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Tallinn
Tallinn
(/ˈtɑːlɪn/[4][5] or /ˈtælɪn/,[6] Estonian pronunciation: [ˈtɑlʲˑinˑ]; names in other languages) is the capital and largest city of Estonia. It is situated on the northern coast of the country, on the shore of the Gulf of Finland, 80 km (50 mi) south of Helsinki, east of Stockholm, north of Riga
Riga
and west of Saint Petersburg
Saint Petersburg
in Harju County. From the 13th century until 1918 (and briefly during the Nazi occupation of Estonia
Estonia
from 1941 to 1944), in languages other than Estonian the city was known as Reval.[7] Tallinn
Tallinn
occupies an area of 159.2 km2 (61.5 sq mi) and has a population of 449,160.[8] Tallinn, first mentioned in 1219, received city rights in 1248,[9] but the earliest human settlements date back 5,000 years.[10] The initial claim over the land was laid by the Danes in 1219, after a successful raid of Lyndanisse
Lyndanisse
led by Valdemar II of Denmark, followed by a period of alternating Scandinavian and German rule. Due to its strategic location, the city became a major trade hub, especially from the 14th to the 16th century, when it grew in importance as part of the Hanseatic League. Tallinn's Old Town is one of the best preserved medieval cities in Europe
Europe
and is listed as a UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site.[11] Tallinn
Tallinn
is the major political, financial, cultural and educational center of Estonia. Often dubbed the Silicon Valley
Silicon Valley
of Europe,[12] it has the highest number of startups per person in Europe[13] and is a birthplace of many international companies, including Skype. The city is to house the headquarters of the European Union's IT agency.[14] Providing to the global cybersecurity it is the home to the NATO
NATO
Cyber Defence Centre of Excellence. It is ranked as a global city and has been listed among the top 10 digital cities in the world.[15] According to the Global Financial Centres Index Tallinn
Tallinn
is the most competitive financial hub in Northern Europe
Europe
and ranks 42nd internationally. The city was a European Capital of Culture
European Capital of Culture
for 2011, along with Turku
Turku
in Finland.

Contents

1 Etymology

1.1 Historical names 1.2 Modern name

2 History 3 Geography 4 Geology 5 Climate 6 Administrative districts 7 Demographics 8 Economy

8.1 Information technology 8.2 Tourism 8.3 Energy 8.4 Finance 8.5 Logistics 8.6 Manufacturing sector

8.6.1 Food processing

8.7 Retail 8.8 Notable headquarters

9 Education 10 Culture

10.1 Museums 10.2 Lauluväljak 10.3 Tallinn
Tallinn
Black Nights Film Festival 10.4 Cuisine

11 Tourism

11.1 Toompea – Upper Town 11.2 All-linn – Lower Town 11.3 Kadriorg 11.4 Pirita 11.5 Music culture

12 Transport

12.1 City
City
transport 12.2 Air 12.3 Ferry 12.4 Railroad 12.5 Roads

13 Notable people

13.1 Pre 1900 13.2 1900 to 1930 13.3 1930 to 1950 13.4 1950 to 1970 13.5 1970 to Date 13.6 Architects and Conductors 13.7 Sport

14 International relations

14.1 Twin towns – sister cities

15 Image gallery 16 See also 17 References 18 Bibliography 19 External links

Etymology[edit] Historical names[edit] In 1154, a town called Qlwn[16] or Qalaven (which may be derivations of Kalevan or Kolyvan)[17][18] was put on the world map of the Almoravid
Almoravid
by the Arab
Arab
cartographer Muhammad al-Idrisi, who described it as "a small town like a large castle" among the towns of 'Astlanda'. It was suggested that Quwri may have denoted a predecessor of the modern city.[19][20] The earliest names of Tallinn
Tallinn
include Kolyvan (Russian: Колывань), which is known from East Slavic chronicles and which may have come from the Estonian mythical hero Kalev.[21][22] However, modern historians consider connecting al-Idrisi placename(s) with Tallinn
Tallinn
unfounded and erroneous.[23][9][24][25] Up to the 13th century, the Scandinavians and Henry of Livonia in his chronicle called the town Lindanisa (or Lyndanisse
Lyndanisse
in Danish,[26][27][28] Lindanäs in Swedish and Ledenets in Old East Slavic. According to some poetical suggestions, this name was derived from Linda, the mythical wife of Kalev and the mother of Kalevipoeg,[29] who in an Estonian legend carried rocks to her husband's grave, which formed the Toompea
Toompea
hill.[30] It has been also suggested that the archaic Estonian word linda is similar to the Votic word lidna, meaning a castle or town. According to this suggestion, nisa would have the meaning 'niemi' (or 'peninsula'), producing Kesoniemi, the old Finnish name for the city.[31] Another ancient historical name for Tallinn
Tallinn
in Finnish is Rääveli. The Icelandic Njal's saga
Njal's saga
mentions Tallinn
Tallinn
and calls it Rafala, which is a variant of the name Raphael. After the Danish conquest in 1219, the town became known in the German, Swedish and Danish languages as Reval (Latin: Revalia). The name originated from (Latin) Revelia (Estonian) Revala
Revala
or Rävala, the adjacent ancient name of the surrounding area. Modern name[edit] See also: Names of Tallinn
Tallinn
in different languages

The lesser coat of arms of Tallinn, which depicts the Dannebrog cross.

The name Tallinn(a) is Estonian. It is usually thought to be derived from Taani-linn(a), (meaning 'Danish-town) (Latin: Castrum Danorum), after the Danes built the castle in place of the Estonian stronghold at Lindanisse. However, it could also have come from tali-linna ('winter-castle or town'), or talu-linna ('house/farmstead-castle or town'). The element -linna, like Germanic -burg and Slavic -grad / -gorod, originally meant 'fortress', but is used as a suffix in the formation of town names. The previously-used official names in German  Reval (help·info) and Russian Revel (Ревель), were replaced after Estonia
Estonia
became independent in 1918. At first both forms Tallinna and Tallinn
Tallinn
were used.[32] The United States
United States
Board on Geographic Names adopted the form Tallinn
Tallinn
between June 1923 and June 1927.[33] Tallinna in Estonian denotes the genitive case of the name, as in Tallinna Reisisadam ('the Port of Tallinn'). In Russian, the spelling of the name was changed from Таллинн to Таллин[34] (Tallin) by the Soviet authorities in the 1950s, and this spelling is still officially sanctioned by the Russian government, while Estonian authorities have been using the spelling Таллинн in Russian-language publications since the restoration of independence. The form Таллин is also used in several other languages using the Cyrillic script. Due to the Russian spelling, the form Tallin is sometimes found in international publications; it is also the official form in Spanish.[35] Other variations of modern spellings include Tallinna in Finnish, Tallina in Latvian and Talinas in Lithuanian. History[edit] See also: Timeline of Tallinn

Historic Centre (Old Town) of Tallinn

UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site

Criteria Cultural: ii, iv

Reference 822

Inscription 1997 (21st Session)

Area 113ha

Buffer zone 2,253 ha

Historical affiliations

Revala
Revala
County pre-1219 Kingdom of Denmark
Kingdom of Denmark
1219–1227 Livonian Brothers of the Sword
Livonian Brothers of the Sword
1227–1237 Livonian Order
Livonian Order
1237–1238 Kingdom of Denmark
Kingdom of Denmark
1238–1346 Livonian Order
Livonian Order
1346–1561 > Kingdom of Sweden
Kingdom of Sweden
1561–1710 > Tsardom of Russia
Tsardom of Russia
1710–1721 > Russian Empire
Russian Empire
1721–1917 Russian Republic
Russian Republic
1917 Russian Soviet Republic
Russian Soviet Republic
1917–1918 Ober Ost
Ober Ost
1918 United Baltic Duchy
United Baltic Duchy
1918  Republic of Estonia
Estonia
1918–1940  Republic of Estonia
Estonia
(Soviet occupation) 1940 Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic
Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic
1940  Union of Soviet Socialist Republics 1940–1941 German Military Administration 1941 Reichskommissariat Ostland
Reichskommissariat Ostland
1941–1944  Republic of Estonia
Estonia
1944  Union of Soviet Socialist Republics 1944–1990  Republic of Estonia
Estonia
(in transition) 1990–1991  Republic of Estonia
Estonia
1991–onwards

The Danish flag falling from the sky in the 1219 Battle of Lyndanisse.

Seal of Reval, 1340

The first traces of human settlement[10] found in Tallinn's city center by archeologists are about 5,000 years old. The comb ceramic pottery found on the site dates to about 3000 BCE and corded ware pottery c. 2500 BCE.[36]

Old Thomas
Old Thomas
is one of the symbols and guardians of Tallinn

Port of Reval in 1853

Around 1050, the first fortress was built on Tallinn
Tallinn
Toompea.[17] As an important port for trade between Russia
Russia
and Scandinavia, it became a target for the expansion of the Teutonic Knights
Teutonic Knights
and the Kingdom of Denmark
Kingdom of Denmark
during the period of Northern Crusades
Northern Crusades
in the beginning of the 13th century when Christianity was forcibly imposed on the local population. Danish rule of Tallinn
Tallinn
and Northern Estonia started in 1219. In 1285, the city, then known as Reval, became the northern most member of the Hanseatic League – a mercantile and military alliance of German-dominated cities in Northern Europe. The Danes sold Reval along with their other land possessions in northern Estonia
Estonia
to the Teutonic Knights
Teutonic Knights
in 1346. Medieval Reval enjoyed a strategic position at the crossroads of trade between Western and Northern Europe
Europe
and Russia. The city, with a population of 8,000, was very well fortified with city walls and 66 defence towers. A weather vane, the figure of an old warrior called Old Thomas, was put on top of the spire of the Tallinn Town Hall
Tallinn Town Hall
in 1530 that became the symbol for the city. With the start of the Protestant Reformation
Protestant Reformation
the German influence became even stronger as the city was converted to Lutheranism. In 1561, Reval politically became a dominion of Sweden. During the Great Northern War, plague stricken Tallinn
Tallinn
along with Swedish Estonia
Estonia
and Livonia capitulated to Imperial Russia
Russia
in 1710, but the local self-government institutions (Magistracy of Reval and Chivalry of Estonia) retained their cultural and economical autonomy within Imperial Russia
Russia
as the Governorate of Estonia. The Magistracy of Reval was abolished in 1889. The 19th century brought industrialization of the city and the port kept its importance. During the last decades of the century Russification
Russification
measures became stronger. Off the coast of Reval, in June 1908, Tsar Nicholas II and Tsarina Alexandra of Russia, along with their children, met their mutual uncle and aunt, Britain's King Edward VII
Edward VII
and Queen Alexandra, an act which was seen as a royal confirmation of the Anglo-Russian Entente of the previous year, and which was the first time a reigning British monarch had visited Russia.[37] On 24 February 1918, the Independence Manifesto was proclaimed in Reval, soon to be Tallinn, followed by Imperial German occupation and a war of independence with Russia. On 2 February 1920, the Tartu
Tartu
Peace Treaty was signed with Soviet Russia, wherein Russia
Russia
acknowledged the independence of the Estonian Republic. Tallinn
Tallinn
became the capital of an independent Estonia. After World War II started, Estonia
Estonia
acceded to the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
(USSR) in 1940, and later occupied by Nazi Germany from 1941 to 1944. After the Nazi retreat in 1944, it was annexed by the USSR. After annexation into the Soviet Union, Tallinn
Tallinn
became the capital of the Estonian SSR. During the 1980 Summer Olympics, the sailing (then known as yachting) events were held at Pirita, north-east of central Tallinn. Many buildings, such as the "Olümpia" hotel, the new Main Post Office building, and the Regatta Centre, were built for the Olympics. In August 1991, an independent democratic Estonian state was established and a period of quick development to a modern European capital ensued. Tallinn
Tallinn
became the capital of a de facto independent country once again on 20 August 1991. Tallinn
Tallinn
has historically consisted of three parts:

