coldest month, is −4.3 °C (24.3 °F). During the winter months, temperatures tend to hover close to the freezing mark but mild spells of weather can push temperatures above 0 °C (32 °F), occasionally reaching above 5 °C (41 °F) while cold air masses can push temperatures below −18 °C (0 °F)an average of 6 days a year. Snowfall is common during the winter months. Winters are cloudy and are characterized by low amounts of sunshine, ranging from only 0.5 hours of sunshine per day in December to 4.1 hours in March. At the winter solstice daylight lasts for only 6 hours.
Spring starts out cool, with freezing temperatures common in March and April but gradually becomes warmer in late May when daytime temperatures average 15.2 °C (59.4 °F) although nighttime temperatures still remain cool, averaging −1.0 to 5.2 °C (30.2 to 41.4 °F) from March to May. Snowfall is common in March and can occur in April.
Summers are mild with daytime temperatures hovering around 19 to 21 °C (66 to 70 °F) and nighttime temperatures averaging between 9.6 to 12.7 °C (49.3 to 54.9 °F) from June to August. The warmest month is usually July, with an average of 17.2 °C (63.0 °F). Periods of hot weather are rare during the summer months, with only 31 days per year where the temperature reaches or exceeds 21.0 °C (69.8 °F). During summer, partly cloudy or clear days are common and it is the sunniest season, ranging from 7.4 hours of sunshine in August to 10.1 hours in June although precipitation is higher during these months. As a consequence of its high latitude, at the summer solstice , daylight lasts for more than 18 hours and 30 minutes.
Fall starts out mild, with a September average of 11.3 °C (52.3 °F) and increasingly becomes cooler and cloudier towards the end of November. In the early parts of fall, temperatures commonly reach 15 °C (59 °F) on some days and at least one day above 21 °C (70 °F) in September. In the latter months of fall, freezing temperatures become more common and snowfall can occur.
Tallinn receives 618 millimeters (24.3 in) of precipitation annually which is evenly distributed throughout the year although March and April are the driest months, averaging about 30 millimeters (1.2 in) while July and August are the wettest months with 74 millimeters (2.9 in) of precipitation. The average humidity is 81%, ranging from a high of 88% to a low of 69% in May. Tallinn has an average windspeed of 3.5 metres per second (11 ft/s) with winters being the windiest (around 4.0 metres per second (13 ft/s) in January) and summers being the least windy at around 2.9 m/s (9.5 ft/s) in July and August. Extremes range from −31.1 °C (−24.0 °F) in January 1940 to 34.3 °C (93.7 °F) in July 1994.
CLIMATE DATA FOR TALLINN, ESTONIA (1981–2010)
MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR
RECORD HIGH °C (°F) 9.2 (48.6) 10.2 (50.4) 15.9 (60.6) 27.2 (81) 29.4 (84.9) 30.7 (87.3) 34.3 (93.7) 34.2 (93.6) 28.0 (82.4) 21.8 (71.2) 12.1 (53.8) 10.7 (51.3) 34.3 (93.7)
AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F) −1.0 (30.2) −1.6 (29.1) 2.3 (36.1) 9.2 (48.6) 15.3 (59.5) 18.9 (66) 21.9 (71.4) 20.4 (68.7) 15.2 (59.4) 9.5 (49.1) 3.5 (38.3) 0.4 (32.7) 9.5 (49.1)
DAILY MEAN °C (°F) −3.3 (26.1) −4.3 (24.3) −1.0 (30.2) 4.5 (40.1) 10.1 (50.2) 14.1 (57.4) 17.2 (63) 16.0 (60.8) 11.3 (52.3) 6.5 (43.7) 1.3 (34.3) −1.9 (28.6) 5.9 (42.6)
AVERAGE LOW °C (°F) −5.9 (21.4) −7.1 (19.2) −4.1 (24.6) 0.6 (33.1) 5.2 (41.4) 9.5 (49.1) 12.7 (54.9) 12.0 (53.6) 7.6 (45.7) 3.8 (38.8) −0.9 (30.4) −4.3 (24.3) 2.4 (36.3)
RECORD LOW °C (°F) −31.4 (−24.5) −28.7 (−19.7) −24.5 (−12.1) −12.0 (10.4) −5.0 (23) 0.0 (32) 4.0 (39.2) 2.4 (36.3) −4.1 (24.6) −10.5 (13.1) −18.8 (−1.8) −24.3 (−11.7) −31.4 (−24.5)
AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES) 56 (2.2) 36 (1.42) 37 (1.46) 32 (1.26) 36 (1.42) 64 (2.52) 84 (3.31) 86 (3.39) 67 (2.64) 78 (3.07) 70 (2.76) 57 (2.24) 704 (27.72)
AVERAGE RAINY DAYS 10 8 9 12 11 13 13 14 17 18 16 12 153
AVERAGE SNOWY DAYS 19 18 13 5 0.4 0 0 0.1 0.1 2 11 18 87
AVERAGE RELATIVE HUMIDITY (%) 88 85 81 73 69 74 76 79 82 85 88 88 81
MEAN MONTHLY SUNSHINE HOURS 25.0 55.7 129.3 202.8 292.9 285.7 307.4 240.7 151.5 87.4 28.6 18.8 1,825.8
Source #1: Estonian Weather Service
Source #2: Pogoda.ru.net (rainy and snowy days)
Districts of Tallinn
DISTRICT Population (September 2016) AREA DENSITY
1. Haabersti 44,516 22.26 km2 (8.6 sq mi) 1,999.8/km2 (5,179.5/sq mi)
2. Kesklinn (centre) 60,848 30.56 km2 (11.8 sq mi) 1,991.1/km2 (5,156.9/sq mi)
3. Kristiine 32,746 7.84 km2 (3.0 sq mi) 4,176.8/km2 (10,817.8/sq mi)
4. Lasnamäe 119,237 27.47 km2 (10.6 sq mi) 4,340.6/km2 (11,242.2/sq mi)
5. Mustamäe 67,506 8.09 km2 (3.1 sq mi) 8,344.4/km2 (21,611.8/sq mi)
6. Nõmme 39,371 29.17 km2 (11.3 sq mi) 1,349.7/km2 (3,495.7/sq mi)
7. Pirita 18,203 18.73 km2 (7.2 sq mi) 971.9/km2 (2,517.1/sq mi)
8. Põhja-Tallinn 59,534 15.9 km2 (6.1 sq mi) 3,744.3/km2 (9,697.6/sq mi)
For local government purposes, Tallinn is subdivided into 8 administrative districts (Estonian : _linnaosad_, singular _linnaosa_). The district governments are city institutions that fulfill, in the territory of their district, the functions assigned to them by Tallinn legislation and statutes .
