HOME
The Info List - Estonia


--- Advertisement ---



Estonia
Estonia
(/ɛˈstoʊniə/ ( listen);[11][12] Estonian: Eesti [ˈeːsti]), officially the Republic
Republic
of Estonia
Estonia
(Estonian: Eesti Vabariik), is a sovereign state in Northern Europe.[13] It is bordered to the north by the Gulf of Finland
Gulf of Finland
with Finland
Finland
on the other side, to the west by the Baltic Sea, to the south by Latvia
Latvia
(343 km), and to the east by Lake Peipus
Lake Peipus
and Russia
Russia
(338.6 km).[14] Across the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
lies Sweden
Sweden
in the west and Finland
Finland
in the north. The territory of Estonia
Estonia
consists of a mainland and 2,222 islands in the Baltic Sea,[15] covering a total area of 45,227 km2 (17,462 sq mi), water 2,839 km2 (1,096 sq mi), land area 42,388 km2 (16,366 sq mi), and is influenced by a humid continental climate. Ethnic Estonians
Estonians
– the largest ethnic group in country – are a Finnic people. The territory of Estonia
Estonia
has been inhabited since at least 9000 BC. Ancient Estonians
Estonians
were some of the last European pagans, and were Christianized during a crusade in the 13th century. After centuries of successive German, Danish, Swedish, and Russian rule, Estonians experienced what has been described as a "national awakening" in the 19th and early 20th centuries. On 24 February 1918 independence was declared and later secured through a War of Independence. After democratic rule from 1918 to 1934, Estonia
Estonia
became autocratic during the Era of Silence. During World War II, Estonia
Estonia
suffered successive occupations by Soviet Union, Nazi Germany, and Soviet Union
Soviet Union
again, resulting in its annexation as the Estonian SSR. After the loss of its de facto independence, Estonia's de jure state continuity was preserved by diplomats and government in exile. In 1987 the peaceful Singing Revolution
Singing Revolution
against Soviet rule began, culminating with restoration of its de facto independence on 20 August 1991. Since restoration of its independence, Estonia
Estonia
has been a democratic unitary parliamentary republic divided into fifteen counties. Its capital and largest city is Tallinn. With a population of 1.3 million, it is one of the least-populous member states of the European Union, Eurozone, OECD, Schengen Area, and of NATO. Estonia
Estonia
is a developed country with an advanced, high-income economy that as of 2011 is among the fastest growing in the EU.[16] It ranks very high in the Human Development Index
Human Development Index
of the United Nations,[7] and it performs favourably in measurements of economic freedom, civil liberties and press freedom (3rd in the world in 2012 and 2007).[17] The 2015 PISA test places Estonian high school students 3rd in the world, behind Singapore and Japan.[18] Citizens of Estonia
Estonia
are provided with universal health care,[19] free education,[20] and the longest-paid maternity leave in the OECD.[21] Since independence the country has rapidly developed its IT sector, becoming one of the world's most digitally advanced societies.[22] In 2005 Estonia
Estonia
became the first nation to hold elections over the Internet, and in 2014 the first nation to provide e-residency.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History

2.1 Prehistory and Viking Age 2.2 Middle Ages 2.3 Swedish Era 2.4 Russian Era and National Awakening 2.5 Independence 2.6 Second World War 2.7 Soviet Period 2.8 Restoration of Independence 2.9 Territorial history timeline

3 Geography

3.1 Biodiversity

4 Politics

4.1 Parliament 4.2 Government 4.3 Law 4.4 Administrative divisions 4.5 Foreign relations 4.6 Military

5 Economy

5.1 Economic indicators 5.2 Historic development 5.3 Resources 5.4 Industry and environment 5.5 Trade

6 Demographics

6.1 Society 6.2 Urbanization 6.3 Religion 6.4 Languages 6.5 Education and science

7 Culture

7.1 Music 7.2 Literature 7.3 Media 7.4 Architecture 7.5 Holidays 7.6 Cuisine 7.7 Sports

8 International rankings 9 See also 10 Notes 11 References 12 Bibliography 13 Further reading 14 External links

Etymology[edit] In the Estonian language, the oldest known endonym of the Estonians was maarahvas,[23] meaning "country people" or "people of the soil". The land inhabited by Estonians
Estonians
was called Maavald meaning "Country Realm" or "Land Realm". One hypothesis regarding the modern name of Estonia
Estonia
is that it originated from the Aesti, a people described by the Roman historian Tacitus
Tacitus
in his Germania (ca. 98 AD).[24] The historic Aesti
Aesti
were allegedly Baltic people, whereas the modern Estonians
Estonians
are Finno-Ugric. The geographical areas between Aesti
Aesti
and Estonia
Estonia
do not match, with Aesti
Aesti
being farther south. Ancient Scandinavian sagas refer to a land called Eistland, as the country is still called in Icelandic, and close to the Danish, German, Dutch, Swedish and Norwegian term Estland for the country. Early Latin and other ancient versions of the name are Estia and Hestia.[25] Esthonia was a common alternative English spelling before 1921;[26][27] the country was admitted to the League of Nations
League of Nations
under this name, and it continued in the international organization's records until December 1926.[28] History[edit] Main article: History of Estonia Prehistory and Viking Age[edit] Main articles: Ancient Estonia
Ancient Estonia
and Oeselians

Bronze Age
Bronze Age
stone-cist graves

Human settlement in Estonia
Estonia
became possible 13,000 to 11,000 years ago, when the ice from the last glacial era melted. The oldest known settlement in Estonia
Estonia
is the Pulli settlement, which was on the banks of the river Pärnu, near the town of Sindi, in south-western Estonia. According to radiocarbon dating it was settled around 11,000 years ago.[29] The earliest human inhabitation during the Mesolithic
Mesolithic
period is connected to the Kunda culture, named after the town of Kunda in northern Estonia. At that time the country was covered with forests, and people lived in semi-nomadic communities near bodies of water. Subsistence activities consisted of hunting, gathering and fishing.[30] Around 4900 BC appear ceramics of the neolithic period, known as Narva
Narva
culture.[31] Starting from around 3200 BC the Corded Ware culture appeared; this included new activities like primitive agriculture and animal husbandry.[32] The Bronze Age
Bronze Age
started around 1800 BC, and saw the establishment of the first hill fort settlements.[33] A transition from hunting-fishing-gathering subsistence to single-farm-based settlement started around 1000 BC, and was complete by the beginning of the Iron Age around 500 BC.[29][34] The large amount of bronze objects indicate the existence of active communication with Scandinavian and Germanic tribes.[35]

Iron Age
Iron Age
artefacts of a hoard from Kumna[36]

A more troubled and war-ridden middle Iron Age
Iron Age
followed, with external threats appearing from different directions. Several Scandinavian sagas referred to major confrontations with Estonians, notably when Estonians
Estonians
defeated and killed the Swedish king Ingvar.[37][38] Similar threats appeared in the east, where Russian principalities were expanding westward. In 1030 Yaroslav the Wise
Yaroslav the Wise
defeated Estonians
Estonians
and established a fort in modern-day Tartu; this foothold lasted until an Estonian tribe, the Sosols, destroyed it in 1061, followed by their raid on Pskov.[39][40][41][42] Around the 11th century, the Scandinavian Viking era around the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
was succeeded by the Baltic Viking era, with seaborne raids by Curonians
Curonians
and by Estonians from the island of Saaremaa, known as Oeselians. In 1187 Estonians (Oeselians), Curonians
Curonians
or/and Karelians
Karelians
sacked Sigtuna, which was a major city of Sweden
Sweden
at the time.[43][44] In the early centuries AD, political and administrative subdivisions began to emerge in Estonia. Two larger subdivisions appeared: the parish (Estonian: kihelkond) and the county (Estonian: maakond), which consisted of multiple parishes. A parish was led by elders and centred around a hill fort; in some rare cases a parish had multiple forts. By the 13th century Estonia
Estonia
consisted of eight major counties: Harjumaa, Järvamaa, Läänemaa, Revala, Saaremaa, Sakala, Ugandi, and Virumaa; and six minor, single-parish counties: Alempois, Jogentagana, Mõhu, Nurmekund, Soopoolitse, and Vaiga. Counties were independent entities and engaged only in a loose co-operation against foreign threats.[45][46] There is little known of early Estonian pagan religious practices. The Chronicle of Henry of Livonia
Chronicle of Henry of Livonia
mentions Tharapita as the superior god of the Oeselians. Spiritual practices were guided by shamans, with sacred groves, especially oak groves, serving as places of worship.[47][48] Middle Ages[edit] Main articles: Livonian Crusade, Terra Mariana, and Danish Estonia

Medieval Estonia
Estonia
and Livonia
Livonia
after the crusade

In 1199 Pope Innocent III
Innocent III
declared a crusade to "defend the Christians of Livonia".[49] Fighting reached Estonia
Estonia
in 1206, when Danish king Valdemar II
Valdemar II
unsuccessfully invaded Saaremaa. The German Livonian Brothers of the Sword, who had previously subjugated Livonians, Latgalians, and Selonians, started campaigning against the Estonians in 1208, and over next few years both sides made numerous raids and counter-raids. A major leader of the Estonian resistance was Lembitu, an elder of Sakala County, but in 1217 the Estonians
Estonians
suffered a significant defeat in the Battle of St. Matthew's Day, where Lembitu was killed. In 1219, Valdemar II
Valdemar II
landed at Lyndanisse, defeated the Estonians
Estonians
in battle, and started conquering Northern Estonia.[50][51] The next year, Sweden
Sweden
invaded Western Estonia, but were repelled by the Oeselians. In 1223, a major revolt ejected the Germans
Germans
and Danes from the whole of Estonia, except Reval, but the crusaders soon resumed their offensive, and in 1227, Saaremaa
Saaremaa
was the last county to surrender.[52][53] After the crusade, the territory of present-day Southern Estonia
Estonia
and Latvia
Latvia
was named Terra Mariana, but later it became known simply as Livonia.[54] Northern- Estonia
Estonia
became the Danish Duchy of Estonia, while the rest was divided between the Sword Brothers and prince-bishoprics of Dorpat
Dorpat
and Ösel–Wiek. In 1236, after suffering a major defeat, the Sword Brothers merged into the Teutonic Order becoming the Livonian Order.[55] In the next decades there were several uprisings against foreign rulers on Saaremaa. In 1343, a major rebellion started, known as the St. George's Night Uprising, encompassing the whole area of Northern- Estonia
Estonia
and Saaremaa. The Teutonic Order
Teutonic Order
finished suppressing the rebellion in 1345, and the next year the Danish king sold his possessions in Estonia
Estonia
to the Order.[56][57] The unsuccessful rebellion led to a consolidation of power for the Baltic German minority.[58] For the subsequent centuries they remained the ruling elite in both cities and the countryside.[59]

Kuressaare Castle
Kuressaare Castle
in Saaremaa
Saaremaa
dates back to the 1380s

During the crusade, Reval
Reval
(Tallinn) was founded, as the capital of Danish Estonia, on the site of Lyndanisse. In 1248 Reval
Reval
received full town rights and adopted the Lübeck law.[60] The Hanseatic League controlled trade on the Baltic Sea, and overall the four largest towns in Estonia
Estonia
became members: Reval, Dorpat
Dorpat
(Tartu), Pernau
Pernau
(Pärnu), and Fellin
Fellin
(Viljandi). Reval
Reval
acted as a trade intermediary between Novgorod
Novgorod
and Western Hanseatic cities, while Dorpat
Dorpat
filled the same role with Pskov. Many guilds were formed during that period, but only a very few allowed the participation of native Estonians.[61] Protected by their stone walls and alliance with the Hansa, prosperous cities like Reval
Reval
and Dorpat
Dorpat
repeatedly defied other rulers of Livonia.[62] After the decline of the Teutonic Order
Teutonic Order
after its defeat in the Battle of Grunwald
Battle of Grunwald
in 1410, and the defeat of the Livonian Order in the Battle of Swienta on 1 September 1435, the Livonian Confederation Agreement was signed on 4 December 1435.[63] The Reformation in Europe
Europe
began in 1517, and soon spread to Livonia despite opposition by the Livonian Order.[64] Towns were the first to embrace Protestantism in the 1520s, and by the 1530s the majority of the gentry had adopted Lutheranism
Lutheranism
for themselves and their peasant serfs.[65][66] Church services were now conducted in vernacular language, which initially meant German, but in the 1530s the first religious services in Estonian also took place.[65][67] During the 16th century, the expansionist monarchies of Muscowy, Sweden, and Poland– Lithuania
Lithuania
consolidated power, posing a growing threat to decentralised Livonia
Livonia
weakened by disputes between cities, nobility, bishops, and the Order.[65][68] Swedish Era[edit] Main article: Swedish Estonia

"Academia Dorpatensis" (now University of Tartu) was founded in 1632 by King Gustavus as the second university in the kingdom of Sweden. After the king's death it became known as “Academia Gustaviana”.

In 1558, Tsar Ivan the Terrible
Ivan the Terrible
of Russia
Russia
invaded Livonia, starting the Livonian War. The Livonian Order
Livonian Order
was decisively defeated in 1560, prompting Livonian factions to seek foreign protection. The majority of Livonia
Livonia
accepted Polish-Lithuanian rule, while Reval
Reval
and the nobles of Northern Estonia
Estonia
swore loyalty to the Swedish king, and the Bishop of Ösel-Wiek sold his lands to the Danish king. Russian forces gradually conquered the majority of Livonia, but in the late 1570s the Polish-Lithuanian and Swedish armies started their own offensives and the bloody war finally ended in 1583 with Russian defeat.[68][69] As result of the war, Northern Estonia
Estonia
became Swedish Duchy of Estonia, Southern Estonia
Estonia
became Polish-Lithuanian Duchy of Livonia, and Saaremaa
Saaremaa
remained under Danish control.[70] In 1600, the Polish-Swedish War
Polish-Swedish War
broke out, causing further devastation. The protracted war ended in 1629 with Sweden
Sweden
gaining Livonia, including the regions of Southern Estonia
Estonia
and Northern Latvia.[71] Danish Saaremaa
Saaremaa
was transferred to Sweden
Sweden
in 1645.[72] The wars had halved the Estonian population from about 250–270,000 people in the mid 16th century to 115–120,000 in the 1630s.[73] Serfdom was retained under Swedish rule but legal reforms took place which strengthened peasants' land usage and inheritance rights, resulting this period's reputation of the "Good Old Swedish Time" in people's historical memory.[74] Swedish king Gustaf II Adolf established gymnasiums in Reval
Reval
and Dorpat; the latter was upgraded to Tartu
Tartu
University in 1632. Printing presses
Printing presses
were also established in both towns. In the 1680s the beginnings of Estonian elementary education appeared, largely due to efforts of Bengt Gottfried Forselius, who also introduced orthographical reforms to written Estonian.[75] The population of Estonia
Estonia
grew rapidly for a 60–70-year period, until the Great Famine of 1695–97 in which some 70,000–75,000 people perished – about 20% of the population.[76] Russian Era and National Awakening[edit] Main articles: Governorate of Estonia, Governorate of Livonia, and Estonian national awakening

Carl Robert Jakobson
Carl Robert Jakobson
played a key role in the Estonian national awakening.

The front page of Perno Postimees, the first Estonian language periodical newspaper.

In 1700, the Great Northern War
Great Northern War
started, and by 1710 the whole of Estonia
Estonia
was conquered by the Russian Empire.[77] The war again devastated the population of Estonia, with 1712 population estimated at 150,000–170,000.[78] Russian administration restored all the political and landholding rights of Baltic Germans
Baltic Germans
.[79] Rights of Estonian peasants reached their lowest point, as serfdom completely dominated agricultural relations during the 18th century.[80] Serfdom was formally abolished in 1816–1819, but this initially had a very little practical effect; major improvements in rights of the peasantry started with reforms in the mid-19th century.[81] The Estonian national awakening
Estonian national awakening
began in the 1850s as the leading figures started promoting national identity among the general populace. Economic basis for it was formed by widespread farm buyouts by peasants, forming a class of Estonian landowners. In 1857 Johann Voldemar Jannsen started publishing first Estonian language
Estonian language
newspaper and began popularizing self-denomination eestlane (Estonian).[82] Schoolmaster Carl Robert Jakobson
Carl Robert Jakobson
and clergyman Jakob Hurt
Jakob Hurt
became leading figures in national movement, encouraging Estonian peasants to take pride in themselves and in their ethnic identity.[83] The first nationwide movements formed, such as campaign to establish Estonian language Alexander School, the Society of Estonian Literati, the Estonian Students' Society, and the first national song festival which was held in 1869 in Tartu.[84][85][86] Linguistic reforms helped to develop the Estonian language.[87] National epic Kalevipoeg
Kalevipoeg
was published in 1862, and in 1870 were the first performances of Estonian theatre.[88][89] In 1878 a major split happened in national movement. Moderate wing led by Hurt focused on development of culture and Estonian education, while radical wing led by Jacobson started demanding increased political and economical rights.[85] In the late 19th century the Russification
Russification
period started, as central government initiated various administrative and cultural measures to tie Baltic governorates more closely to the empire.[84] Russian language was used throughout education system and many social cultural activities were suppressed.[89] Still, some administrative changes aimed at reducing power of Baltic German institutions did prove useful to Estonians.[84] In the late 1890s there was new surge of national movement with rise of prominent figures like Jaan Tõnisson
Jaan Tõnisson
and Konstantin Päts. In early 20th century Estonians
Estonians
started taking over control of local governments in towns from Germans.[90] During the 1905 Revolution the first legal Estonian parties were founded. An Estonian national congress was convened and demanded unification of Estonian areas into a single autonomous territory and an end to Russification. During the unrest peasants and workers attacked manor houses. The Tsarist government responded with a brutal crackdown; some 500 people were executed and hundreds more were jailed or deported to Siberia.[91][92] Independence[edit] Main articles: History of Estonia
History of Estonia
(1920–39), Estonian War of Independence, and Era of Silence

Declaration of independence in Pärnu
Pärnu
on 23 February 1918. One of the first images of the Republic.

Estonian armoured train during the War of Independence.

In 1917, after February Revolution, the governorate of Estonia
Estonia
was expanded to include Estonian speaking areas of Livonia, and granted autonomy enabling formation of the Estonian Provincial Assembly.[93] Bolsheviks
Bolsheviks
seized power during the October Revolution, and disbanded the Provincial Assembly. However the Provincial Assembly established Salvation Committee, and during the short interlude between Russian retreat and German arrival, the committee declared independence of Estonia
Estonia
on 24 February 1918, and formed Estonian Provisional Government. German occupation immediately followed, but after their defeat in World War I the Germans
Germans
were forced to hand over the power to the Provisional Government on 19 November.[94][95] On 28 November 1918 Soviet Russia
Russia
invaded, starting Estonian War of Independence.[96] Red Army
Red Army
reached within 30 km from Tallinn, but in January 1919 Estonian Army
Estonian Army
led by Johan Laidoner
Johan Laidoner
went on counter-offensive, ejecting bolshevik forces from Estonia
Estonia
within few months. Renewed Soviet attacks failed, and in spring Estonian army in cooperation with White Russian forces advanced into Russia
Russia
and Latvia.[97][98] In June 1919 Estonia
Estonia
defeated German Landeswehr which had attempted to dominate Latvia, restoring Ulmanis government to power there. After collapse of White Russian forces, the Red Army launched a major offensive against Narva
Narva
in late 1919, but failed to achieve breakthrough. On 2 February 1920 Tartu
Tartu
Peace Treaty was signed between Estonia
Estonia
and Soviet Russia, with the latter pledging to permanently give up all sovereign claims to Estonia.[97][99] In April 1919 Estonian Constituent Assembly
Estonian Constituent Assembly
was elected. The Constituent Assembly passed a sweeping land reform expropriating large estates, and adopted a new highly liberal constitution establishing Estonia
Estonia
as a parliamentary democracy.[100][101] In 1924 Soviet Union organized a communist coup attempt which quickly failed.[102] Estonia’s cultural autonomy law for ethnic minorities, adopted in 1925, is widely recognized as one of the most liberal in the world at that time.[103] The Great Depression
Great Depression
put heavy pressure on Estonia’s political system, and in 1933 right-wing Vaps movement
Vaps movement
spearheaded a constitutional reform establishing a strong presidency.[104][105] On 12 March 1934 acting head of state Konstantin Päts
Konstantin Päts
declared state of emergency, falsely claiming that Vaps movement
Vaps movement
had been planning a coup. Päts together with general Johan Laidoner
Johan Laidoner
and Kaarel Eenpalu established an authoritarian regime, the parliament was dissolved and newly established Patriotic League became the only legal political party.[106] For legitimizing the regime a new constitution was adopted and elections were held in 1938. Opposition candidates were allowed to participate, but only as independents, opposition parties remained banned.[107] Päts regime was relatively benign compared to other authoritarian regimes in interwar Europe, and there was no systematic terror against political opponents.[108] Estonia
Estonia
joined League of Nations
League of Nations
in 1921.[109] Attempts to establish larger alliance of together with Finland, Poland, and Latvia
Latvia
failed, only mutual defence pact with Latvia
Latvia
was signed in 1923, and later followed up with formation of Baltic Entente
Baltic Entente
in 1934.[110][111] In 1930s Estonia
Estonia
also engaged in secret military cooperation with Finland.[112] Non-aggression pacts were signed with Soviet Union
Soviet Union
in 1932, and with Germany
Germany
in 1939.[113][109] In 1938 Estonia
Estonia
declared neutrality, but this proved futile in World War II
World War II
that soon followed.[114] Second World War[edit] Main articles: Estonia
Estonia
in World War II
World War II
and Occupation of the Baltic states

The Red Army
Red Army
entering Estonia
Estonia
in 1939 after Estonia
Estonia
had been forced to sign the Bases Treaty.

