Coordinates : 25°30′N 51°15′E / 25.500°N 51.250°E /
State of Qatar
دولة قطر (
ANTHEM: السلام الأميري
As-Salam al-Amiri _ (transliteration )
Location and extent of
Qatar (dark green) on the Arabian Peninsula
and largest city
25°18′N 51°31′E / 25.300°N 51.517°E / 25.300; 51.517
Unitary constitutional monarchy
Tamim bin Hamad Al Thani
• DEPUTY EMIR
Abdullah bin Hamad bin Khalifa Al Thani
• PRIME MINISTER
Abdullah bin Nasser bin Khalifa Al Thani
• QATAR NATIONAL DAY
18 December 1878
• DECLARED INDEPENDENCE
1 September 1971
• INDEPENDENCE FROM THE UNITED KINGDOM
3 September 1971
11,581 km2 (4,471 sq mi) (164th )
• WATER (%)
• 2016 ESTIMATE
2,675,522 (142nd )
• 2010 CENSUS
1,699,435 (148th )
176/km2 (455.8/sq mi) (76th )
GDP (PPP )
$404.109 billion (47th )
• PER CAPITA
$145,894 (1st )
• PER CAPITA
$68,940 (4th )
very high · 32nd
Riyal (QAR )
AST (UTC +3)
DRIVES ON THE
ISO 3166 CODE
You may need rendering support to display the
Arabic text in this
QATAR (/ˈkætɑːr/ , /ˈkɑːtɑːr/ (_ listen ), /ˈkɑːtər/
or /kəˈtɑːr/ ( listen );
Arabic : قطر Qatar_ ; local
vernacular pronunciation: ), officially the STATE OF QATAR (Arabic
: دولة قطر _Dawlat Qatar_), is a sovereign country
Western Asia , occupying the small
Peninsula on the
northeastern coast of the
Arabian Peninsula . Its sole land border is
Saudi Arabia to the south, with the rest of its territory
surrounded by the
Persian Gulf . An arm of the
Persian Gulf separates
Qatar from the nearby island country of
Following Ottoman rule,
Qatar became a
British protectorate in the
early 20th century until gaining independence in 1971.
Qatar has been
ruled by the
House of Thani
House of Thani since the early 19th century. Sheikh
Jassim bin Mohammed Al Thani was the founder of the State of Qatar.
Qatar is a hereditary monarchy and its head of state is Emir Sheikh
Tamim bin Hamad Al Thani . Whether it should be regarded as a
constitutional or an absolute monarchy is disputed. In 2003,
the constitution was overwhelmingly approved in a referendum, with
almost 98% in favour. In early 2017, Qatar's total population was
2.6 million: 313,000 Qatari citizens and 2.3 million expatriates .
Qatar is a high-income economy , backed by the world's third-largest
natural-gas reserves and oil reserves. The country has the highest
per capita income in the world.
Qatar is classified by the UN as a
country of very high human development and is the most advanced Arab
state for human development.
Qatar is a significant power in the Arab
world , supporting several rebel groups during the
Arab Spring both
financially and through its globally expanding media group, Al Jazeera
Media Network . For its size,
Qatar wields disproportionate
influence in the world, and has been identified as a middle power .
Qatar will host the
2022 FIFA World Cup , becoming the first Arab
country to do so.
In June 2017, Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, the United Arab Emirates, and
Egypt, among other Gulf states, cut off diplomatic relations with
Qatar, accusing it of supporting and funding terrorism and
manipulating internal affairs of its neighboring states, causing the
2017 Qatar diplomatic crisis .
* 1 Etymology
* 2 History
* 2.1 Antiquity
* 2.2 Early and late Islamic period (661–1783)
* 2.3 Bahraini and Saudi rule (1783–1868)
* 2.4 Ottoman rule (1871–1915)
* 2.5 British rule (1916–1971)
* 2.6 Independence and aftermath (1971–present)
* 3 Politics
* 3.2 Human rights
* 3.3 Foreign relations
* 3.4 Military
* 4 Administrative divisions
* 5 Geography
* 5.1 Biodiversity and environment
* 5.2 Climate
* 6 Economy
* 6.1 Energy
* 7 Demographics
* 7.1 Religion
* 7.2 Languages
* 8 Culture
* 8.1 Arts and museums
* 8.2 Media
* 8.3 Music
* 8.4 Sport
* 9 Education
* 10 Healthcare
* 11 See also
* 12 References
* 13 External links
Qatar is in fact the Arabicized form of the
"Guadar" which means the "port". the name Guadar is a common name
Persian Gulf . There are two other important cities with the
same name: Govater in
Pliny the Elder , a Roman writer, also documented the earliest
account pertaining to the inhabitants of the
Peninsula around the
mid-first century AD, referring to them as the _Catharrei_, a
designation which may have derived from the name of a prominent local
settlement. A century later,
Ptolemy produced the first known map to
depict the peninsula, referring to it as _Catara_. The map also
referenced a town named "Cadara" to the east of the peninsula. The
term 'Catara' (inhabitants, _Cataraei_) was exclusively used until
the 18th century, after which 'Katara' emerged as the most commonly
recognised spelling. Eventually, the modern derivative _Qatar_ was
adopted as the country's name.
Arabic , the name is pronounced , while in the local
dialect it is .
History of Qatar
Dot carvings at
Jebel Jassassiyeh , dating to c. 4000 BC.
Human habitation of
Qatar dates back to 50,000 years ago.