The Toompea
Toompea
(Domberg) or "Cathedral Hill", which was the seat of the central authority: first the Danish captains, then the komturs of the Teutonic Order, and Swedish and Russian governors. It was until 1877 a separate town (Dom zu Reval), the residence of the aristocracy; it is today the seat of the Estonian parliament, government and some embassies and residencies. The Old Town, which is the old Hanseatic town, the "city of the citizens", was not administratively united with Cathedral Hill until the late 19th century. It was the centre of the medieval trade on which it grew prosperous. The Estonian town forms a crescent to the south of the Old Town, where the Estonians
Estonians
came to settle. It was not until the mid-19th century that ethnic Estonians
Estonians
replaced the local Baltic Germans
Germans
as the majority among the residents of Tallinn.

The city of Tallinn
Tallinn
has never been razed and pillaged;[citation needed] that was the fate of Tartu, the university town 200 km (124 mi) south, which was pillaged in 1397 by the Teutonic Order. Around 1524 Catholic churches in many towns in Estonia, including Tallinn, were pillaged as part of the Reformational fervor: this occurred throughout Europe. Although extensively bombed by Soviet air forces during the later stages of World War II, much of the medieval Old Town still retains its charm. The Tallinn
Tallinn
Old Town (including Toompea) became a UNESCO
UNESCO
World Cultural Heritage site in 1997. At the end of the 15th century a new 159 m (521.65 ft)[verification needed] high Gothic spire was built for St. Olaf's Church. Between 1549 and 1625 it may have been the tallest building in the world.[dubious – discuss] After several fires and subsequent periods of rebuilding, its overall height is now 123 m (403.54 ft).

Toompea
Toompea
Castle ( Toompea
Toompea
loss)

Geography[edit]

Panorama of Tallinn's City
City
Centre

Tallinn
Tallinn
is situated on the southern coast of the Gulf of Finland, in north-western Estonia. The largest lake in Tallinn
Tallinn
is Lake Ülemiste
Lake Ülemiste
(9.44 km2 (3.6 sq mi)). It is the main source of the city's drinking water. Lake Harku
Lake Harku
is the second largest lake within the borders of Tallinn
Tallinn
and its area is 1.6 square kilometres (0.6 sq mi). Tallinn
Tallinn
does not lie on a major river. The only significant river in Tallinn
Tallinn
is Pirita River
Pirita River
in Pirita, a city district counted as a suburb. Historically, the small Härjapea River
Härjapea River
flowed from Lake Ülemiste
Ülemiste
through the town into the sea, but the river was diverted for sewage in the 1930s and has since completely disappeared from the cityscape. References to it still remain in the street names Jõe (from Jõgi, river) and Kivisilla (from Kivisild, stone bridge). A limestone cliff runs through the city. It can be seen at Toompea, Lasnamäe
Lasnamäe
and Astangu. However, Toompea
Toompea
is not a part of the cliff, but a separate hill. The highest point in Tallinn, at 64 meters above sea level, is situated in Hiiu, Nõmme
Nõmme
District, in the south-west of the city. The length of the coast is 46 kilometres (29 miles). It comprises three bigger peninsulas: Kopli
Kopli
peninsula, Paljassaare
Paljassaare
peninsula and Kakumäe
Kakumäe
peninsula. The city has a number of public beaches, including those at Pirita, Stroomi, Kakumäe, Harku and Pikakari.[38] Geology[edit] The geology under the city of Tallinn
Tallinn
is made up of rocks and sediments of different composition and age. Youngest are the Quaternary
Quaternary
deposits. The material of these deposits are till, varved clay, sand, gravel and pebbles that are of glacial, marine and lacustrine origin. Some of the Quaternary
Quaternary
deposits are valuable as they constitute aquifers or, as in the case of gravels and sands, are used as construction materials. The Quaternary
Quaternary
deposits are the fill of valleys that are now buried. The buried valleys of Tallinn
Tallinn
are carved into older rock likely by ancient rivers to be later modified by glaciers. While the valley fill is made up of Quaternary
Quaternary
sediments the valley themselves originated from erosion that took place before the Quaternary.[39] The substrate into which the buried valleys were carved is made up of hard sedimentary rock of Ediacaran, Cambrian
Cambrian
and Ordovician
Ordovician
age. Only the upper layer of Ordovician
Ordovician
rocks protrudes from the cover of younger deposits croping out in the Baltic Klint
Baltic Klint
at the coast and at a few places inland. The Ordovician
Ordovician
rocks are made up of from top to bottom of a thick layer of limestone and marlstone, then a first layer of argillite followed by first layer of sandstone and siltstone and then another layer of argillite also followed by sandstone and siltstone. In other places of the city hard sedimentary rock is only to be found beneath Quaternary
Quaternary
sediments at depths reaching as much as 120 meters below sea level. Underlying the sedimentary rock are the rocks of the Fennoscandian Craton including gneisses and other metamorphic rocks with volcanic rock protoliths and rapakivi granites. The mentioned rocks are much older than the rest ( Paleoproterozoic age) and do not crop out anywhere in Estonia.[39] Climate[edit] Tallinn
Tallinn
has a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dfb) with warm, mild summers and cold, snowy winters.[40] Winters are cold but mild for its latitude, owing to its coastal location. The average temperature in February, the coldest month, is −4.3 °C (24.3 °F). During the winter months, temperatures tend to hover close to the freezing mark but mild spells of weather can push temperatures above 0 °C (32 °F), occasionally reaching above 5 °C (41 °F) while cold air masses can push temperatures below −18 °C (0 °F) an average of 6 days a year. Snowfall is common during the winter months. Winters are cloudy[41] and are characterized by low amounts of sunshine, ranging from only 0.5 hours of sunshine per day in December to 4.1 hours in March.[42] At the winter solstice daylight lasts for only 6 hours.[43] Spring starts out cool, with freezing temperatures common in March and April but gradually becomes warmer in late May when daytime temperatures average 15.2 °C (59.4 °F) although nighttime temperatures still remain cool, averaging −1.0 to 5.2 °C (30.2 to 41.4 °F) from March to May. Snowfall is common in March and can occur in April.[41] Summers are mild with daytime temperatures hovering around 19 to 21 °C (66 to 70 °F) and nighttime temperatures averaging between 9.6 to 12.7 °C (49.3 to 54.9 °F) from June to August. The warmest month is usually July, with an average of 17.2 °C (63.0 °F). Periods of hot weather are rare during the summer months, with only 31 days per year where the temperature reaches or exceeds 21.0 °C (69.8 °F).[44] During summer, partly cloudy or clear days are common[41] and it is the sunniest season, ranging from 7.4 hours of sunshine in August to 10.1 hours in June although precipitation is higher during these months.[42] As a consequence of its high latitude, at the summer solstice, daylight lasts for more than 18 hours and 30 minutes.[45] Fall starts out mild, with a September average of 11.3 °C (52.3 °F) and increasingly becomes cooler and cloudier towards the end of November.[41] In the early parts of fall, temperatures commonly reach 15 °C (59 °F) on some days and at least one day above 21 °C (70 °F) in September. In the latter months of fall, freezing temperatures become more common and snowfall can occur. Tallinn
Tallinn
receives 618 millimeters (24.3 in) of precipitation annually which is evenly distributed throughout the year although March and April are the driest months, averaging about 30 millimeters (1.2 in) while July and August are the wettest months with 74 millimeters (2.9 in) of precipitation. The average humidity is 81%, ranging from a high of 88% to a low of 69% in May. Tallinn
Tallinn
has an average windspeed of 3.5 metres per second (11 ft/s) with winters being the windiest (around 4.0 metres per second (13 ft/s) in January) and summers being the least windy at around 2.9 m/s (9.5 ft/s) in July and August.[41] Extremes range from −31.1 °C (−24.0 °F) in January 1940 to 34.3 °C (93.7 °F) in July 1994.[41]

Climate data for Tallinn, Estonia
Estonia
(1981–2010)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 9.2 (48.6) 10.2 (50.4) 15.9 (60.6) 27.2 (81) 29.4 (84.9) 30.7 (87.3) 34.3 (93.7) 34.2 (93.6) 28.0 (82.4) 21.8 (71.2) 12.1 (53.8) 10.7 (51.3) 34.3 (93.7)

Average high °C (°F) −1.0 (30.2) −1.6 (29.1) 2.3 (36.1) 9.2 (48.6) 15.3 (59.5) 18.9 (66) 21.9 (71.4) 20.4 (68.7) 15.2 (59.4) 9.5 (49.1) 3.5 (38.3) 0.4 (32.7) 9.5 (49.1)

Daily mean °C (°F) −3.3 (26.1) −4.3 (24.3) −1.0 (30.2) 4.5 (40.1) 10.1 (50.2) 14.1 (57.4) 17.2 (63) 16.0 (60.8) 11.3 (52.3) 6.5 (43.7) 1.3 (34.3) −1.9 (28.6) 5.9 (42.6)

Average low °C (°F) −5.9 (21.4) −7.1 (19.2) −4.1 (24.6) 0.6 (33.1) 5.2 (41.4) 9.5 (49.1) 12.7 (54.9) 12.0 (53.6) 7.6 (45.7) 3.8 (38.8) −0.9 (30.4) −4.3 (24.3) 2.4 (36.3)

Record low °C (°F) −31.4 (−24.5) −28.7 (−19.7) −24.5 (−12.1) −12.0 (10.4) −5.0 (23) 0.0 (32) 4.0 (39.2) 2.4 (36.3) −4.1 (24.6) −10.5 (13.1) −18.8 (−1.8) −24.3 (−11.7) −31.4 (−24.5)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 56 (2.2) 36 (1.42) 37 (1.46) 32 (1.26) 36 (1.42) 64 (2.52) 84 (3.31) 86 (3.39) 67 (2.64) 78 (3.07) 70 (2.76) 57 (2.24) 704 (27.72)