On 23 August 1939 Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
and the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
signed the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact. The pact’s secret protocol divided Eastern- Europe
Europe
into spheres of influence, with Estonia
Estonia
belonging to the Soviet sphere.[115] On 24 September, the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
presented an ultimatum, demanding that Estonia
Estonia
sign a treaty of mutual assistance which would allow Soviet military bases into the country. The Estonian government felt that it had no choice but to comply, and the treaty was signed on 28 September.[116] In May 1940, Red Army
Red Army
forces in bases were set in combat readiness and, on June 14, the Soviet Union instituted a full naval and air blockade on Estonia. On the same day, the airliner Kaleva was shot down by Soviet Air Force. On 16 June, Soviets presented an ultimatum demanding completely free passage of the Red Army
Red Army
into Estonia
Estonia
and the establishment of a pro-Soviet government. Feeling that resistance was hopeless, the Estonian government complied and, on the next day, the whole country was occupied.[117][118] On 6 August 1940, Estonia
Estonia
was annexed by the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
as the Estonian SSR.[119] The Soviets established a regime of oppression; most of the high-ranking civil and military officials, intelligentsia and industrialists were arrested, and usually executed soon afterwards. Soviet repressions culminated on 14 June 1941 with mass deportation of about 11,000 people to Siberia, among whom more than half perished in inhumane conditions.[120][121] When the German Operation Barbarossa started against the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
on 22 June 1941, about 34,000 young Estonian men were forcibly drafted into the Red Army, fewer than 30% of whom survived the war. Soviet destruction battalions initiated a scorched earth policy. Political prisoners who could not be evacuated were executed by the NKVD.[122][123] Many Estonians
Estonians
went into the forest, starting an anti-Soviet guerrilla campaign. In July, German Wehrmacht
Wehrmacht
reached south Estonia. Soviets evacuated Tallinn
Tallinn
in late August with massive losses, and capture of the Estonian islands was completed by German forces in October.[124]

The old town of Tallinn
Tallinn
after bombing by the Soviet Air Force
Soviet Air Force
in March 1944

Initially many Estonians
Estonians
were hopeful that Germany
Germany
would help to restore Estonia’s independence, but this soon proved to be in vain. Only a puppet collaborationist administration was established, and occupied Estonia
Estonia
was merged into Reichskommissariat Ostland, with its economy being fully subjugated to German military needs.[125] About a thousand Estonian Jews
Estonian Jews
who had not managed to leave were almost all quickly killed in 1941. Numerous forced labour camps were established where thousands of Estonians, foreign Jews, Romani, and Soviet prisoners of war perished.[126] German occupation authorities started recruiting men into small volunteer units but, as these efforts provided meagre results and military situation worsened, a forced conscription was instituted in 1943, eventually leading to formation of the Estonian Waffen-SS division.[127] Thousands of Estonians
Estonians
who did not want to fight in German military secretly escaped to Finland, where many volunteered to fight together with Finns
Finns
against Soviets.[128] The Red Army
Red Army
reached the Estonian borders again in early 1944, but its advance into Estonia
Estonia
was stopped in heavy fighting near Narva
Narva
for six months by German forces, including numerous Estonian units.[129] In March, the Soviet Air Force
Soviet Air Force
carried out heavy bombing raids against Tallinn
Tallinn
and other Estonian towns.[130] In July, the Soviets started a major offensive from the south, forcing the Germans
Germans
to abandon mainland Estonia
Estonia
in September, with the Estonian islands being abandoned in November.[129] As German forces were retreating from Tallinn, the last pre-war prime minister Jüri Uluots appointed a government headed by Otto Tief
Otto Tief
in an unsuccessful attempt restore Estonia’s independence.[131] Tens of thousands of people, including most of the Estonian Swedes, fled westwards to avoid the new Soviet occupation.[132]

Estonian Swedes
Estonian Swedes
fleeing the Soviet occupation to Sweden
Sweden
(1944)

Overall, Estonia
Estonia
lost about 25% of its population through deaths, deportations and evacuations in World War II.[133] Estonia
Estonia
also suffered some permanent territorial losses, as Soviet Union transferred border areas comprising about 5% of Estonian pre-war territory from the Estonian SSR
Estonian SSR
to the Russian SFSR.[134] Soviet Period[edit] Main articles: Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic
Republic
and Occupation of the Baltic states Thousands of Estonians
Estonians
opposing the second Soviet occupation joined guerrilla movement known as Forest Brothers. The armed resistance was heaviest on the first few years after the war, but Soviet authorities gradually wore it down through attrition, and resistance effectively ceased to exist in mid 1950s.[135] Soviets initiated policy of collectivization, but as peasants remained opposed to it a campaign of terror was unleashed. In March 1949 about 20,000 Estonians
Estonians
were deported to Siberia. Collectivization was fully completed soon afterwards.[120][136] Soviet Union
Soviet Union
began Russification, with hundreds of thousands Russians being induced to settle in Estonia, which eventually threatened turning Estonians
Estonians
into minority in their own land.[137] In early 1945 Estonians
Estonians
formed 94% of population, but by 1989 their share of population had fallen to 61.5%.[138] Economically heavy industry was strongly prioritized, but this did not improve well-being of local population and caused massive environmental damage through pollution.[139] Living standard under Soviet occupation kept falling further behind compared to nearby independent Finland.[137] The country was heavily militarized, with closed military areas covering 2% of territory.[140] Islands and most of the coastal areas were turned into restricted border zone which required special permit for entry.[141] The United States, United Kingdom, France, Germany, and the majority of other Western countries considered the annexation of Estonia
Estonia
by the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
illegal.[142] Legal continuity of the Estonian state was preserved through government-in-exile and Estonian diplomatic representatives whom the Western governments continued to recognize.[143][144] Restoration of Independence[edit] Main article: Singing Revolution

Lennart Meri
Lennart Meri
became the president of Estonia
Estonia
after restoration independence.

Introduction of Perestroika
Perestroika
in 1987 made political activity possible again, starting an independence restoration process known as the Singing Revolution.[145] Environmental Phosphorite War
Phosphorite War
campaign became the first major protest movement against the central government.[146] In 1988 new political movements appeared, Popular Front of Estonia which came to represent moderate wing in independence movement, and the more radical Estonian National Independence Party which was the first non-communist party in Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and demanded full restoration of independence.[147] Reformist Vaino Väljas became the first secretary of Estonian Communist Party, and under his leadership on 16 November 1988 Estonian Supreme Soviet
Supreme Soviet
issued Sovereignty Declaration asserting primacy of Estonian laws over Union laws. Over the next two years almost all other Soviet Republics followed the Estonian lead issuing similar declarations.[148][149] On 23 August 1989 about 2 million Estonians, Latvians and Lithuanians participated in a mass demonstration forming the Baltic Way
Baltic Way
human chain across the three republics.[150] In 1990 Congress of Estonia was formed as representative body of Estonian citizens.[151] In March 1991 a referendum was held where 77.7% of voters supported independence, and during the coup attempt in Moscow Estonia
Estonia
declared restoration of independence on 20 August.[152] Soviet authorities recognized Estonian independence on 6 September, and on 17 September Estonia
Estonia
was admitted into the United Nations.[153] The last units of Russian army
Russian army
left Estonia
Estonia
in 1994.[154] In 1992 radical economic reforms were launched for switching over to market economy, including privatisation and currency reform.[155] Estonian foreign policy since independence has been oriented towards the West, and in 2004 Estonia
Estonia
joined both European Union
European Union
and NATO.[156] Territorial history timeline[edit]

Geography[edit] Main articles: Geography of Estonia
Geography of Estonia
and Climate of Estonia

The northern coast of Estonia
Estonia
consists mainly of limestone cliffs.

Estonia
Estonia
lies on the eastern shores of the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
immediately across the Gulf of Finland
Gulf of Finland
from Finland
Finland
on the level northwestern part of the rising East European platform
East European platform
between 57.3° and 59.5° N and 21.5° and 28.1° E. Average elevation reaches only 50 metres (164 ft) and the country's highest point is the Suur Munamägi
Suur Munamägi
in the southeast at 318 metres (1,043 ft). There is 3,794 kilometres (2,357 mi) of coastline marked by numerous bays, straits, and inlets. The number of islands and islets is estimated at some 2,355 (including those in lakes). Two of them are large enough to constitute separate counties: Saaremaa
Saaremaa
and Hiiumaa.[157][158] A small, recent cluster of meteorite craters, the largest of which is called Kaali is found on Saaremaa, Estonia. Estonia
Estonia
is situated in the northern part of the temperate climate zone and in the transition zone between maritime and continental climate. Estonia
Estonia
has four seasons of near-equal length. Average temperatures range from 16.3 °C (61.3 °F) on the islands to 18.1 °C (64.6 °F) inland in July, the warmest month, and from −3.5 °C (25.7 °F) on the islands to −7.6 °C (18.3 °F) inland in February, the coldest month. The average annual temperature in Estonia
Estonia
is 5.2 °C (41.4 °F).[159] The average precipitation in 1961–1990 ranged from 535 to 727 mm (21.1 to 28.6 in) per year.[160] Snow cover, which is deepest in the south-eastern part of Estonia, usually lasts from mid-December to late March. Estonia
Estonia
has over 1,400 lakes. Most are very small, with the largest, Lake Peipus, being 3,555 km2 (1,373 sq mi). There are many rivers in the country. The longest of them are Võhandu (162 km or 101 mi), Pärnu
Pärnu
(144 km or 89 mi), and Põltsamaa (135 km or 84 mi).[157] Estonia
Estonia
has numerous fens and bogs. Forest land covers 50% of Estonia.[161] The most common tree species are pine, spruce and birch.[162] Phytogeographically, Estonia
Estonia
is shared between the Central European and Eastern European provinces of the Circumboreal Region
Circumboreal Region
within the Boreal Kingdom. According to the WWF, the territory of Estonia
Estonia
belongs to the ecoregion of Sarmatic mixed forests.

Satellite image of Estonia 

Osmussaar
Osmussaar
is one of many islands in the territorial waters of Estonia. 

There are approximately 2,549 square kilometres (984 sq mi) of mires in Estonia
Estonia
which cover 5.6% of the territory.[163] 

50% of Estonia's territory is covered by forest land 

Duckboards along a hiking trail in Viru bog in Lahemaa National Park. The longest hiking trail is 627 km (390 mi) long.[164] 

Biodiversity[edit] Main articles: Fauna of Estonia
Estonia
and Protected areas of Estonia Many species extinct in most of the European countries can be still found in Estonia. Mammals present in Estonia
Estonia
include the grey wolf, lynx, brown bear, roe deer, elk, grey seal, and ringed seal. Critically endangered European mink
European mink
has been successfully reintroduced to the Hiiumaa
Hiiumaa
island, and the rare Siberian flying squirrel
Siberian flying squirrel
is present in east Estonia.[165][166] Over 300 bird species have been found in Estonia, including the white-tailed eagle, lesser spotted eagle, golden eagle, western capercaillie, black and white stork, numerous species of owls, waders, geese and many others.[167] The Barn swallow is the national bird.[168] Protected areas cover 18% of Estonian land and 26% of its sea territory. There are 5 national parks, 159 nature reserves, and many other protection areas.[169] Politics[edit] Main articles: Politics of Estonia, List of political parties in Estonia, and Elections in Estonia

Kersti Kaljulaid President since 2016 Jüri
Jüri
Ratas Prime Minister since 2016

Estonia
Estonia
is a parliamentary representative democratic republic in which the Prime Minister of Estonia
Prime Minister of Estonia
is the head of government and which includes a multi-party system. The political culture is stable in Estonia, where power is held between two and three parties that have been in politics for a long time. This situation is similar to other countries in Northern Europe. The former Prime Minister of Estonia, Andrus Ansip, is also Europe's longest-serving Prime Minister (from 2005 until 2014). The current Estonian Prime Minister is Jüri
Jüri
Ratas, who is the former Second Vice-President of the Parliament and the head of the Estonian Centre Party. Parliament[edit] Main article: Riigikogu

The seat of the Parliament of Estonia
Estonia
in Toompea
Toompea
Castle

The Parliament of Estonia
Estonia
(Estonian: Riigikogu) or the legislative branch is elected by people for a four-year term by proportional representation. The Estonian political system operates under a framework laid out in the 1992 constitutional document. The Estonian parliament has 101 members and influences the governing of the state primarily by determining the income and the expenses of the state (establishing taxes and adopting the budget). At the same time the parliament has the right to present statements, declarations and appeals to the people of Estonia, ratify and denounce international treaties with other states and international organisations and decide on the Government loans.[170] The Riigikogu
Riigikogu
elects and appoints several high officials of the state, including the President of the Republic. In addition to that, the Riigikogu
Riigikogu
appoints, on the proposal of the President of Estonia, the Chairman of the National Court, the chairman of the board of the Bank of Estonia, the Auditor General, the Legal Chancellor and the Commander-in-Chief of the Defence Forces. A member of the Riigikogu has the right to demand explanations from the Government of the Republic
Republic
and its members. This enables the members of the parliament to observe the activities of the executive power and the above-mentioned high officials of the state. Government[edit] Main articles: Government of Estonia, Prime Minister of Estonia, and President of Estonia The Government of Estonia
Estonia
(Estonian: Vabariigi Valitsus) or the executive branch is formed by the Prime Minister of Estonia, nominated by the president and approved by the parliament. The government exercises executive power pursuant to the Constitution of Estonia
Constitution of Estonia
and the laws of the Republic
Republic
of Estonia
Estonia
and consists of twelve ministers, including the Prime Minister. The Prime Minister also has the right to appoint other ministers and assign them a subject to deal with. These are ministers without portfolio – they don't have a ministry to control.

Stenbock House, the seat of the Government of Estonia
Estonia
on Toompea
Toompea
Hill

The Prime Minister has the right to appoint a maximum of three such ministers, as the limit of ministers in one government is fifteen. It is also known as the cabinet. The cabinet carries out the country's domestic and foreign policy, shaped by parliament; it directs and co-ordinates the work of government institutions and bears full responsibility for everything occurring within the authority of executive power. The government, headed by the Prime Minister, thus represents the political leadership of the country and makes decisions in the name of the whole executive power. Estonia
Estonia
has pursued the development of the e-state and e-government. Internet
Internet
voting is used in elections in Estonia.[171] The first internet voting took place in the 2005 local elections and the first in a parliamentary election was made available for the 2007 elections, in which 30,275 individuals voted over the internet. Voters have a chance to invalidate their electronic vote in traditional elections, if they wish to. In 2009 in its eighth Worldwide Press Freedom Index, Reporters Without Borders
Reporters Without Borders
ranked Estonia
Estonia
sixth out of 175 countries.[172] In the first ever State of World Liberty Index report, Estonia
Estonia
was ranked first out of 159 countries.

Law[edit] Main article: Law of Estonia See also: Police and Border Guard Board

Estonian Border Guard

According to the Constitution of Estonia
Constitution of Estonia
(Estonian: Põhiseadus) the supreme power of the state is vested in the people. The people exercise their supreme power of the state on the elections of the Riigikogu
Riigikogu
through citizens who have the right to vote.[173] The supreme judicial power is vested in the Supreme Court or Riigikohus, with nineteen justices.[174] The Chief Justice is appointed by the parliament for nine years on nomination by the president. The official Head of State
Head of State
is the President of Estonia, who gives assent to the laws passed by Riigikogu, also having the right of sending them back and proposing new laws. The President, however, does not use these rights very often, having a largely ceremonial role.[175] He or she is elected by Riigikogu, with two-thirds of the votes required. If the candidate does not gain the amount of votes required, the right to elect the President goes over to an electoral body, consisting of the 101 members of Riigikogu
Riigikogu
and representatives from local councils. As in other spheres, Estonian law-making has been successfully integrated with the Information Age. Administrative divisions[edit] Main articles: Counties of Estonia, Municipalities of Estonia, Boroughs of Estonia, Small boroughs of Estonia, and Populated places in Estonia

The Republic
Republic
of Estonia
Estonia
is divided into fifteen counties (Maakonnad), which are the administrative subdivisions of the country. The first documented reference to Estonian political and administrative subdivisions comes from the Chronicle of Henry of Livonia, written in the thirteenth century during the Northern Crusades.[176] A maakond (county) is the biggest administrative subdivision. Several changes were made to the borders of counties after Estonia
Estonia
became independent, most notably the formation of Valga County
Valga County
(from parts of Võru, Tartu
Tartu
and Viljandi
Viljandi
counties) and Petseri County
Petseri County
(area acquired from Russia
Russia
with the 1920 Tartu
Tartu
Peace Treaty). During the Soviet rule, Petseri County
Petseri County
was annexed and ceded to the Russian SFSR
Russian SFSR
in 1945 where it became Pechorsky District
Pechorsky District
of Pskov
Pskov
Oblast. Counties were again re-established on 1 January 1990 in the borders of the Soviet-era districts. Because of the numerous differences between the current and historical (pre-1940, and sometimes pre-1918) layouts, the historical borders are still used in ethnology, representing cultural and linguistic differences better. Now defunct, the county government (Maavalitsus) of each county used to be led by a county governor (Maavanem), who represented the national government at the regional level. Governors were appointed by the Government of Estonia
Estonia
for a term of five years. Each county is further divided into municipalities (omavalitsus), which is also the smallest administrative subdivision of Estonia. There are two types of municipalities: an urban municipality – linn (town), and a rural municipality – vald (parish). There is no other status distinction between them. Each municipality is a unit of self-government with its representative and executive bodies. The municipalities in Estonia
Estonia
cover the entire territory of the country. A municipality may contain one or more populated places. Tallinn
Tallinn
is divided into eight districts (linnaosa) with limited self-government (Haabersti, Kesklinn (centre), Kristiine, Lasnamäe, Mustamäe, Nõmme, Pirita
Pirita
and Põhja-Tallinn). Rural municipalities may also be divided into (rural) districts (osavald), most prominent being Hiiumaa Parish with its five, fairly autonomous districts. Municipalities range in size of population from Tallinn
Tallinn
with around 450,000 inhabitants to Ruhnu
Ruhnu
with as few as around 150. They also range fairly in area from Saaremaa
Saaremaa
Parish (2717,83 km²) to Loksa town (3,82 km²). As of October 2017, after the Administrative reform of Estonia, there are a total of 79 municipalities in Estonia, 14 of them being urban and 65 rural. Previously there were 213 municipalities. Foreign relations[edit] Main articles: Foreign relations of Estonia
Estonia
and Diplomatic missions of Estonia

President Barack Obama
Barack Obama
giving a speech at the Nordea
Nordea
Concert Hall in Tallinn.