Settlements and tools dating back to the
Stone Age have been unearthed
in the peninsula. Mesopotamian artefacts originating from the Ubaid
period (c. 6500–3800 BC) have been discovered in abandoned coastal
settlements. Al Da\'asa , a settlement located on the western coast
of Qatar, is the most important Ubaid site in the country and is
believed to have accommodated a small seasonal encampment.
Kassite Babylonian material dating back to the second millennium BC
Al Khor Islands
Al Khor Islands attests to trade relations between the
Qatar and the
Kassites in modern-day Bahrain. Among
the findings were 3,000,000 crushed snail shells and Kassite
potsherds. It has been suggested that
Qatar is the earliest known
site of shellfish dye production, owing to a Kassite purple dye
industry which existed on the coast.
In 224 AD, the
Sasanian Empire gained control over the territories
Qatar played a role in the commercial
activity of the Sasanids, contributing at least two commodities:
precious pearls and purple dye. Under the Sasanid reign, many of the
Eastern Arabia were introduced to Christianity
following the eastward dispersal of the religion by Mesopotamian
Christians. Monasteries were constructed and further settlements were
founded during this era. During the latter part of the Christian
Qatar comprised a region known as 'Beth Qatraye' (Syriac for
"house of the Qataris"). The region was not limited to Qatar; it also
Tarout Island , Al-Khatt, and
Muhammad sent a
Muslim envoy to a ruler in Eastern Arabia
Munzir ibn Sawa Al Tamimi and requested that he and his subjects
accept Islam. Munzir obliged his request, and accordingly, most of the
Arab tribes in the region converted to Islam. After the adoption of
Islam, the Arabs led the
Muslim conquest of Persia which resulted in
the fall of the Sasanian Empire.
EARLY AND LATE ISLAMIC PERIOD (661–1783)
Abbasid Caliphate at its greatest extent, c. 850.
Qatar was described as a famous horse and camel breeding centre
during the Umayyad period. In the 8th century, it started benefiting
from its commercially strategic position in the
Persian Gulf and went
on to become a centre of pearl trading.
Substantial development in the pearling industry around the Qatari
Peninsula occurred during the Abbasid era. Ships voyaging from Basra
China would make stops in Qatar's ports during this
period. Chinese porcelain, West African coins and artefacts from
Thailand have been discovered in Qatar. Archaeological remains from
the 9th century suggest that Qatar's inhabitants used greater wealth
to construct higher quality homes and public buildings. Over 100
stone-built houses, two mosques, and an Abbasid fort were constructed
Murwab during this period. However, when the caliphate's
prosperity declined in Iraq, so too did it in Qatar.
mentioned in 13th-century
Yaqut al-Hamawi 's book,
_Mu\'jam Al-Buldan _, which alludes to the Qataris' fine striped woven
cloaks and their skills in improvement and finishing of spears.
Eastern Arabia was controlled by the
Usfurids in 1253, but
control of the region was seized by the prince of
Ormus in 1320.
Qatar's pearls provided the kingdom with one of its main sources of
income. In 1515,
Manuel I of Portugal
Manuel I of Portugal vassalised the Kingdom of
Portugal went on to seize a significant portion of Eastern
Arabia in 1521. In 1550, the inhabitants of
submitted to the rule of the Ottomans , preferring them to the
Portuguese. Having retained a negligible military presence in the
area, the Ottomans were expelled by the
Bani Khalid tribe in 1670.
BAHRAINI AND SAUDI RULE (1783–1868)
A map of East Arabia in 1794.
In 1766, the
Utub tribe of Al Khalifa migrated from
Kuwait to Zubarah
in Qatar. By the time of their arrival, the
Bani Khalid exercised
weak authority over the peninsula, not withholding that the largest
village was ruled by a distant kin of the Bani Khalid. In 1783,
Bani Utbah clans and allied Arab tribes invaded and
Bahrain from the Persians. The Al Khalifa imposed their
Bahrain and extended their area of jurisdiction to
Qatar. A partially restored section of the ruined town of
Following the swearing in of Saud ibn Abd al-Aziz as crown prince of
Wahhabi in 1788, he moved to expand his empire eastward towards
Persian Gulf and Qatar. After defeating the
Bani Khalid in 1795,
Wahhabi were attacked on two fronts. The Ottomans and Egyptians
assaulted the western front, while the Al Khalifa in
Bahrain and the
Omanis launched an attack against the eastern front. Upon being made
aware of advancements by the
Egyptians on the western frontier in
Wahhabi amir reduced his garrisons in
order to re-position his troops. Said bin Sultan of Muscat capitalised
on this opportunity and raided the
Wahhabi garrisons on the eastern
coast, setting fire to the fort in Zubarah. The Al Khalifa were
effectively returned to power thereafter.
As punishment for piracy, an East
India Company vessel bombarded Doha
in 1821, destroying the town and forcing hundreds of residents to
flee. In 1825, the
House of Thani
House of Thani was established with Sheikh Mohammed
bin Thani as the first leader.