Average precipitation days 24 19 19 13 11 13 13 15 16 18 20 22 206

Average snowy days 20 16 14 5 0 0 0 0 0 1 6 11 86

Average relative humidity (%) 88 85 81 73 69 74 76 79 82 85 88 88 81

Mean monthly sunshine hours 25.0 55.7 129.3 202.8 292.9 285.7 307.4 240.7 151.5 87.4 28.6 18.8 1,825.8

Source #1: Estonian Weather Service[46][47][48][49]

Source #2: Pogoda.ru.net (rainy and snowy days)[41]

Administrative districts[edit]

Districts of Tallinn

District Population (November 2017)[50] Area[51] Density

1. Haabersti 45,339 22.26 km2 (8.6 sq mi) 2,036.8/km2 (5,275.3/sq mi)

2. Kesklinn (centre) 63,406 30.56 km2 (11.8 sq mi) 2,074.8/km2 (5,373.7/sq mi)

3. Kristiine 33,202 7.84 km2 (3.0 sq mi) 4,234.9/km2 (10,968.5/sq mi)

4. Lasnamäe 119,542 27.47 km2 (10.6 sq mi) 4,351.7/km2 (11,270.9/sq mi)

5. Mustamäe 68,211 8.09 km2 (3.1 sq mi) 8,431.5/km2 (21,837.5/sq mi)

6. Nõmme 39,540 29.17 km2 (11.3 sq mi) 1,355.5/km2 (3,510.7/sq mi)

7. Pirita 18,606 18.73 km2 (7.2 sq mi) 993.4/km2 (2,572.8/sq mi)

8. Põhja-Tallinn 60,203 15.9 km2 (6.1 sq mi) 3,786.4/km2 (9,806.6/sq mi)

For local government purposes, Tallinn
Tallinn
is subdivided into 8 administrative districts (Estonian: linnaosad, singular linnaosa). The district governments are city institutions that fulfill, in the territory of their district, the functions assigned to them by Tallinn legislation and statutes. Each district government is managed by an Elder (Estonian: linnaosavanem). He or she is appointed by the City
City
Government on the nomination of the Mayor and after having heard the opinion of the Administrative Councils. The function of the Administrative Councils is to recommend, to the City
City
Government and Commissions of the City Council, how the districts should be administered. The administrative districts are further divided into subdistricts or neighbourhoods (Estonian: asum). Their names and borders are officially defined. Currently there are 84 subdistricts in Tallinn.[52]

Demographics[edit]

Largest ethnic groups[53]

Ethnic group Population (2017) %

Estonians 226,967 53.21

Russians 156,915 36.78

Other, incl: 33,281 7.80

Ukrainians 12,335 2.89

Belarusians 6,211 1.43

Finns 2,251 0.52

Jews 1,478 0.34

Tatars 1,027 0.24

Lithuanians 929 0.21

Poles 788 0.18

Latvians 779 0.18

Germans 695 0.16

Unknown 9,375 2.19

The population of Tallinn
Tallinn
on 1 January 2017 was 426,538.[54] According to Eurostat, in 2004 Tallinn
Tallinn
had one of the largest number of non-EU nationals of all EU member states' capital cities with Russians forming a significant minority (~37% belong to the Russian ethnic group, but a majority now hold Estonian citizenship).[55] Ethnic Estonians
Estonians
make up about 55% of the population (as of 2014[update]). The official language of Tallinn
Tallinn
is Estonian. In 2011, 206,490 (50.1%) spoke Estonian as their native language and 192,199 (46.7%) spoke Russian as their native language. Other spoken languages include Ukrainian, Belarusian and Finnish.[56]

Year 1372 1772 1816 1834 1851 1881 1897 1925 1959 1989 2000 2005 2010 2017

Population 3,250 6,954 12,000 15,300 24,000 45,900 58,800 119,800 283,071 478,974 400,378 401,694 406,703 426,538

Economy[edit]

Tornimäe business area

Rotermann business district

Tallinn
Tallinn
is the financial and business capital of Estonia. The city has a highly diversified economy with particular strengths in information technology, tourism and logistics. Currently, over half of the Estonian GDP is created in Tallinn.[57] In 2008, the GDP per capita of Tallinn
Tallinn
stood at 172% of the Estonian average.[58] Information technology[edit] In addition to longtime functions as seaport and capital city, Tallinn has seen development of an information technology sector; in its 13 December 2005, edition, The New York Times
The New York Times
characterized Estonia
Estonia
as "a sort of Silicon Valley
Silicon Valley
on the Baltic Sea".[59] One of Tallinn's sister cities is the Silicon Valley
Silicon Valley
town of Los Gatos, California. Skype
Skype
is one of the best-known of several Estonian start-ups originating from Tallinn. Many start-ups originated from the Soviet-era Institute of Cybernetics. In recent years,[when?] Tallinn
Tallinn
has gradually been becoming one of the main IT centre of Europe, with CCD COE of NATO, EU Agency for large-scale IT systems and IT development centres of large corporations, such as TeliaSonera
TeliaSonera
and Kuehne + Nagel
Kuehne + Nagel
being based in the city. Smaller start-up incubators like Garage48 and Game Founders have helped to provide support to teams from Estonia
Estonia
and around the world looking for support, development and networking opportunities.[60] Tourism[edit] Tallinn
Tallinn
receives 4.3 million visitors annually,[61] a figure that has grown steadily over the past decade. Tallinn's Old Town, a UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site, is a major tourist attraction; others include the Seaplane Harbour
Seaplane Harbour
of Estonian Maritime Museum, the Tallinn
Tallinn
Zoo, Kadriorg
Kadriorg
Park, and the Estonian Open Air Museum. Most of the visitors come from Europe, though Tallinn
Tallinn
has also become increasingly visited by tourists from Russia
Russia
and the Asia-Pacific
Asia-Pacific
region.[62] Tallinn Passenger Port
Tallinn Passenger Port
is one of the busiest cruise destinations on the Baltic Sea, serving more than 520,000 cruise passengers in 2013.[63] From year 2011 regular cruise turnarounds in cooperation with Tallinn Airport
Tallinn Airport
are organised. The Tallinn Card is a time-limited ticket to visitors. It allows the holder free use of public transport, free entry to many museums and other places of interest, and discounts or free gifts from shops or restaurants. Energy[edit] Eesti Energia, a large oil shale to energy company,[64] has its headquarters in Tallinn. The city also hosts the headquarters of Elering, a national electric power transmission system operator and member of ENTSO-E, the Estonian natural gas company Eesti Gaas
Eesti Gaas
and energy holding company Alexela Energia, part of Alexela Group. Nord Pool Spot, the largest market for electrical energy in the world, established its local office in Tallinn. Finance[edit]

SEB main building, located in Tornimäe district

Tallinn
Tallinn
is the financial centre of Estonia
Estonia
and also a strong economic centre in the Scandinavian-Baltic region. Many major banks, such as SEB, Swedbank, Nordea, DNB, have their local offices in Tallinn. LHV Pank, an Estonian investment bank, has its corporate headquarters in Tallinn. Tallinn
Tallinn
Stock Exchange, part of NASDAQ OMX Group, is the only regulated exchange in Estonia. Logistics[edit] Port of Tallinn
Port of Tallinn
is one of the biggest ports in the Baltic sea region.[65] Old City
City
Harbour has been known as a convenient harbour since the 10th century[dubious – discuss][verification needed], but nowadays the cargo operations are shifted to Muuga Cargo Port and Paldiski
Paldiski
Southern Port. There is a small fleet of oceangoing trawlers that operate out of Tallinn.[66][dead link] Manufacturing sector[edit] Tallinn
Tallinn
industries include shipbuilding, machine building, metal processing, electronics, textile manufacturing. BLRT Grupp has its headquarters and some subsidiaries in Tallinn. Air Maintenance Estonia and AS Panaviatic Maintenance, both based in Tallinn
Tallinn
Airport, provide MRO services for aircraft, largely expanding their operations in recent years. Food processing[edit] Liviko, the maker of Vana Tallinn
Vana Tallinn
liqueur, strongly associated with the city, is based in Tallinn. The headquarters of Kalev, a confectionery company and part of the industrial conglomerate Orkla Group, is located in Lehmja, southeast of Tallinn. Retail[edit] The city draws large numbers of shopping tourists from countries within the region. When new planned retail developments are completed, Tallinn
Tallinn
will have almost 2 square metres of shopping floor space per inhabitant. As Estonia
Estonia
is already ranked third in Europe
Europe
in terms of shopping center space per inhabitant, ahead of Sweden
Sweden
and being surpassed only by Norway
Norway
and Luxembourg, it will further improve the positions of the city as the major centre of shopping.[67] Notable headquarters[edit] Among others:

NATO
NATO
Cooperative Cyber Defence Centre of Excellence
Cooperative Cyber Defence Centre of Excellence
(CCDCOE) European Agency for the operational management of large-scale IT systems in the area of freedom, security and justice[68][69][14] is based in Tallinn. Skype
Skype
has its software development centre located in Tallinn.[70] TeliaSonera
TeliaSonera
has its IT development centre located in Tallinn.[71] Kuehne + Nagel
Kuehne + Nagel
has its IT centre located in Tallinn.[72] arvato Financial Solutions has its global IT development and innovation centre located in Tallinn.[73] Ericsson
Ericsson
has one of its biggest production facilities in Europe located in Tallinn, focusing on the production of 4G communication devices.[74] Statoil
Statoil
has announced moving the group's financial centre to Tallinn.[75]

Education[edit]

The buildings of Tallinn University
Tallinn University
of Technology

Institutions of higher education and science include:

Baltic Film and Media School Estonian Academy of Arts Estonian Academy of Security Sciences Estonian Academy of Music and Theatre Estonian Business School Estonian Maritime Academy Estonian Evangelical Lutheran Church
Estonian Evangelical Lutheran Church
Institute of Theology National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics Tallinn
Tallinn
University Tallinn University
Tallinn University
of Technology

Culture[edit] Museums[edit] See also: List of museums in Estonia Tallinn
Tallinn
is home to more than 60 museums and galleries.[76]

Estonian Art Museum

Most of them are located in Kesklinn, central district of the city and cover Tallinn's rich history. One of the most visited historical museums in Tallinn
Tallinn
is Estonian History Museum
Estonian History Museum
located in Great Guild Hall at Vanalinn, the old part of the city.[77]

Mikkel Museum

Museum covers Estonia's history from prehistoric times up until the end of the 20th century.[78] It features film and hands-on displays that show how Estonian dwellers lived and survived.[78]