Estonia
Estonia
was a member of the League of Nations
League of Nations
from 22 September 1921, and became a member of the United Nations
United Nations
on 17 September 1991.[177][178] Since restoration of independence Estonia
Estonia
has pursued close relations with the Western countries, and has been member of NATO
NATO
since 29 March 2004, as well as the European Union
European Union
since 1 May 2004.[178] In 2007 Estonia
Estonia
joined the Schengen Area, and in 2011 the Eurozone.[178] The European Union
European Union
Agency for large-scale IT systems is based in Tallinn, which started operations at the end of 2012.[179] Estonia
Estonia
held the Presidency of the Council of the European Union
European Union
in the second half of 2017.[180] Since the early 1990s, Estonia
Estonia
is involved in active trilateral Baltic states co-operation with Latvia
Latvia
and Lithuania, and Nordic-Baltic co-operation with the Nordic countries. The Baltic Council is the joint forum of the interparliamentary Baltic Assembly
Baltic Assembly
and the intergovernmental Baltic Council of Ministers.[181] Estonia
Estonia
has built close relationship with the Nordic countries, especially Finland
Finland
and Sweden, and is a member of Nordic-Baltic Eight (NB-8) uniting Nordic and Baltic countries.[178][182] Joint Nordic-Baltic projects include the education programme Nordplus[183] and mobility programmes for business and industry[184] and for public administration.[185] The Nordic Council of Ministers
Nordic Council of Ministers
has an office in Tallinn
Tallinn
with a subsidiaries in Tartu
Tartu
and Narva.[186][187] The Baltic states
Baltic states
are members of Nordic Investment Bank, European Union's Nordic Battle Group, and in 2011 were invited to co-operate with NORDEFCO
NORDEFCO
in selected activities.[188][189][190][191]

Foreign ministers of the Nordic and Baltic countries in Helsinki, 2011

The beginning of the attempt to redefine Estonia
Estonia
as "Nordic" was seen in December 1999, when then Estonian foreign minister (and President of Estonia
Estonia
from 2006 until 2016) Toomas Hendrik Ilves
Toomas Hendrik Ilves
delivered a speech entitled " Estonia
Estonia
as a Nordic Country" to the Swedish Institute for International Affairs,[192] with potential political calculation behind it being wish to distinguish Estonia
Estonia
from more slowly progressing southern neighbours, which could have postponed early participation in European Union
European Union
enlargement for Estonia
Estonia
too.[193] Andres Kasekamp
Andres Kasekamp
argued in 2005 that relevance of identity discussions in Baltic states
Baltic states
decreased with entering to EU and NATO
NATO
together, but predicted that in future attractiveness of Nordic identity in Baltic states will grow and eventually five Nordic states plus three Baltic states will become a single unit.[193] Other Estonian international organization memberships include OECD, OSCE, WTO, IMF, and Council of the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
States.[178][194][195] Relations with Russia
Russia
remain generally cold, although there is some practical cooperation.[196] Military[edit] Main articles: Estonian Defence Forces
Estonian Defence Forces
and Estonian Defence League

Estonian soldiers during a NATO
NATO
exercise in 2015

The military of Estonia
Estonia
is based upon the Estonian Defence Forces (Estonian: Kaitsevägi), which is the name of the unified armed forces of the republic with Maavägi
Maavägi
(Army), Merevägi (Navy), Õhuvägi (Air Force) and a paramilitary national guard organisation Kaitseliit (Defence League). The Estonian National Defence Policy aim is to guarantee the preservation of the independence and sovereignty of the state, the integrity of its land, territorial waters, airspace and its constitutional order.[197] Current strategic goals are to defend the country's interests, develop the armed forces for interoperability with other NATO
NATO
and EU member forces, and participation in NATO missions. The current national military service (Estonian: ajateenistus) is compulsory for men between 18 and 28, and conscripts serve eight-month to eleven-month tours of duty depending on the army branch they serve in. Estonia
Estonia
has retained conscription unlike Latvia
Latvia
and Lithuania
Lithuania
and has no plan to transition to a professional army.[198] In 2008, annual military spending reached 1.85% of GDP, or 5 billion kroons, and was expected to continue to increase until 2010, when a 2.0% level was anticipated.[199] Estonia
Estonia
co-operates with Latvia
Latvia
and Lithuania
Lithuania
in several trilateral Baltic defence co-operation initiatives, including Baltic Battalion (BALTBAT), Baltic Naval Squadron
Baltic Naval Squadron
(BALTRON), Baltic Air Surveillance Network (BALTNET) and joint military educational institutions such as the Baltic Defence College
Baltic Defence College
in Tartu.[200] Future co-operation will include sharing of national infrastructures for training purposes and specialisation of training areas (BALTTRAIN) and collective formation of battalion-sized contingents for use in the NATO
NATO
rapid-response force.[201] In January 2011 the Baltic states
Baltic states
were invited to join NORDEFCO, the defence framework of the Nordic countries.[202]

An Estonian Patria Pasi
Patria Pasi
XA-180 in Afghanistan

In January 2008, the Estonian military had almost 300 troops stationed in foreign countries as part of various international peacekeeping forces, including 35 Defence League troops stationed in Kosovo; 120 Ground Forces soldiers in the NATO-led ISAF force in Afghanistan; 80 soldiers stationed as a part of MNF in Iraq; and 2 Estonian officers in Bosnia-Herzegovina and 2 Estonian military agents in Israeli occupied Golan Heights.[203] The Estonian Defence Forces
Estonian Defence Forces
have also previously had military missions in Croatia
Croatia
from March until October 1995, in Lebanon from December 1996 until June 1997 and in Macedonia from May until December 2003.[204] Estonia
Estonia
participates in the Nordic Battlegroup
Nordic Battlegroup
and has announced readiness to send soldiers also to Sudan to Darfur
Darfur
if necessary, creating the first African peacekeeping mission for the armed forces of Estonia.[205] The Ministry of Defence and the Defence Forces have been working on a cyberwarfare and defence formation for some years now. In 2007, a military doctrine of an e-military of Estonia
Estonia
was officially introduced as the country was under massive cyberattacks in 2007.[206] The proposed aim of the e-military is to secure the vital infrastructure and e-infrastructure of Estonia. The main cyber warfare facility is the Computer Emergency Response Team of Estonia
Estonia
(CERT), founded in 2006. The organisation operates on security issues in local networks.[207] Then President of the US, George W. Bush, announced his support of Estonia
Estonia
as the location of a NATO
NATO
Cooperative Cyber Defence Centre of Excellence (CCDCOE) in 2007.[208] In the aftermath of the 2007 cyberattacks, plans to combine network defence with Estonian military doctrine have been nicknamed as the Tiger's Defence, in reference to Tiigrihüpe.[209] The CCDCOE started its operations in November 2008.[210] Economy[edit] Main article: Economy of Estonia

Estonia
Estonia
is part of a monetary union, the eurozone (dark blue), and of the EU single market.

The central business district of Tallinn

Estonia
Estonia
is economically deeply integrated with the economies of its northern neighbours, Sweden
Sweden
and Finland.[211][212] As a member of the European Union, Estonia
Estonia
is considered a high-income economy by the World Bank. The GDP (PPP) per capita of the country was $29,312 in 2016 according to the International Monetary Fund.[5] Because of its rapid growth, Estonia
Estonia
has often been described as a Baltic Tiger beside Lithuania
Lithuania
and Latvia. Beginning 1 January 2011, Estonia
Estonia
adopted the euro and became the 17th eurozone member state.[213] According to Eurostat, Estonia
Estonia
had the lowest ratio of government debt to GDP among EU countries at 6.7% at the end of 2010.[214]

The IT sector's share in GDP has sharply increased since 2004. Skype was created by Estonian developers and is mainly developed in Estonia.

A balanced budget, almost non-existent public debt, flat-rate income tax, free trade regime, competitive commercial banking sector, innovative e-Services and even mobile-based services are all hallmarks of Estonia's market economy. Estonia
Estonia
produces about 75% of its consumed electricity.[215] In 2011, about 85% of it was generated with locally mined oil shale.[216] Alternative energy sources such as wood, peat, and biomass make up approximately 9% of primary energy production. Renewable wind energy was about 6% of total consumption in 2009.[217] Estonia
Estonia
imports petroleum products from western Europe
Europe
and Russia. Oil shale
Oil shale
energy, telecommunications, textiles, chemical products, banking, services, food and fishing, timber, shipbuilding, electronics, and transportation are key sectors of the economy.[218] The ice-free port of Muuga, near Tallinn, is a modern facility featuring good transshipment capability, a high-capacity grain elevator, chill/frozen storage, and new oil tanker off-loading capabilities.[citation needed] The railroad serves as a conduit between the West, Russia, and other points to the East.[citation needed] Because of the global economic recession that began in 2007, the GDP of Estonia
Estonia
decreased by 1.4% in the 2nd quarter of 2008, over 3% in the 3rd quarter of 2008, and over 9% in the 4th quarter of 2008. The Estonian government made a supplementary negative budget, which was passed by Riigikogu. The revenue of the budget was decreased for 2008 by EEK 6.1 billion and the expenditure by EEK 3.2 billion.[219] In 2010, the economic situation stabilised and started a growth based on strong exports. In the fourth quarter of 2010, Estonian industrial output increased by 23% compared to the year before. The country has been experiencing economic growth ever since.[220] According to Eurostat
Eurostat
data, Estonian PPS GDP per capita stood at 67% of the EU average in 2008.[221] In 2017, the average monthly gross salary in Estonia
Estonia
was €1221.[222] However, there are vast disparities in GDP between different areas of Estonia; currently, over half of the country's GDP is created in Tallinn.[223] In 2008, the GDP per capita of Tallinn
Tallinn
stood at 172% of the Estonian average,[224] which makes the per capita GDP of Tallinn as high as 115% of the European Union
European Union
average, exceeding the average levels of other counties. The unemployment rate in March 2016 was 6.4%, which is below the EU average,[222] while real GDP growth in 2011 was 8.0%,[225] five times the euro-zone average. In 2012, Estonia
Estonia
remained the only euro member with a budget surplus, and with a national debt of only 6%, it is one of the least indebted countries in Europe.[226] Economic indicators[edit] Estonia's economy continues to benefit from a transparent government and policies that sustain a high level of economic freedom, ranking 6th globally and 2nd in Europe.[227][228] The rule of law remains strongly buttressed and enforced by an independent and efficient judicial system. A simplified tax system with flat rates and low indirect taxation, openness to foreign investment, and a liberal trade regime have supported the resilient and well-functioning economy.[229] The 2017 Ease of Doing Business Index
Ease of Doing Business Index
by the World Bank Group
World Bank Group
places the country 12th in the world, surpassing neighbouring Finland, Australia, Germany, Canada
Canada
and Switzerland.[230] The strong focus on the IT sector has led to much faster, simpler and efficient public services where for example filing a tax return takes less than five minutes and 98% of banking transactions are conducted through the internet.[231][232] Despite it being a former Soviet Union
Soviet Union
country, Estonia
Estonia
has the third lowest business bribery risk in the world, according to TRACE Matrix.[233]

Business Bribery Risk Scores in the region, 2016

Rank/Country Business Bribery Risk Score

1 Sweden

10

3 Estonia

17

8 Singapore

25

10 Denmark

27

12 Canada

28

14 Switzerland

29

20 United States

34

31 Belgium

40

94 Russian Federation

58

Lower score = Less risk. Source: TRACE Matrix[233]

The Index of Economic Freedom 2017

Country Rank Score

 Hong Kong[a] 1 89.8

 Singapore 2 88.6

 New Zealand 3 83.7

  Switzerland 4 81.5

 Australia 5 81.0

 Estonia 6 79.1

 Canada 7 78.5

 United Arab Emirates 8 76.9

 Ireland 9 76.7

 Chile 10 76.5

Historic development[edit] By 1929, a stable currency, the kroon, was established. It is issued by the Bank of Estonia, the country's central bank. The word kroon (Estonian pronunciation: [ˈkroːn], "crown") is related to that of the other Nordic currencies (such as the Swedish krona
Swedish krona
and the Danish and Norwegian krone). The kroon succeeded the mark in 1928 and was used till 1940. After Estonia
Estonia
regained its independence, the kroon was reintroduced in 1992.

Estonia's GDP growth from 2000 till 2012

Since re-establishing independence, Estonia
Estonia
has styled itself as the gateway between East and West and aggressively pursued economic reform and integration with the West. Estonia's market reforms put it among the economic leaders in the former COMECON
COMECON
area.[citation needed] In 1994, based on the economic theories of Milton Friedman, Estonia became one of the first countries to adopt a flat tax, with a uniform rate of 26% regardless of personal income. This rate has since been reduced three times, to 24% in January 2005, 23% in January 2006, and finally to 21% by January 2008.[234] The Government of Estonia finalised the design of Estonian euro coins
Estonian euro coins
in late 2004, and adopted the euro as the country's currency on 1 January 2011, later than planned due to continued high inflation.[213][235] A Land Value Tax
Land Value Tax
is levied which is used to fund local municipalities. It is a state level tax, however 100% of the revenue is used to fund Local Councils. The rate is set by the Local Council within the limits of 0.1–2.5%. It is one of the most important sources of funding for municipalities.[236] The Land Value Tax
Land Value Tax
is levied on the value of the land only with improvements and buildings not considered. Very few exemptions are considered on the land value tax and even public institutions are subject to the tax.[236] The tax has contributed to a high rate (~90%)[236] of owner-occupied residences within Estonia, compared to a rate of 67.4% in the United States.[237] In 1999, Estonia
Estonia
experienced its worst year economically since it regained independence in 1991, largely because of the impact of the 1998 Russian financial crisis.[citation needed] Estonia
Estonia
joined the WTO in November 1999. With assistance from the European Union, the World Bank and the Nordic Investment Bank, Estonia
Estonia
completed most of its preparations for European Union
European Union
membership by the end of 2002 and now has one of the strongest economies of the new member states of the European Union.[citation needed] Estonia
Estonia
joined the OECD
OECD
in 2010.[238] Resources[edit]

The oil shale industry in Estonia
Estonia
is one of the most developed in the world.[239] In 2012, oil shale supplied 70% of Estonia's total primary energy and accounted for 4% of Estonia's gross domestic product.[240][241]

Although Estonia
Estonia
is in general resource-poor, the land still offers a large variety of smaller resources. The country has large oil shale and limestone deposits, along with forests that cover 48% of the land.[242] In addition to oil shale and limestone, Estonia
Estonia
also has large reserves of phosphorite, pitchblende, and granite that currently are not mined, or not mined extensively.[243] Significant quantities of rare-earth oxides are found in tailings accumulated from 50 years of uranium ore, shale and loparite mining at Sillamäe.[244] Because of the rising prices of rare earths, extraction of these oxides has become economically viable. The country currently exports around 3000 tonnes per annum, representing around 2% of world production.[245] In recent years,[when?] public debate has discussed whether Estonia should build a nuclear power plant to secure energy production after closure of old units in the Narva
Narva
Power Plants, if they are not reconstructed by the year 2016.[246] Industry and environment[edit] See also: Oil shale
Oil shale
in Estonia, Narva
Narva
Power Plants, and Wind power in Estonia

Rõuste wind farm in Hanila Parish.

Food, construction, and electronic industries are currently among the most important branches of Estonia's industry.[citation needed] In 2007, the construction industry employed more than 80,000 people, around 12% of the entire country's workforce.[247] Another important industrial sector is the machinery and chemical industry, which is mainly located in Ida-Viru County
Ida-Viru County
and around Tallinn. The oil shale-based mining industry, which is also concentrated in East-Estonia, produces around 90% of the entire country's electricity.[citation needed] Although the amount of pollutants emitted to the air have been falling since the 1980s,[248] the air is still polluted with sulphur dioxide from the mining industry that the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
rapidly developed in the early 1950s. In some areas the coastal seawater is polluted, mainly around the Sillamäe
Sillamäe
industrial complex.[249] Estonia
Estonia
is a dependent country in the terms of energy and energy production. In recent years many local and foreign companies have been investing in renewable energy sources.[citation needed] The importance of wind power has been increasing steadily in Estonia
Estonia
and currently the total amount of energy production from wind is nearly 60 MW while at the same time roughly 399 MW worth of projects are currently being developed and more than 2800 MW worth of projects are being proposed in the Lake Peipus
Lake Peipus
area and the coastal areas of Hiiumaa.[250][251][252] Currently[when?], there are plans to renovate some older units of the Narva
Narva
Power Plants, establish new power stations, and provide higher efficiency in oil shale-based energy production.[253] Estonia liberalised 35% of its electricity market in April 2010. The electricity market as whole will be liberalised by 2013. [254] Together with Lithuania, Poland, and Latvia, the country considered participating in constructing the Visaginas nuclear power plant
Visaginas nuclear power plant
in Lithuania
Lithuania
to replace the Ignalina.[255][256] However, due to the slow pace of the project and problems with the sector (like Fukushima disaster and bad example of Olkiluoto plant), Eesti Energia
Eesti Energia
has shifted its main focus to shale oil production that is seen as much more profitable business.[257] Estonia
Estonia
has a strong information technology sector, partly owing to the Tiigrihüpe
Tiigrihüpe
project undertaken in the mid-1990s, and has been mentioned as the most "wired" and advanced country in Europe
Europe
in the terms of e-Government of Estonia.[258] A new direction is to offer those services present in Estonia
Estonia
to the non-residents via e-residency program. Skype
Skype
was written by Estonia-based developers Ahti Heinla, Priit Kasesalu, and Jaan Tallinn, who had also originally developed Kazaa.[259] Other notable tech startups include GrabCAD, Fortumo and TransferWise. It is even claimed that Estonia
Estonia
has the most startups per person in world.[260] The Estonian electricity network forms a part of the Nord Pool Spot network.[261] Trade[edit] Main article: Tallinn
Tallinn
Stock Exchange

Graphical depiction of Estonia's product exports in 28 colour-coded categories

Estonia
Estonia
(2016[262]) Export Import

 Sweden 20% 9%

 Finland 16% 13%

 Latvia 9% 9%

 Lithuania 6% 8%

 Germany 5% -%

 Russia 5% 5%

 Norway 4% -%

 Denmark 4% -%

 United States 3% -%

 United Kingdom 3% 4%

 Poland -% 8%

 Netherlands -% 6%

 China -% 4%

 Hungary -% 3%

Estonia
Estonia
has had a market economy since the end of the 1990s and one of the highest per capita income levels in Eastern Europe.[263] Proximity to the Scandinavian and Finnish markets, its location between the East and West, competitive cost structure and a highly skilled labour force have been the major Estonian comparative advantages in the beginning of the 2000s (decade). As the largest city, Tallinn
Tallinn
has emerged as a financial centre and the Tallinn
Tallinn
Stock Exchange joined recently with the OMX
OMX
system. The current government has pursued tight fiscal policies, resulting in balanced budgets and low public debt. In 2007, however, a large current account deficit and rising inflation put pressure on Estonia's currency, which was pegged to the Euro, highlighting the need for growth in export-generating industries. Estonia
Estonia
exports mainly machinery and equipment, wood and paper, textiles, food products, furniture, and metals and chemical products.[264] Estonia
Estonia
also exports 1.562 billion kilowatt hours of electricity annually.[264] At the same time Estonia
Estonia
imports machinery and equipment, chemical products, textiles, food products and transportation equipment.[264] Estonia
Estonia
imports 200 million kilowatt hours of electricity annually.[264] Between 2007 and 2013, Estonia
Estonia
received 53.3 billion kroons (3.4 billion euros) from various European Union
European Union
Structural Funds as direct supports, creating the largest foreign investments into Estonia.[265] Majority of the European Union
European Union
financial aid will be invested into the following fields: energy economies, entrepreneurship, administrative capability, education, information society, environment protection, regional and local development, research and development activities, healthcare and welfare, transportation and labour market.[266] Demographics[edit]

Oskar Friberg is the last male Estonian Swede
Estonian Swede
on the island of Vormsi who outlived the Soviet Occupation

Main article: Demographics of Estonia

Residents of Estonia
Estonia
by ethnicity (2017)[1]

Estonians

68.8%

Russians

25.1%

Ukrainians

1.8%

Belarusians

0.9%

Finns

0.6%

Others

2.9%

Population of Estonia
Estonia
1970–2009. The changes are largely attributed to Soviet immigration and emigration.