Qatar had the legal status of a dependency , there was a
popular sentiment of resentment against the Al Khalifa. In 1867, the
Al Khalifa, along with the ruler of
Abu Dhabi , sent a massive naval
Al Wakrah in an effort to crush the Qatari rebels. This
resulted in the maritime
Qatari–Bahraini War of 1867–1868, in
which Bahraini and
Abu Dhabi forces sacked and looted
Doha and Al
Wakrah. However, the Bahraini hostilities were in violation of the
1820 Anglo-Bahraini Treaty . The joint incursion, in addition to the
Qatari counterattack, prompted British political agent
Lewis Pelly to
impose a settlement in 1868. His mission to
Qatar and the
resulting peace treaty were milestones because they implicitly
recognised the distinctness of
Bahrain and explicitly
acknowledged the position of Mohammed bin Thani. In addition to
Bahrain for its breach of agreement, the British
protectorate asked to negotiate with a representative from Qatar, a
Mohammed bin Thani was selected to fulfil. The results of
the negotiations left the nation with a new-found sense of political
identity, although it did not gain an official standing as a
protectorate until 1916.
OTTOMAN RULE (1871–1915)
Qatar in an 1891
Adolf Stieler map Old city of Doha,
Under military and political pressure from the governor of the
Vilayet of Baghdad
Vilayet of Baghdad ,
Midhat Pasha , the ruling Al Thani tribe
submitted to Ottoman rule in 1871. The Ottoman government imposed
Tanzimat ) measures concerning taxation and land
registration to fully integrate these areas into the empire. Despite
the disapproval of local tribes, Al Thani continued supporting Ottoman
rule. However, Qatari-Ottoman relations soon stagnated, and in 1882
they suffered further setbacks when the Ottomans refused to aid Al
Thani in his expedition of
Abu Dhabi -occupied
Al Khor . In addition,
the Ottomans supported the Ottoman subject Mohammed bin Abdul Wahab
who attempted to supplant Al Thani as kaymakam of
Qatar in 1888. This
eventually led Al Thani to rebel against the Ottomans, whom he
believed were seeking to usurp control of the peninsula. He resigned
as kaymakam and stopped paying taxes in August 1892.
In February 1893, Mehmed Hafiz Pasha arrived in
Qatar in the
interests of seeking unpaid taxes and accosting Jassim bin Mohammed's
opposition to proposed Ottoman administrative reforms. Fearing that he
would face death or imprisonment, Jassim retreated to Al Wajbah (10
miles west of
Doha ), accompanied by several tribe members. Mehmed's
demand that Jassim disband his troops and pledge his loyalty to the
Ottomans was met with refusal. In March, Mehmed imprisoned Jassim's
brother and 13 prominent Qatari tribal leaders on the Ottoman corvette
_Merrikh_ as punishment for his insubordination. After Mehmed declined
an offer to release the captives for a fee of 10,000 liras , he
ordered a column of approximately 200 troops to advance towards
Al Wajbah Fort under the command of Yusuf Effendi, thus
signalling the start of the
Battle of Al Wajbah .
Effendi's troops came under heavy gunfire by a sizable troop of
Qatari infantry and cavalry shortly after arriving to Al Wajbah. They
retreated to Shebaka fortress, where they were again forced to draw
back from a Qatari incursion. After they withdrew to Al Bidda
fortress, Jassim's advancing column besieged the fortress, resulting
in the Ottomans' concession of defeat and agreement to relinquish
their captives in return for the safe passage of Mehmed Pasha's
Hofuf by land. Although
Qatar did not gain full
independence from the
Ottoman Empire , the result of the battle forced
a treaty that would later form the basis of Qatar's emerging as an
autonomous country within the empire.
BRITISH RULE (1916–1971)
Zubarah Fort built in 1938.
Ottoman Empire fell into disorder after losing battles in
different fronts in the
Middle Eastern theatre of World War I . Qatar
took part in the
Arab revolt against the Ottomans. The revolt was
successful and Ottoman rule in the country further declined. The
United Kingdom and the
Ottoman Empire accorded their recognition to
Abdullah bin Jassim Al Thani and his successors' right to rule
over the whole of the Qatari Peninsula. The Ottomans renounced all
their rights to
Qatar and, following the outbreak of the First World
Abdullah bin Jassim Al Thani (who was pro-British) forced them
Doha in 1915.
As a result of the partitioning of the
Ottoman Empire ,
British protectorate on 3 November 1916. On that day, the United
Kingdom signed a treaty with Sheikh
Abdullah bin Jassim Al Thani to
Qatar under its Trucial System of Administration . While
Abdullah agreed not to enter into any relations with any other power
without prior consent of the British government , the British
guaranteed the protection of
Qatar from all aggression by sea. On 5
May 1935, Abdullah signed another treaty with the British government
Qatar protection against internal and external threats.
Oil reserves were first discovered in 1939. However, exploitation was
World War II
World War II .
The influence of the
British Empire started diminishing after World
War II, particularly after the Independence of
1947. In the 1950s, oil began replacing pearling and fishing as
Qatar's main sources of revenue. Oil earnings began to fund the
expansion and modernisation of Qatar's infrastructure. Pressure for a
British withdrawal from the Arab emirates in the
increased during the 1950s. When Britain officially announced in 1968
that it would politically disengage from the
Persian Gulf in three
Bahrain and seven other
Trucial States in a
federation. Regional disputes, however, quickly compelled
resign and declare independence from the coalition which would
eventually evolve into the
United Arab Emirates
United Arab Emirates .
INDEPENDENCE AND AFTERMATH (1971–PRESENT)
Traditional dhows in front of the West Bay skyline as seen from
Doha Corniche .
The State of
Qatar entered into a general maritime truce with the
United Kingdom in 1868. A General Treaty was concluded between the two
on 3 November 1916. The General Treaty reserved foreign affairs and
defence to the
United Kingdom but allowed internal autonomy. On 3
September 1971, those "special treaty arrangements" that were
"inconsistent with full international responsibility as a sovereign
and independent state" were terminated. This was done under an
agreement reached between the Ruler of
Qatar and the Government of the
Qatar played a significant role in the
Gulf War ,
particularly during the
Battle of Khafji in which Qatari tanks rolled
through the streets of the town and provided fire support for Saudi
Arabian National Guard units that were engaging
Iraqi Army troops.