KUMU Art Museum

Estonian Maritime Museum
Estonian Maritime Museum
provides a detailed overview of nation's seafaring past. This museum in also located in city's Old Town, where it occupies one of Tallinn's former defensive structures - Fat Margaret's Tower.[79] Another historical museum that can be found at city's Old Town, just behind the Town Hall is Tallinn
Tallinn
City
City
Museum. It covers Tallinn's history from pre-history until 1991, when Estonia regained its independence.[80] Tallinn
Tallinn
City
City
Museum owns 9 more departments and museums around the city.[80] Tallinn's Museum of Photography that is also located just behind the Town Hall is one of its branches. It features permanent exhibition that covers 100 years of photography in Estonia.[81] Estonia's Museum of Occupation is yet another historical museum located in Tallinn's central district. It covers 52 years when Estonia
Estonia
was occupied by the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and Nazi Germany.[82] Not far from Museum of Occupation located another museum that relates to Soviet occupation of Estonia. KGB Museum that occupies 23rd floor of Sokos Hotel Viru
Sokos Hotel Viru
features equipment, uniforms and documents of Russian Secret Service agents.[83] Tallinn
Tallinn
is also home to two major natural science museums - Estonian Museum of Natural History and Estonian Health Care Museum; both are located in Old Town. Estonian Museum of Natural Science features several seasonal and temporary themed exhibitions that provide an overview of wildlife in Estonia
Estonia
and around the world.[84] Estonian Health Care Museum features permanent exhibitions on anatomy and health care. It collects and displays heritage related to the history of medicine in Estonia.[85] Estonia's capital is also home to many art and design museums. Estonian Art Museum, country's biggest art museum that was originally based in Kadriorg
Kadriorg
Palace, now consists of 4 branches - Kumu Art Museum, Kadriorg
Kadriorg
Art Museum, Mikkel Museum
Mikkel Museum
and Niguliste Museum. Kumu Art Museum
Kumu Art Museum
features country's largest collection of contemporary and modern art. It also displays Estonian art starting from the early 18th century.[86] Those who are interested in Western European and Russian art may enjoy Kadriorg
Kadriorg
Art Museum collections. Museum is located in Kadriorg
Kadriorg
Palace, a beautiful Baroque building erected by Peter the Great. It stores and displays about 9,000 works of art from the 16th to 20th centuries.[87] Mikkel Museum that is also located in Kadriorg
Kadriorg
park displays a collection of mainly Western art - ceramics and Chinese porcelain donated by Johannes Mikkel in 1994. Niguliste Museum currently occupies former St. Nicholas' Church, Tallinn
Tallinn
and displays collections of historical ecclesiastical art spanning nearly seven centuries from the Middle Ages to post-Reformation art. Those that are interested in design and applied art may enjoy Estonian Museum of Applied Art and Design collection of Estonian contemporary designs. It displays up to 15.000 pieces of work made of textile art, ceramics, porcelain, leather, glass, jewellery, metalwork, furniture and product design.[88] In order to experience a more relaxed, culture oriented exhibits one may turn to Museum of Estonian Drinking Culture. This museum showcases the historic Luscher & Matiesen Distillery as well as the history of Estonian alcohol production.[89]

Danse Macabre by Bernt Notke
Bernt Notke
on display at the St. Nicholas' Church

Lauluväljak[edit] Main article: Estonian Song Festival

The Tallinn Song Festival Grounds
Tallinn Song Festival Grounds
(Lauluväljak)

The Estonian Song Festival
Estonian Song Festival
(in Estonian: Laulupidu) is one of the largest choral events in the world[dubious – discuss][verification needed], listed by the UNESCO
UNESCO
as a Masterpiece of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity. It is held every five years in July on the Tallinn Song Festival Grounds
Tallinn Song Festival Grounds
(Lauluväljak) simultaneously with the Estonian Dance Festival.[90] The joint choir has comprised more than 30,000 singers performing to an audience of 80,000.[90][91] Often referred to as The Singing Nation, the Estonians
Estonians
have one of the biggest collections of folk songs in the world[dubious – discuss][verification needed], with written records of about 133,000 folk songs.[92] From 1987, a cycle of mass demonstrations featuring spontaneous singing of national songs and hymns that were strictly forbidden during the years of the Soviet occupation to peacefully resist the illegal oppression. In September 1988, a record 300,000 people, more than a quarter of all Estonians, gathered in Tallinn
Tallinn
for a song festival.[93]

Tallinn
Tallinn
Black Nights Film Festival[edit] Main article: Tallinn
Tallinn
Black Nights Film Festival Tallinn Black Nights Film Festival
Tallinn Black Nights Film Festival
(Estonian: Pimedate Ööde Filmifestival, or PÖFF), is an annual film festival held since 1997 in Tallinn, the capital city of Estonia. PÖFF is the only festival in the Nordic and Baltic region with a FIAPF (International Federation of Film Producers Association) accreditation for holding an international competition programme in the Nordic and Baltic region with 14 other non-specialised festivals, such as Cannes, Berlin, Venice. With over 250 feature films screened each year and over 77500 attendances (2014), PÖFF is one of the largest film events of Northern Europe
Europe
and cultural events in Estonia
Estonia
in the winter season. During its 19th edition in 2015 the festival screened more than 600 films (including 250+ feature-length films from 80 different countries), bringing over 900 screenings to an audience of over 80, 000 people as well as over 700 accredited guests and journalists from 50 different countries. In 2010 the festival held the European Film Awards
European Film Awards
ceremony in Tallinn. Cuisine[edit] See also: Estonian cuisine

World's largest kiluvõileib, some 20 m in length, created at Tallinn Town Hall Square on 15 May 2014[94]

The traditional cuisine of Tallinn
Tallinn
is reflecting culinary traditions of the Northern Estonia, an important role of the city as a fishing port, as well as the Baltic German
Baltic German
influence. Numerous cafés (Estonian: Kohvik) have played a major role in a social life of the city since the 19th century, as well as bars, especially in the Kesklinn district. Marzipan
Marzipan
industry in Tallinn
Tallinn
has a very long history. The production of marzipan has started in the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
practically simultaneously in Tallinn
Tallinn
and Lübeck, both members of the Hanseatic League. In 1695, marzipan was mentioned as a medicine under the designation of Panis Martius in the price lists of the Tallinn Town Hall
Tallinn Town Hall
Pharmacy.[95] The modern era of marzipan in Tallinn
Tallinn
began in 1806, when the Swiss confectioner Lorenz Caviezel set up his confectionery on Pikk Street. In 1864 it was bought and expanded by Georg Stude and now is known as the Maiasmokk
Maiasmokk
café. In the late 19th century marzipan figurines made by Reval confectioners were supplied to the Russian Imperial Family,[96] whereas nowadays along with mass production unique projects are also being made, such as a 12 kg scale model of the Estonia
Estonia
Theatre.[97] Among other seafood dishes of Tallinn, the most symbolic example is "Vürtsikilu" - spicy sprats, pickled with a distinctive set of spices including black pepper, allspice and cloves. The tradition of making vürtsikilu originated presumably from city outskirts, where it began in the late 18th or the early 19th century. In 1826 Tallinn
Tallinn
merchants exported nearly 40,000 cans of vürtsikilu to Saint Petersburg, then the capital of the Russian Empire.[98] A closely associated dish is a "Kiluvõileib" - a traditional rye bread open sandwich with a thin layer of butter and a layer of vürtsikilu as a topping. Boiled egg slices, mayonnaise and culinary herbs are optional extra toppings. Alcoholic beverages produced in the city include beers, vodkas and liqueurs, the latter (such as Vana Tallinn) being the most characteristic. Also, the number of craft beer breweries has expanded sharply in Tallinn
Tallinn
over the last decade, entering local and regional markets. Tourism[edit]

St. Olaf's Church may have been the tallest building in the world from 1549 to 1625

Stenbock House
Stenbock House
on Toompea
Toompea
hill is the official seat of the Government of Estonia

View from Toompea
Toompea
hill, illustrating Tallinn's mix of ancient and contemporary architecture

A Christmas market
Christmas market
at the Town Hall square

What can arguably be considered to be Tallinn's main attractions are located in the old town of Tallinn
Tallinn
(divided into a "lower town" and Toompea
Toompea
hill) which is easily explored on foot. The eastern parts of the city, notably Pirita
Pirita
(with Pirita
Pirita
Convent) and Kadriorg
Kadriorg
(with Kadriorg
Kadriorg
Palace) districts, are also popular destinations, and the Estonian Open Air Museum
Estonian Open Air Museum
in Rocca al Mare, west of the city, preserves aspects of Estonian rural culture and architecture. Toompea – Upper Town[edit] Main article: Toompea This area was once an almost separate town, heavily fortified, and has always been the seat of whatever power that has ruled Estonia. The hill occupies an easily defensible site overlooking the surrounding districts. The major attractions are the medieval Toompea
Toompea
Castle (today housing the Estonian Parliament, the Riigikogu), the Russian Orthodox Alexander Nevsky Cathedral and the Lutheran
Lutheran
St Mary's Cathedral, also known as the Dome Church (Estonian: Toomkirik). All-linn – Lower Town[edit] This area is one of the best preserved medieval towns in Europe
Europe
and the authorities are continuing its rehabilitation. Major sights include the Town Hall square (Estonian: Raekoja plats), the city wall and towers (notably "Fat Margaret" and "Kiek in de Kök") as well as a number of medieval churches, including St Olaf's, St. Nicholas' and the Church of the Holy Ghost. Kadriorg[edit] Main article: Kadriorg This is 2 kilometres (1.2 miles) east of the city centre and is served by buses and trams. Kadriorg
Kadriorg
Palace, the former palace of Peter the Great, built just after the Great Northern War, now houses the foreign art department of the Art Museum of Estonia, the presidential residence and the surrounding grounds include formal gardens and woodland. The main building of the Art Museum of Estonia, Kumu (Estonian: Kunstimuuseum, Art Museum), was built in 2006 and lies in Kadriorg park. It houses an encyclopaedic collection of Estonian art, including paintings by Carl Timoleon von Neff, Johann Köler, Eduard Ole, Jaan Koort, Konrad Mägi, Eduard Wiiralt, Henn Roode and Adamson-Eric, among others. Pirita[edit] Main article: Pirita This coastal district is a further 2 kilometres north-east of Kadriorg. The marina was built for the Moscow
Moscow
Olympics of 1980, and boats can be hired on the Pirita
Pirita
River. Two kilometres inland are the Botanic Gardens and the Tallinn
Tallinn
TV Tower. Music culture[edit] Tallinn
Tallinn
has a few music venues for live music such as Kultuurikatel/Kanala, Ptarmigan, Tapper, EKKM – Museum and nightlife, DM Baar. Yearly festivals like Tallinn Music Week
Tallinn Music Week
and Stalker Festival take place.