Before World War II, ethnic Estonians
Estonians
constituted 88% of the population, with national minorities constituting the remaining 12%.[267] The largest minority groups in 1934 were Russians, Germans, Swedes, Latvians, Jews, Poles, Finns
Finns
and Ingrians. The share of Baltic Germans
Baltic Germans
in Estonia
Estonia
had fallen from 5.3% (~46,700) in 1881 to 1.3% (16,346) by the year 1934,[267][268] which was mainly due to emigration to Germany
Germany
in the light of general Russification
Russification
in the end of the 19th century and the independence of Estonia
Estonia
in the 20th century. Between 1945 and 1989, the share of ethnic Estonians
Estonians
in the population resident within the currently defined boundaries of Estonia
Estonia
dropped to 61%, caused primarily by the Soviet programme promoting mass immigration of urban industrial workers from Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus, as well as by wartime emigration and Joseph Stalin's mass deportations and executions.[citation needed] By 1989, minorities constituted more than one-third of the population, as the number of non- Estonians
Estonians
had grown almost fivefold. At the end of the 1980s, Estonians
Estonians
perceived their demographic change as a national catastrophe. This was a result of the migration policies essential to the Soviet Nationalisation Programme aiming to russify Estonia
Estonia
– administrative and military immigration of non-Estonians from the USSR coupled with the deportation of Estonians
Estonians
to the USSR. In the decade after the reconstitution of independence, large-scale emigration by ethnic Russians
Russians
and the removal of the Russian military bases in 1994 caused the proportion of ethnic Estonians
Estonians
in Estonia
Estonia
to increase from 61% to 69% in 2006. Modern Estonia
Estonia
is a fairly ethnically heterogeneous country, but this heterogeneity is not a feature of much of the country as the non-Estonian population is concentrated in two of Estonia's counties. Thirteen of Estonia's 15 counties are over 80% ethnic Estonian, the most homogeneous being Hiiumaa, where Estonians
Estonians
account for 98.4% of the population. In the counties of Harju (including the capital city, Tallinn) and Ida-Viru, however, ethnic Estonians
Estonians
make up 60% and 20% of the population, respectively. Russians
Russians
make up 25.6% of the total population but account for 36% of the population in Harju county and 70% of the population in Ida-Viru county. The Estonian Cultural Autonomy law that was passed in 1925 was unique in Europe
Europe
at that time.[269] Cultural autonomies could be granted to minorities numbering more than 3,000 people with longstanding ties to the Republic
Republic
of Estonia. Before the Soviet occupation, the Germans
Germans
and Jewish minorities managed to elect a cultural council. The Law on Cultural Autonomy for National Minorities
Minorities
was reinstated in 1993. Historically, large parts of Estonia's northwestern coast and islands have been populated by indigenous ethnically Rannarootslased (Coastal Swedes). In recent years the numbers of Coastal Swedes has risen again, numbering in 2008 almost 500 people, owing to the property reforms in the beginning of the 1990s. In 2004, the Ingrian Finnish
Ingrian Finnish
minority in Estonia
Estonia
elected a cultural council and was granted cultural autonomy. The Estonian Swedish minority similarly received cultural autonomy in 2007. Society[edit] See also: Human rights in Estonia
Estonia
and Nordic identity in Estonia

A Viljandi
Viljandi
folk dance group performing at Hedemora gammelgård, Sweden.

Estonian society has undergone considerable changes over the last twenty years, one of the most notable being the increasing level of stratification, and the distribution of family income. The Gini coefficient has been steadily higher than the European Union
European Union
average (31 in 2009),[270] although it has clearly dropped. The registered unemployment rate in January 2012 was 7.7%.[271] Modern Estonia
Estonia
is a multinational country in which 109 languages are spoken, according to a 2000 census. 67.3% of Estonian citizens speak Estonian as their native language, 29.7% Russian, and 3% speak other languages.[272] As of 2 July 2010, 84.1% of Estonian residents are Estonian citizens, 8.6% are citizens of other countries and 7.3% are "citizens with undetermined citizenship".[273] Since 1992 roughly 140,000 people have acquired Estonian citizenship by passing naturalisation exams.[274] The ethnic distribution in Estonia
Estonia
is very homogeneous, where in most counties over 90% of the people are ethnic Estonians. This is in contrast to large urban centres like Tallinn, where Estonians
Estonians
account for 60% of the population, and the remainder is composed mostly of Russian and other Slavic inhabitants, who arrived in Estonia
Estonia
during the Soviet period. The 2008 United Nations
United Nations
Human Rights Council report called "extremely credible" the description of the citizenship policy of Estonia
Estonia
as "discriminatory".[275] According to surveys, only 5% of the Russian community have considered returning to Russia
Russia
in the near future. Estonian Russians
Russians
have developed their own identity – more than half of the respondents recognised that Estonian Russians
Russians
differ noticeably from the Russians
Russians
in Russia. When comparing the result with a survey from 2000, then Russians' attitude toward the future is much more positive.[276] Estonia
Estonia
has been the first post-soviet republic that has legalised civil unions of same-sex couples. The law was approved in October 2014 and came into effect 1 January 2016.[277] 53.3% of ethnically Estonian youth consider belonging in the Nordic identity group as important or very important for them. 52.2% have the same attitude towards the "baltic" identity group, according to a research study from 2013 [278]

The image that Estonian youths have of their identity is rather similar to that of the Finns
Finns
as far as the identities of being a citizen of one’s own country, a Fenno-Ugric person, or a Nordic person are concerned, while our identity as a citizen of Europe
Europe
is common ground between us and Latvians - being stronger here than it is among the young people of Finland
Finland
and Sweden.[278]

Urbanization[edit] Main article: List of cities and towns in Estonia Tallinn
Tallinn
is the capital and the largest city of Estonia. It lies on the northern coast of Estonia, along the Gulf of Finland. There are 33 cities and several town-parish towns in the country. In total, there are 47 linna, with "linn" in English meaning both "cities" and "towns". More than 70% of the population lives in towns. The 20 largest cities are listed below:

 

v t e

Largest cities or towns in Estonia [279]

Rank Name County Pop. Rank Name County Pop.

Tallinn

Tartu 1 Tallinn Harju 426,538 11 Valga Valga 12,452

Narva

Pärnu

2 Tartu Tartu 93,124 12 Võru Võru 12,167

3 Narva Ida-Viru 57,130 13 Jõhvi Ida-Viru 10,051

4 Pärnu Pärnu 39,620 14 Haapsalu Lääne 9,946

5 Kohtla-Järve Ida-Viru 35,187 15 Keila Harju 9,695

6 Viljandi Viljandi 17,711 16 Paide Järva 8,226

7 Rakvere Lääne-Viru 15,526 17 Saue Harju 5,731

8 Maardu Harju 15,077 18 Elva Tartu 5,669

9 Kuressaare Saare 13,382 19 Põlva Põlva 5,485

10 Sillamäe Ida-Viru 13,288 20 Tapa Lääne-Viru 5,433

Religion[edit] Main article: Religion in Estonia

Religion 2000 Census[280] 2011 Census[281]

Number % Number %

Orthodox Christians 143,554 12.80 176,773 16.15

Lutheran
Lutheran
Christians 152,237 13.57 108,513 9.91

Baptists 6,009 0.54 4,507 0.41

Roman Catholics 5,745 0.51 4,501 0.41

Jehovah's Witnesses 3,823 0.34 3,938 0.36

Old Believers 2,515 0.22 2,605 0.24

Christian Free Congregations 223 0.02 2,189 0.20

Earth Believers 1,058 0.09 1,925 0.18

Taara Believers 1,047 0.10

Pentecostals 2,648 0.24 1,855 0.17

Muslims 1,387 0.12 1,508 0.14

Adventists 1,561 0.14 1,194 0.11

Buddhists 622 0.06 1,145 0.10

Methodists 1,455 0.13 1,098 0.10

Other religion 4,995 0.45 8,074 0.74

No religion 450,458 40.16 592,588 54.14

Undeclared 343,292 30.61 181,104 16.55

Total1 1,121,582 100.00 1,094,564 100.00

1Population, persons aged 15 and older.

Ruhnu
Ruhnu
stave church, built in 1644, is the oldest surviving wooden building in Estonia

According to Livonian Chronicle of Henry, Tharapita was the predominant deity for the Oeselians
Oeselians
before Christianization.[282] Estonia
Estonia
was Christianised by the Teutonic Knights
Teutonic Knights
in the 13th century. During the Reformation, Protestantism spread, and the Lutheran
Lutheran
church was officially established in Estonia
Estonia
in 1686. Before the Second World War, Estonia
Estonia
was approximately 80% Protestant; overwhelmingly Lutheran,[283][284][285] with individuals adhering to Calvinism, as well as other Protestant
Protestant
branches. Many Estonians
Estonians
profess not to be particularly religious, because religion through the 19th century was associated with German feudal rule.[286] Historically, there has been another minority religion, Russian Old-believers, near Lake Peipus area in Tartu
Tartu
County. Today, Estonia's constitution guarantees freedom of religion, separation of church and state, and individual rights to privacy of belief and religion.[287] According to the Dentsu Communication Institute Inc, Estonia
Estonia
is one of the least religious countries in the world, with 75.7% of the population claiming to be irreligious. The Eurobarometer Poll 2005 found that only 16% of Estonians
Estonians
profess a belief in a god, the lowest belief of all countries studied.[288] According to the Lutheran
Lutheran
World Federation, the historic Lutheran denomination has a large presence with 180,000 registered members.[289] New polls about religiosity in the European Union
European Union
in 2012 by Eurobarometer found that Christianity is the largest religion in Estonia
Estonia
accounting for 45% of Estonians.[290] Eastern Orthodox
Eastern Orthodox
are the largest Christian group in Estonia, accounting for 17% of Estonia citizens,[290] while Protestants make up 6%, and Other Christian make up 22%. Non believer/ Agnostic
Agnostic
account 22%, Atheist
Atheist
accounts for 15%, and undeclared accounts for 15%.[290] The most recent Pew Research Center, found that in 2015, 51% of the population of Estonia
Estonia
declared itself Christians, 45% religiously unaffiliated—a category which includes atheists, agnostics and those who describe their religion as "Nothing in Particular", while 2% belonged to other faiths.[291] The Christians divided between 25% Eastern Orthodox, 20% Lutherans, 5% other Christians and 1% Roman Catholic.[292] While the religiously unaffiliated divided between 9% as atheists, 1% as agnostics and 35% as Nothing in Particular.[293]

St. Olaf's Church, Tallinn
Tallinn
was possibly the tallest building in the world from 1549 to 1625

The largest religious denomination in the country is Lutheranism, adhered to by 160,000 Estonians
Estonians
(or 13% of the population), principally ethnic Estonians. Other organisations, such as the World Council of Churches, report that there are as many as 265,700 Estonian Lutherans.[294] Additionally, there are between 8,000–9,000 members abroad. Another major group, inhabitants who follow Eastern Orthodox Christianity, practised chiefly by the Russian minority, and the Russian Orthodox Church is the second largest denomination with 150,000 members. The Estonian Apostolic Orthodox Church, under the Greek-Orthodox Ecumenical Patriarchate, claims another 20,000 members. Thus, the number of adherents of Lutheranism
Lutheranism
and Orthodoxy, without regard to citizenship or ethnicity, is roughly equal. Catholics have their Latin
Latin
Apostolic Administration of Estonia. According to the census of 2000 (data in table to the right), there were about 1,000 adherents of the Taara faith[295][296][297] or Maausk in Estonia
Estonia
(see Maavalla Koda). The Jewish community has an estimated population of about 1,900 (see History of the Jews in Estonia). Around 68,000 people consider themselves atheists.[298] Languages[edit] Main article: Languages of Estonia

The Finnic languages

The official language, Estonian, belongs to the Finnic branch of the Uralic languages. Estonian is closely related to Finnish, spoken in Finland, across the other side of the Gulf of Finland, and is one of the few Languages of Europe
Europe
that is not of an Indo-European origin. Despite some overlaps in the vocabulary due to borrowings, in terms of its origin, Estonian and Finnish are not related to their nearest geographical neighbours, Swedish, Latvian, and Russian, which are all Indo-European languages. Although the Estonian and Germanic languages
Germanic languages
are of very different origins, one can identify many similar words in Estonian and German, for example. This is primarily because the Estonian language
Estonian language
has borrowed nearly one third of its vocabulary from Germanic languages, mainly from Low Saxon (Middle Low German) during the period of German rule, and High German
High German
(including standard German). The percentage of Low Saxon and High German
High German
loanwords can be estimated at 22–25 percent, with Low Saxon making up about 15 percent. South Estonian
South Estonian
(including Võro and Seto varieties), spoken in South-Eastern Estonia, is genealogically distinct from northern Estonian, but traditionally and officially considered as dialects and "regional forms of the Estonian language", not separate language(s).[299] Russian is still spoken as a secondary language by forty- to seventy-year-old ethnic Estonians, because Russian was the unofficial language of the Estonian SSR
Estonian SSR
from 1944 to 1991 and taught as a compulsory second language during the Soviet era. In 1998, most first- and second-generation industrial immigrants from the former Soviet Union (mainly the Russian SFSR) did not speak Estonian.[300] However, by 2010, 64.1% of non-ethnic Estonians
Estonians
spoke Estonian.[301] The latter, mostly Russian-speaking ethnic minorities, reside predominantly in the capital city of Tallinn
Tallinn
and the industrial urban areas in Ida-Virumaa. From the 13th to the 20th century, there were Swedish-speaking communities in Estonia, particularly in the coastal areas and on the islands (e.g., Hiiumaa, Vormsi, Ruhnu; in Swedish, known as Dagö, Ormsö, Runö, respectively) along the Baltic sea, communities which today have almost disappeared. The Swedish-speaking minority was represented in parliament, and entitled to use their native language in parliamentary debates. From 1918 to 1940, when Estonia
Estonia
was independent, the small Swedish community was well treated. Municipalities with a Swedish majority, mainly found along the coast, used Swedish as the administrative language and Swedish-Estonian culture saw an upswing. However, most Swedish-speaking people fled to Sweden
Sweden
before the end of World War II, that is, before the invasion of Estonia
Estonia
by the Soviet army in 1944. Only a handful of older speakers remain. Apart from many other areas the influence of Swedish is especially distinct in the Noarootsi Parish in Lääne County
Lääne County
where there are many villages with bilingual Estonian and/or Swedish names and street signs.[302][303] The most common foreign languages learned by Estonian students are English, Russian, German and French. Other popular languages include Finnish, Spanish and Swedish.[304] Education and science[edit]

The University of Tartu
Tartu
is one of the oldest universities in Northern Europe
Europe
and the highest-ranked university in Estonia.

Main article: Education in Estonia See also: List of universities in Estonia, Space science in Estonia, and Tiigrihüpe The history of formal education in Estonia
Estonia
dates back to the 13th and 14th centuries when the first monastic and cathedral schools were founded.[305] The first primer in the Estonian language
Estonian language
was published in 1575. The oldest university is the University of Tartu, established by the Swedish king Gustav II Adolf in 1632. In 1919, university courses were first taught in the Estonian language. Today's education in Estonia
Estonia
is divided into general, vocational, and hobby. The education system is based on four levels: pre-school, basic, secondary, and higher education.[306] A wide network of schools and supporting educational institutions have been established. The Estonian education system consists of state, municipal, public, and private institutions. There are currently 589 schools in Estonia.[307] According to the Programme for International Student Assessment, the performance levels of gymnasium-age pupils in Estonia
Estonia
is among the highest in the world: in 2010, the country was ranked 13th for the quality of its education system, well above the OECD
OECD
average.[308] Additionally, around 89% of Estonian adults aged 25–64 have earned the equivalent of a high-school degree, one of the highest rates in the industrialised world.[309]

Building of the Estonian Students' Society
Estonian Students' Society
in Tartu. It is considered to be the first example of Estonian national architecture.[310] The Treaty of Tartu
Tartu
between Finland
Finland
and Soviet Russia
Russia
was signed in the building in 1920.

Academic higher education in Estonia
Estonia
is divided into three levels: bachelor's, master's, and doctoral studies. In some specialties (basic medical studies, veterinary, pharmacy, dentistry, architect-engineer, and a classroom teacher programme) the bachelor's and master's levels are integrated into one unit.[311] Estonian public universities have significantly more autonomy than applied higher education institutions. In addition to organising the academic life of the university, universities can create new curricula, establish admission terms and conditions, approve the budget, approve the development plan, elect the rector, and make restricted decisions in matters concerning assets.[312] Estonia
Estonia
has a moderate number of public and private universities. The largest public universities are the University of Tartu, Tallinn
Tallinn
University of Technology, Tallinn University, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Estonian Academy of Arts; the largest private university is Estonian Business School.

ESTCube-1
ESTCube-1
is the first Estonian satellite.

The Estonian Academy of Sciences
Estonian Academy of Sciences
is the national academy of science. The strongest public non-profit research institute that carries out fundamental and applied research is the National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics (NICPB; Estonian KBFI). The first computer centres were established in the late 1950s in Tartu
Tartu
and Tallinn. Estonian specialists contributed in the development of software engineering standards for ministries of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
during the 1980s.[313][314] As of 2011[update], Estonia
Estonia
spends around 2.38% of its GDP on Research and Development, compared to an EU average of around 2.0%.[315] Some of the best-known scientists related to Estonia
Estonia
include astronomers Friedrich Georg Wilhelm von Struve, Ernst Öpik
Ernst Öpik
and Jaan Einasto, biologist Karl Ernst von Baer, Jakob von Uexküll, chemists Wilhelm Ostwald
Wilhelm Ostwald
and Carl Schmidt, economist Ragnar Nurkse, matematician Edgar Krahn, medical researchers Ludvig Puusepp
Ludvig Puusepp
and Nikolay Pirogov, physicist Thomas Johann Seebeck, political scientist Rein Taagepera, psychologist Endel Tulving and Risto Näätänen, semiotician Yuri Lotman. According to New Scientist, Estonia
Estonia
will be the first nation to provide personal genetic information service sponsored by the state. They aim to minimize and prevent future ailments for those whose genes make them extra prone to conditions like adult- onset diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. The government plans to provide lifestyle advice based on the DNA for 100,000 of its 1.3 million citizens.[316] Culture[edit]

KUMU Art Museum in Tallinn

Main articles: Culture of Estonia
Estonia
and List of Estonians The culture of Estonia
Estonia
incorporates indigenous heritage, as represented by the Estonian language
Estonian language
and the sauna, with mainstream Nordic and European cultural aspects. Because of its history and geography, Estonia's culture has been influenced by the traditions of the adjacent area's various Finnic, Baltic, Slavic and Germanic peoples as well as the cultural developments in the former dominant powers Sweden
Sweden
and Russia. Today, Estonian society encourages liberty and liberalism, with popular commitment to the ideals of the limited government, discouraging centralised power and corruption. The Protestant
Protestant
work ethic remains a significant cultural staple, and free education is a highly prized institution. Like the mainstream culture in the other Nordic countries, Estonian culture can be seen to build upon the ascetic environmental realities and traditional livelihoods, a heritage of comparatively widespread egalitarianism out of practical reasons (see: Everyman's right
Everyman's right
and universal suffrage), and the ideals of closeness to nature and self-sufficiency (see: summer cottage). The Estonian Academy of Arts
Estonian Academy of Arts
(Estonian: Eesti Kunstiakadeemia, EKA) is providing higher education in art, design, architecture, media, art history and conservation while Viljandi
Viljandi
Culture Academy of University of Tartu
Tartu
has an approach to popularise native culture through such curricula as native construction, native blacksmithing, native textile design, traditional handicraft and traditional music, but also jazz and church music. In 2010, there were 245 museums in Estonia
Estonia
whose combined collections contain more than 10 million objects.[317] Music[edit] Main article: Music of Estonia See also: Estonian national awakening, Estonian Song Festival, and Estonia
Estonia
in the Eurovision Song Contest

The Estonian Song Festival
Estonian Song Festival
is UNESCO's Masterpiece of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity.

The earliest mention of Estonian singing dates back to Saxo Grammaticus Gesta Danorum (ca. 1179).[318] Saxo speaks of Estonian warriors who sang at night while waiting for a battle. The older folksongs are also referred to as regilaulud, songs in the poetic metre regivärss the tradition shared by all Baltic Finns. Runic singing was widespread among Estonians
Estonians
until the 18th century, when rhythmic folk songs began to replace them.[citation needed] Traditional wind instruments derived from those used by shepherds were once widespread, but are now becoming again more commonly played. Other instruments, including the fiddle, zither, concertina, and accordion are used to play polka or other dance music. The kannel is a native instrument that is now again becoming more popular in Estonia. A Native Music Preserving Centre was opened in 2008 in Viljandi.[319]

Arvo Pärt
Arvo Pärt
has been the world's most performed living composer since 2010.