Qatar allowed coalition troops from Canada to use the country as an
airbase to launch aircraft on CAP duty and also permitted air forces
from the United States and
France to operate in its territories.
In 1995, Emir
Hamad bin Khalifa Al Thani seized control of the
country from his father
Khalifa bin Hamad Al Thani , with the support
of the armed forces and cabinet, as well as neighbouring states and
France . Under Emir Hamad,
Qatar has experienced a moderate degree of
liberalisation , including the launch of the
Al Jazeera television
station (1996), the endorsement of women\'s suffrage or right to vote
in municipal elections (1999), drafting its first written constitution
(2005) and inauguration of a
Roman Catholic church (2008). In 2010,
Qatar won the rights to host the
2022 FIFA World Cup , making it the
first country in the
Middle East to be selected to host the
tournament. The Emir announced Qatar's plans to hold its first
national legislative elections in 2013. They were scheduled to be held
in the second half of 2013, but were postponed in June 2013 and may be
delayed until 2019 .
Qatar served as the US Central Command headquarters and one
of the main launching sites of the invasion of
Iraq . In March 2005,
a suicide bombing killed a British teacher at the
Theatre, shocking the country, which had not previously experienced
acts of terrorism. The bombing was carried out by Omar Ahmed Abdullah
Ali, an Egyptian resident in
Qatar who had suspected ties to Al-Qaeda
Arabian Peninsula . In 2011,
Qatar joined NATO operations in
Libya and reportedly armed
Libyan opposition groups. It is also
currently a major funder of weapons for rebel groups in the Syrian
civil war .
Qatar is pursuing an Afghan peace deal and in January
2012 the Afghan
Taliban said they were setting up a political office
Qatar to facilitate talks.
In June 2013, Sheikh
Tamim bin Hamad Al Thani became the Emir of
Qatar after his father handed over power in a televised speech.
Sheikh Tamim has prioritised improving the domestic welfare of
citizens, which includes establishing advanced healthcare and
education systems, and expanding the country's infrastructure in
preparation for the hosting of the 2022 World Cup.
Qatar participated in the Saudi Arabian-led intervention in Yemen
Houthis and forces loyal to former President Ali Abdullah
Saleh , who was deposed in the 2011
Arab Spring uprisings.
In June 2017, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Bahrain,
Libya cut off diplomatic relations with Qatar, citing the
country\'s alleged support of groups they considered to be extremist .
Politics of Qatar Emir Tamim bin Hamad Al Thani
with U.S. President
Donald Trump in May 2017
Qatar is either a constitutional or an absolute monarchy ruled
by the Al Thani family . The Al Thani dynasty has been ruling Qatar
since the family house was established in 1825. In 2003, Qatar
adopted a constitution that provided for the direct election of 30 of
the 45 members of the Legislative Council. The constitution was
overwhelmingly approved in a referendum, with almost 98% in favour.
The eighth Emir of
Tamim bin Hamad Al Thani , whose father
Hamad bin Khalifa Al Thani handed power to him on 25 June 2013. The
supreme chancellor has the exclusive power to appoint and remove the
prime minister and cabinet ministers who, together, constitute the
Council of Ministers, which is the supreme executive authority in the
country. The Council of Ministers also initiates legislation. Laws
and decrees proposed by the Council of Ministers are referred to the
Advisory Council (Majilis Al Shura) for discussion after which they
are submitted to the Emir for ratification. A Consultative Assembly
has limited legislative authority to draft and approve laws, but the
Emir has final say on all matters. The current Council is composed
entirely of members appointed by the Emir, as no legislative
elections have been held since 1970 when there were partial elections
to the body. Legislative elections have been postponed until at least
Qatari law does not permit the establishment of political bodies or
Human rights in Qatar
According to Qatar's Constitution,
Sharia law is the main source of
Qatari legislation. Although in practice, Qatar's legal system is a
mixture of civil law and Sharia law.
Sharia law is applied to family
law , inheritance , and several criminal acts (including adultery,
robbery and murder). In some cases, Sharia-based family courts treat a
female's testimony as being worth half that of a man. Codified family
law was introduced in 2006. Islamic polygyny is permitted.
Judicial corporal punishment is common in
Qatar due to the Wahhabi
interpretation of Sharia Law, although in
Qatar it had originally been
Hanbali school of mainstream
Flogging is employed as a
punishment for alcohol consumption or illicit sexual relations.
Article 88 of Qatar's criminal code declares that the penalty for
adultery is 100 lashes , and in 2006, a Filipino woman received that
punishment. In 2010, at least 18 people (mostly foreign nationals)
were sentenced to receive between 40 and 100 lashes for offences
involving "illicit sexual relations" or alcohol consumption. In 2011,
at least 21 people (mostly foreign nationals) were sentenced to
between 30 and 100 lashes for the same reasons, and in 2012, six
expatriates were sentenced to either 40 or 100 lashes. Only Muslims
considered medically fit are liable to have such sentences carried
out. It is unknown if the sentences were implemented. In April 2013,
Muslim expatriate was sentenced to 40 lashes for alcohol
consumption, and in June 2014, a
Muslim expatriate was sentenced to
40 lashes for consuming alcohol and driving under the influence.