Each district government is managed by an Elder (Estonian : _linnaosavanem_). He or she is appointed by the City Government on the nomination of the Mayor and after having heard the opinion of the Administrative Councils. The function of the Administrative Councils is to recommend, to the City Government and Commissions of the City Council, how the districts should be administered.
The admisistrative districts are further divided into subdistricts or neighbourhoods (Estonian : _asum_). Their names and borders are officially defined. Currently there are 84 subdistricts in Tallinn.
LARGEST ETHNIC GROUPS
ETHNIC GROUP POPULATION (2017) %
Estonians 226,967 53.21
Russians 156,915 36.78
Other, incl: 33,281 7.80
Ukrainians 12,335 2.89
Belarusians 6,211 1.43
Finns 2,251 0.52
Jews 1,478 0.34
Tatars 1,027 0.24
Lithuanians 929 0.21
Poles 788 0.18
Latvians 779 0.18
Germans 695 0.16
Unknown 9,375 2.19
The population of Tallinn on 1 January 2017 was 426,538.
According to Eurostat , in 2004 Tallinn had one of the largest number of non-EU nationals of all EU member states' capital cities with Russians forming a significant minority (~37% belong to the Russian ethnic group, but a majority now hold Estonian citizenship). Ethnic Estonians make up about 55% of the population (as of 2014 ).
The official language of Tallinn is Estonian . In 2011, 206,490 (50.1%) spoke Estonian as their native language and 192,199 (46.7%) spoke Russian as their native language. Other spoken languages include Ukrainian , Belarusian and Finnish .
YEAR 1372 1772 1816 1834 1851 1881 1897 1925 1959 1989 2000 2005 2010 2017
POPULATION 3,250 6,954 12,000 15,300 24,000 45,900 58,800 119,800 283,071 478,974 400,378 401,694 406,703 426,538
Tornimäe business area Rotermann business district
Tallinn is the financial and business capital of Estonia. The city has a highly diversified economy with particular strengths in information technology , tourism and logistics . Currently, over half of the Estonian GDP is created in Tallinn. In 2008, the GDP per capita of Tallinn stood at 172% of the Estonian average.
In addition to longtime functions as seaport and capital city, Tallinn has seen development of an information technology sector; in its 13 December 2005, edition, _ The New York Times _ characterized Estonia as "a sort of Silicon Valley on the Baltic Sea". One of Tallinn's sister cities is the Silicon Valley town of Los Gatos, California . Skype is one of the best-known of several Estonian start-ups originating from Tallinn. Many start-ups originated from the Soviet-era Institute of Cybernetics. In recent years, Tallinn has gradually been becoming one of the main IT centre of Europe, with CCD COE of NATO , EU Agency for large-scale IT systems and IT development centres of large corporations, such as TeliaSonera and Kuehne + Nagel being based in the city. Smaller start-up incubators like Garage48 and Game Founders have helped to provide support to teams from Estonia and around the world looking for support, development and networking opportunities.
Tallinn receives 4.3 million visitors annually, a figure that has grown steadily over the past decade.
Tallinn's Old Town, a UNESCO World Heritage Site , is a major tourist attraction; others include the Seaplane Harbour of Estonian Maritime Museum , the Tallinn Zoo , Kadriorg Park, and the Estonian Open Air Museum . Most of the visitors come from Europe, though Tallinn has also become increasingly visited by tourists from Russia and the Asia-Pacific region.
Tallinn Passenger Port is one of the busiest cruise destinations on the Baltic Sea, serving more than 520,000 cruise passengers in 2013. From year 2011 regular cruise turnarounds in cooperation with Tallinn Airport are organised.
Eesti Energia , a large oil shale to energy company, has its headquarters in Tallinn. The city also hosts the headquarters of Elering , a national electric power transmission system operator and member of ENTSO-E , the Estonian natural gas company Eesti Gaas and energy holding company Alexela Energia, part of Alexela Group . Nord Pool Spot , the largest market for electrical energy in the world, established its local office in Tallinn.
