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Emir
An emir (/əˈmɪər, eɪˈmɪər, ˈeɪmɪər/; Arabic: أمير‎ ʾamīr [ʔaˈmiːr]), sometimes transliterated amir, amier, or ameer, is an aristocratic or noble and military title of high office used in a variety of places in the Arab countries and Afghanistan. It means "commander", "general", or "prince". The feminine form is emira (أميرة ʾamīrah). When translated as "prince", the word "emirate" is analogous to a sovereign principality.[1] Contents1 Origins 2 Princely, ministerial and noble titles 3 Military ranks and titles 4 Other uses 5 In popular culture 6 See also 7 NotesOrigins[edit] Emir
Emir
of Kano, Sanusi Lamido SanusiHRH Crown Prince
Prince
Farouk, amir of the Kingdom of Egypt
Kingdom of Egypt
and the Sudan, on ascension to the throne 1936 as HM King Farouk IAmir, meaning "lord" or "commander-in-chief", is derived from the Arabic
Arabic
root a-m-r, "command"
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Ibn Raik
Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Ra'iq[1] (Arabic: محمد بن رائق‎) (died 13 February 942), usually simply Ibn Ra'iq, was a senior official of the Abbasid Caliphate, who exploited the caliphal government's weakness to become the first amir al-umara ("commander of commanders", de facto regent) of the Caliphate in 936. Deposed by Turkish military leaders in 938, he regained the post in 941 and kept it until his assassination in February 942. Biography[edit] Ibn Ra'iq's father was of Khazar
Khazar
origin and served as a military officer under Caliph al-Mu'tadid (reigned 892–902).[2] Under Caliph al-Muqtadir (r. 908–932), he served as chief of the police (sahib al-shurta) and chamberlain (hadjib). After the deposition and murder of al-Muqtadir and the accession of al-Qahir (r. 932–934), Ibn Ra'iq fell into disgrace and abandoned Baghdad
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Muhammad
Muhammad[n 1] (Arabic: محمد‎; pronounced [muħammad];[n 2] French: Mahomet /məˈhɒmɪt/; Latinized as Mahometus c. 570 CE – 8 June 632 CE)[1] was the founder of Islam.[2][3] According to Islamic doctrine, he was a prophet and God's messenger, sent to present and confirm the monotheistic teachings preached previously by Adam, Abraham, Moses, Jesus, and other prophets.[3][4][5][6] He is viewed as the final prophet of God
God
in all the main branches of Islam, though some modern denominations diverge from this belief.[n 3] Muhamma
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Ar-Radi
Abu 'l-Abbas Muhammad ibn Ja'far al-Muqtadir (Arabic: أبو العباس محمد بن جعفر المقتدر‎) (December 909 – 23 December 940), usually simply known by his regnal name al-Radi bi-llah (Arabic: الراضي بالله‎, "Content with God"[1]), was the 20th Abbasid
Abbasid
Caliph, reigning (rather than ruling) in Baghdad from 934 to his death. He died on 23 December 940 at the age of 31. Biography[edit] The seven years' reign of ar-Radi, son of caliph al-Muqtadir, was but a succession of misfortune. Praised for his piety, he became the mere tool of the chief minister of the day. The authority of the Caliph extended hardly beyond the region of the capital city
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Commander-in-chief
A commander-in-chief, also sometimes called supreme commander, or chief commander, is the person or body that exercises supreme operational command and control of a nation's military forces. As a technical term, it refers to military competencies that reside in a nation-state's executive leadership—a head of state, a head of government . Often, a given country's commander-in-chief (if held by an official) need not be or have been a commissioned officer or even a veteran
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Kingdom Of Egypt
The Kingdom of Egypt
Egypt
(Arabic: المملكة المصرية‎; Egyptian Arabic: المملكه المصريه‎ El-Mamlaka l-Maṣreyya, "the Egyptian Kingdom") was the de jure independent Egyptian state established under the Muhammad Ali Dynasty
Muhammad Ali Dynasty
in 1922 following the Unilateral Declaration of Egyptian Independence by the United Kingdom. Until the Anglo-Egyptian treaty of 1936, the Kingdom was only nominally independent, since the British retained control of foreign relations, communications, the military and the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan
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Farouk Of Egypt
Farouk I (Arabic: فاروق الأول‎ Fārūq al-Awwal; 11 February 1920 – 18 March 1965) was the tenth ruler of Egypt
Egypt
from the Muhammad Ali dynasty
Muhammad Ali dynasty
and the penultimate King of Egypt
Egypt
and the Sudan, succeeding his father, Fuad I, in 1936.[3] His full title was "His Majesty Farouk I, by the grace of God, King of Egypt
Egypt
and the Sudan, Sovereign of Nubia, of Kordofan
Kordofan
and of Darfur". He was overthrown in the 1952 military coup d'état and forced to abdicate in favour of his infant son, Ahmed Fuad, who succeeded him as Fuad II
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Muslim
65–75% Sunni
Sunni