Stoning is a legal punishment in Qatar, and apostasy and
homosexuality are crimes punishable by the death penalty . Blasphemy
can result in up to seven years in prison, while proselytising can
incur a 10-year sentence.
Alcohol consumption is partially legal in Qatar; some five-star
luxury hotels are allowed to sell alcohol to their non-Muslim
customers. Muslims are not allowed to consume alcohol, and those
caught consuming it are liable to flogging or deportation. Non-Muslim
expatriates can obtain a permit to purchase alcohol for personal
Qatar Distribution Company (a subsidiary of Qatar
Airways ) is permitted to import alcohol and pork; it operates the one
and only liquor store in the country, which also sells pork to holders
of liquor licences. Qatari officials have also indicated a
willingness to allow alcohol in "fan zones" at the 2022 FIFA World Cup
Until 2011, restaurants on the Pearl-
Qatar (a man-made island near
Doha) were allowed to serve alcoholic drinks. In December 2011,
however, Pearl restaurants were told to stop selling alcohol. No
explanation was given for the ban, though speculation included
encouraging a more pious image before a significant election and
rumours of a financial dispute between the government and resort
developers. The alcohol ban was later lifted.
In 2014, a modesty campaign was launched to remind tourists of the
country's restrictive dress code. Female tourists were advised not to
wear leggings, miniskirts, sleeveless dresses, or short or tight
clothing in public. Men were warned against wearing only shorts and
Human rights in Qatar
According to the
U.S. State Department , expatriate workers from
Asia and parts of
Africa voluntarily migrate to
Qatar as low-skilled labourers or domestic servants, but some
subsequently face conditions indicative of involuntary servitude. Some
of the more common labour rights violations include beatings,
withholding of payment, charging workers for benefits for which the
employer is responsible, restrictions on freedom of movement (such as
the confiscation of passports, travel documents, or exit permits),
arbitrary detention, threats of legal action, and sexual assault.
Many migrant workers arriving for work in
Qatar have paid exorbitant
fees to recruiters in their home countries.
As of 2014 , certain provisions of the Qatari Criminal Code allows
punishments such as flogging and stoning to be imposed as criminal
UN Committee Against Torture
UN Committee Against Torture found that these practices
constituted a breach of the obligations imposed by the UN Convention
Against Torture .
Qatar retains the death penalty, mainly for
threats against national security such as terrorism. Use of the death
penalty is rare and no state executions have taken place in Qatar
since 2003. In Qatar, homosexual acts are illegal and can be punished
Under the provisions of Qatar's sponsorship law, sponsors have the
unilateral power to cancel workers' residency permits, deny workers'
ability to change employers, report a worker as "absconded" to police
authorities, and deny permission to leave the country. As a result,
sponsors may restrict workers' movements and workers may be afraid to
report abuses or claim their rights. According to the
ITUC , the visa
sponsorship system allows the exaction of forced labour by making it
difficult for a migrant worker to leave an abusive employer or travel
overseas without permission.
Qatar also does not maintain wage
standards for its immigrant labourers.
international law firm
DLA Piper to produce a report investigating the
immigrant labour system. In May 2014
DLA Piper released over 60
recommendations for reforming the kafala system including the
abolition of exit visas and the introduction of a minimum wage which
Qatar has pledged to implement.
In May 2012, Qatari officials declared their intention to allow the
establishment of an independent trade union.
Qatar also announced it
will scrap its sponsor system for foreign labour, which requires that
all foreign workers be sponsored by local employers. Additional
changes to labour laws include a provision guaranteeing that all
workers' salaries are paid directly into their bank accounts and new
restrictions on working outdoors in the hottest hours during the
summer. New draft legislation announced in early 2015 mandates that
companies that fail to pay workers' wages on time could temporarily
lose their ability to hire more employees.
In October 2015 Qatar's Emir signed into law new reforms to the
country's sponsorship system, with the new law taking effect within
one year. Critics claim that the changes could fail to address some
labour rights issues.
The country enfranchised women at the same time as men in connection
with the 1999 elections for a Central Municipal Council. These
elections—the first ever in Qatar—were deliberately held on 8
March 1999, International Women\'s Day .
Foreign relations of Qatar
Foreign relations of Qatar Former Emir Hamad bin
Khalifa Al Thani and U.S. Secretary of State
John Kerry in 2013.
As a small country with larger neighbours,
Qatar seeks to project
influence and protect its state and ruling dynasty. The history of
Qatar's alliances provides insight into the basis of their policy.
Between 1760 and 1971,
Qatar sought formal protection from the high
transitory powers of the Ottomans, British, the Al-Khalifas from
Bahrain, the Arabians, and the Wahhabis from Saudi Arabia. Qatar's
rising international profile and active role in international affairs
has led some analysts to identify it as a middle power .
Qatar was an
early member of
OPEC and a founding member of the Gulf Cooperation
Council (GCC). It is a member of the
Arab League . The country has not
International Court of Justice
International Court of Justice jurisdiction.