SEB main building, located in Tornimäe district
Tallinn is the financial centre of Estonia and also a strong economic centre in the Scandinavian-Baltic region. Many major banks, such as SEB , Swedbank , Nordea , DNB , have their local offices in Tallinn. LHV Pank , an Estonian investment bank, has its corporate headquarters in Tallinn. Tallinn Stock Exchange , part of NASDAQ OMX Group , is the only regulated exchange in Estonia.
Port of Tallinn is one of the biggest ports in the Baltic sea region. Old City Harbour has been known as a convenient harbour since the 10th century, but nowadays the cargo operations are shifted to Muuga Cargo Port and Paldiski Southern Port . There is a small fleet of oceangoing trawlers that operate out of Tallinn.
Tallinn industries include shipbuilding, machine building, metal processing, electronics, textile manufacturing. BLRT Grupp has its headquarters and some subsidiaries in Tallinn. Air Maintenance Estonia and AS Panaviatic Maintenance , both based in Tallinn Airport, provide MRO services for aircraft, largely expanding their operations in recent years.
Liviko , the maker of Vana Tallinn liqueur, strongly associated with the city, is based in Tallinn. The headquarters of Kalev , a confectionery company and part of the industrial conglomerate Orkla Group , is located in Lehmja , southeast of Tallinn.
The city draws large numbers of shopping tourists from countries within the region. When new planned retail developments are completed, Tallinn will have almost 2 square metres of shopping floor space per inhabitant. As Estonia is already ranked third in Europe in terms of shopping center space per inhabitant, ahead of Sweden and being surpassed only by Norway and Luxembourg , it will further improve the positions of the city as the major centre of shopping.
* NATO Cooperative Cyber Defence Centre of Excellence (CCDCOE) * European Agency for the operational management of large-scale IT systems in the area of freedom, security and justice is based in Tallinn. * Skype has its software development centre located in Tallinn. * TeliaSonera has its IT development centre located in Tallinn. * Kuehne + Nagel has its IT centre located in Tallinn. * arvato Financial Solutions has its global IT development and innovation centre located in Tallinn. * Ericsson has one of its biggest production facilities in Europe located in Tallinn, focusing on the production of 4G communication devices. * Statoil has announced moving the group's financial centre to Tallinn.
The buildings of Tallinn University of Technology
Institutions of higher education and science include:
* Baltic Film and Media School * Estonian Academy of Arts * Estonian Academy of Security Sciences * Estonian Academy of Music and Theatre * Estonian Business School * Estonian Maritime Academy * Estonian Evangelical Lutheran Church Institute of Theology * National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics * Tallinn University * Tallinn University of Technology
See also: List of museums in Estonia
Tallinn is home to more than 60 museums and galleries. Estonian Art Museum
Most of them are located in Kesklinn, central district of the city and cover Tallinn's rich history. One of the most visited historical museums in Tallinn is Estonian History Museum located in Great Guild Hall at Vanalinn , the old part of the city. Mikkel Museum
Museum covers Estonia's history from prehistoric times up until the end of the 20th century. It features film and hands-on displays that show how Estonian dwellers lived and survived. KUMU Art Museum
Estonian Maritime Museum provides a detailed overview of nation's seafaring past. This museum in also located in city's Old Town, where it occupies one of Tallinn's former defensive structures - Fat Margaret's Tower. Another historical museum that can be found at city's Old Town, just behind the Town Hall is Tallinn City Museum. It covers Tallinn's history from pre-history until 1991, when Estonia regained its independence. Tallinn City Museum owns 9 more departments and museums around the city. Tallinn's Museum of Photography that is also located just behind the Town Hall is one of its branches. It features permanent exhibition that covers 100 years of photography in Estonia. Estonia's Museum of Occupation is yet another historical museum located in Tallinn's central district . It covers 52 years when Estonia was occupied by the Soviet Union and Nazi Germany. Not far from Museum of Occupation located another museum that relates to Soviet occupation of Estonia. KGB Museum that occupies 23rd floor of Sokos Hotel Viru features equipment, uniforms and documents of Russian Secret Service agents.
Tallinn is also home to two major natural science museums - Estonian Museum of Natural History and Estonian Health Care Museum; both are located in Old Town. Estonian Museum of Natural Science features several seasonal and temporary themed exhibitions that provide an overview of wildlife in Estonia and around the world. Estonian Health Care Museum features permanent exhibitions on anatomy and health care. It collects and displays heritage related to the history of medicine in Estonia. Estonia's capital is also home to many art and design museums. Estonian Art Museum , country's biggest art museum that was originally based in Kadriorg Palace, now consists of 4 branches - Kumu Art Museum , Kadriorg Art Museum , Mikkel Museum and Niguliste Museum . Kumu Art Museum features country's largest collection of contemporary and modern art. It also displays Estonian art starting from the early 18th century. Those who are interested in Western European and Russian art may enjoy Kadriorg Art Museum collections. Museum is located in Kadriorg Palace , a beautiful Baroque building erected by Peter the Great . It stores and displays about 9,000 works of art from the 16th to 20th centuries. Mikkel Museum that is also located in Kadriorg park displays a collection of mainly Western art - ceramics and Chinese porcelain donated by Johannes Mikkel in 1994. Niguliste Museum currently occupies former St. Nicolas\' Church, Tallinn and displays collections of historical ecclesiastical art spanning nearly seven centuries from the Middle Ages to post-Reformation art. Those that are interested in design and applied art may enjoy Estonian Museum of Applied Art and Design collection of Estonian contemporary designs. It displays up to 15.000 pieces of work made of textile art, ceramics, porcelain, leather, glass, jewellery, metalwork, furniture and product design. In order to experience a more relaxed, culture oriented exhibits one may turn to Museum of Estonian Drinking Culture. This museum showcases the historic Luscher "> Danse Macabre by Bernt Notke on display at the St. Nicholas\' Church
The ESTONIAN SONG FESTIVAL (in Estonian: _LAULUPIDU_) is one of the largest choral events in the world, listed by the UNESCO as a Masterpiece of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity . It is held every five years in July on the Tallinn Song Festival Grounds (_Lauluväljak_) simultaneously with the Estonian Dance Festival . The joint choir has comprised more than 30,000 singers performing to an audience of 80,000.