The tradition of Estonian Song Festivals (Laulupidu) started at the height of the Estonian national awakening
Estonian national awakening
in 1869. Today, it is one of the largest amateur choral events in the world. In 2004, about 100,000 people participated in the Song Festival. Since 1928, the Tallinn
Tallinn
Song Festival Grounds (Lauluväljak) have hosted the event every five years in July. The last festival took place in July 2014. In addition, Youth Song Festivals are also held every four or five years, the last of them in 2017.[320] Professional Estonian musicians and composers such as Rudolf Tobias, Miina Härma, Mart Saar, Artur Kapp, Juhan Aavik, Aleksander Kunileid, Artur Lemba
Artur Lemba
and Heino Eller
Heino Eller
emerged in the late 19th century. At the time of this writing, the most known Estonian composers are Arvo Pärt, Eduard Tubin, and Veljo Tormis.[citation needed] In 2014, Arvo Pärt was the world's most performed living composer for the fourth year in a row.[321] In the 1950s, Estonian baritone Georg Ots rose to worldwide prominence as an opera singer. In popular music, Estonian artist Kerli Kõiv
Kerli Kõiv
has become popular in Europe, as well as gaining moderate popularity in North America. She has provided music for the 2010 Disney film Alice in Wonderland and the television series Smallville
Smallville
in the United States
United States
of America. Estonia
Estonia
won the Eurovision Song Contest
Eurovision Song Contest
in 2001 with the song "Everybody" performed by Tanel Padar
Tanel Padar
and Dave Benton. In 2002, Estonia hosted the event. Maarja-Liis Ilus
Maarja-Liis Ilus
has competed for Estonia
Estonia
on two occasions (1996 and 1997), while Eda-Ines Etti, Koit Toome
Koit Toome
and Evelin Samuel owe their popularity partly to the Eurovision Song Contest. Lenna Kuurmaa
Lenna Kuurmaa
is a very popular singer in Europe[citation needed], with her band Vanilla Ninja. "Rändajad" by Urban Symphony, was the first ever song in Estonian to chart in the UK, Belgium, and Switzerland. Literature[edit] Main article: Literature of Estonia See also: Estophile

Jaan Kross is the most translated Estonian writer.

The Estonian literature
Estonian literature
refers to literature written in the Estonian language (ca. 1 million speakers).[322] The domination of Estonia after the Northern Crusades, from the 13th century to 1918 by Germany, Sweden, and Russia
Russia
resulted in few early written literary works in the Estonian language. The oldest records of written Estonian date from the 13th century. Originates Livoniae in Chronicle of Henry of Livonia contains Estonian place names, words and fragments of sentences. The Liber Census Daniae (1241) contains Estonian place and family names.[323] Many folk tales are told to this day and some have been written down and translated to make them accessible to an international readership.[324] The cultural stratum of Estonian was originally characterised by a largely lyrical form of folk poetry based on syllabic quantity. Apart from a few albeit remarkable exceptions, this archaic form has not been much employed in later times. One of the most outstanding achievements in this field is the national epic Kalevipoeg. At a professional level, traditional folk song reached its new heyday during the last quarter of the 20th century, primarily thanks to the work of composer Veljo Tormis. Oskar Luts
Oskar Luts
was the most prominent prose writer of the early Estonian literature, who is still widely read today, especially his lyrical school novel Kevade (Spring).[325] Anton Hansen Tammsaare's social epic and psychological realist pentalogy Truth and Justice
Truth and Justice
captured the evolution of Estonian society from a peasant community to an independent nation.[326][327] In modern times, Jaan Kross and Jaan Kaplinski are Estonia's best known and most translated writers.[328] Among the most popular writers of the late 20th and early 21st centuries are Tõnu Õnnepalu
Tõnu Õnnepalu
and Andrus Kivirähk, who uses elements of Estonian folklore
Estonian folklore
and mythology, deforming them into absurd and grotesque.[329] Media[edit] See also: List of Estonian films
List of Estonian films
and List of Estonian war films The cinema of Estonia
Estonia
started in 1908 with the production of a newsreel about Swedish King Gustav V's visit to Tallinn.[330] The first public TV broadcast in Estonia
Estonia
was in July 1955. Regular, live radio broadcasts began in December 1926. Deregulation in the field of electronic media has brought radical changes compared to the beginning of the 1990s. The first licenses for private TV broadcasters were issued in 1992. The first private radio station went on the air in 1990. Today the media is a vibrant and competitive sector. There is a plethora of weekly newspapers and magazines, and Estonians
Estonians
have a choice of 9 domestic TV channels and a host of radio stations. The Constitution
Constitution
guarantees freedom of speech, and Estonia
Estonia
has been internationally recognised for its high rate of press freedom, having been ranked 3rd in the 2012 Press Freedom Index
Press Freedom Index
by Reporters Without Borders.[331] Estonia
Estonia
has two news agencies. The Baltic News Service
Baltic News Service
(BNS), founded in 1990, is a private regional news agency covering Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. The ETV24 is an agency owned by Eesti Rahvusringhääling who is a publicly funded radio and television organisation created on 30 June 2007 to take over the functions of the formerly separate Eesti Raadio
Eesti Raadio
and Eesti Televisioon
Eesti Televisioon
under the terms of the Estonian National Broadcasting Act.[332][333] Architecture[edit] Main article: Architecture of Estonia

A traditional farmhouse built in the Estonian vernacular style.

The architectural history of Estonia
Estonia
mainly reflects its contemporary development in northern Europe. Worth mentioning is especially the architectural ensemble that makes out the medieval old town of Tallinn, which is on the UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage List. In addition, the country has several unique, more or less preserved hill forts dating from pre-Christian times, a large number of still intact medieval castles and churches, while the countryside is still shaped by the presence of a vast number of manor houses from earlier centuries. Holidays[edit] Main article: Public holidays in Estonia The Estonian National Day
National Day
is the Independence Day celebrated on 24 February, the day the Estonian Declaration of Independence
Estonian Declaration of Independence
was issued. As of 2013[update], there are 12 public holidays (which come with a day off) and 12 national holidays celebrated annually.[334][335]

Public holidays in Estonia Date

New Year's Day 1 January

Independence Day 24 February

Good Friday moveable

Easter Sunday moveable

Spring Day 1 May

Pentecost moveable

Victory Day 23 June

Midsummer Day 24 June

Day of Restoration of Independence 20 August

Christmas Eve 24 December

Christmas Day 25 December

Boxing Day 26 December

Cuisine[edit] Main article: Estonian cuisine See also: Kama (food), Kalev (confectioner), Kohuke, and Verivorst Historically, the cuisine of Estonia
Estonia
has been heavily dependent on seasons and simple peasant food, which today is influenced by many countries. Today, it includes many typical international foods.[citation needed] The most typical foods in Estonia
Estonia
are black bread, pork, potatoes, and dairy products.[336] Traditionally in summer and spring, Estonians
Estonians
like to eat everything fresh – berries, herbs, vegetables, and everything else that comes straight from the garden. Hunting and fishing have also been very common, although currently hunting and fishing are enjoyed mostly as hobbies. Today, it is also very popular to grill outside in summer. Traditionally in winter, jams, preserves, and pickles are brought to the table. Gathering and conserving fruits, mushrooms, and vegetables for winter has always been popular, but today gathering and conserving is becoming less common because everything can be bought from stores. However, preparing food for winter is still very popular in the countryside. Sports[edit] Main article: Sport in Estonia

Tartu
Tartu
Ski Marathon in 2006.

Sport plays an important role in Estonian culture. After declaring independence from Russia
Russia
in 1918, Estonia
Estonia
first competed as a nation at the 1920 Summer Olympics, although the National Olympic Committee was established in 1923. Estonian athletes took part of the Olympic Games until the country was annexed by the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
in 1940. The 1980 Summer Olympics
1980 Summer Olympics
Sailing
Sailing
regatta was held in the capital city Tallinn. After regaining independence in 1991, Estonia
Estonia
has participated in all Olympics. Estonia
Estonia
has won most of its medals in athletics, weightlifting, wrestling and cross-country skiing. Estonia has had very good success at the Olympic games given the country's small population. Estonia's best results were being ranked 13th in the medal table at the 1936 Summer Olympics, and 12th at the 2006 Winter Olympics. The list of notable Estonian athletes include wrestlers Kristjan Palusalu, Johannes Kotkas, Voldemar Väli, and Georg Lurich, skiers Andrus Veerpalu
Andrus Veerpalu
and Kristina Šmigun-Vähi, fencer Nikolai Novosjolov, decathlete Erki Nool, tennis players Kaia Kanepi
Kaia Kanepi
and Anett Kontaveit, cyclists Jaan Kirsipuu
Jaan Kirsipuu
and Erika Salumäe
Erika Salumäe
and discus throwers Gerd Kanter and Aleksander Tammert. Kiiking, a relatively new sport, was invented in 1996 by Ado Kosk in Estonia. Kiiking
Kiiking
involves a modified swing in which the rider of the swing tries to go around 360 degrees.

Wrestler Heiki Nabi
Heiki Nabi
at 2012 Summer Olympics, wrestling is Estonia's most successful Olympic sport.

Paul Keres, Estonian and Soviet chess grandmaster, was among the world's top players from the mid-1930s to the mid-1960s. He narrowly missed a chance at a World Chess Championship match on five occasions. Basketball is also a notable sport in Estonia. The domestic top-tier basketball championship is called the Korvpalli Meistriliiga. BC Kalev/Cramo are the most recent champions, having won the league in the 2016–17 season. University of Tartu
Tartu
team has won the league a record 26 times. Estonian clubs also participate in European and regional competitions. Estonia
Estonia
national basketball team previously participated in 1936 Summer Olympics, appeared in EuroBasket
EuroBasket
four times. Estonian national team also competed at the EuroBasket
EuroBasket
2015. Kelly Sildaru, an Estonian freestyle skier, won the gold medal in the slopestyle event in the 2016 Winter X Games. At age 13, she became the youngest gold medalist to date at a Winter X Games
Winter X Games
event, and the first person to win a Winter X Games
Winter X Games
medal for Estonia. She has also won the women's slopestyle at 2015 and 2016 Winter Dew Tour. In modern-era motorsports, World Rally Championship
World Rally Championship
has seen two very successful Estonian drivers reach high results, with Markko Märtin achieving 5 rally victories and finishing 3rd overall in the 2004 World Rally Championship
World Rally Championship
and Ott Tänak
Ott Tänak
(active driver) winning his first WRC event at 2017 Rally d'Italia. In circuit racing, Marko Asmer was the first Estonian driver to test a Formula One
Formula One
car in 2003 with Williams Grand Prix Engineering, in other series Sten Pentus
Sten Pentus
and Kevin Korjus (active driver) have enjoyed success on a global scale. International rankings[edit] The following are links to international rankings of Estonia.

Index Rank Countries reviewed

Freedom House
Freedom House
Internet
Internet
Freedom 2016 1st 65

Environmental Performance Index 2016 8th 180

Global Gender Gap Report
Global Gender Gap Report
Global Gender Gap Index 2015 21st 136

Index of Economic Freedom 2017 6th 180

International Tax Competitiveness Index 2015[229] 1st 35

Reporters Without Borders
Reporters Without Borders
Press Freedom Index
Press Freedom Index
2011–2012 11th 187

State of World Liberty Index 2006 1st 159

Human Development Index
Human Development Index
2015[7] 30th 169

Corruption Perceptions Index
Corruption Perceptions Index
2016 22nd 176

TRACE Matrix business bribery risk 2016[233] 3rd 199

Networked Readiness Index 2014 21st 133

Ease of Doing Business Index
Ease of Doing Business Index
2017 12th 190

State of The World's Children's Index 2012[337] 10th 165

State of The World's Women's Index 2012 18th 165

World Freedom Index 2014[338] 8th 165

Legatum Prosperity Index 2016 26th 149

EF English Proficiency Index
EF English Proficiency Index
2013 4th 60

Programme for International Student Assessment
Programme for International Student Assessment
2015 (Maths) 9th 72

Programme for International Student Assessment
Programme for International Student Assessment
2015 (Science) 3rd 72

Programme for International Student Assessment
Programme for International Student Assessment
2015 (Reading) 6th 72

See also[edit]

Book: Estonia

Outline of Estonia Index of Estonia-related articles

Notes[edit]

^ Special administrative region (SAR) of China

References[edit]