Qatar also has bilateral relationships with a variety of foreign
Qatar hosts the
Al Udeid Air Base
Al Udeid Air Base , a joint U.S.-British base,
which acts as the hub for all American and British air operations in
Persian Gulf. It has allowed American and British forces to use
an air base to send supplies to
Iraq and Afghanistan. Despite hosting
this strategic military installation,
Qatar is not always a strong
Qatar has allowed the Afghan
Taliban to set up a
political office inside the country and has close ties to Iran,
including a shared natural gas field. According to leaked documents
published in _The New York Times_, Qatar's record of counter-terrorism
efforts was the "worst in the region". The cable suggested that
Qatar's security service was "hesitant to act against known terrorists
out of concern for appearing to be aligned with the U.S. and provoking
Qatar has mixed relations with its neighbours in the
Qatar signed a defence co-operation agreement with Iran, with
whom it shares the largest single non-associated gas field in the
world. It was the second nation, the first being France, to have
publicly announced its recognition of the
Libyan opposition 's
National Transitional Council as the legitimate government of Libya
2011 Libyan civil war . Qatar's flag in
the Libyan Civil War ;
Qatar played an influential role during the
Arab Spring .
In 2014, Qatar's relations with
Saudi Arabia , and the
United Arab Emirates
United Arab Emirates came to a boiling point over Qatar's support for
Muslim Brotherhood and extremist groups in Syria. This
culminated in the three aforementioned countries withdrawing their
Qatar in March 2014. _ According to the Al
Jazeera America_, "Numerous reports suggest that the Saudi-led
coalition against opposition groups in
Yemen has indiscriminately
attacked civilians and used cluster bombs in civilian-populated areas,
in violation of international law."
In recent years,
Qatar has been using Islamist militants in a number
of countries including Egypt, Syria, Libya,
further its foreign policy. Courting Islamists from the Muslim
Brotherhood to Salafist groups has served as a power amplifier for the
country, as it believes since the beginning of the
Arab Spring that
these groups represented the wave of the future. David Cohen, the
Under Secretary for terrorism and financial intelligence at the U.S.
Treasury, said that
Qatar is a "permissive jurisdiction for terrorist
financing." There is evidence that these groups supported by Qatar
include the hard-line Islamic militant groups active in northern
Syria. As of 2015 , Qatar,
Saudi Arabia and
Turkey are openly backing
Army of Conquest , an umbrella group of anti-government forces
fighting in the
Syrian Civil War
Syrian Civil War that reportedly includes an al-Qaeda
linked al-Nusra Front and another
Salafi coalition known as Ahrar
Qatar supported the democratically elected President Mohamed Morsi
with diplomatic support and the state-owned
Al Jazeera network before
he was deposed in a military coup.
Egypt a $7.5
billion loan during the year he was in power.
Qatar's alignment with
Hamas , first reported in early 2012, has
drawn criticism from Israel, the United States,
Egypt and Saudi
Arabia, "who accuse
Qatar of undermining regional stability by
supporting Hamas." However, the Foreign Minister of
Qatar has denied
Hamas and corrected their alleged claims, stating "We do
Hamas but we support the Palestinians." Following a peace
Qatar pledged $1 billion in humanitarian aid to Gaza.
Qatar has hosted academic, religious, political, and economic
conferences. The 11th annual
Doha Forum recently brought in key
thinkers, professionals of various backgrounds, and political figures
from all over the world to discuss democracy, media and information
technology, free trade, and water security issues. In addition, the
forum has featured the
Middle East Economic Future conference since
2006. In more recent times,
Qatar has hosted peace talks between
rival factions across the globe. Notable among these include the
Darfur Agreement. The
Doha Declaration is the basis of the peace
process in Darfur and it has achieved significant gains on the ground
for the African region. Notable achievements included the restoration
of security and stability, progress made in construction and
reconstruction processes, return of displaced residents and uniting of
Darfur people to face challenges and push forward the peace process.
Qatar donated £88.5million in funds to finance recovery and
reconstruction in Darfur.
In June 2017, Saudi Arabia, the UAE, Bahrain,
diplomatic ties with Qatar, accusing
Qatar of supporting terrorism ,
escalating a dispute over Qatar’s support of the
, considered a terrorist organization by those 5 Arab nations. Saudi
Arabia explained the move to be a necessary measure in protecting the
kingdom's security. Qatari troops were also removed from the military
Egypt closed its airspace and seaports to all
Qatar Armed Forces
Qatar Armed Forces A
Qatar Dassault Mirage 2000
Libya The US Combined Air Operations Center at Al
Udeid Air Base in
Qatar Armed Forces
Qatar Armed Forces are the military forces of Qatar. The country
maintains a modest military force of approximately 11,800 men,
including an army (8,500), navy (1,800) and air force (1,500). Qatar's
defense expenditures accounted for approximately 4.2% of gross
national product in 1993, and 1.5% of gross domestic product in 2010,
the most recent year available in the SIPRI statistical database.
Qatar has recently signed defense pacts with the United States and
United Kingdom, as well as with
France earlier in 1994.
Qatar plays an
active role in the collective defense efforts of the Gulf Cooperation
Council ; the other five members are Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Bahrain,
the UAE, and Oman. The presence of the large
Al Udeid Air Base
Al Udeid Air Base ,
operated by the United States and several other UN nations, provides a
guaranteed source of defense and national security. In 2008 Qatar
spent US$2.355 billion on military expenditures, 2.3% of the gross
domestic product. Qatari special forces have been trained by France
and other Western countries, and are believed to possess considerable
skill. They also helped the Libyan rebels during the 2011 Battle of
Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI) found
that in 2010–14
Qatar was the 46th-largest arms importer in the
world. However, SIPRI writes, Qatar's plans to transform and
significantly enlarge its armed forces have accelerated. Orders in
2013 for 62 tanks and 24 self-propelled guns from Germany were
followed in 2014 by a number of other contracts, including 24 combat
helicopters and 3 early-warning-and-control aircraft from the USA, and
2 tanker aircraft from Spain. In 2015,
Qatar was the 16th largest
arms importer in the world, and in 2016, it was the 11th largest,
according to SIPRI.