Often referred to as The Singing Nation, the Estonians have one of the biggest collections of folk songs in the world, with written records of about 133,000 folk songs. From 1987, a cycle of mass demonstrations featuring spontaneous singing of national songs and hymns that were strictly forbidden during the years of the Soviet occupation to peacefully resist the illegal oppression. In September 1988, a record 300,000 people, more than a quarter of all Estonians , gathered in Tallinn for a song festival.
TALLINN BLACK NIGHTS FILM FESTIVAL
Main article: Tallinn Black Nights Film Festival
Tallinn Black Nights Film Festival (Estonian: Pimedate Ööde Filmifestival, or PÖFF), is an annual film festival held since 1997 in Tallinn, the capital city of Estonia. PÖFF is the only festival in the Nordic and Baltic region with a FIAPF (International Federation of Film Producers Association) accreditation for holding an international competition programme in the Nordic and Baltic region with 14 other non-specialised festivals, such as Cannes , Berlin , Venice . With over 250 feature films screened each year and over 77500 attendances (2014), PÖFF is one of the largest film events of Northern Europe and cultural events in Estonia in the winter season. During its 19th edition in 2015 the festival screened more than 600 films (including 250+ feature-length films from 80 different countries), bringing over 900 screenings to an audience of over 80, 000 people as well as over 700 accredited guests and journalists from 50 different countries. In 2010 the festival held the European Film Awards ceremony in Tallinn.
The traditional cuisine of Tallinn is reflecting culinary traditions of the Northern Estonia, an important role of the city as a fishing port, as well as the Baltic German influence. Numerous cafés (Estonian : _Kohvik_) have played a major role in a social life of the city since the 19th century, as well as bars, especially in the Kesklinn district.
Marzipan industry in Tallinn has a very long history. The production of marzipan has started in the Middle Ages practically simultaneously in Tallinn and Lübeck , both members of the Hanseatic League . In 1695, marzipan was mentioned as a medicine under the designation of _Panis Martius_ in the price lists of the Tallinn Town Hall Pharmacy . The modern era of marzipan in Tallinn began in 1806, when the Swiss confectioner Lorenz Caviezel set up his confectionery on Pikk Street. In 1864 it was bought and expanded by Georg Stude and now is known as the Maiasmokk café . In the late 19th century marzipan figurines made by Reval confectioners were supplied to the Russian Imperial Family, whereas nowadays along with mass production unique projects are also being made, such as a 12 kg scale model of the Estonia Theatre .
Among other seafood dishes of Tallinn, the most symbolic example is "_Vürtsikilu_" - spicy sprats, pickled with a distinctive set of spices including black pepper , allspice and cloves . The tradition of making vürtsikilu originated presumably from city outskirts, where it began in the late 18th or the early 19th century. In 1826 Tallinn merchants exported nearly 40,000 cans of vürtsikilu to Saint Petersburg, then the capital of the Russian Empire. A closely associated dish is a "_Kiluvõileib_" - a traditional rye bread open sandwich with a thin layer of butter and a layer of vürtsikilu as a topping. Boiled egg slices, mayonnaise and culinary herbs are optional extra toppings.
Alcoholic beverages produced in the city include beers , vodkas and liqueurs , the latter (such as Vana Tallinn ) being the most characteristic. Also, the number of craft beer breweries has expanded sharply in Tallinn over the last decade, entering local and regional markets.
St. Olaf\'s Church may have been the tallest building in the world from 1549 to 1625 Stenbock House on Toompea hill is the official seat of the Government of Estonia View from Toompea hill, illustrating Tallinn's mix of ancient and contemporary architecture A Christmas market at the Town Hall square
What can arguably be considered to be Tallinn's main attractions are located in the old town of Tallinn (divided into a "lower town" and Toompea hill ) which is easily explored on foot. The eastern parts of the city, notably Pirita (with Pirita Convent ) and Kadriorg (with Kadriorg Palace ) districts, are also popular destinations, and the Estonian Open Air Museum in Rocca al Mare , west of the city, preserves aspects of Estonian rural culture and architecture.