^ a b "Rahvaarv rahvuse järgi, 1. jaanuar, aasta". Statistics Estonia. Retrieved 6 June 2017.  ^ "Minifacts About Estonia
Estonia
2017". Retrieved 19 July 2017.  ^ . 4 January 2018 https://news.err.ee/654391/estonia-s-population-increases-for-third-year. Retrieved 1 January 2018.  Missing or empty title= (help) (Estimate as of 1 January 2018) ^ "PHC 2011 RESULTS". Statistics Estonia. Retrieved 26 January 2016.  ^ a b c d e "Estonia". International Monetary Fund.  ^ " Gini coefficient
Gini coefficient
of equivalised disposable income (source: SILC)". Eurostat
Eurostat
Data Explorer. Retrieved 5 January 2014.  ^ a b c "2015 Human Development Report" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 2015. Retrieved 14 December 2015.  ^ Constitution
Constitution
of the Republic
Republic
of Estonia, 6th article ^ Võrokesed ees, setod järel. postimees .ee
.ee
(13 July 2012). ^ Territorial changes of the Baltic states
Baltic states
Soviet territorial changes against Estonia
Estonia
after World War II ^ "Definition of Estonia". The Free Dictionary. Retrieved 29 October 2013.  ^ "Define Estonia". Dictionary.com. Retrieved 29 October 2013.  ^ " United Nations
United Nations
Statistics Division- Standard Country and Area Codes Classifications (M49)". United Nations. 31 October 2013. Retrieved 31 March 2016.  ^ "Estonian Republic". Archived from the original on 21 July 2011. Retrieved 21 July 2011. CS1 maint: Unfit url (link) . Official website of the Republic
Republic
of Estonia
Estonia
(in Estonian) ^ Matthew Holehouse Estonia
Estonia
discovers it's actually larger after finding 800 new islands The Telegraph, 28 August 2015 ^ "Estonian Economic Miracle: A Model For Developing Countries". Global Politician. Archived from the original on 28 June 2011. Retrieved 5 June 2011.  ^ " Press Freedom Index
Press Freedom Index
2016 – Reporters Without Borders". Reports Without Borders. Retrieved 29 May 2016.  ^ "Asian countries dominate, science teaching criticised in survey".  ^ Comparing Performance of Universal Health Care Countries, 2016 Fraser Institute ^ Estonia
Estonia
OECD
OECD
2016 ^ "Which countries are most generous to new parents?". The Economist. Retrieved 28 October 2016. . ^ "Welcome to E-stonia, the world's most digitally advanced society". Wired. Retrieved 20 October 2016.  ^ Ariste, Paul (1956). Maakeel ja eesti keel. Eesti NSV Teaduste Akadeemia Toimetised 5: 117–24; Beyer, Jürgen (2007). Ist maarahvas (‚Landvolk'), die alte Selbstbezeichnung der Esten, eine Lehnübersetzung? Eine Studie zur Begriffsgeschichte des Ostseeraums. Zeitschrift für Ostmitteleuropa-Forschung
Zeitschrift für Ostmitteleuropa-Forschung
56: 566–593. ^ Germania, Tacitus, Chapter XLV ^ Cole, Jeffrey (2011). Ethnic Groups of Europe: An Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. p. 124. ISBN 9781598843026.  ^ "Spell it "ESTHONIA" here; Geographic Board Will Not Drop the "h," but British Board Does". The New York Times. 17 April 1926. Retrieved 6 November 2009.  ^ Ineta Ziemele (20 March 2002). Baltic yearbook of international law. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. pp. 26–. ISBN 978-90-411-1736-6.  ^ Nations, League of; Tyler, Royall; Dept, League of Nations
League of Nations
Economic, Financial, and Transit (1945). League of Nations
League of Nations
publications. League of Nations. p. 132.  ^ a b Laurisaar, Riho (31 July 2004). "Arheoloogid lammutavad ajalooõpikute arusaamu" (in Estonian). Eesti Päevaleht. Retrieved 1 November 2016.  ^ Subrenat, Jean-Jacques (2004). Estonia: Identity and Independence. Rodopi. p. 23. ISBN 9042008903.  ^ Subrenat, Jean-Jacques (2004). Estonia: Identity and Independence. Rodopi. p. 24. ISBN 9042008903.  ^ Subrenat, Jean-Jacques (2004). Estonia: Identity and Independence. Rodopi. p. 26. ISBN 9042008903.  ^ Kasekamp, Andres (2010). A History of the Baltic States. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 4. ISBN 9780230364509.  ^ Kasekamp, Andres (2010). A History of the Baltic States. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 5. ISBN 9780230364509.  ^ Subrenat, Jean-Jacques (2004). Estonia: Identity and Independence. Rodopi. p. 28. ISBN 9042008903.  ^ Jüri
Jüri
Selirand; Evald Tõnisson (1984). Through past millennia: archaeological discoveries in Estonia. Perioodika.  ^ Frucht, Richard C. (2005). Eastern Europe: An Introduction to the People, Lands, and Culture. ABC-CLIO. p. 68. ISBN 9781576078006.  ^ Faure, Gunter; Mensing, Teresa (2012). The Estonians; The long road to independence. Lulu.com. p. 27. ISBN 9781105530036.  ^ Tvauri, Andres (2012). The Migration Period, Pre-Viking Age, and Viking Age in Estonia. pp. 33, 34, 59, 60. Retrieved 27 December 2016.  ^ Mäesalu, Ain (2012). "Could Kedipiv in East-Slavonic Chronicles be Keava
Keava
hill fort?" (PDF). Estonian Journal of Archaeology. 1: 199. Retrieved 27 December 2016.  ^ Kasekamp, Andres (2010). A History of the Baltic States. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 9. ISBN 9780230364509.  ^ Raun, Toivo U. (2002). Estonia
Estonia
and the Estonians: Second Edition, Updated. Hoover Press. p. 12. ISBN 9780817928537.  ^ Kasekamp, Andres (2010). A History of the Baltic States. Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 9–11. ISBN 9780230364509.  ^ Enn Tarvel (2007). Sigtuna
Sigtuna
hukkumine Haridus, 2007 (7–8), pp. 38–41 ^ Raun, Toivo U. (2002). Estonia
Estonia
and the Estonians: Second Edition, Updated. Hoover Press. p. 4. ISBN 9780817928537.  ^ Raukas, Anto (2002). Eesti entsüklopeedia 11: Eesti üld (in Estonian). Eesti Entsüklopeediakirjastus. p. 227. ISBN 9985701151.  ^ Kasekamp, Andres (2010). A History of the Baltic States. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 7. ISBN 9780230364509.  ^ Laurisaar, Riho (29 April 2006). "Arheoloogid lammutavad ajalooõpikute arusaamu" (in Estonian). Eesti Päevaleht. Retrieved 4 November 2016.  ^ Tyerman, Christopher (2006). God's War: A New History of the Crusades. Harvard University Press. p. 690. ISBN 9780674023871.  ^ Kasekamp, Andres (2010). A History of the Baltic States. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 14. ISBN 9780230364509.  ^ Raukas, Anto (2002). Eesti entsüklopeedia 11: Eesti üld (in Estonian). Eesti Entsüklopeediakirjastus. p. 278. ISBN 9985701151.  ^ Kasekamp, Andres (2010). A History of the Baltic States. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 15. ISBN 9780230364509.  ^ Raukas, Anto (2002). Eesti entsüklopeedia 11: Eesti üld (in Estonian). Eesti Entsüklopeediakirjastus. p. 279. ISBN 9985701151.  ^ Plakans, Andrejs (2011). A Concise History of the Baltic States. Cambridge University Press. p. 54. ISBN 9780521833721.  ^ O'Connor, Kevin (2006). Culture and Customs of the Baltic States. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 9–10. ISBN 9780313331251.  ^ Raun, Toivo U. (2002). Estonia
Estonia
and the Estonians: Second Edition, Updated. Hoover Press. p. 20. ISBN 9780817928537.  ^ O'Connor, Kevin (2006). Culture and Customs of the Baltic States. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 10. ISBN 9780313331251.  ^ Pekomäe, Vello (1986). Estland genom tiderna (in Swedish). Stockholm: VÄLIS-EESTI & EMP. p. 319. ISBN 91-86116-47-9.  ^ Jokipii, Mauno (1992). Jokipii, Mauno, ed. Baltisk kultur och historia (in Swedish). pp. 22–23. ISBN 9789134512078.  ^ Miljan, Toivo (2015). Historical Dictionary of Estonia. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 441. ISBN 9780810875135.  ^ Frucht, Richard C. (2005). Eastern Europe: An Introduction to the People, Lands, and Culture, Volume 1. ABC-CLIO. p. 100. ISBN 9781576078006.  ^ Frost, Robert I. (2014). The Northern Wars: War, State and Society in Northeastern Europe, 1558 – 1721. Routledge. p. 305. ISBN 9781317898573.  ^ Raudkivi, Priit (2007). Vana-Liivimaa maapäev (in Estonian). Argo. pp. 118–119. ISBN 9949-415-84-5.  ^ Mol, Johannes A.; Militzer, Klaus; Nicholson, Helen J. (2006). The Military Orders and the Reformation: Choices, State Building, and the Weight of Tradition. Uitgeverij Verloren. pp. 5–6. ISBN 9789065509130.  ^ a b c Frucht, Richard C. (2005). Eastern Europe: An Introduction to the People, Lands, and Culture, Volume 1. ABC-CLIO. p. 121. ISBN 9781576078006.  ^ O'Connor, Kevin (2003). The History of the Baltic States. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 25. ISBN 9780313323553.  ^ Raun, Toivo U. (2002). Estonia
Estonia
and the Estonians: Second Edition, Updated. Hoover Press. p. 24. ISBN 9780817928537.  ^ a b Raun, Toivo U. (2002). Estonia
Estonia
and the Estonians: Second Edition, Updated. Hoover Press. p. 25. ISBN 9780817928537.  ^ Stone, David R. (2006). A Military History of Russia: From Ivan the Terrible to the War in Chechnya. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 14–18. ISBN 9780275985028.  ^ Raun, Toivo U. (2002). Estonia
Estonia
and the Estonians: Second Edition, Updated. Hoover Press. pp. 28–29. ISBN 9780817928537.  ^ Raun, Toivo U. (2002). Estonia
Estonia
and the Estonians: Second Edition, Updated. Hoover Press. p. 28. ISBN 9780817928537.  ^ Williams, Nicola; Debra Herrmann; Cathryn Kemp (2003). Estonia, Latvia
Latvia
& Lithuania. University of Michigan. p. 190. ISBN 1-74059-132-1.  ^ Frost, Robert I. (2014). The Northern Wars: War, State and Society in Northeastern Europe, 1558 – 1721. Routledge. p. 77. ISBN 9781317898573.  ^ Raukas, Anto (2002). Eesti entsüklopeedia 11: Eesti üld (in Estonian). Eesti Entsüklopeediakirjastus. p. 283. ISBN 9985701151.  ^ Raun, Toivo U. (2002). Estonia
Estonia
and the Estonians: Second Edition, Updated. Hoover Press. pp. 32–33. ISBN 9780817928537.  ^ Raun, Toivo U. (2002). Estonia
Estonia
and the Estonians: Second Edition, Updated. Hoover Press. p. 31. ISBN 9780817928537.  ^ Raun, Toivo U. (2002). Estonia
Estonia
and the Estonians: Second Edition, Updated. Hoover Press. p. 33. ISBN 9780817928537.  ^ Raun, Toivo U. (2002). Estonia
Estonia
and the Estonians: Second Edition, Updated. Hoover Press. p. 34. ISBN 9780817928537.  ^ Raun, Toivo U. (2002). Estonia
Estonia
and the Estonians: Second Edition, Updated. Hoover Press. p. 38. ISBN 9780817928537.  ^ Raun, Toivo U. (2002). Estonia
Estonia
and the Estonians: Second Edition, Updated. Hoover Press. p. 41. ISBN 9780817928537.  ^ Raun, Toivo U. (2002). Estonia
Estonia
and the Estonians: Second Edition, Updated. Hoover Press. pp. 47–49. ISBN 9780817928537.  ^ Raukas, Anto (2002). Eesti entsüklopeedia 11: Eesti üld (in Estonian). Eesti Entsüklopeediakirjastus. p. 286. ISBN 9985701151.  ^ Subrenat, Jean-Jacques (2004). Estonia: Identity and Independence. Rodopi. p. 90. ISBN 9042008903.  ^ a b c Raun, Toivo U. (2002). Estonia
Estonia
and the Estonians: Second Edition, Updated. Hoover Press. p. 59. ISBN 9780817928537.  ^ a b Raukas, Anto (2002). Eesti entsüklopeedia 11: Eesti üld (in Estonian). Eesti Entsüklopeediakirjastus. p. 287. ISBN 9985701151.  ^ Subrenat, Jean-Jacques (2004). Estonia: Identity and Independence. Rodopi. p. 93. ISBN 9042008903.  ^ Subrenat, Jean-Jacques (2004). Estonia: Identity and Independence. Rodopi. pp. 90–91. ISBN 9042008903.  ^ Subrenat, Jean-Jacques (2004). Estonia: Identity and Independence. Rodopi. p. 91. ISBN 9042008903.  ^ a b Cultural Policy in Estonia. Council of Europe. 1997. p. 23. ISBN 9789287131652.  ^ Raukas, Anto (2002). Eesti entsüklopeedia 11: Eesti üld (in Estonian). Eesti Entsüklopeediakirjastus. p. 291. ISBN 9985701151.  ^ Smith, David (2013). Estonia: Independence and European Integration. Routledge. p. 10. ISBN 9781136452130.  ^ Raukas, Anto (2002). Eesti entsüklopeedia 11: Eesti üld (in Estonian). Eesti Entsüklopeediakirjastus. p. 292. ISBN 9985701151.  ^ Calvert, Peter (1987). The Process of Political Succession. Springer. p. 67. ISBN 9781349089789.  ^ Calvert, Peter (1987). The Process of Political Succession. Springer. p. 68. ISBN 9781349089789.  ^ Kasekamp, Andres (2000). The Radical Right in Interwar Estonia. Springer. p. 9. ISBN 9781403919557.  ^ Pinder, David (1990). Western Europe: Challenge and Change. ABC-CLIO. p. 75. ISBN 9781576078006.  ^ a b Pinder, David (1990). Western Europe: Challenge and Change. ABC-CLIO. p. 76. ISBN 9781576078006.  ^ Kasekamp, Andres (2000). The Radical Right in Interwar Estonia. Springer. p. 10. ISBN 9781403919557.  ^ Kasekamp, Andres (2000). The Radical Right in Interwar Estonia. Springer. p. 11. ISBN 9781403919557.  ^ Miljan, Toivo (2015). Historical Dictionary of Estonia. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 80–81. ISBN 9780810875135.  ^ Raun, Toivo U. (2002). Estonia
Estonia
and the Estonians: Second Edition, Updated. Hoover Press. p. 128. ISBN 9780817928537.  ^ Leonard, Raymond W. (1999). Secret Soldiers of the Revolution: Soviet Military Intelligence, 1918–1933. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 34–36. ISBN 9780313309908.  ^ Bell, Imogen (2002). Central and South-Eastern Europe
Europe
2003. Psychology Press. p. 244. ISBN 9781857431360.  ^ Smith, David (2013). Estonia: Independence and European Integration. Routledge. p. 18. ISBN 9781136452130.  ^ Misiunas, Romuald J.; Taagepera, Rein (1983). The Baltic States, Years of Dependence, 1940–1980. University of California Press. p. 11. ISBN 9780520046252.  ^ Smith, David (2013). Estonia: Independence and European Integration. Routledge. pp. 19–20. ISBN 9781136452130.  ^ Smith, David (2013). Estonia: Independence and European Integration. Routledge. p. 21. ISBN 9781136452130.  ^ Smith, David (2013). Estonia: Independence and European Integration. Routledge. p. 22. ISBN 9781136452130.  ^ a b van Ginneken, Anique H. M. (2006). Historical Dictionary of the League of Nations. Scarecrow Press. p. 82. ISBN 9780810865136.  ^ von Rauch, Georg (1974). Die Geschichte der baltischen Staaten. University of California Press. pp. 108–111. ISBN 9780520026001.  ^ Hiden, John; Lane, Thomas (2003). The Baltic and the Outbreak of the Second World War. Cambridge University Press. p. 7. ISBN 9780521531207.  ^ Åselius, Gunnar (2004). The Rise and Fall of the Soviet Navy in the Baltic 1921–1941. Routledge. p. 119. ISBN 9781135769604.  ^ Lane, Thomas; Pabriks, Artis; Purs, Aldis; Smith, David J. (2013). The Baltic States: Estonia, Latvia
Latvia
and Lithuania. Routledge. p. 154. ISBN 9781136483042.  ^ Gärtner, Heinz (2017). Engaged Neutrality: An Evolved Approach to the Cold War. Lexington Books. p. 125. ISBN 9781498546195.  ^ Miljan, Toivo (2015). Historical Dictionary of Estonia. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 335. ISBN 9780810875135.  ^ Hiden, John; Salmon, Patrick (2014). The Baltic Nations and Europe: Estonia, Latvia
Latvia
and Lithuania
Lithuania
in the Twentieth Century. Routledge. p. 110. ISBN 9781317890577.  ^ Raukas, Anto (2002). Eesti entsüklopeedia 11: Eesti üld (in Estonian). Eesti Entsüklopeediakirjastus. p. 309. ISBN 9985701151.  ^ Eric A. Johnson and Anna Hermann The Last Flight from Tallinn Archived 17 January 2012 at the Wayback Machine.. Foreign Service Journal. American Foreign Service Association. May 2007 ^ Lauri Mälksoo (2003). Illegal Annexation and State Continuity: The Case of the Incorporation of the Baltic States by the USSR. Leiden – Boston: Brill. ISBN 90-411-2177-3.  ^ a b Miljan, Toivo (2015). Historical Dictionary of Estonia. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 110. ISBN 9780810875135.  ^ Gatrell, Peter; Baron, Nick (2009). Warlands: Population Resettlement and State Reconstruction in the Soviet-East European Borderlands, 1945-50. Springer. p. 233. ISBN 9780230246935.  ^ The Baltic Revolution: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania
Lithuania
and the Path to Independence by Anatol Lieven
Anatol Lieven
p424 ISBN 0-300-06078-5 ^ Lane, Thomas; Pabriks, Artis; Purs, Aldis; Smith, David J. (2013). The Baltic States: Estonia, Latvia
Latvia
and Lithuania. Routledge. p. 34. ISBN 9781136483042.  ^ Pinder, David (1990). Western Europe: Challenge and Change. ABC-CLIO. p. 80. ISBN 9781576078006.  ^ Miljan, Toivo (2015). Historical Dictionary of Estonia. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 209. ISBN 9780810875135.  ^ "Conclusions of the Commission". Estonian International Commission for Investigation of Crimes Against Humanity. 1998. Archived from the original on 29 June 2008.  ^ Smith, David (2013). Estonia: Independence and European Integration. Routledge. p. 36. ISBN 9781136452130.  ^ Miljan, Toivo (2004). Historical Dictionary of Estonia. Scarecrow Press. p. 275. ISBN 9780810865716.  ^ a b Raun, Toivo U. (2002). Estonia
Estonia
and the Estonians: Second Edition, Updated. Hoover Press. p. 159. ISBN 9780817928537.  ^ Kangilaski, Jaan; Salo, Vello (2005). The white book: losses inflicted on the Estonian nation by occupation regimes, 1940–1991. Estonian Encyclopaedia Publishers. p. 18. ISBN 9789985701959.  ^ Kasekamp, Andres (2010). A History of the Baltic States. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 138. ISBN 9780230364509.  ^ Kangilaski, Jaan; Salo, Vello (2005). The white book: losses inflicted on the Estonian nation by occupation regimes, 1940–1991. Estonian Encyclopaedia Publishers. p. 30. ISBN 9789985701959.  ^ Kangilaski, Jaan; Salo, Vello (2005). The white book: losses inflicted on the Estonian nation by occupation regimes, 1940–1991. Estonian Encyclopaedia Publishers. p. 37. ISBN 9789985701959.  ^ Misiunas, Romuald J.; Taagepera, Rein (1983). The Baltic States, Years of Dependence, 1940–1980. University of California Press. p. 71. ISBN 9780520046252.  ^ Raun, Toivo U. (2002). Estonia
Estonia
and the Estonians: Second Edition, Updated. Hoover Press. p. 174. ISBN 9780817928537.  ^ Purs, Aldis (2013). Baltic Facades: Estonia, Latvia
Latvia
and Lithuania since 1945. Reaktion Books. p. 335. ISBN 9781861899323.  ^ a b Taagepera, Rein (2013). The Finno-Ugric Republics and the Russian State. Routledge. p. 128. ISBN 9781136678011.  ^ O'Connor, Kevin (2003). The History of the Baltic States. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 128. ISBN 9780313323553.  ^ Miljan, Toivo (2015). Historical Dictionary of Estonia. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 227. ISBN 9780810875135.  ^ Spyra, Wolfgang; Katzsch, Michael (2007). Environmental Security and Public Safety: Problems and Needs in Conversion Policy and Research after 15 Years of Conversion in Central and Eastern Europe. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 14. ISBN 9781402056444.  ^ Stöcker, Lars Fredrik (2017). Bridging the Baltic Sea: Networks of Resistance and Opposition during the Cold War Era. Lexington Books. p. 72. ISBN 9781498551281.  ^ Feldbrugge, F. J. Ferdinand Joseph Maria; Van den Berg, Gerard Pieter; Simons, William Bradford (1985). Encyclopedia of Soviet Law. BRILL. p. 461. ISBN 9789024730759.  ^ Lane, Thomas; Pabriks, Artis; Purs, Aldis; Smith, David J. (2013). The Baltic States: Estonia, Latvia
Latvia
and Lithuania. Routledge. p. xx. ISBN 9781136483042.  ^ Frankowski, Stanisław; Stephan III, Paul B. (1995). Legal Reform in Post-Communist Europe: The View from Within. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. p. 73. ISBN 9780792332183.  ^ Backes, Uwe; Moreau, Patrick (2008). Communist and Post-Communist Parties in Europe: Schriften Des Hannah-Arendt-Instituts Für Totalitarismusforschung 36. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. p. 9. ISBN 9783525369128.  ^ Vogt, Henri (2005). Between Utopia and Disillusionment: A Narrative of the Political Transformation in Eastern Europe. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. pp. 20–22. ISBN 9781571818959.  ^ Simons, Greg; Westerlund, David (2015). Religion, Politics and Nation-Building in Post-Communist Countries. Ashgate Publishing. p. 151. ISBN 9781472449719.  ^ Smith, David (2013). Estonia: Independence and European Integration. Routledge. pp. 46–48. ISBN 9781136452130.  ^ Walker, Edward W. (2003). Dissolution: Sovereignty
Sovereignty
and the Breakup of the Soviet Union. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 63. ISBN 9780742524538.  ^ Smith, David (2013). Estonia: Independence and European Integration. Routledge. p. 52. ISBN 9781136452130.  ^ Smith, David (2013). Estonia: Independence and European Integration. Routledge. p. 54. ISBN 9781136452130.  ^ Gill, Graeme (2003). Democracy and Post-Communism: Political Change in the Post-Communist World. Routledge. p. 41. ISBN 9781134485567.  ^ Dillon, Patricia; Wykoff, Frank C. (2002). Creating Capitalism: Transitions and Growth in Post-Soviet Europe. Edward Elgar Publishing. p. 164. ISBN 9781843765561.  ^ Nørgaard, Ole (1999). The Baltic States After Independence. Edward Elgar Publishing. p. 188. ISBN 9781843765561.  ^ Ó Beacháin, Donnacha; Sheridan, Vera; Stan, Sabina (2012). Life in Post-Communist Eastern Europe
Europe
after EU Membership. Routledge. p. 170. ISBN 9781136299810.  ^ Miljan, Toivo (2015). Historical Dictionary of Estonia. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 18–19. ISBN 9780810875135.  ^ a b "World Info Zone". World Info Zone. Retrieved 2 June 2010.  ^ "World InfoZone – Estonia". World InfoZone. World InfoZonek, LTD. Retrieved 20 February 2007.  ^ "Keskmine ohutemperatuur (°C) 1971–2000". Emhi.ee. Retrieved 2 June 2010.  ^ "Sademed, õhuniiskus". Emhi.ee. Retrieved 2 June 2010.  ^ Facts Archived 2 February 2017 at the Wayback Machine. Estonian Timber ^ " European Commission
European Commission
– PRESS RELEASES – Press release – Land Use/Cover Area frame Survey 2012 Buildings, roads and other artificial areas cover 5% of the EU …and forests 40%". Retrieved 27 March 2015.  ^ Estonian Mires Inventory Compiled by Jaanus Paal and Eerik Leibak. Estonian Fund for Nature. Tartu, 2011 Archived 10 July 2014 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Hiking Route: Aegviidu-Ähijärve 672 km – Loodusega koos RMK". Loodusega Koos. Retrieved 27 March 2015.  ^ Taylor, Neil (2014). Estonia. Bradt Travel Guides. pp. 6–7. ISBN 9781841624877.  ^ Taylor, Neil (2014). Estonia. Bradt Travel Guides. p. 4. ISBN 9781841624877.  ^ Taylor, Neil (2014). Estonia. Bradt Travel Guides. pp. 7–8. ISBN 9781841624877.  ^ Spilling, Michael (2010). Estonia. Marshall Cavendish. p. 11. ISBN 9781841624877.  ^ "Nature conservation in Estonia". Estonian Environmental Board. 16 November 2017. Retrieved 2018-02-23.  ^ "Functions". Retrieved 27 March 2015.  ^ " Estonia
Estonia
pulls off nationwide Net voting". CNET. Archived from the original on 13 July 2012. Retrieved 27 March 2015.  ^ Reporters Without Borders. Worldwide press freedom index 2009 Archived 28 January 2012 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Introduction". Retrieved 27 March 2015.  ^ "Riigikohus" (in Estonian). Riigikohus. Archived from the original on 22 July 2011. Retrieved 8 October 2009.  ^ " Estonia
Estonia
country profile". BBC. Retrieved 16 March 2013.  ^ History of Estonia
History of Estonia
History of Estonia ^ Herbert Whittaker Briggs (1952). The law of nations: cases, documents, and notes. Appleton-Century-Crofts. p. 106.  ^ a b c d e " Estonia
Estonia