Qatar's military participated in the Saudi Arabian–led intervention
Yemen against the Shia
Houthis . In 2015, _
Al Jazeera America_
reported: "Numerous reports suggest that the Saudi-led coalition
against opposition groups in
Yemen has indiscriminately attacked
civilians and used cluster bombs in civilian-populated areas, in
violation of international law." Many civilians have been killed and
the large parts of the infrastructure in this region is now destroyed.
Hospitals have also been bombed by the Saudis and those operating
Municipalities of Qatar Municipalities of Qatar
Qatar has been divided into eight municipalities (Arabic:
For statistical purposes, the municipalities are further subdivided
into 98 zones (as of 2015 ), which are in turn subdivided into
Geography of Qatar
Geography of Qatar Desert Coast Desert
The Qatari peninsula protrudes 160 kilometres (100 mi) into the
Persian Gulf, north of Saudi Arabia. It lies between latitudes 24°
and 27° N , and longitudes 50° and 52° E . Most of the country
consists of a low, barren plain , covered with sand . To the southeast
lies the _
Khor al Adaid _ ("Inland Sea "), an area of rolling sand
dunes surrounding an inlet of the
Persian Gulf. There are mild winters
and very hot, humid summers.
The highest point in
Qatar is Qurayn Abu al Bawl at 103 metres (338
ft) in the Jebel Dukhan to the west, a range of low limestone
outcroppings running north-south from Zikrit through
Umm Bab to the
southern border. The Jebel Dukhan area also contains Qatar's main
onshore oil deposits , while the natural gas fields lie offshore, to
the northwest of the peninsula.
BIODIVERSITY AND ENVIRONMENT
Wildlife of Qatar
Arabian oryx , the national animal
Qatar Ostriches in
Qatar signed the Rio
Convention on Biological Diversity on 11 June
1992, and became a party to the convention on 21 August 1996. It has
subsequently produced a National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan
, which was received by the convention on 18 May 2005. A total of 142
fungal species have been recorded from Qatar. A book recently
produced by the Ministry of Environment documents the lizards known or
believed to occur in Qatar, based on surveys conducted by an
international team of scientists and other collaborators.
For two decades,
Qatar has had the highest per-capita carbon dioxide
emissions in the world, at 49.1 metric tons per person in 2008.
Qataris are also some of the highest consumers of water per capita per
day, using around 400 litres.
Qatar launched its National Vision 2030 which highlights
environmental development as one of the four main goals for
the next two decades. The National Vision pledges to develop
sustainable alternatives to oil-based energy to preserve the local and
CLIMATE DATA FOR QATAR
AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F)
AVERAGE LOW °C (°F)
AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES)
Economy of Qatar Graphical depiction of Qatar's
product exports in 28 color-coded categories (2011). Commercial
district in Doha.
Before the discovery of oil, the economy of the Qatari region focused
on fishing and pearl hunting . Report prepared by local governors of
Ottoman Empire in 1892 states that total income from pearl hunting in
1892 is 2,450,000 kran. After the introduction of the Japanese
cultured pearl onto the world market in the 1920s and 1930s, Qatar's
pearling industry crashed. Oil was discovered in
Qatar in 1940, in
Dukhan Field . The discovery transformed the state's economy. Now,
the country has a high standard of living for its legal citizens. With
no income tax ,
Qatar (along with
Bahrain ) is one of the countries
with the lowest tax rates in the world. The unemployment rate in June
2013 was 0.1%. Corporate law mandates that Qatari nationals must hold
51% of any venture in the Emirate.
As of 2016 ,
Qatar has the fourth highest GDP per capita in the
world, according to the International Monetary Fund. It relies
heavily on foreign labor to grow its economy, to the extent that
migrant workers compose 86% of the population and 94% of the
Qatar has been criticized by the International Trade
Union Confederation . The economic growth of
Qatar has been almost
exclusively based on its petroleum and natural gas industries, which
began in 1940.
Qatar is the leading exporter of liquefied natural gas
. In 2012, it was estimated that
Qatar would invest over $120 billion
in the energy sector in the next ten years. The country is a member
state of Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), having
joined in 1961.
Airbus A380 ,
Qatar Airways, one
of the world's largest airlines, links over 150 international
destinations from its base in
Doha . High-rise buildings in
Qatar retained its title of richest country in the world
(according to per capita income) for the third time in a row, having
Luxembourg in 2010. According to the study published
by the Washington based Institute of International Finance, Qatar's
per capita GDP at purchasing power parity (PPP) was $106,000
(QR387,000) in 2012, helping the country retain its ranking as the
world's wealthiest nation.
Luxembourg came a distant second with
nearly $80,000 and
Singapore third with per capita income of about
$61,000. The research put Qatar's GDP at $182bn in 2012 and said it
had climbed to an all-time high due to soaring gas exports and high
oil prices. Its population stood at 1.8 million in 2012. The same
study published that
Qatar Investment Authority (QIA), with assets of
$115bn, was ranked 12th among the richest sovereign wealth funds in
Qatar Central Bank
Qatar Central Bank 's office in
Established in 2005,
Qatar Investment Authority is the country's
sovereign wealth fund , specializing in foreign investment. Due to
billions of dollars in surpluses from the oil and gas industry, the
Qatari government has directed investments into United States, Europe,
Asia Pacific . As of 2013 , the holdings were valued at $100
billion in assets.