TOOMPEA – UPPER TOWN
Main article: Toompea
This area was once an almost separate town, heavily fortified, and has always been the seat of whatever power that has ruled Estonia. The hill occupies an easily defensible site overlooking the surrounding districts. The major attractions are the medieval Toompea Castle (today housing the Estonian Parliament, the _ Riigikogu _), the Russian Orthodox Alexander Nevsky Cathedral and the Lutheran St Mary\'s Cathedral , also known as the Dome Church (Estonian : _Toomkirik_).
ALL-LINN – LOWER TOWN
This area is one of the best preserved medieval towns in Europe and the authorities are continuing its rehabilitation. Major sights include the Town Hall square (Estonian : _Raekoja plats_ ), the city wall and towers (notably " Fat Margaret " and "Kiek in de Kök ") as well as a number of medieval churches, including St Olaf\'s , St. Nicholas\' and the Church of the Holy Ghost .
Main article: Kadriorg
This is 2 kilometres (1.2 miles) east of the city centre and is served by buses and trams. Kadriorg Palace , the former palace of Peter the Great , built just after the Great Northern War , now houses the foreign art department of the Art Museum of Estonia , the presidential residence and the surrounding grounds include formal gardens and woodland.
The main building of the Art Museum of Estonia, Kumu (Estonian : _Kunstimuuseum_, Art Museum), was built in 2006 and lies in Kadriorg park. It houses an encyclopaedic collection of Estonian art, including paintings by Carl Timoleon von Neff , Johann Köler , Eduard Ole , Jaan Koort , Konrad Mägi , Eduard Wiiralt , Henn Roode and Adamson-Eric , among others.
Main article: Pirita
This coastal district is a further 2 kilometres north-east of Kadriorg. The marina was built for the Moscow Olympics of 1980, and boats can be hired on the Pirita River . Two kilometres inland are the Botanic Gardens and the Tallinn TV Tower .
Tallinn has a few music venues for live music such as Kultuurikatel /Kanala, Ptarmigan , Tapper, EKKM – Museum and nightlife, DM Baar. Yearly festivals like Tallinn Music Week and Stalker Festival take place.
Old Town of Tallinn *
Panorama of the central Town Hall Square (Raekoja plats)
A CAF tram operating in Tallinn
Main article: Public transport in Tallinn
The city operates a system of bus (64 lines), tram (4 lines) and trolley-bus (5 lines) routes to all districts. A flat-fare system is used. The ticket-system is based on prepaid RFID cards available in kiosks and post offices. Starting from January 2013 public transport for citizens registered to live in Tallinn is completely free. That includes buses, trams and trolleybuses, and also the rail services within city limits.
The Lennart Meri Tallinn Airport is about 4 kilometres (2 miles) from Town Hall square (_Raekoja plats_). There is a local bus connection between the airport and the edge of the city centre (bus no. 2). The nearest railway station Ülemiste is only 1.5 km (0.9 mi) from the airport.
The construction of the new section of the airport began in 2007 and was finished in summer 2008.
There has been a helicopter service to and from Helsinki operated by Copterline and taking 18 minutes to cross the Gulf of Finland. The Copterline Tallinn terminal is located adjacent to Linnahall , five minutes from the city center. After a crash near Tallinn in August 2005, service was suspended but restarted in 2008 with a new fleet. The operator cancelled it again in December 2008, on grounds of unprofitability. On 15 February 2010, Copterline filed for bankruptcy, citing inability to keep the company profitable. In 2011 Copterline started again operating the Tallinn- Helsinki flights. In 2016, Copterline OÜ filed for bankruptcy and currently there are no scheduled helicopter flights from Tallinn.
Several ferry operators, Viking Line , Linda Line Express, Tallink and Eckerö Line , connect Tallinn to Helsinki , Mariehamn , Stockholm , and St. Petersburg . Passenger lines connect Tallinn to Helsinki (83 km (52 mi) north of Tallinn) in approximately 2–3.5 hours by cruiseferries . Helsinki , Finland Mariehamn , Åland Stockholm , Sweden St. Petersburg , Russia
The Elron railway company operates train services from Tallinn to Tartu , Valga , Türi , Viljandi , Tapa , Narva , Orava , Koidula and Pärnu . Buses are also available to all these and various other destinations in Estonia, as well as to Saint Petersburg in Russia and Riga , Latvia. The Go Rail company operates a daily international sleeper train service between Tallinn-Moscow.
Tallinn also has a commuter rail service running from Tallinn's main rail station in two main directions: east ( Aegviidu ) and to several western destinations ( Pääsküla , Keila , Riisipere , Paldiski , and Kloogaranna ). These are electrified lines and are used by the Elron railroad company. Stadler FLIRT EMU and DMU units are in service since July 2013. The first electrified train service in Tallinn was opened in 1924 from Tallinn to Pääsküla, a distance of 11.2 km (7.0 mi).
The Rail Baltica project, which will link Tallinn with Warsaw via Latvia and Lithuania, will connect Tallinn with the rest of the European rail network. A tunnel has been proposed between Tallinn and Helsinki, though it remains at a planning phase.
Frequent and affordable long-distance bus routes connect Tallinn with other parts of Estonia.
On 9 October 2013, the 320-meter-long Ülemiste tunnel was first opened.