Old Town of Tallinn

Panorama of the central Town Hall Square (Raekoja plats)

Transport[edit]

A CAF tram operating in Tallinn

City
City
transport[edit] Main article: Public transport
Public transport
in Tallinn The city operates a system of bus (73 lines), tram (4 lines) and trolley-bus (4 lines) routes to all districts. A flat-fare system is used. The ticket-system is based on prepaid RFID cards available in kiosks and post offices. Starting from January 2013 public transport for citizens registered to live in Tallinn
Tallinn
is completely free. That includes buses, trams and trolleybuses, and also the rail services within city limits. Air[edit]

A Nordica takeoff in Tallinn
Tallinn
Airport

The Lennart Meri Tallinn Airport
Tallinn Airport
is about 4 kilometres (2 miles) from Town Hall square (Raekoja plats). There is a tram (Line Number: 4 and local bus connection between the airport and the edge of the city centre (bus no. 2). The nearest railway station Ülemiste
Ülemiste
is only 1.5 km (0.9 mi) from the airport. The construction of the new section of the airport began in 2007 and was finished in summer 2008. There has been a helicopter service to and from Helsinki
Helsinki
operated by Copterline
Copterline
and taking 18 minutes to cross the Gulf of Finland. The Copterline
Copterline
Tallinn
Tallinn
terminal is located adjacent to Linnahall, five minutes from the city center. After a crash near Tallinn
Tallinn
in August 2005, service was suspended but restarted in 2008 with a new fleet.[99] The operator cancelled it again in December 2008,[100] on grounds of unprofitability. On 15 February 2010, Copterline
Copterline
filed for bankruptcy, citing inability to keep the company profitable. In 2011 Copterline
Copterline
started again operating the Tallinn
Tallinn
Helsinki
Helsinki
flights. In 2016, Copterline
Copterline
OÜ filed for bankruptcy[101] and currently there are no scheduled helicopter flights from Tallinn. Ferry[edit]

The port of Tallinn
Tallinn
is one of the busiest cruise and passenger harbours in Northern Europe
Europe
with over 10 million people passing through in 2016.

See also: Baltic Sea cruiseferries Several ferry operators, Viking Line, Linda Line, Tallink
Tallink
and Eckerö Line, connect Tallinn
Tallinn
to Helsinki, Mariehamn, Stockholm, and St. Petersburg. Passenger lines connect Tallinn
Tallinn
to Helsinki
Helsinki
(83 km (52 mi) north of Tallinn) in approximately 2–3.5 hours by cruiseferries. Helsinki, Finland Mariehamn, Åland Stockholm, Sweden St. Petersburg, Russia Railroad[edit] The Elron railway company operates train services from Tallinn
Tallinn
to Tartu, Valga, Türi, Viljandi, Tapa, Narva, Orava, Koidula and Pärnu. Buses are also available to all these and various other destinations in Estonia, as well as to Saint Petersburg
Saint Petersburg
in Russia
Russia
and Riga, Latvia. The Russian railways
Russian railways
company operates a daily international sleeper train service between Tallinn
Tallinn
— Moscow. Tallinn
Tallinn
also has a commuter rail service running from Tallinn's main rail station in two main directions: east (Aegviidu) and to several western destinations (Pääsküla, Keila, Riisipere, Paldiski, and Kloogaranna). These are electrified lines and are used by the Elron railroad company. Stadler FLIRT
Stadler FLIRT
EMU and DMU units are in service since July 2013. The first electrified train service in Tallinn
Tallinn
was opened in 1924 from Tallinn
Tallinn
to Pääsküla, a distance of 11.2 km (7.0 mi). The Rail Baltica
Rail Baltica
project, which will link Tallinn
Tallinn
with Warsaw
Warsaw
via Latvia
Latvia
and Lithuania, will connect Tallinn
Tallinn
with the rest of the European rail network. A tunnel has been proposed between Tallinn
Tallinn
and Helsinki, though it remains at a planning phase. Roads[edit] The Via Baltica
Via Baltica
motorway (part of European route E67
European route E67
from Helsinki
Helsinki
to Prague) connects Tallinn
Tallinn
to the Lithuanian/Polish border through Latvia. Frequent and affordable long-distance bus routes connect Tallinn
Tallinn
with other parts of Estonia. On 9 October 2013, the 320-meter-long Ülemiste
Ülemiste
tunnel was first opened. Notable people[edit]

Click on show to view the contents of this section

Pre 1900[edit]

Michael Sittow
Michael Sittow
(ca. 1469-1525) An Estonian painter, trained in the tradition of Early Netherlandish painting. He was one of the most important Flemish painters of the era. Jacob Johan Hastfer
Jacob Johan Hastfer
(1647 in Tallinn
Tallinn
– 1695) Swedish officer and governor of the Livonia province between 1687 and 1695 Alexander Friedrich von Hueck (1802–1842) Baltic-German
Baltic-German
professor of anatomy at University of Tartu, a notable estophile. Julius Gottlieb Iversen (1823–1900) Russian phalerist (scholar of medals), taught Greek and Latin Carl Wilhelm Hiekisch (1840–1901) was a Baltic German
Baltic German
geographer. Marie Under
Marie Under
(1883–1980) one of the greatest Estonian poets, nominated for the Nobel prize in literature 8 times Edmund August Friedrich Russow (1841–1897) Baltic German
Baltic German
biologist, researched plant anatomy and histology Alfred Rosenberg
Alfred Rosenberg
(1893–1946), German theorist and Nazi official, executed for war crimes Ants Oras
Ants Oras
(1900–1982) Estonian translator and writer, studied pause patterns in English Renaissance
English Renaissance
dramatic blank verse

1900 to 1930[edit]

Vidrik "Frits" Rootare (1906–1981) Estonian chess player Andrus Johani
Andrus Johani
(1906–1941) painter from Estonia, executed in Tartu prison Edmund S. Valtman
Edmund S. Valtman
(1914–2005) Estonian-American cartoonist, won the 1962 Pulitzer Prize for Editorial Cartooning Evald Okas (1915–2011) Estonian painter, probably best known for his portraits of nudes Evi Rauer (1915–2004) Estonian stage, film and television actress and television director Paul Kuusberg (1916–2003) Estonian writer, particularly of novellas Ellen Liiger (1918–1987) Estonian stage, TV, radio and film actress and theatre teacher whose stage career began at age six Udo Kasemets (1919–2014) Estonian-born Canadian composer of orchestral, vocal, piano and electroacoustic works Jaan Kross (1920–2007) Estonian writer of novels Vincent Zigas (1920–1983) medical officer in Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea
during the 1950s Harry Männil
Harry Männil
(1920–2010), Estonian businessman, art collector, and Venezuelan resident Kaljo Raid (1921–2005) Estonian composer, cellist and pastor Vello Viisimaa (1928–1991) Estonian opera singer and stage actor, appeared mostly in operettas. Lennart Georg Meri
Lennart Georg Meri
(1929–2006) Estonian politician, writer, film director, statesman, second President of Estonia, 1992 to 2001 Eino Tamberg (1930–2010) Estonian composer, promoted neoclassicism in Estonian music

1930 to 1950[edit]

Vladimir-Georg Karassev-Orgusaar (1931–2015) was an Estonian film director and member of the Congress of Estonia Martin Puhvel (1933–2016) a literature researcher, professor emeritus at McGill University for old and medieval English literature Ingrid Rüütel
Ingrid Rüütel
(born 1935) Estonian folklorist and philologist, 2001–2006 First Lady of Estonia, married to President Arnold Rüütel Peter Peet Silvester (1935–1996) electrical engineer, particularly numerical analysis of electromagnetic fields Jüri Arrak
Jüri Arrak
(born 1936) Estonian artist and painter Enn Vetemaa
Enn Vetemaa
(1936–2017) Estonian writer, master of the Estonian Modernist short novel Arvo Antonovich Mets (1937–1997) Estonian-born Russian poet, master of Russian free verse Mikk Mikiver (1937–2006) Estonian stage and film actor and theater director Linnart Mäll
Linnart Mäll
(1938–2010) Estonian historian, orientalist, translator and politician. Ene Riisna (born 1938) Estonian-born American television producer, known for her work on the American news show 20/20. Andres Tarand
Andres Tarand
(born 1940) Estonian politician, Prime Minister of Estonia
Estonia
and Member of the European Parliament Leila Säälik (born 1941) Estonian stage, film and radio actress. Paul-Eerik Rummo
Paul-Eerik Rummo
(born 1942) Estonian poet and politician Eili Sild (born 1942) Estonian stage, film, television and radio actress Kalle Lasn
Kalle Lasn
(born 1942) Estonian-Canadian film maker, author, magazine editor and activist Urjo Kareda (1944-2001) Estonian-born Canadian theatre and music critic, dramaturge and stage director Mari Lill (born 1945) Estonian stage, film and TV actress Sulev Mäeltsemees (born 1947) Estonian public administration and local government scholar Siiri Oviir
Siiri Oviir
(born 1947) Estonian politician and Member of the European Parliament Lepo Sumera (1950-2000) Estonian composer and teacher and Minister of Culture from 1988 to 1992

1950 to 1970[edit]

Urmas Alender (1953–1994) Estonian singer and musician, the vocalist of popular Estonian bands Ruja and Propeller Ivo Lill (born 1953) Estonian glass artist Ain Lutsepp
Ain Lutsepp
(born 1954) Estonian actor and politician. Kalle Randalu
Kalle Randalu
(born 1956) Estonian pianist Alexander Leonidovich Goldstein (1957-2006) a Russian writer and essayist, resident of Tel-Aviv from 1991 Peeter Järvelaid (born 1957) Estonian legal scholar, historian and professor in the University of Tallinn Doris Kareva
Doris Kareva
(born 1958) Estonian poet and translator, head of the Estonian National Commission in UNESCO Anu Lamp
Anu Lamp
(born 1958) Estonian stage, film, TV and voice actress, stage director, translator and instructor. Tõnu Õnnepalu
Tõnu Õnnepalu
(born 1962), also known by the pen names Emil Tode and Anton Nigov, is an Estonian poet and author Tõnis Lukas
Tõnis Lukas
(born 1962) Estonian politician, Vice-Chairman of the Union of Pro Patria and Res Publica Marina Kaljurand
Marina Kaljurand
(born 1962) Estonian politician who served as Minister of Foreign Affairs Kiiri Tamm (born 1962) Estonian stage, television and film actress and stage manager. Tõnu Trubetsky
Tõnu Trubetsky
(born 1963), Estonian punk rock/glam punk musician, film and music video director and individualist anarchist Ivo Uukkivi
Ivo Uukkivi
(born 1965) Estonian stage, film, radio, TV actor and producer, founder and singer with the punk band Velikije Luki Liina Tennosaar (born 1965) Estonian stage, film and television actress Juhan Parts
Juhan Parts
(born 1966) Estonian politician and Prime Minister of Estonia
Estonia
from 2003 to 2005 Indrek Sirel
Indrek Sirel
(born 1970) general of the Estonian Defence Forces

1970 to Date[edit]