country brief". Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (Australia). Retrieved 2018-02-22.  ^ "EU Agency for large-scale IT systems". European Commission. 20 July 2012. Archived from the original on 10 September 2012. Retrieved 11 August 2012.  ^ "Estonian presidency leaves 'more confident' EU". EUobserver. 21 December 2017. Retrieved 2018-02-22.  ^ "Estonian Chairmanship of the Baltic Council of Ministers in 2011". Estonian Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Archived from the original on 13 November 2013. Retrieved 11 August 2012.  ^ "Nordic-Baltic Co-operation". Estonian Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 10 July 2012. Archived from the original on 11 May 2012. Retrieved 11 August 2012.  ^ "Nordplus". Nordic Council of Ministers. Archived from the original on 13 November 2013. Retrieved 11 August 2012.  ^ "NordicBaltic Mobility and Network Programme for Business and Industry". Nordic Council of Ministers' Office in Latvia. Archived from the original on 18 November 2013. Retrieved 11 August 2012.  ^ "NordicBaltic mobility programme for public administration". Nordic Council of Ministers' Office in Estonia. Retrieved 11 August 2012.  ^ "Nordic Council of Ministers' Information Offices in the Baltic States and Russia". Nordic Council of Ministers. Retrieved 11 August 2012.  ^ "Norden in Estonia". Nordic Council of Ministers' Office in Estonia. Retrieved 11 August 2012.  ^ "Estonia, Latvia
Latvia
and Lithuania
Lithuania
10-year owners at NIB". Nordic Investment Bank. December 2014. Retrieved 2018-02-22.  ^ Smyth, Patrick (7 May 2016). "World View: German paper outlines vision for EU defence union". Irish Times. Retrieved 2018-02-22.  ^ Dahl, Ann Sofie; Järvenpää, Pauli (2014). Northern Security and Global Politics: Nordic-Baltic strategic influence in a post-unipolar world. Routledge. p. 166. ISBN 978-0-415-83657-9. Retrieved 24 December 2016.  ^ " NORDEFCO
NORDEFCO
annual report 2015" (PDF). Nordefco.org. Retrieved 23 July 2017.  ^ Ilves, Toomas Hendrik (14 December 1999). " Estonia
Estonia
as a Nordic Country". Estonian Foreign Ministry. Archived from the original on 11 May 2011. Retrieved 19 September 2009.  ^ a b Mouritzen, Hans; Wivel, Anders (2005). The Geopolitics of Euro-Atlantic Integration (1 ed.). Routledge. p. 143. Retrieved 24 December 2016.  ^ "List of OECD
OECD
Member countries - Ratification of the Convention on the OECD". OECD. Retrieved 2018-02-22.  ^ "Participating States". OSCE. Retrieved 2018-02-22.  ^ "Ambassador: Successes tend to get ignored in Estonian-Russian relations". Eesti Rahvusringhääling. 9 December 2017. Retrieved 2018-02-22.  ^ "Estonian National Defence Policy". Mil.ee. Archived from the original on 28 May 2010. Retrieved 2 June 2010.  ^ "Terras: Conscription
Conscription
Will Stay". Eesti Rahvusringhääling. 10 December 2012. Retrieved 16 March 2013.  ^ "Estonian Defence Budget". Mod.gov.ee. Archived from the original on 4 January 2010. Retrieved 2 June 2010.  ^ "Baltic Defence Co-operation". Estonian Ministry of Foreign Affairs. January 2002. Archived from the original on 5 August 2011. Retrieved 11 August 2012.  ^ "Baltic Defence Ministers announced new defence cooperation initiatives". Ministry of National Defence Republic
Republic
of Lithuania. 12 December 2011. Retrieved 11 August 2012.  ^ "Nordic Countries Invite Baltics to Join Defence Co-operation Framework". Estonian Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 21 January 2011. Archived from the original on 8 June 2012. Retrieved 11 August 2012.  ^ "Iisrael, Liibanon ja Süüria" (in Estonian). Operatsioonid.kmin.ee. 26 April 2010. Archived from the original on 4 May 2011. Retrieved 2 June 2010.  ^ "Former operations". Mil.ee. Archived from the original on 20 July 2011. Retrieved 2 June 2010.  ^ "Eesti osalus Euroopa julgeoleku- ja kaitsepoliitikas – ESDP". Archived from the original on 24 June 2007. Retrieved 29 June 2008. CS1 maint: Unfit url (link) , Estonian Ministry of Defence (in Estonian) ^ " Estonia
Estonia
fines man for 'cyber war'". BBC. 25 January 2008. Retrieved 23 February 2008.  ^ "CERT Estonia". Ria.ee. Archived from the original on 10 March 2013. Retrieved 2 June 2010.  ^ Krister Paris USA toetab Eesti küberkaitsekeskust. Eesti Päevaleht, 28 June 2007 ^ "President Ilves kohtus Ameerika Ühendriikide riigipeaga". Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 24 February 2012. CS1 maint: Unfit url (link) . Office of the President of Estonia. 25 June 2007 ^ "Kaitsevägi – Uudised". Mil.ee. Retrieved 2 June 2010.  ^ "President Kaljulaid: Rootsi ja Eesti on tihedalt põimunud President". President.ee. Retrieved 23 July 2017.  ^ "Estonian Economy Overview Ministry of Foreign Affairs". Vm.ee. 16 June 2017. Retrieved 23 July 2017.  ^ a b Mardiste, David (1 January 2011). " Estonia
Estonia
joins crisis-hit euro club". Reuters. Retrieved 2 January 2011.  ^ Eurostat
Eurostat
news release Archived 27 October 2011 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Electricity Balance, Yearly" 8 June 2010 (Estonian) ^ ""Põlevkivi kasutamise riikliku arengukava 2008–2015" 2011. a täitmise aruanne" (PDF). Valitsus.ee. 6 September 2012. Retrieved 16 March 2013.  ^ "Energy Effectiveness, Yearly" 22 September 2010 (Estonian) ^ "DISCOVER BUSINESS AND INVESTMENT OPPORTUNITIES IN ESTONIA!". Estonian Export Directory. Retrieved 2 July 2013.  ^ "Ministry of Finance". fin.ee. 15 May 2008. Archived from the original on 2 November 2013. Retrieved 2 June 2010.  ^ "Eesti Statistika – Enim nõutud statistika". Stat.ee. 23 March 2010. Retrieved 5 June 2011.  ^ "GDP per capita in PPS" (PDF). Eurostat. Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 July 2009. Retrieved 25 June 2009.  ^ a b Allan Aron; Evelin Puura. "Avaleht – Eesti Statistika". Stat.ee. Retrieved 31 March 2016.  ^ Kaja Koovit (1 June 2011). "bbn .ee
.ee
– Half of Estonian GDP is created in Tallinn". Balticbusinessnews.com. Retrieved 5 June 2011.  ^ Half of the gross domestic product of Estonia
Estonia
is created in Tallinn. Statistics Estonia. Stat.ee. 29 September 2008. Retrieved 23 December 2011. ^ "Real GDP per capita, growth rate and totals – Statistics Estonia". Stat.ee. Retrieved 25 November 2012.  ^ " Estonia
Estonia
Uses the Euro, and the Economy is Booming". CNBC. 5 June 2012. Retrieved 13 June 2012.  ^ "Country Rankings: World & Global Economy Rankings on Economic Freedom". Heritage.org. 13 January 2017. Retrieved 23 July 2017.  ^ " Corruption Perceptions Index
Corruption Perceptions Index
2016 – Transparency International". Transparency.org. 25 January 2017. Retrieved 23 July 2017.  ^ a b "2015 International Tax Competitiveness Index". Taxfoundation.org. Retrieved 23 July 2017.  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 6 February 2015. Retrieved 8 December 2013.  ^ "Digital Economy Estonia: From IT tiger to the World's Most Pre-eminent e-state". New European Economy. Retrieved 23 July 2017.  ^ Jun 2015. "Estonia: a digital economy". Treasury Today. Retrieved 23 July 2017.  ^ a b c "Trace Matrix". Traceminternational.org. Retrieved 23 July 2017.  ^ Personal Income Tax Archived 2 November 2013 at the Wayback Machine., Ministry of Finance
Finance
of the Republic
Republic
of Estonia ^ Angioni, Giovanni (31 March 2009). " Estonia
Estonia
Gets Closer to the Euro". Estonian Free Press. Archived from the original on 10 July 2011. Retrieved 22 November 2009.  ^ a b c "Land Taxation Reform in Estonia" (PDF). Aysps.gsu.edu. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 August 2010. Retrieved 23 July 2017.  ^ "Homeownership rate graph". Housing Vacancies and Homeownership. US Census. Retrieved 2 June 2015.  ^ "Estonia's accession to the OECD". OECD. 9 December 2010. Retrieved 22 July 2016.  ^ IEA (2013), p. 20. ^ "Actions of the state in directing the use of oil shale. Does the state guarantee that oil shale reserves are used sustainably? Report of the National Audit Office to the Riigikogu" (PDF). National Audit Office of Estonia. 19 November 2014. pp. 7–14; 29. Archived from the original on 7 January 2015. Retrieved 7 January 2015.  ^ IEA (2013), p. 7. ^ Forest resources based on national forest inventory Statistics Estonia
Estonia
2012. ^ "Uranium production at Sillamäe". Ut.ee. Retrieved 2 June 2010.  ^ Rofer, Cheryl K.; Tõnis Kaasik (2000). Turning a Problem into a Resource: Remediation and Waste Management at the Sillamäe
Sillamäe
Site, Estonia. Volume 28 of NATO
NATO
science series: Disarmament technologies. Springer. p. 229. ISBN 978-0-7923-6187-9.  ^ Anneli Reigas (1 December 2010). "Estonia's rare earth break China's market grip". Agence France-Presse. Retrieved 1 December 2010.  ^ Tulevikuraport: Soome-Eesti tuumajaam võiks olla Eestis (Future Report: Finnish and Estonian joint nuclear power station could be located in Estonia), Postimees. 25 June 2008 (in Estonian). ^ "Invest in Estonia: Overview of the Construction industry in Estonia". Archived from the original on 21 October 2007. Retrieved 2 June 2010.  ^ M. Auer (2004). Estonian Environmental Reforms: A Small Nation's Outsized Accomplishments. In: Restoring Cursed Earth: Appraising Environmental Policy Reforms in Eastern Europe
Europe
and Russia. Rowman & Littlefield. pp 117–144. ^ "Environment – current issues in Estonia. CIA Factbook". Umsl.edu. Retrieved 2 June 2010.  ^ "Estonian Wind Power Association". Tuuleenergia.ee. Retrieved 2 June 2010.  ^ Peipsile võib kerkida mitusada tuulikut, Postimees. 21 October 2007 (in Estonian) Archived 22 August 2013 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Henrik Ilves Tuule püüdmine on saanud Eesti kullapalavikuks, Eesti Päevaleht. 13 June 2008 (in Estonian) ^ "State Environment in Estonia". Enrin.grida.no. Retrieved 2 June 2010.  ^ "Developing Estonian energy policy hand in hand with EU energy packages" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 August 2009. Retrieved 18 August 2010.  ^ "Visaginas recognised with nuclear site name". World Nuclear News. 30 July 2008. Retrieved 31 July 2008.  ^ "Nuclear Power Plant Project in Lithuania
Lithuania
is Feasible. Press release". Lietuvos Energija. 25 October 2006. Archived from the original on 22 July 2011. Retrieved 13 July 2007.  ^ "Liive: Eesti Energia
Eesti Energia
ditched nuclear plant plans for shale oil". ERR. 24 November 2014. Retrieved 24 February 2015.  ^ Hackers Take Down the Most Wired Country in Europe, August 2007 ^ Andreas Thomann (6 September 2006). "Skype – A Baltic Success Story". credit-suisse.com. Archived from the original on 7 February 2012. Retrieved 24 February 2008.  ^ "Not only Skype". The Economist. 11 July 2013. Retrieved 24 February 2015.  ^ "Nord Pool". Nordpoolspot.com. Retrieved 23 July 2017.  ^ "Veebruaris kaubavahetus elavnes – Eesti Statistika". stat.ee.  ^ "GNI per capita in PPP dollars for Baltic states". Google WorldBank. Retrieved 27 February 2015.  ^ a b c d "CIA World Factbook: Estonia". Cia.gov. Archived from the original on 7 April 2009. Retrieved 23 December 2010.  ^ " European Union
European Union
Structural Funds in Estonia". Struktuurifondid.ee. Retrieved 2 June 2010.  ^ Archived copy at (Unknown) (14 November 2010).. Riigi Raha Raamat. 21 July 2011 (in Estonian) ^ a b "Ethnic minorities in Estonia: past and present". Einst.ee. 26 December 1998. Archived from the original on 7 August 2011. Retrieved 2 June 2010.  ^ Baltic Germans
Baltic Germans
in Estonia
Estonia
Archived 23 December 2007 at the Wayback Machine.. Estonian Institute http://www.einst.ee ^ Smith, David James (2005). The Baltic States and Their Region: New Europe
Europe
Or Old?. Rodopi. p. 211. ISBN 978-90-420-1666-8.  ^ CIA World Factbook. . Retrieved 7 November 2011 ^ Registreeritud töötus ja kindlustushüvitised jaanuaris 2012. Estonian unemployment office (in Estonian) Archived 28 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Population by the place of residence and mother tongue, statistical database: Population Census 2000". Statistics Estonia
Estonia
(government agency at the area of administration of the Ministry of Finance). July 2010. Retrieved 19 June 2009.  ^ "Citizenship". Estonia.eu. 13 July 2010. Archived from the original on 27 August 2010. Retrieved 18 August 2010.  ^ Eesti andis mullu kodakondsuse 2124 inimesele, Postimees. 9 January 2009 ^ Naturalisation
Naturalisation
in Estonia
Estonia
Statement by the Legal Information Centre for Human Rights (Tallinn, Estonia) ([...]the Special
Special
Rapporteur considers extremely credible the views of the representatives of the Russian-speaking minorities who expressed that the citizenship policy is discriminatory[...]) ^ Eesti ühiskond Society Archived 2 September 2011 at the Wayback Machine.. (2006, PDF in Estonian/English). Retrieved 23 December 2011. ^ Kangsepp, Liis (9 October 2014). " Estonia
Estonia
Passes Law Recognizing Gay Partnerships". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 4 January 2014.  ^ a b "Identity in an Open World".  ^ RAHVASTIK SOO, VANUSE JA HALDUSÜKSUSE VÕI ASUSTUSÜKSUSE LIIGI JÄRGI, 1. JAANUAR ^ "PC231: POPULATION BY RELIGIOUS AFFILIATION AND ETHNIC NATIONALITY". Statistics Estonia. 31 March 2000. Retrieved 9 January 2014.  ^ "PC0454: AT LEAST 15-YEAR-OLD PERSONS BY RELIGION, SEX, AGE GROUP, ETHNIC NATIONALITY AND COUNTY, 31 DECEMBER 2011". Statistics Estonia. 31 December 2011. Retrieved 9 January 2014.  ^ "Taarapita – the Great God of the Oeselians. Article by Urmas Sutrop" (PDF).  ^ Ivković, Sanja Kutnjak; Haberfeld, M.R. (10 June 2015). Measuring Police Integrity Across the World: Studies from Established Democracies and Countries in Transition. Springer. p. 131. ISBN 9781493922796. Estonia
Estonia
is considered Protestant
Protestant
when classified by its historically predominant major religion (Norris and Inglehart 2011) and thus some authors (e.g., Davie 2003) claim Estonia belongs to Western (Lutheran) Europe, while others (e.g., Norris and Inglehart 2011) see Estonia
Estonia
as a Protestant
Protestant
ex-Communist society.  ^ Ringvee, Ringo (16 September 2011). "Is Estonia
Estonia
really the least religious country in the world?". The Guardian. For this situation there are several reasons, starting from the distant past (the close connection of the churches with the Swedish or German ruling classes) up to the Soviet-period atheist policy when the chain of religious traditions was broken in most families. In Estonia, religion has never played an important role on the political or ideological battlefield. The institutional religious life was dominated by foreigners until the early 20th century. The tendencies that prevailed in the late 1930s for closer relations between the state and Lutheran
Lutheran
church [...] ended with the Soviet occupation in 1940.  Missing or empty url= (help); access-date= requires url= (help) ^ Triin Edovald; Michelle Felton; John Haywood; Rimvydas Juskaitis; Michael Thomas Kerrigan; Simon Lund-Lack; Nicholas Middleton; Josef Miskovsky; Ihar Piatrowicz; Lisa Pickering; Dace Praulins; John Swift; Vytautas Uselis; Ilivi Zajedova (2010). World and Its Peoples: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and Poland. Marshall Cavendish. p. 1066. ISBN 9780761478966. It is usually said that Estonia is a Protestant
Protestant
country; however, the overwhelming majority of Estonians, some 72 percent, are nonreligious. Estonia
Estonia
is the European Union (EU) country with the greatest percentage of people with no religious belief. This is in part, the result of Soviet actions and repression of religion. When the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
annexed Estonia
Estonia
in 1940, church property was confiscated, many theologians were deported to Siberia, most of the leadership of Evangelical Lutheran
Lutheran
Church went into exile, and religious instruction was banned. Many churches were destroyed in the German occupation of Estonia, from 1941 through 1944, and in World War II
World War II
(1939–1945), and religion was actively persecuted in Estonia
Estonia
under Soviet rule 1944 until 1989, when some measure of tolerance was introduced.  ^ " Estonia
Estonia
– Religion". Country Studies. Retrieved 2 June 2010.  ^ Constitution
Constitution
of Estonia#Chapter 2: Fundamental Rights, Liberties, and Duties Article 40.–42. ^ "Social Values" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 May 2006. Retrieved 5 June 2011.  ^ "Churches in Estonia". lutheranworld.org. Retrieved 16 February 2016.  ^ a b c "Discrimination in the EU in 2012" (PDF), Special Eurobarometer, 383, European Union: European Commission, p. 233, 2012, archived from the original (PDF) on 2 December 2012, retrieved 14 August 2013  The question asked was "Do you consider yourself to be...?" With a card showing: Catholic, Orthodox, Protestant, Other Christian, Jewish, Muslim, Sikh, Buddhist, Hindu, Atheist, and Non-believer/Agnostic. Space was given for Other (SPONTANEOUS) and DK. Jewish, Sikh, Buddhist, Hindu did not reach the 1% threshold. ^ ANALYSIS (10 May 2017). "Religious Belief and National Belonging in Central and Eastern Europe" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 May 2017. Retrieved 12 May 2017.  ^ USA. "Religious Belief and National Belonging in Central and Eastern Europe
Europe
Pew Research Center". Pewforum.org. Retrieved 23 July 2017.  ^ Religious Belief and National Belonging in Central and Eastern Europe: 1. Religious affiliation; Pew Research Center, 10 May 2017 ^ "Estonian Evangelical Lutheran
Lutheran
Church". oikoumene.org. Retrieved 22 September 2015.  ^ "Maavald". Maavald.ee. Retrieved 2 June 2010.  ^ Ahto Kaasik. "Old Estonian Religions". Einst.ee. Archived from the original on 11 August 2011. Retrieved 2 June 2010.  ^ Barry, Ellen (9 November 2008). "Some Estonians
Estonians
return to pre-Christian animist traditions". The New York Times. Retrieved 2 May 2010.  ^ "Statistical database: Population Census 2000 – Religious affiliation". Statistics Estonia. 22 October 2002. Retrieved 2 June 2010.  ^ Laakso, Johanna; Sarhimaa, Anneli; Spiliopoulou Åkermark, Sia; Toivanen, Reeta. Towards Openly Multilingual Policies and Practices: Assessing Minority Language Maintenance Across Europe
Europe
(1 ed.). Bristol; Buffalo: Multilingual Matters. ISBN 9781783094950. Retrieved 23 December 2016.  ^ "Kirch, Aksel. " Russians
Russians
in contemporary Estonia
Estonia
– different strategies of the integration in to the nation-state."". Ies.ee. 10 February 1998. Retrieved 2 June 2010.  ^ Table ML133, Eesti Statistika. Retrieved 30 April 2011 ^ "Names of populated places changed with the reform of 1997". Institute of the Estonian Language. 29 September 1998. Retrieved 12 August 2012.  ^ "Information about the bilingual Estonian/Swedish parish of Noarootsi". Noavv.ee. Archived from the original on 4 September 2012. Retrieved 2 June 2010.  ^ "Estonian Foreign Languages Strategy 2009 – 2015". Ministry of Education and Research. Retrieved 22 August 2014.  ^ "Ajaloost: Koolihariduse algusest" (in Estonian). University of Tartu. 24 March 2010. Retrieved 14 October 2013.  ^ "Haridus- ja Teadusministeerium". Hm.ee. Retrieved 23 December 2010.  ^ "Koolide, huvikoolide, koolieelsete lasteasutuste kontaktandmed". Archived from the original on 17 June 2009. Retrieved 17 September 2009. CS1 maint: Unfit url (link) . Estonian Education Infosystem, (in Estonian) ^ "Eelnõu algtekst (30.05.2001)". Archived from the original on 21 June 2007. Retrieved 27 March 2015.  ^ " OECD
OECD
Better Life Index". Retrieved 27 March 2015.  ^ Eesti Üliõpilaste Seltsi maja Tartus — 100 aastat Estonian World Review, 16 October 2002 ^ "National summary sheets on education systems in Europe
Europe
and ongoing reforms: Estonia". Eurydice. February 2009. Retrieved 19 September 2009.  ^ "Implementation of Bologna Declaration in Estonia". Bologna-berlin2003.de. Archived from the original on 9 July 2009. Retrieved 2 June 2010.  ^ A. Kalja; J. Pruuden; B. Tamm; E. Tyugu (1989). "Two Families of Knowledge Based CAD Environments". In Detlef Kochan. Software for manufacturing: proceedings of the 7th International IFIP/IFAC Conference on Software for Computer Integrated Manufacturing, Dresden, German Democratic Republic, 14–17 June 1988. North-Holland. pp. 125–134. ISBN 978-0-444-87342-2.  ^ H. Jaakkola; A. Kalja (1997). "Estonian Information Technology Policy in Government, Industry and Research". Technology Management: Strategies and Applications. 3 (3): 299–307.  ^ "Research and development expenditure (% of GDP)". World Bank. 2011. Retrieved 27 February 2014.  ^ " Estonia
Estonia
to give genetic testing and advice to 100,000 residents". New Scientist. Retrieved 2018-04-03.  ^ Eesti 245 muuseumis säilitatakse 10 miljonit museaali. Postimees, 30 October 2011. (in Estonian) ^ Sir George Grove; Stanley Sadie (June 1980). The New Grove dictionary of music and musicians. Macmillan Publishers. p. 358. ISBN 978-0-333-23111-1.  ^ Margus Haav Pärimusmuusika ait lööb uksed valla (Estonian Native Music Preserving Centre is opened) Archived 12 September 2012 at Archive.is. Postimees. 27 March 2008 (in Estonian) ^ The 12th Estonian youth song and dance celebration. Estonian Song and Dance Celebration Foundation ^ Bachtrack, 8 January 2015 (8 January 2015). "2014 Classical music statistics: Lis(z)tmania by Bachtrack for classical music, opera, ballet and dance event reviews". Bachtrack.com. Retrieved 31 March 2016.  ^ "Estonian literature". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 27 March 2015.  ^ George Kurman (1968). The development of written Estonian. Indiana University.  ^ Tiidu the Piper. Basel: Collegium Basilea. 2014. ISBN 9781500941437.  ^ Seeking the contours of a 'truly' Estonian literature
Estonian literature
Estonica.org ^ Literature and an independent Estonia
Estonia
Estonica.org ^ Liukkonen, Petri. "Anton Tammsaare". Books and Writers (kirjasto.sci.fi). Finland: Kuusankoski
Kuusankoski
Public Library. Archived from the original on 5 October 2007.  ^ Jaan Kross at google.books ^ Andrus Kivirähk. The Old Barny (novel) Estonian Literature Centre ^ "Cinema of Estonia". Einst.ee. Archived from the original on 7 August 2011. Retrieved 2 June 2010.  ^ " Press Freedom Index
Press Freedom Index
2011–2012 – Reporters Without Borders". Archived from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 27 March 2015.  ^ Johnstone, Sarah (2007). Europe
Europe
on a Shoestring. Lonely Planet. p. 325. ISBN 978-1-74104-591-8.  ^ Maier, Michaela (2006). Campaigning in Europe. LIT Verlag Berlin-Hamburg-Münster. p. 398. ISBN 978-3-8258-9322-4.  ^ "Pühade ja tähtpäevade seadus" (in Estonian). Riigi Teataja. Retrieved 19 December 2010. In effect since 26 February 2010  ^ "Estonian Holidays in 2010". Estonian Foreign Ministry. Archived from the original on 6 January 2011. Retrieved 19 December 2010.  ^ "Estonian Food Inforserver". Archived from the original on 17 December 2007. Retrieved 24 September 2007.  (in Estonian) ^ "Nutrition in the First 1,000 Days: State of the World's Mothers 2012" (PDF). Savethechildren.org. Retrieved 25 November 2012.  ^ "World Freedom Index". Retrieved 27 March 2015. 