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* Michael Sittow (ca. 1469-1525) An Estonian painter, trained in the tradition of Early Netherlandish painting. He was one of the most important Flemish painters of the era. * Jacob Johan Hastfer (1647 in Tallinn – 1695) Swedish officer and governor of the Livonia province between 1687 and 1695 * Alexander Friedrich von Hueck (1802–1842) Baltic-German professor of anatomy at University of Tartu , a notable estophile . * Julius Gottlieb Iversen (1823–1900) Russian phalerist (scholar of medals), taught Greek and Latin * Carl Wilhelm Hiekisch (1840–1901) was a Baltic German geographer. * Marie Under (1883–1980) one of the greatest Estonian poets, nominated for the Nobel prize in literature 8 times * Edmund August Friedrich Russow (1841–1897) Baltic German biologist, researched plant anatomy and histology * Ants Oras (1900–1982) Estonian translator and writer, studied pause patterns in English Renaissance dramatic blank verse
1900 TO 1930
* Vidrik "Frits" Rootare (1906–1981) Estonian chess player * Andrus Johani (1906–1941) painter from Estonia, executed in Tartu prison * Edmund S. Valtman (1914–2005) Estonian-American cartoonist , won the 1962 Pulitzer Prize for Editorial Cartooning * Evald Okas (1915–2011) Estonian painter, probably best known for his portraits of nudes * Evi Rauer (1915–2004) Estonian stage, film and television actress and television director * Paul Kuusberg (1916–2003) Estonian writer, particularly of novellas * Ellen Liiger (1918–1987) Estonian stage, TV, radio and film actress and theatre teacher whose stage career began at age six * Udo Kasemets (1919–2014) Estonian-born Canadian composer of orchestral, vocal, piano and electroacoustic works * Jaan Kross (1920–2007) Estonian writer of novels * Vincent Zigas (1920–1983) medical officer in Papua New Guinea during the 1950s * Harry Männil (1920–2010), Estonian businessman, art collector, and Venezuelan resident * Kaljo Raid (1921–2005) Estonian composer, cellist and pastor * Vello Viisimaa (1928–1991) Estonian opera singer and stage actor, appeared mostly in operettas . * Lennart Georg Meri (1929–2006) Estonian politician, writer, film director, statesman, second President of Estonia , 1992 to 2001 * Eino Tamberg (1930–2010) Estonian composer, promoted neoclassicism in Estonian music
1930 TO 1950
* Vladimir-Georg Karassev-Orgusaar (1931–2015) was an Estonian film director and member of the Congress of Estonia * Martin Puhvel (1933–2016) a literature researcher, professor emeritus at McGill University for old and medieval English literature * Ingrid Rüütel (born 1935) Estonian folklorist and philologist , 2001–2006 First Lady of Estonia , married to President Arnold Rüütel * Peter Peet Silvester (1935–1996) electrical engineer , particularly numerical analysis of electromagnetic fields * Jüri Arrak (born 1936) Estonian artist and painter * Enn Vetemaa (1936–2017) Estonian writer, master of the Estonian Modernist short novel * Arvo Antonovich Mets (1937–1997) Estonian-born Russian poet, master of Russian free verse * Mikk Mikiver (1937–2006) Estonian stage and film actor and theater director * Linnart Mäll (1938–2010) Estonian historian, orientalist, translator and politician. * Ene Riisna (born 1938) Estonian-born American television producer, known for her work on the American news show 20/20 . * Andres Tarand (born 1940) Estonian politician, Prime Minister of Estonia and Member of the European Parliament * Leila Säälik (born 1941) Estonian stage, film and radio actress. * Paul-Eerik Rummo (born 1942) Estonian poet and politician * Eili Sild (born 1942) Estonian stage, film, television and radio actress * Kalle Lasn (born 1942) Estonian-Canadian film maker, author, magazine editor and activist * Urjo Kareda (1944-2001) Estonian-born Canadian theatre and music critic, dramaturge and stage director * Mari Lill (born 1945) Estonian stage, film and TV actress * Sulev Mäeltsemees (born 1947) Estonian public administration and local government scholar * Siiri Oviir (born 1947) Estonian politician and Member of the European Parliament * Lepo Sumera (1950-2000) Estonian composer and teacher and Minister of Culture from 1988 to 1992
1950 TO 1970