Jan Uuspõld
Jan Uuspõld
(born 1973) Estonian stage, television, radio and film actor and musician. Urmas Robert Paet (born 1974) Estonian politician and Member of the European Parliament Ken-Marti Vaher
Ken-Marti Vaher
(born 1974) Estonian politician, Minister of Justice 2003–2005 and Minister of the Interior 2011–2014 Urmas Reinsalu
Urmas Reinsalu
(born 1975) Estonian politician, Minister of Defence from 2012 to 2014, Minister of Justice since 2015 Kristen Michal
Kristen Michal
(born 1975) Estonian politician, Minister of economic affairs 2015 to 2016 and Minister of Justice from 2011 to 2012 Mailis Reps
Mailis Reps
(born 1975) Estonian politician, Minister of Education and Research 2002/03 and 2005/07 Harriet Toompere
Harriet Toompere
(born 1975) Estonian stage, television, film actress and author of two children's books Tanel Ingi (born 1976) Estonian stage and film actor, performs primarily at the Ugala
Ugala
theatre Katrin Pärn (born 1977) Estonian stage, film and television actress and singer. Johann Urb (born 1977) Estonian-born American actor, producer and former model Carmen Kass
Carmen Kass
(born 1978) Estonian model, chess player and former political candidate Lauri Lagle (born 1981) Estonian stage and film actor, screenwriter and stage producer, director and playwright Ursula Ratasepp
Ursula Ratasepp
(born 1982) Estonian stage, film and television actress. Ott Sepp
Ott Sepp
(born 1982) Estonian actor, singer, writer and television presenter Katrin Siska
Katrin Siska
(born 1983) Estonian musician, member of pop-rock band Vanilla Ninja Priit Loog (born 1984) Estonian stage, television and film actor Diana Arno (born 1984) Estonian beauty queen, fashion designer, model and Miss Estonia
Estonia
2009 Tiiu Kuik
Tiiu Kuik
(born 1987) Estonian fashion model, has a mole on her left cheek Pääru Oja (born 1989) Estonian stage, film, voice, and television actor. Kristina Karjalainen (born 1989) Estonian-Finnish beauty queen who won Eesti Miss Estonia
Estonia
2013 Klaudia Tiitsmaa (born 1990) Estonian stage, television and film actress Natalie Korneitsik
Natalie Korneitsik
(born 1990) Estonian beauty queen, who won the title of Miss Tallinn
Tallinn
2012

Architects and Conductors[edit]

Valve Pormeister (1922–2002) Estonian architect, the first women to influence the development of Estonian architecture Allan Murdmaa
Allan Murdmaa
(1934–2009) Estonian architect, designed Tehumardi
Tehumardi
war memorial Neeme Järvi
Neeme Järvi
(born 1937) Estonian conductor, emigrated to the United States in 1980 Eri Klas
Eri Klas
(1939–2016) Estonian conductor worked for the Netherlands Radio Symphony Orchestra Tõnu Kaljuste
Tõnu Kaljuste
(born 1953) Estonian conductor, conducted with the Estonian National Opera between 1978 and 1995 Andres Mustonen
Andres Mustonen
(born 1953) Estonian conductor and violinist, artistic director of Mustonenfest Tallinn
Tallinn
Tel Aviv Festival Andres Siim (born 1962) Estonian architect, designed the Nissan Center in Tallinn Paavo Järvi (born 1962) Estonian conductor, son of Neeme Järvi Margit Mutso
Margit Mutso
(born 1966) Estonian architect, designed the bus station of Rakvere Elmo Tiisvald (born 1967) Estonian conductor, conductor of Opera Studio at Estonian Academy of Music and Theatre Kaisa Roose (born 1969) music conductor, from 2000 with Malmö
Malmö
Opera and Music Theatre in Sweden Siiri Vallner
Siiri Vallner
(born 1972) Estonian architect, designed the Museum of Occupations in Tallinn Anu Tali (born 1972) Estonian conductor, music director of the Sarasota Orchestra Eero Endjärv
Eero Endjärv
(born 1973) Estonian architect, designed the villa in Otepää
Otepää
in Southern Estonia Katrin Koov (born 1973) Estonian architect, designed the Concert Hall of Pärnu Mikk Murdvee
Mikk Murdvee
(born 1980) Estonian-Finnish conductor and violinist, lives in Helsinki.

Sport[edit]

Albert Kusnets
Albert Kusnets
(1902–1942) middleweight Greco-Roman wrestler, competed in the 1924 and 1928 Summer Olympics Valter Palm (1905–1994) Estonian welterweight professional boxer, competed in 1924 and 1928 Summer Olympics Toomas Krõm (born 1971) former professional footballer, 11 caps for the Estonia
Estonia
national football team Gert Kullamäe (born 1971) retired Estonian professional basketball player Toomas Kallaste (born 1971) former professional footballer, 42 international caps for the Estonia
Estonia
national football team Indrek Pertelson (born 1971) Estonian judoka, won bronze at the 2000 and 2004 Summer Olympics Mart Poom
Mart Poom
(born 1972) Estonian football coach and former pro player, now goalkeeping coach of the Estonia
Estonia
national football team Martin Müürsepp
Martin Müürsepp
(born 1974) Estonian retired professional basketball player and currently a coach Sergei Pareiko
Sergei Pareiko
(born 1977) Estonian goalkeeper, 65 appearances for the Estonia
Estonia
national football team Andres Oper
Andres Oper
(born 1977) Estonian football coach, former professional player, assistant manager of the Estonia
Estonia
national football team Kristen Viikmäe (born 1979) retired Estonian footballer, played in the Estonian Meistriliiga
Meistriliiga
for JK Nõmme
Nõmme
Kalju Joel Lindpere
Joel Lindpere
(born 1981) retired Estonian professional footballer, made 107 appearances for the Estonia
Estonia
national football team Deniss Karpak
Deniss Karpak
(born 1986) Estonian sailor, competed in the 2008 and the 2012 Summer Olympics Ardo Kreek
Ardo Kreek
(born 1986) Estonian volleyball player, a member of Estonia men's national volleyball team Aljona Malets
Aljona Malets
(born 1987) Estonian football player, 15 appearances for Estonia
Estonia
women's national football team Daniil Ratnikov
Daniil Ratnikov
(born 1988) Estonian professional footballer, mainly an attacking midfielder Daniel Novikov (born 1989) Estonian track cyclist, who specialized in the individual sprint events Karl-Martin Rammo (born 1989) Estonian sailor, competed at the 2012 and the 2016 Summer Olympics. He was the flagbearer for Estonia
Estonia
during the Parade of Nations Anastassia Kovalenko
Anastassia Kovalenko
(born 1991) Estonian motorcycle road racer, piano player and ballroom dancer Eva Paalma (born 1994) Estonian tennis player Natalia Aleksandrovna Zabiiako (born 1994) Russian-Estonian pair skater

International relations[edit]

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See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Estonia Twin towns – sister cities[edit] Tallinn
Tallinn
participates in international town twinning schemes to foster good international relations. Partners include:[102]

Annapolis, MD, United States Beijing, China Berlin, Germany Carcassonne, France[103] Chengdu, China Dartford, England, United Kingdom[104] Florence, Italy Ghent, Belgium[105] Gothenburg, Sweden

Groningen, Netherlands[106][107] Hangzhou, China Helsinki, Finland Kiel, Germany Kotka, Finland
Finland
(1955)[108] Los Gatos, CA, United States Malmö, Sweden[109] Moscow, Russia Portland, OR, United States

Riga, Latvia[110] Saint Petersburg, Russia Schwerin, Germany Stockholm, Sweden Turku, Finland Venice, Italy Vienna, Austria Vilnius, Lithuania Yerevan, Armenia

Image gallery[edit]

St. Catherine's Passage

St. Nicholas' Church

St Mary's Cathedral

Alexander Nevsky Cathedral built in 1894–1900.

House of the Brotherhood of Blackheads.

Viru Gate, entrance to the Old Town. Two remaining towers that were once part of a larger fourteenth-century gate system.

The Raeapteek, built in 1422, is one of the oldest continuously running pharmacies in Europe.

Kiek in de Kök defence tower.

Part of Lower Town city wall.

City
City
wall with temporary garden exhibition

The Fat Margaret
Fat Margaret
cannon tower

"Pikk Hermann" (Toompea)

Kadriorg
Kadriorg
Palace

The ruins of Pirita
Pirita
Convent

See also[edit]

Eurovision Song Contest
Eurovision Song Contest
2002 Legends of Tallinn Revaltoppe Soviet evacuation of Tallinn
Soviet evacuation of Tallinn
1941 Tallinn
Tallinn
Marathon

References[edit]