Bibliography[edit]

Jaak Kangilaski et al. (2005) Valge raamat (1940–1991), Justiitsministeerium, ISBN 9985-70-194-1. IEA (2013). Estonia
Estonia
2013. Energy Policies Beyond IEA Countries. ISBN 978-92-6419079-5. ISSN 2307-0897. 

Further reading[edit]

Giuseppe D'Amato Travel to the Baltic Hansa. The European Union
European Union
and its enlargement to the East. Book
Book
in Italian. Viaggio nell'Hansa baltica. L'Unione europea e l'allargamento ad Est. Greco&Greco editori, Milano, 2004. ISBN 88-7980-355-7 Hiden, John; Patrick Salmon (1991). The Baltic Nations and Europe: Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania
Lithuania
in the Twentieth Century. London: Longman. ISBN 0-582-08246-3.  Laar, Mart (1992). War in the Woods: Estonia's Struggle for Survival, 1944–1956. trans. Tiina Ets. Washington, D.C.: Compass Press. ISBN 0-929590-08-2.  Lieven, Anatol (1993). The Baltic Revolution: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and the Path to Independence. New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-05552-8.  Raun, Toivo U. (1987). Estonia
Estonia
and the Estonians. Stanford, Calif.: Hoover Institution Press, Stanford University. ISBN 0-8179-8511-5.  Smith, David J. (2001). Estonia: Independence and European Integration. London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-26728-5.  Smith, Graham (ed.) (1994). The Baltic States: The National Self-determination of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. New York: St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0-312-12060-5. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) Taagepera, Rein (1993). Estonia: Return to Independence. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press. ISBN 0-8133-1199-3.  Taylor, Neil (2004). Estonia
Estonia
(4th ed.). Chalfont St. Peter: Bradt. ISBN 1-84162-095-5.  Williams, Nicola; Debra Herrmann; Cathryn Kemp (2003). Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania
Lithuania
(3rd ed.). London: Lonely Planet. ISBN 1-74059-132-1.  Subrenat, Jean-Jacques (Ed.) (2004). Estonia, identity and independence. Amsterdam & New York: Rodopi. ISBN 90-420-0890-3. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)

External links[edit]

Find more aboutEstoniaat's sister projects

Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons News from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks Learning resources from Wikiversity

Wikibooks Cookbook has a recipe/module on

Estonia

Government

The President of Estonia The Parliament of Estonia Estonian Government Estonian Ministry of Foreign Affairs Statistical Office of Estonia Chief of State and Cabinet Members

Travel

Official gateway to Estonia E- Estonia
Estonia
Portal Visit Estonia
Estonia
Portal Estonia
Estonia
travel guide from Wikivoyage

Maps

google.com map of Estonia Geographic data related to Estonia
Estonia
at OpenStreetMap

General information

Encyclopedia Estonica Estonian Institute "Estonia". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency.  BBC News – Estonia
Estonia
country profile Estonia
Estonia
at UCB Libraries GovPubs Estonia
Estonia
at Curlie (based on DMOZ) Wikimedia Atlas of Estonia

News

Estonian Public Broadcasting Postimees Eesti Päevaleht Õhtuleht aripaev.ee Delfi

Weather and time

Estonian Weather Service

Articles related to Estonia

v t e

Estonia articles

History

Timeline

list of wars

Ancient Estonia Livonian Crusade Danish Estonia German Bishoprics Livonian Order Baltic Germans Livonian War Polish Livonia Swedish Estonia Great Northern War Russian Estonia Livonia Age of Awakening Declaration of Independence War of Independence Era of Silence Occupation of Estonia World War II Forest Brothers Deportations Estonian SSR Government in exile Singing Revolution Declaration of sovereignty Restoration of independence

Geography

Climate Extreme points Fauna Islands Lakes Populated places Protected areas Rivers Towns

Politics

Administrative divisions

Municipalities

Constitution Elections Foreign relations Government

exile

Human rights

LGBT

LGBT history Law Law enforcement Military Political parties President Prime Minister Riigikogu
Riigikogu
(parliament) Supreme Court

Economy

Agriculture Central bank e-Residency Energy Oil shale Stock exchange Taxation Telecommunications Transport

Society

Crime Demographics Education Estonians Estonian language Ethnic groups Healthcare Religion

Culture

Anthem Architecture Cinema Coat of arms Cuisine Estonian names Flags Folklore Internet Languages Literature Music Mythology Name Symbols Newspapers Public holidays Radio Sport Television Theatre

Outline Index

Book Category Portal

Geographic national

v t e

Ancient counties of Estonia

Alempois Harju Järva Jogentagana Läänemaa Mõhu Nurmekund Revala Saare Sakala Soopoolitse Ugandi Vaiga Virumaa

v t e

Counties of Estonia

Harjumaa Hiiumaa Ida-Virumaa Järvamaa Jõgevamaa Läänemaa Lääne-Virumaa Pärnumaa Põlvamaa Raplamaa Saaremaa Tartumaa Valgamaa Viljandimaa Võrumaa

v t e

Parishes (Vallad) of Estonia

Parishes (Estonian: Vallad)

Abja Aegviidu Ahja Alajõe Alatskivi Albu Ambla Anija Anstla Are Aseri Audru Avinurme Emmaste Häädemeeste Haanja Haaslava Halinga Haljala Halliste Hanila Harku Helme Hiiu Hummuli Iisaku Illuka Ilmavere Järva-Jaani Järvakandi Jõelähtme Jõgeva Jõhvi Juuru Kadrina Käina Kaiu Kambja Kanepi Kareda Karksi Käru Karula Kasepää Kehtna Keila Kernu Kihelkonna Kihnu Kiili Koeru Kohila Kohtla Kohtla-Nõmme Koigi Kolga-Jaani Kõlleste Konguta Kõo Koonga Kõpu Kose Kullamaa Kuusalu Lääne-Nigula Lääne-Saare Laekvere Laeva Laheda Laimjala Lasva Leisi Lihula Lohusuu Lüganuse Luunja Mäetaguse Mäksa Märjamaa Martna Meeksi Meremäe Mikitamäe Misso Mõniste Mooste Muhu Mustjala Nissi Noarootsi Nõo Nõva Orava Orissaare Õru Otepää Padise Paide Paikuse Pajusi Pala Palamuse Palupera Peipsiäärne Pihtla Piirissaare Pöide Põlva Põhalepa Puhja Puka Puurmani Põdrala Põltsmaa Raasiku Rae Rägavere Raikküla Rakke Rakvere Rannu Räpina Rapla Ridala Rõngu Roosna-Alliku Rõuge Ruhnu Saarde Saare Saku Salme Sangaste Saue Sauga Sõrmepalu Sõmeru Sonda Surju Suure-Jaani Tabivere Taheva Tahkuranna Tähtvere Tamsalu Tapa Tartu Tarvastu Toila Tõlliste Tootsi Torgu Tori Torma Tõstamaa Tudulinna Türi Ülenurme Urvaste Väätsa Väike-Maarja Vaivara Valgjärve Valjala Vändra
Vändra
(borough) Vändra
Vändra
(parish) Vara Varbla Värska Varstu Vasalemma Vastse-Kuuste Vastseliina Veriora Vigala Vihula Viimsi Viljandi Vinni Viru-Nigula Võnnu Vormsi Võru

v t e

Cities and towns (Linnad) of Estonia

Abja-Paluoja Antsla Elva Haapsalu Jõgeva Jõhvi Kallaste Kärdla Karksi-Nuia Kehra Keila Kilingi-Nõmme Kiviõli Kohtla-Järve Kunda Kuressaare Lihula Loksa Maardu Mõisaküla Mustvee Narva Narva-Jõesuu Otepää Paide Paldiski Pärnu Põltsamaa Põlva Püssi Rakvere Räpina Rapla Saue Sillamäe Sindi Suure-Jaani Tallinn Tamsalu Tapa Tartu Tõrva Türi Valga Viljandi Võhma Võru

Jaanilinn (Ivangorod) and Petseri (Pechory) were annexed by the Soviet Union in 1945 and are currently part of Russia.

v t e

Boroughs (alevid ja alevikud) of Estonia

Boroughs (Alevid)

Aegviidu Järva-Jaani Järvakandi Kiili Kohila Kohtla-Nõmme Lavassaare Märjamaa Paikuse Pärnu-Jaagupi Tootsi Vändra

Small boroughs (Alevikud)

Adavere Ahja Äksi Alatskivi Alu Ämari Ambla Aravete Are Aruküla Aseri Assaku Aste Audru Avinurme Eidapere Erra Haabneeme Häädemeeste Hageri Hagudi Haljala Halliste Harku Helme Hulja Hummuli Iisaku Ilmatsalu Jõgeva Jüri Juuru Käärdi Kadrina Kaerepere Käina Kaiu Kamari Kambja Kanepi Kangru Käravete Karjaküla Kärla Käru Kasepää Keava Kehtna Keila-Joa Kihelkonna Kiisa Kiiu Kiltsi Klooga Kobela Koeru Kolga Kolga-Jaani Kolkja Kõpu Kõrgessaare Kõrveküla Kose
Kose
(Harju) Kose
Kose
(Võru) Kose-Uuemõisa Kostivere Kudjape Külitse Kureküla Kuremaa Kuusalu Kuusiku Laagri Laatre Laekvere Lagedi Lähte Laiuse Lehtse Leisi Lelle Lepna Lohusuu Loo Lüganuse Luige Luunja Mäetaguse Märja Mehikoorma Misso Mooste Mustla Näpi Nasva Nõo Oisu Õisu Olgina Olustvere Orissaare Õru Pajusti Palamuse Palivere Paralepa Parksepa Peetri
Peetri
(Harju) Peetri
Peetri
(Järva) Prillimäe Puhja Puka Puurmani Raasiku Rakke Ramsi Räni Rannu Ravila Riisipere Risti Roela Roiu Rõngu Roosna-Alliku Rõuge Rummu Sääse Sadala Saku Salme Sangaste Särevere Sauga Siimusti Simuna Sinimäe Sõmerpalu Sõmeru Sonda Tabasalu Tabivere Taebla Tammiku Tihemetsa Toila Tõravere Tori Torma Tõrvandi Tõstamaa Tsirguliina Tudu Tudulinna Turba Uhtna Ülenurme Ulila Uuemõisa Väätsa Vahi Vaida Väike-Maarja Väimela Valjala Vana-Antsla Varnja Värska Varstu Vasalemma Vastse-Kuuste Vastseliina Vasula Veriora Viimsi Viiratsi Vinni Virtsu Viru-Jaagupi Viru-Nigula Võiste Voka Võnnu Võõpsu Võsu

Geographic international

v t e

Baltic states

 Estonia  Latvia  Lithuania

History

Territorial changes Baltic Entente United Baltic Duchy Occupation

Timeline Background by the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
(1940) by Nazi Germany by the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
(1944)

Deportations

June deportation (1941) Operation Priboi
Operation Priboi
(1949)

State continuity

Diplomatic services

Under Soviet rule (1944-91)

Guerrilla war

Forest Brothers

Sovietization Singing Revolution Baltic Way

Geography

Largest cities

tallest buildings

National parks

Politics

Baltic Assembly Military

Air Policing Air Surveillance Network Defence College Naval Squadron

Economy

Baltic Tiger Housing bubble Busiest airports

Sport

Baltic Cup (football) Baltic Basketball League Swimming Championships Baltic Chain Tour Records

in athletics in swimming

v t e

Sovereign states and dependencies of Europe

Sovereign states

Albania Andorra Armenia2 Austria Azerbaijan Belarus Belgium Bosnia and Herzegovina Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus2 Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Georgia Germany Greece Hungary Iceland1 Ireland Italy Kazakhstan Latvia Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macedonia Malta Moldova Monaco Montenegro Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russia San Marino Serbia Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey Ukraine United Kingdom Vatican City

States with limited recognition

Abkhazia2 Artsakh2 Kosovo Northern Cyprus2 South Ossetia2 Transnistria

Dependencies

Denmark

Faroe Islands1

autonomous country of the Kingdom of Denmark

United Kingdom

Akrotiri and Dhekelia2

Sovereign Base Areas

Gibraltar

British Overseas Territory

Guernsey Isle of Man Jersey

Crown dependencies

Special
Special
areas of internal sovereignty

Finland

Åland Islands

autonomous region subject to the Åland Convention of 1921

Norway

Svalbard

unincorporated area subject to the Svalbard
Svalbard
Treaty

United Kingdom

Northern Ireland

country of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
subject to the British-Irish Agreement

1 Oceanic islands within the vicinity of Europe
Europe
are usually grouped with the continent even though they are not situated on its continental shelf. 2 Some countries completely outside the conventional geographical boundaries of Europe
Europe
are commonly associated with the continent due to ethnological links.

v t e

Countries bordering the Baltic Sea

 Denmark  Estonia  Finland  Germany  Latvia  Lithuania  Poland  Russia  Sweden

Estonia
Estonia
in the European Union

v t e

Member states of the European Union

Austria Belgium Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark
Denmark
(details) Estonia Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Ireland Italy Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Malta Netherlands Poland
Poland
(details) Portugal Romania Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden United Kingdom
United Kingdom
(details)

Future enlargement of the European Union

International membership

v t e

North Atlantic Treaty
North Atlantic Treaty
Organization

History

North Atlantic Treaty Summit Operations Enlargement

Structure

Council Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe

Air Command Land Command Maritime Command JFC Brunssum JFC Naples

Allied Command Transformation Parliamentary Assembly Standardization Agreement

People

Secretary General Chairman of the Military Committee Supreme Allied Commander Europe Supreme Allied Commander Transformation

Members

Albania Belgium Bulgaria Canada Croatia Czech Republic Denmark Estonia France Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Italy Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Montenegro Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Slovakia Slovenia Spain Turkey United Kingdom United States

Multilateral relations

Atlantic Treaty Association Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council Mediterranean Dialogue Istanbul Cooperation Initiative Partnership for Peace

Portal

v t e

World Trade Organization

System

Accession and membership Appellate Body Dispute Settlement Body International Trade Centre Chronology of key events

Issues

Criticism Doha Development Round Singapore issues Quota Elimination Peace Clause

Agreements

General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade Agriculture Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures Technical Barriers to Trade Trade Related Investment Measures Trade in Services Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights Government Procurement Information Technology Marrakech Agreement Doha Declaration Bali Package

Ministerial Conferences

1st (1996) 2nd (1998) 3rd (1999) 4th (2001) 5th (2003) 6th (2005) 7th (2009) 8th (2011) 9th (2013) 10th (2015)

People

Roberto Azevêdo
Roberto Azevêdo
(Director-General) Pascal Lamy Supachai Panitchpakdi Alejandro Jara Rufus Yerxa

Members

Afghanistan Albania Algeria Angola Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Australia Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belize Benin Bolivia Botswana Brazil Brunei Burkina Faso Burma Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Central African Republic Chad Chile China Colombia Democratic Republic
Republic
of the Congo Republic
Republic
of the Congo Costa Rica Côte d'Ivoire Cuba Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Fiji Gabon The Gambia Georgia Ghana Grenada Guatemala Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Honduras Hong Kong1 Iceland India Indonesia Israel Jamaica Japan Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya South Korea Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Laos Lesotho Liberia Liechtenstein Macau1 Macedonia Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Mauritania Mauritius Mexico Moldova Mongolia Montenegro Morocco Mozambique Namibia Nepal New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Norway Oman Pakistan Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Qatar Russia Rwanda St. Kitts and Nevis St. Lucia St. Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa Saudi Arabia Senegal Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Solomon Islands South Africa Sri Lanka Suriname Swaziland Switzerland Tajikistan Taiwan2 Tanzania Thailand Togo Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United States Uruguay Venezuela Vietnam Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe

European Union

Austria Belgium Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Ireland Italy Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Malta Netherlands Poland Portugal Romania Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden United Kingdom

Special
Special
administrative regions of the People's Republic
Republic
of China, participates as "Hong Kong, China" and "Macao China". Officially the Republic
Republic
of China, participates as "Separate Customs Territory of Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen and Matsu", and "Chinese Taipei" in short.

v t e

Council of Europe

Institutions

Secretary General Committee of Ministers Parliamentary Assembly Congress Court of Human Rights Commissioner for Human Rights Commission for the Efficiency of Justice Commission against Racism and Intolerance

Members

Albania Andorra Armenia Austria Azerbaijan Belgium Bosnia and Herzegovina Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Georgia Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Italy Latvia Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macedonia1 Malta Moldova Monaco Montenegro Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russia San Marino Serbia Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey Ukraine United Kingdom

Observers

Canada Holy See Israel Japan Mexico United States Sovereign Military Order of Malta

Former members

Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
(1991–1992) Saar (assoc. 1950–1956)

1 Provisionally referred to by the Council of Europe
Europe
as "the former Yugoslav Republic
Republic
of Macedonia"; see Macedonia naming dispute.

Languages

v t e

Uralic languages

Finnic

Estonian

Northeastern coastal South Estonian

Võro Seto

Finnish

Kven Meänkieli

Ingrian Karelian

Karelian proper Livvi Ludic

Livonian † Veps Votic

Sami

Akkala † Inari Kainuu † Kemi † Kildin Lule Northern Pite Skolt Southern Ter Ume

Mordvinic

Erzya Moksha

Mari

Hill Mari Meadow Mari

Permic

Komi

Zyrian Permyak Yodzyak

Udmurt

Ugric

Hungarian Khanty Mansi

Samoyedic

Enets Yurats † Nenets

Forest Nenets Tundra Nenets

Nganasan Kamassian † Mator † Selkup

Others

Merya † Meshcherian † Muromian †

† indicate extinct languages

Places adjacent to Estonia

Baltic Sea Gulf of Finland Russian Federation

Baltic Sea

Republic
Republic
of Estonia

Russian Federation

Gulf of Riga Republic
Republic
of Latvia Russian Federation

Geography portal Europe
Europe
portal European Union
European Union
portal NATO
NATO
portal Estonia
Estonia
portal

Coordinates: 59°N 26°E / 59°N 26°E / 59; 26

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 134320092 LCCN: n82253985 GND: 4015587-0 SELIBR: 144397 HDS:

.