Islam[22][note 1] 10–13% Shia
Shia
Islam[22] 15–20% Non-denominational Islam[23] ~1% Ahmadiyya[24] ~1% Other Muslim
Muslim
traditions, e.g
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Christians
A Christian
Christian
(/ˈkrɪstʃən, -tiən/ ( listen)) is a person who follows or adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus
Jesus
Christ
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Ali
‘Alī ibn Abī Ṭālib Arabic: علي ابن أبي طالب‎Tribe Quraysh
Quraysh
(Banu Hashim)Father Abu Talib ibn ‘Abd al-MuttalibMother Fatimah
Fatimah
bint AsadReligion IslamPart of a series onAliViews
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Female
Female
Female
(♀) is the sex of an organism, or a part of an organism, that produces non-mobile ova (egg cells). Barring rare medical conditions, most female mammals, including female humans, have two X chromosomes. Female
Female
characteristics vary between different species with some species containing more well defined female characteristics. Both genetics and environment shape the prenatal development of a female.Contents1 Defining characteristics 2 Etymology and usage 3 Mammalian female 4 Symbol 5 Sex
Sex
determination5.1 Genetic determination 5.2 Environmental determination6 See also 7 Sources 8 ReferencesDefining characteristics[edit] The ova are defined as the larger gametes in a heterogamous reproduction system, while the smaller, usually motile gamete, the spermatozoon, is produced by the male
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Aristocratic
Aristocracy (Greek ἀριστοκρατία aristokratía, from ἄριστος aristos "excellent", and κράτος kratos "power") is a form of government that places power in the hands of a small, privileged ruling class.[1] The term derives from the Greek aristokratia, meaning "rule of the best".[2] The term is synonymous with hereditary government, and hereditary succession is its primary philosophy, after which the hereditary monarch appoints officers as they see fit. At the time of the word's origins in ancient Greece, the Greeks conceived it as rule by the best qualified citizens—and often contrasted it favourably with monarchy, rule by an individual
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Romanization Of Arabic
The romanization of Arabic
Arabic
writes written and spoken Arabic
Arabic
in the Latin script
Latin script
in one of various systematic ways. Romanized Arabic
Arabic
is used for a number of different purposes, among them transcription of names and titles, cataloging Arabic language
Arabic language
works, language education when used in lieu of or alongside the Arabic
Arabic
script, and representation of the language in scientific publications by linguists
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Sergey Prokudin-Gorsky
Sergey Mikhaylovich Prokudin-Gorsky (Russian: Серге́й Миха́йлович Проку́дин-Го́рский,  listen (help·info); August 30 [O.S. August 18] 1863 – September 27, 1944) was a Russian chemist and photographer. He is best known for his pioneering work in color photography of early 20th-century Russia.[1]Contents1 Biography1.1 Early life 1.2 Marriage and career in photography 1.3 Later life and death2 Photography
Photography
technique2.1 Three-color principle 2.2 Early practitioners 2.3 Equipment 2.4 Exposures 2.5 Other processes3 Documentary of the Russian Empire 4 Digital color rendering 5 Gallery 6 See also 7 References 8 External linksBiography[edit] Early life[edit] Prokudin-Gorsky was born in the ancestral estate of Funikova Gora, in what is now Kirzhachsky District, Vladimir Oblast
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Hausa Language
Hausa (/ˈhaʊsə/)[3] (Yaren Hausa or Harshen Hausa) is the Chadic language (a branch of the Afroasiatic language family) with the largest number of speakers, spoken as a first language by some 27 million people, and as a second language by another 20 million. The ancestral language of the Hausa people, one of the largest ethnic groups in Central Africa, Hausa is commonly spoken throughout southern Niger
Niger
and northern Nigeria
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Etymological
Etymology
Etymology
(/ˌɛtɪˈmɒlədʒi/)[1] is the study of the history of words, their origins, and how their form and meaning have changed over time.[1] By extension, the term "the etymology (of a word)" means the origin of the particular word. For a language such as Greek with a long written history, etymologists make use of texts in these languages and texts about the languages to gather knowledge about how words were used during earlier periods of their history and when they entered the languages in question. Etymologists also apply the methods of comparative linguistics to reconstruct information about languages that are too old for any direct information to be available. By analyzing related languages with a technique known as the comparative method, linguists can make inferences about their shared parent language and its vocabulary
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