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Tallinn
– TheFreeDictionary.com. ^ World and Its Peoples, Volume 8 of Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and Poland. Marshall Cavendish. 2010. p. 1069. ISBN 9780761478966.  ^ "Tallinna elanike arv > Tallinn". www.tallinn.ee.  ^ a b " Tallinn
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on noorem, kui õpikus kirjas!". Delfi. 28 October 2003. Retrieved 6 July 2017.  ^ a b "Villu Kadakas: pringlikütid Vabaduse väljakul".  ^ "Historic Centre (Old Town) of Tallinn". UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Centre. 7 December 1997. Retrieved 29 September 2013.  ^ Germany, SPIEGEL ONLINE, Hamburg. "Start-ups in Tallinn: Estland, das Silicon Valley
Silicon Valley
Europas? - SPIEGEL ONLINE - Netzwelt". SPIEGEL ONLINE.  ^ Rooney, Ben (14 June 2012). "The Many Reasons Estonia
Estonia
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Tallinn
In Your Pocket. In Your Pocket. p. 11. ISBN 0-01-406269-0.  ^ Decisions of the United States
United States
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Office. p. 41.  ^ a b Vaher, Rein; Miindel, Avo; Raukas, Anto; Tavast, Elvi (2010). "Ancient buried valleys in the city of Tallinn
Tallinn
and adjacent area" (PDF). Estonian Journal of Earth Sciences. 59 (1): 37–48. doi:10.3176/earth.2010.1.03.  ^ Peel, M. C. and Finlayson, B. L. and McMahon, T. A. (2007). "Updated world map of the Köppen–Geiger climate classification" (PDF). Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. 11 (5): 1633–1644. doi:10.5194/hess-11-1633-2007. ISSN 1027-5606. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ a b c d e f g "Погода и Климат – Климат Таллина". Pogoda.ru.net. Retrieved 25 September 2016.  ^ a b "Climatological Information for Tallinn, Estonia". Hong Kong Observatory. Retrieved 13 March 2013.  ^ "Sunrise and Sunset in Tallinn". Time and Date. Retrieved 11 March 2013.  ^ "Weatherbase: Historical Weather for Tallinn, Estonia". Weatherbase. Retrieved 11 March 2013.  ^ "Sunrise and Sunset in Tallinn". Time and Date. Retrieved 11 March 2013.  ^ "Climate normals-Temperature". Estonian Weather Service. Retrieved 24 September 2016.  ^ "Climate normals-Precipitation". Estonian Weather Service. Retrieved 24 September 2016.  ^ "Climate normals-Humidity". Estonian Weather Service. Retrieved 24 September 2016.  ^ "Climate normals-Sunshine". Estonian Weather Service. Retrieved 24 September 2016.  ^ "Tallinna elanike arv" [Number of Tallinn
Tallinn
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city government. 1 June 2016. Retrieved 19 November 2017.  ^ Tallinn
Tallinn
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City
Government (2016). Statistical Yearbook of Tallinn
Tallinn
2016 (PDF). Tallinn: Tallinn
Tallinn
City
City
Office. p. 35/194. Retrieved 10 September 2016.  ^ 01.01.2015 ^ "POPULATION BY SEX, ETHNIC NATIONALITY AND COUNTY, 1 JANUARY". pub.stat.ee.  ^ "Eesti statistika; Tallinn, Rahvaarv". Retrieved 27 June 2017.  ^ Eurostat
Eurostat
(2004). Regions: Statistical yearbook 2004 (PDF). Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities. p. 115/135.  ^ " Tallinn
Tallinn
arvudes / Statistical Yearbook of Tallinn" (PDF) (in Estonian and English). Tallinn
Tallinn
City
City
Council. 3 August 2011. Retrieved 1 April 2012.  ^ Kaja Koovit. "Half of Estonian GDP is created in Tallinn". Balticbusinessnews.com. Retrieved 20 May 2012.  ^ "Half of the gross domestic product of Estonia
Estonia
is created in Tallinn". Estonian Statistics Office. Retrieved 20 May 2012.  ^ Mark Ländler, "The Baltic Life: Hot Technology for Chilly Streets", The New York
York
Times, 13 December 2005. ^ Anthony Ha, "GameFounders: An Accelerator For European Game Startups", Techcrunch, 21 June 2012. ^ " Tallinn
Tallinn
investing to enhance customer experience and business and operational opportunities". Airport Business. ACI EUROPE. 17 October 2016. Retrieved 19 November 2016.  ^ Arumäe, Liisu (9 August 2013). "Tallinnas suureneb Vene ja Aasia turistide arv". E24 Majandus (in Estonian). Retrieved 5 November 2013.  ^ "Tänavune kruiisihooaeg tõi Tallinna esmakordselt üle poole miljoni reisija" (in Estonian). Port of Tallinn. 11 October 2013. Retrieved 5 November 2013.  ^ Francu, Juraj; Harvie, Barbra; Laenen, Ben; Siirde, Andres; Veiderma, Mihkel (May 2007). "A study on the EU oil shale industry viewed in the light of the Estonian experience. A report by EASAC to the Committee on Industry, Research and Energy of the European Parliament" (PDF). European Academies Science Advisory Council: 12–13; 18–19; 23–24; 28. Retrieved 2 August 2015.  ^ "History Tallinna Sadam". Portoftallinn.com. Retrieved 3 June 2011.  ^ Reyktal AS fleet Archived 18 June 2010 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "MARKTBEAT shopping centre development report" (PDF). Cushman & Wakefield. Retrieved 10 December 2014.  ^ "Regulation 1077/2011 establishing a European Agency for the operational management of large-scale IT systems in the area of freedom, security and justice". Retrieved 29 September 2013.  ^ "DGs – Home Affairs – What we do – Agencies". European Commission. Archived from the original on 27 June 2012. Retrieved 29 September 2013.  ^ " Skype
Skype
Jobs: Life at Skype". Jobs.skype.com. Archived from the original on 24 February 2012. Retrieved 3 June 2011.  ^ Steve Roman. " TeliaSonera
TeliaSonera
Opens IT Development Center in Tallinn". ERR. Retrieved 7 June 2012.  ^ Vahemäe, Heleri (13 September 2013). " Kuehne + Nagel
Kuehne + Nagel
joined ITL". E24 Majandus. Archived from the original on 5 November 2013. Retrieved 5 November 2013.  ^ Schieler, Nicole (11 February 2016). "arvato Financial Solutions opens global IT Development and Innovation centre in Tallinn". arvato. Retrieved 21 August 2016.  ^ " Ericsson
Ericsson
Eesti planning to invest EUR 6.4 mln > Tallinn". Tallinn.ee. Retrieved 3 June 2011.  ^ Raivo Sormunen. "aripaev.ee – Skandinaavia uue börsifirma finantskeskus tuleb Tall". Ap3.ee. Retrieved 3 June 2011.  ^ " Tallinn
Tallinn
Sightseeing, Museums & Attractions". Tallinn. Retrieved 23 August 2016.  ^ "ESTONIAN HISTORY MUSEUM". Eesti Asaloomuuseum. Retrieved 23 August 2016.  ^ a b " Estonian History Museum
Estonian History Museum
- Great Guild Hall". Tallinn. Retrieved 23 August 2016.  ^ " Estonian Maritime Museum
Estonian Maritime Museum
– Fat Margaret's Tower". Tallinn. Retrieved 23 August 2016.  ^ a b "Tallinna Lunnamuuseum". Lunnamuuseum.ee. Retrieved 23 August 2016.  ^ "ABOUT THE MUSEUM". linnamuuseum.ee. Retrieved 23 August 2016.  ^ "Museum of Occupations". Visitestonia.com. Retrieved 23 August 2016.  ^ "Hotel Viru & KGB Museum". Visittallinn.ee. Retrieved 23 August 2016.  ^ "Estonian Museum of Natural History". Visittallinn.ee. Retrieved 23 August 2016.  ^ "Estonian Health Care Museum". Visitestonia.com. Retrieved 13 September 2016.  ^ "Kumu - Art lives here!". Kumu.ekm.ee. Retrieved 13 September 2016.  ^ "About the museum". Kadriorumuuseum.ekm.ee. Retrieved 13 September 2016.  ^ "Estonian Museum of Applied Art and Design". Etdm.ee. Retrieved 13 September 2016.  ^ "Museum of Estonian Drinking Culture". Visittallinn.ee. Retrieved 13 September 2016.  ^ a b Estonian Song and Dance Celebrations Estonian Song and Dance Celebration Foundation ^ "Lauluväljakul oli teisel kontserdil 110 000 inimest". Delfi.  ^ " Estonia
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- Postimees (in Estonian). Postimees. 14 May 2014. Retrieved 13 October 2016.  ^ "Martsipani ajalugu". www.kohvikmaiasmokk.ee (in Estonian). AS Kalev. Retrieved 13 October 2016.  ^ Gendlin, Vladimir; Shaposhnikov, Vasily (19 May 2003). " Estonia
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- Postimees (in Estonian). Postimees. 10 October 2012. Retrieved 13 October 2016.  ^ "Kuidas vaeste lesknaiste toidust sai Tallinna sümbol". Postimees Tarbija24 (in Estonian). Postimees. 25 February 2013. Retrieved 13 October 2016.  ^ Copterline
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Council. "Sõlmiti koostöökokkulepe Tallinna Kesklinna Valitsuse ja Carcassonne'i linna vahel". Retrieved 15 February 2013.  ^ "Dartford, Tallinn's twin town". www.citypaper.lv.  ^ "Twin towns".  ^ "Twin Towns – Graz
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Riga
City
City
Council. Retrieved 27 July 2009. 

Bibliography[edit]

See also: Bibliography of the history of Tallinn

External links[edit]

Listen to this article (info/dl)

This audio file was created from a revision of the article "Tallinn" dated 2006-10-03, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. (Audio help) More spoken articles

The Website of the City
City
of Tallinn
Tallinn
(official) Tallinn
Tallinn
travel guide from Wikivoyage Media related to Tallinn
Tallinn
at Wikimedia Commons

Panoramas of Tallinn
Tallinn
Old Town 3D model of Tallinn
Tallinn
Old Town Historical footage of Tallinn, 1920 (archive), filmportal.de Tallinn
Tallinn
at Curlie (based on DMOZ) kasiino guide

Articles related to Tallinn

v t e

Administrative districts (linnaosad) and subdistricts (asumid) of Tallinn

Haabersti

Astangu Haabersti Kakumäe Mäeküla Mustjõe Õismäe Pikaliiva Rocca al Mare Tiskre Väike-Õismäe Veskimetsa Vismeistri

Kesklinn

Aegna Juhkentali Kadriorg Kassisaba Keldrimäe Kitseküla Kompassi Luite Maakri Mõigu Raua Sadama Sibulaküla Südalinn Tatari Tõnismäe Torupilli Ülemistejärve Uus Maailm Vanalinn Veerenni

Kristiine

Järve Lilleküla Tondi

Lasnamäe

Katleri Kurepõllu Kuristiku Laagna Loopealse Mustakivi Pae Paevälja Priisle Seli Sikupilli Sõjamäe Tondiraba Ülemiste Uuslinn Väo

Mustamäe

Kadaka Mustamäe Sääse Siili

Nõmme

Hiiu Kivimäe Laagri Liiva Männiku Nõmme Pääsküla Rahumäe Raudalu Vana-Mustamäe

Pirita

Iru Kloostrimetsa Kose Laiaküla Lepiku Maarjamäe Mähe Merivälja Pirita

Põhja-Tallinn

Kalamaja Karjamaa Kelmiküla Kopli Merimetsa Paljassaare Pelgulinn Pelguranna Sitsi

v t e

Capitals of European states and territories

Capitals of dependent territories and states whose sovereignty is disputed shown in italics.

Western

Amsterdam, Netherlands1 Andorra la Vella, Andorra Bern, Switzerland Brussels, Belgium2 Douglas, Isle of Man (UK) Dublin, Ireland London, United Kingdom Luxembourg, Luxembourg Paris, France Saint Helier, Jersey (UK) Saint Peter Port, Guernsey (UK)

Northern

Copenhagen, Denmark Helsinki, Finland Longyearbyen, Svalbard (Norway) Mariehamn,  Åland
Åland
Islands (Finland) Nuuk, Greenland (Denmark) Olonkinbyen, Jan Mayen (Norway) Oslo, Norway Reykjavík, Iceland Stockholm, Sweden Tórshavn, Faroe Islands (Denmark)

Central

Berlin, Germany Bratislava, Slovakia Budapest, Hungary Ljubljana, Slovenia Prague, Czech Republic Vaduz, Liechtenstein Vienna, Austria Warsaw, Poland

Southern

Ankara, Turkey3 Athens, Greece Belgrade, Serbia Bucharest, Romania Gibraltar, Gibraltar (UK) Lisbon, Portugal Madrid, Spain Monaco, Monaco Nicosia, Cyprus4 North Nicosia, Northern Cyprus4, 5 Podgorica, Montenegro Pristina, Kosovo5 Rome, Italy San Marino, San Marino Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina Skopje, Macedonia Sofia, Bulgaria Tirana, Albania Valletta, Malta Vatican City, Vatican City Zagreb, Croatia

Eastern

Astana, Kazakhstan3 Baku, Azerbaijan3 Chișinău, Moldova Kiev, Ukraine Minsk, Belarus Moscow, Russia3 Riga, Latvia Stepanakert, Artsakh4, 5 Sukhumi, Abkhazia3, 5 Tallinn, Estonia Tbilisi, Georgia3 Tiraspol, Transnistria5 Tskhinvali, South Ossetia3, 5 Vilnius, Lithuania Yerevan, Armenia3

1 Also the capital of the Kingdom of the Netherlands 2 Also the seat of the European Union, see Institutional seats of the European Union
European Union
and Brussels
Brussels
and the European Union 3 Transcontinental country 4 Entirely in Southwest Asia but having socio-political connections with Europe 5 Partially recognised country

v t e

Cities and towns (Linnad) of Estonia

Abja-Paluoja Antsla Elva Haapsalu Jõgeva Jõhvi Kallaste Kärdla Karksi-Nuia Kehra Keila Kilingi-Nõmme Kiviõli Kohtla-Järve Kunda Kuressaare Lihula Loksa Maardu Mõisaküla Mustvee Narva Narva-Jõesuu Otepää Paide Paldiski Pärnu Põltsamaa Põlva Püssi Rakvere Räpina Rapla Saue Sillamäe Sindi Suure-Jaani Tallinn Tamsalu Tapa Tartu Tõrva Türi Valga Viljandi Võhma Võru

Jaanilinn (Ivangorod) and Petseri (Pechory) were annexed by the Soviet Union in 1945 and are currently part of Russia.

v t e

Municipalities of Harju County

Urban municipalities

Keila Loksa Maardu Tallinn

Rural municipalities

Anija Harku Jõelähtme Kiili Kose Kuusalu Lääne-Harju Raasiku Rae Saku Saue Viimsi

v t e

Members of the Hanseatic League
Hanseatic League
by Quarter

Chief cities shown in smallcaps. Free Imperial Cities of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
shown in italics.