* Urmas Alender (1953–1994) Estonian singer and musician, the vocalist of popular Estonian bands Ruja and Propeller * Ivo Lill (born 1953) Estonian glass artist * Ain Lutsepp (born 1954) Estonian actor and politician. * Kalle Randalu (born 1956) Estonian pianist * Alexander Leonidovich Goldstein (1957-2006) a Russian writer and essayist, resident of Tel-Aviv from 1991 * Peeter Järvelaid (born 1957) Estonian legal scholar, historian and professor in the University of Tallinn * Doris Kareva (born 1958) Estonian poet and translator, head of the Estonian National Commission in UNESCO * Anu Lamp (born 1958) Estonian stage, film, TV and voice actress, stage director, translator and instructor. * Tõnu Õnnepalu (born 1962), also known by the pen names _Emil Tode_ and _Anton Nigov_, is an Estonian poet and author * Tõnis Lukas (born 1962) Estonian politician, Vice-Chairman of the Union of Pro Patria and Res Publica * Marina Kaljurand (born 1962) Estonian politician who served as Minister of Foreign Affairs * Kiiri Tamm (born 1962) Estonian stage, television and film actress and stage manager. * Tõnu Trubetsky (born 1963), Estonian punk rock /glam punk musician, film and music video director and individualist anarchist * Ivo Uukkivi (born 1965) Estonian stage, film, radio, TV actor and producer, founder and singer with the punk band Velikije Luki * Liina Tennosaar (born 1965) Estonian stage, film and television actress * Juhan Parts (born 1966) Estonian politician and Prime Minister of Estonia from 2003 to 2005 * Indrek Sirel (born 1970) general of the Estonian Defence Forces
1970 TO DATE
* Jan Uuspõld (born 1973) Estonian stage, television, radio and film actor and musician. * Urmas Robert Paet (born 1974) Estonian politician and Member of the European Parliament * Ken-Marti Vaher (born 1974) Estonian politician, Minister of Justice 2003–2005 and Minister of the Interior 2011–2014 * Urmas Reinsalu (born 1975) Estonian politician, Minister of Defence from 2012 to 2014, Minister of Justice since 2015 * Kristen Michal (born 1975) Estonian politician, Minister of economic affairs 2015 to 2016 and Minister of Justice from 2011 to 2012 * Mailis Reps (born 1975) Estonian politician, Minister of Education and Research 2002/03 and 2005/07 * Harriet Toompere (born 1975) Estonian stage, television, film actress and author of two children's books * Tanel Ingi (born 1976) Estonian stage and film actor, performs primarily at the Ugala theatre * Katrin Pärn (born 1977) Estonian stage, film and television actress and singer. * Johann Urb (born 1977) Estonian-born American actor, producer and former model * Carmen Kass (born 1978) Estonian model, chess player and former political candidate * Lauri Lagle (born 1981) Estonian stage and film actor, screenwriter and stage producer, director and playwright * Ursula Ratasepp (born 1982) Estonian stage, film and television actress. * Ott Sepp (born 1982) Estonian actor, singer, writer and television presenter * Katrin Siska (born 1983) Estonian musician, member of pop-rock band Vanilla Ninja * Priit Loog (born 1984) Estonian stage, television and film actor * Diana Arno (born 1984) Estonian beauty queen, fashion designer, model and Miss Estonia 2009 * Tiiu Kuik (born 1987) Estonian fashion model, has a mole on her left cheek * Pääru Oja (born 1989) Estonian stage, film, voice, and television actor. * Kristina Karjalainen (born 1989) Estonian-Finnish beauty queen who won Eesti Miss Estonia 2013 * Klaudia Tiitsmaa (born 1990) Estonian stage, television and film actress * Natalie Korneitsik (born 1990) Estonian beauty queen, who won the title of Miss Tallinn 2012
ARCHITECTS AND CONDUCTORS
* Valve Pormeister (1922–2002) Estonian architect, the first women to influence the development of Estonian architecture * Allan Murdmaa (1934–2009) Estonian architect, designed Tehumardi war memorial * Neeme Järvi (born 1937) Estonian conductor , emigrated to the United States in 1980 * Eri Klas (1939–2016) Estonian conductor worked for the Netherlands Radio Symphony Orchestra * Tõnu Kaljuste (born 1953) Estonian conductor , conducted with the Estonian National Opera between 1978 and 1995 * Andres Mustonen (born 1953) Estonian conductor and violinist, artistic director of _Mustonenfest Tallinn Tel Aviv Festival_ * Andres Siim (born 1962) Estonian architect, designed the Nissan Center in Tallinn * Paavo Järvi (born 1962) Estonian conductor , son of Neeme Järvi * Margit Mutso (born 1966) Estonian architect, designed the bus station of Rakvere * Elmo Tiisvald (born 1967) Estonian conductor , conductor of Opera Studio at Estonian Academy of Music and Theatre * Kaisa Roose (born 1969) music conductor , from 2000 with Malmö Opera and Music Theatre in Sweden * Siiri Vallner (born 1972) Estonian architect, designed the Museum of Occupations in Tallinn * Anu Tali (born 1972) Estonian conductor , music director of the Sarasota Orchestra * Eero Endjärv (born 1973) Estonian architect, designed the villa in Otepää in Southern Estonia * Katrin Koov (born 1973) Estonian architect, designed the Concert Hall of Pärnu * Mikk Murdvee (born 1980) Estonian-Finnish conductor and violinist, lives in Helsinki.