Wendish

Lübeck

Anklam Demmin Greifswald Hamburg Kolberg (Kołobrzeg) Lüneburg Rostock Rügenwalde (Darłowo) Stettin (Szczecin) Stolp (Słupsk) Stockholm Stralsund Visby Wismar

Saxon

Brunswick Magdeburg

Berlin Bremen Erfurt Frankfurt an der Oder Goslar Mühlhausen Nordhausen

Baltic

Danzig (Gdańsk)

Breslau (Wrocław) Dorpat (Tartu) Elbing (Elbląg) Königsberg
Königsberg
(Kaliningrad) Cracow (Kraków) Reval (Tallinn) Riga
Riga
(Rīga) Thorn (Toruń)

Westphalian

Cologne
Cologne
1 Dortmund
Dortmund
1

Deventer Groningen Kampen Münster Osnabrück Soest

Kontore

Principal

Bryggen
Bryggen
(Bergen) Hanzekantoor

Bruges Antwerp2 

Steelyard
Steelyard
(London) Peterhof (Novgorod)

Subsidiary

Bishop's Lynn Falsterbo Ipswich Kaunas Malmö Polotsk Pskov

Other cities

Bristol Boston Damme Leith Herford Hull Newcastle Stargard Yarmouth York Zutphen Zwolle

1 Cologne
Cologne
and Dortmund
Dortmund
were both capital of the Westphalian Quarter at different times. 2 Antwerp
Antwerp
gained importance once Bruges
Bruges
became inaccessible due to the silting of the Zwin
Zwin
channel.

v t e

Capital cities of the member states of the European Union

Netherlands: Amsterdam

Greece: Athens

Germany: Berlin

Slovakia: Bratislava

Belgium: Brussels

Romania: Bucharest

Hungary: Budapest

Denmark: Copenhagen

Ireland: Dublin

Finland: Helsinki

Portugal: Lisbon

Slovenia: Ljubljana

United Kingdom: London

Luxembourg: Luxembourg

Spain: Madrid

Cyprus: Nicosia

France: Paris

Czech Republic: Prague

Latvia: Riga

Italy: Rome

Bulgaria: Sofia

Sweden: Stockholm

Estonia: Tallinn

Malta: Valletta

Austria: Vienna

Lithuania: Vilnius

Poland: Warsaw

Croatia: Zagreb

v t e

European Capitals of Culture

1985 Athens 1986 Florence 1987 Amsterdam 1988 West Berlin 1989 Paris 1990 Glasgow 1991 Dublin 1992 Madrid 1993 Antwerp 1994 Lisbon 1995 Luxembourg
Luxembourg
City 1996 Copenhagen 1997 Thessaloniki 1998 Stockholm 1999 Weimar 2000 Reykjavík Bergen Helsinki Brussels Prague Kraków Santiago de Compostela Avignon Bologna 2001 Rotterdam Porto 2002 Bruges Salamanca 2003 Graz Plovdiv 2004 Genoa Lille 2005 Cork 2006 Patras 2007 Luxembourg
Luxembourg
City
City
and Greater Region Sibiu 2008 Liverpool Stavanger 2009 Linz Vilnius 2010 Ruhr Istanbul Pécs 2011 Turku Tallinn 2012 Maribor Guimarães 2013 Košice Marseille 2014 Umeå Riga 2015 Mons Plzeň 2016 San Sebastián Wrocław 2017 Aarhus Paphos 2018 Valletta Leeuwarden 2019 Plovdiv Matera 2020 Rijeka Galway 2021 Timișoara Elefsina Novi Sad 2022 Kaunas Esch-sur-Alzette

v t e

Eurovision
Eurovision
Song Contest

History Host cities Languages Presenters Rules Voting Winners Winners discography

Contests

1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018

Countries

Active

Albania Armenia Australia Austria Azerbaijan Belarus Belgium Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Georgia Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Israel Italy Latvia Lithuania Macedonia Malta Moldova Montenegro Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russia San Marino Serbia Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Ukraine United Kingdom

Inactive

Andorra Bosnia and Herzegovina Luxembourg Monaco Morocco Slovakia Turkey

Former

Lebanon Serbia and Montenegro Yugoslavia

Relations

Armenia–Azerbaijan Russia–Ukraine

National selections

Current

Albania Armenia Belarus Denmark Estonia Finland France Germany Hungary Iceland Israel Italy Latvia Lithuania Malta Moldova Montenegro Norway Poland Portugal Romania Serbia Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Ukraine United Kingdom

Former

Austria Azerbaijan Belgium Bosnia & Herzegovina Bulgaria Croatia Estonia Finland Greece

Ellinikós Telikós Eurosong - A MAD Show

Ireland

The Late Late Show You're a Star

Israel Latvia

Eirodziesma Dziesma

Lithuania Macedonia Malta Montenegro Netherlands Serbia and Montenegro Spain Switzerland United Kingdom Yugoslavia

Other awards

Marcel Bezençon Awards OGAE

OGAE
OGAE
Video Contest OGAE
OGAE
Second Chance Contest

Barbara Dex Award

Television and concerts

Eurovision Song Contest
Eurovision Song Contest
Previews Songs of Europe Kvalifikacija za Millstreet Congratulations: 50 Years of the Eurovision
Eurovision
Song Contest Best of Eurovision Eurovision
Eurovision
Song Contest's Greatest Hits

Category Portal

v t e

World Heritage Sites in Estonia

Historic Centre (Old Town) of Tallinn Struve Geodetic Arc
Struve Geodetic Arc
(with nine other countries)

v t e

Tallinn
Tallinn
landmarks

Buildings and structures

Toompea
Toompea
Castle Town Hall Old Thomas Kiek in de Kök St Mary's Cathedral St. Olaf's church St. Nicholas' Church Church of the Holy Ghost Alexander Nevsky Cathedral Saint Catherine's Monastery Town Hall Pharmacy Great Guild Pikk Hermann
Pikk Hermann
tower Knighthood House Stenbock House Kadriorg
Kadriorg
Palace Pirita
Pirita
Monastery Glehn Castle
Glehn Castle
( Tallinn
Tallinn
Observatory) Maarjamäe
Maarjamäe
Manor TV Tower Linnahall Patarei Sea Fortress-Prison Independence War Victory Column Bronze Soldier Charles Leroux Monument Russalka Memorial Raekoja plats Walls of Tallinn House of the Brotherhood of Blackheads

Precincts

Historic Centre ( Toompea
Toompea
Hill) Kadriorg Kalamaja

Nature and parks

Tallinn
Tallinn
Zoo Tallinn
Tallinn
Botanic Garden Lake Ülemiste Lake Harku Pirita
Pirita
River Aegna
Aegna
island Kadriorg
Kadriorg
Park (Japanese Garden) Danish King's Garden Kanuti Garden Kuberneri Garden Komandandi Garden Toompark Hirvepark Harjumägi Lindamägi Tammsaare Park Police Garden Löwenruh Park Glehn Park Jüriöö Park Pae Park Lillepi Park Kakumäe
Kakumäe
Coastal Park Kopli
Kopli
cemetery Kalamaja
Kalamaja
cemetery Metsakalmistu cemetery

Beaches

Pirita
Pirita
Beach Stroomi Beach Kakumäe
Kakumäe
Beach Harku Beach Pikakari Beach

Cultural settings

Museums and galleries

Kumu (Art Museum of Estonia
Estonia
main branch) Mikkel Museum Estonian Open Air Museum
Estonian Open Air Museum
(Kolu kõrts) Estonian Maritime Museum
Estonian Maritime Museum
(Seaplane Harbour) Estonian Firefighting Museum Estonian History Museum Estonian Museum of Natural History Estonian Health Care Museum Estonian Theatre and Music Museum Museum of Estonian Architecture Museum of Occupations Tallinn
Tallinn
Car Museum

Theatres

Estonia
Estonia
Theatre Estonian Drama Theatre Theatre NO99 Russian Theatre Estonian Puppet Theatre Tallinn
Tallinn
City
City
Theatre Von Krahl Theatre

Other

National Library of Estonia Song Festival Grounds Culture Factory Polymer

Science and education

Tallinn
Tallinn
University Tallinn University
Tallinn University
of Technology Estonian Academy of Arts Estonian Academy of Music and Theatre Estonian Academy of Security Sciences Estonian Maritime Academy Tallinn University
Tallinn University
of Applied Sciences Estonian Business School Estonian Academy of Sciences

Sports

Pirita
Pirita
Yachting Centre A. Le Coq Arena Kadriorg
Kadriorg
Stadium Kalevi Keskstaadion Saku Suurhall Kalev Sports Hall Tondiraba
Tondiraba
Ice Hall Pirita
Pirita
Velodrome Mustamäe
Mustamäe
Ski Jumping Hill Tallinna Hipodroom Pirita-Kose- Kloostrimetsa
Kloostrimetsa
Circuit

Transportation

Port of Tallinn

Tallinn
Tallinn
Passenger Port Muuga Cargo Port Paljassaare
Paljassaare
Harbour

Bekker Port Tallinn
Tallinn
Airport Railway station Tallinn
Tallinn
Bus Station Tallinna Linnatranspordi AS

Events

Estonian Song Festival Estonian Dance Festival Tallinn
Tallinn
Black Nights Film Festival Tallinn
Tallinn
Old Town Days Tallinn
Tallinn
Marathon Tallinn
Tallinn
Music Week Tallinn
Tallinn
Christmas Market Õllesummer Tallinn
Tallinn
Legends

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 160461922 LCCN: n79065462 ISNI: 0000 0004 0396 7508 GND: 4076684-6 BNF:

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