* Albert Kusnets (1902–1942) middleweight Greco-Roman wrestler, competed in the 1924 and 1928 Summer Olympics * Valter Palm (1905–1994) Estonian welterweight professional boxer, competed in 1924 and 1928 Summer Olympics * Toomas Krõm (born 1971) former professional footballer, 11 caps for the Estonia national football team * Gert Kullamäe (born 1971) retired Estonian professional basketball player * Toomas Kallaste (born 1971) former professional footballer, 42 international caps for the Estonia national football team * Indrek Pertelson (born 1971) Estonian judoka , won bronze at the 2000 and 2004 Summer Olympics * Mart Poom (born 1972) Estonian football coach and former pro player, now goalkeeping coach of the Estonia national football team * Martin Müürsepp (born 1974) Estonian retired professional basketball player and currently a coach * Sergei Pareiko (born 1977) Estonian goalkeeper, 65 appearances for the Estonia national football team * Andres Oper (born 1977) Estonian football coach, former professional player, assistant manager of the Estonia national football team * Kristen Viikmäe (born 1979) retired Estonian footballer, played in the Estonian Meistriliiga for JK Nõmme Kalju * Joel Lindpere (born 1981) retired Estonian professional footballer, made 107 appearances for the Estonia national football team * Deniss Karpak (born 1986) Estonian sailor, competed in the 2008 and the 2012 Summer Olympics * Ardo Kreek (born 1986) Estonian volleyball player, a member of Estonia men\'s national volleyball team * Aljona Malets (born 1987) Estonian football player, 15 appearances for Estonia women\'s national football team * Daniil Ratnikov (born 1988) Estonian professional footballer, mainly an attacking midfielder * Daniel Novikov (born 1989) Estonian track cyclist, who specialized in the individual sprint events * Karl-Martin Rammo (born 1989) Estonian sailor, competed at the 2012 and the 2016 Summer Olympics . He was the flagbearer for Estonia during the Parade of Nations * Anastassia Kovalenko (born 1991) Estonian motorcycle road racer, piano player and ballroom dancer * Eva Paalma (born 1994) Estonian tennis player * Natalia Aleksandrovna Zabiiako (born 1994) Russian-Estonian pair skater
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See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Estonia
TWIN TOWNS – SISTER CITIES
Tallinn participates in international town twinning schemes to foster good international relations. Partners include:
* Annapolis , MD , United States * Beijing , China * Berlin , Germany * Carcassonne , France * Chengdu , China * Dartford , England , United Kingdom * Florence , Italy * Ghent , Belgium * Gothenburg , Sweden
* Groningen , Netherlands * Hangzhou , China * Helsinki , Finland * Kiel , Germany * Kotka , Finland (1955) * Los Gatos , CA , United States * Malmö , Sweden * Moscow , Russia * Portland , OR , United States
St. Catherine's Passage *
St. Nicholas\' Church *
St Mary's Cathedral *
Alexander Nevsky Cathedral built in 1894–1900. *
House of the Brotherhood of Blackheads. *
Viru Gate, entrance to the Old Town. Two remaining towers that were once part of a larger fourteenth-century gate system. *
The Raeapteek , built in 1422, is one of the oldest continuously running pharmacies in Europe. *
Kiek in de Kök defence tower. *
Part of Lower Town city wall. *
City wall with temporary garden exhibition *
The Fat Margaret cannon tower *
" Pikk Hermann " (Toompea) *
The ruins of Pirita Convent
* ^ "Total population in Urban Audit cities". European Commission. 14 June 2013. Retrieved 29 September 2013. * ^ "Eesti statistika; Tallinn, Rahvaarv". Retrieved 27 July 2017. * ^ http://m.tallinn.ee/est/ettevotjale/Tallinn_faktid_2015-eng-web.pdf * ^ "Tal•linn". Dictionary.infoplease.com. Retrieved 20 May 2012.
* ^ "Definition of Tallinn". Encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com. Retrieved 20 May 2012. * ^ Tallinn – TheFreeDictionary.com . * ^ _World and Its Peoples, Volume 8 of Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and Poland_. Marshall Cavendish. 2010. p. 1069. ISBN 9780761478966 . * ^ "Eesti statistika; Tallinn, Rahvaarv". Retrieved 7 July 2017. * ^ " Tallinn on noorem, kui õpikus kirjas!". _Delfi_. 2003-10-28. Retrieved 2017-07-06. * ^ http://www.postimees.ee/111369/villu-kadakas-pringlikutid-vabaduse-valjakul * ^ "Historic Centre (Old Town) of Tallinn". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. 7 December 1997. Retrieved 29 September 2013. * ^ http://www.spiegel.de/netzwelt/web/estland-ein-einblick-in-die-start-up-szene-von-tallinn-a-1022184.html * ^ https://www.wsj.com/articles/SB10001424052702303734204577464343888754210 * ^ _A_ _B_ Ingrid Teesalu. "It\'s Official: Tallinn To Become EU\'s IT Headquarters". ERR. Retrieved 27 April 2012. * ^ "Tech capitals of the world". _The Age_. 15 May 2012. Retrieved 20 May 2012. * ^ Fasman, The Geographer's Library, pp.17 * ^ _A_ _B_ Ertl, Alan (2008). _Toward an Understanding of Europe_. Universal-Publishers. p. 381. ISBN 978-1-59942-983-0 . * ^ Birnbaum, Stephen ; Mayes Birnbaum, Alexandra (1992). _Birnbaum\'s Eastern Europe_. Harper Perennial. ISBN 978-0-06-278019-5 . * ^ Fasman, Jon (2006). _The Geographer\'s Library_. Penguin. p. 17. ISBN 978-0-14-303662-3 . * ^ "A glance at the history and geology of Tallinn" by Jaak Nõlvak. In Wogogob 2004: Conference Materials * ^ Terras, Victor (1990). _Handbook of Russian Literature_. Yale University Press. p. 68. ISBN 978-0-300-04868-1 . * ^ _The Esthonian Review_. University of California. 1919. * ^ Tarvel, Enn (2016). "Chapter 14: Genesis of the Livonian town in the 13th century". In Murray, Alan. _The North-Eastern Frontiers of Medieval Europe_. Book Publishers. ISBN 978-1-409-43680-5 . * ^ " Tallinn on noorem, kui õpikus kirjas!". _Delfi_. 2003-10-28. 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_See also: Bibliography of the history of Tallinn _
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