Qatar Holding is the international investment arm
of QIA. Since 2009,
Qatar Holding has received $30–40bn a year from
the state. As of 2014 , it has investments around the world in
The Shard , Barclays Bank
Heathrow Airport ,
Paris Saint-Germain F.C. ,
Volkswagen Group ,
Royal Dutch Shell ,
Bank of America
Bank of America , Tiffany , Agricultural Bank of
China , Sainsbury\'s ,
BlackBerry , and
Santander Brasil .
The country has no taxes, but authorities have announced plans to
levy taxes on junk food and luxury items. The taxes would be
implemented on goods that harm the human body - for example fast food,
tobacco products, and soft drinks. The roll out of these initial taxes
is believed to be due to the fall in oil prices and a deficit that the
country faced in 2016. Additionally, the country has seen job cuts in
2016 from its petroleum companies and other sectors in the government.
Oryx GTL plant in
As of 2012 ,
Qatar has proven oil reserves of 15 billion barrels and
gas fields that account for more than 13% of the global resource. As a
result, it is the richest state per-capita in the world. None of its 2
million residents live below the poverty line and less than 1% are
Qatar's economy was in a downturn from 1982 to 1989.
OPEC quotas on
crude oil production, the lower price for oil , and the generally
unpromising outlook on international markets reduced oil earnings. In
turn, the Qatari government's spending plans had to be cut to match
lower income. The resulting recessionary local business climate caused
many firms to lay off expatriate staff. With the economy recovering in
the 1990s, expatriate populations, particularly from
Egypt and South
Asia, have grown again.
Oil production will not long remain at peak levels of 500,000 barrels
(80,000 m³) per day, as oil fields are projected to be mostly
depleted by 2023. However, large natural gas reserves have been
located off Qatar's northeast coast. Qatar's proved reserves of gas
are the third-largest in the world, exceeding 250 trillion cubic feet
(7,000 km³). The economy was boosted in 1991 by completion of the
$1.5-billion Phase I of North Field gas development. In 1996, the
Qatargas project began exporting liquefied natural gas (LNG) to Japan.
Further phases of North Field gas development costing billions of
dollars are in various stages of planning and development.
Qatar's heavy industrial projects, all based in Umm Said, include a
refinery with a 50,000 barrels (8,000 m³) per day capacity, a
fertiliser plant for urea and ammonia, a steel plant, and a
petrochemical plant. All these industries use gas for fuel. Most are
joint ventures between European and Japanese firms and the state-owned
Qatar General Petroleum Corporation (QGPC). The US is the major
equipment supplier for Qatar's oil and gas industry, and US companies
are playing a major role in North Field gas development.
Qatar's National Vision 2030 has made investment in renewable
resources a major goal for the country over the next two decades.
Qatar pursues a vigorous programme of "Qatarisation ", under which all
joint venture industries and government departments strive to move
Qatari nationals into positions of greater authority. Growing numbers
of foreign-educated Qataris, including many educated in the US, are
returning home to assume key positions formerly occupied by
expatriates. To control the influx of expatriate workers,
tightened the administration of its foreign manpower programmes over
the past several years. Security is the principal basis for Qatar's
strict entry and immigration rules and regulations.
Demographics of Qatar Skyline of
The number of people in
Qatar fluctuates considerably depending on
the season, since the country relies heavily on migrant labour. In
early 2017, Qatar's total population was 2.6 million, of which 313,000
were Qatari citizens (12%) and 2.3 million were expatriates .
Non-Arab foreigners make up the vast majority of Qatar's population;
Indians are the largest community, numbering 650,000 in 2017,
followed by 350,000 Nepalis , 280,000
Bangladeshis , 260,000 Filipinos
Egyptians , 145,000
Sri Lankans and 125,000 Pakistanis among
many other nationalities.
Qatar's first demographic records date back to 1892, and were
conducted by Ottoman governors in the region. Based on this census,
which includes only the residents in cities, the total population in
1892 was 9,830.
Qatar Statistics Authority (1904–2004); 2010 Census;
2013 est. 2016
The 2010 census recorded the total population at 1,699,435. In
January 2013, the
Qatar Statistics Authority estimated the country's
population at 1,903,447, of which 1,405,164 were males and 498,283
females. At the time of the first census, held in 1970, the
population was 111,133. The population has tripled in the decade to
2011, up from just over 600,000 people in 2001, leaving Qatari
nationals as less than 15% of the total population. The influx of
male labourers has skewed the gender balance, and women are now just
one-quarter of the population.
Projections released by
Qatar Statistical Authority indicates that
the total population of
Qatar could reach 2.8 million by 2020. Qatar's
National Development Strategy (2011–16) had estimated that the
country's population would reach 1.78m in 2013, 1.81m in 2014, 1.84m
in 2015 and 1.86m in 2016 – the yearly growth rate being merely
2.1%. But the country's population has soared to 1.83 million by the
end of 2012, showing 7.5% growth over the previous year. Qatar's
total population hit a record high of 2.46 million in November 2015,
an increase of 8.5% from the previous year, far exceeding official
Religion in Qatar
Religion in Qatar Mosque in
Religion in Qatar
Religion in Qatar (2010)
Buddhism (3.1%) Others (0.7%) Unaffiliated
Islam is Qatar's predominant religion and is the official status
although not the only religion practiced in the country. Most Qatari
citizens belong to the
Muslim movement of
Wahhabism , and
between 5-15% of Muslims in
Qatar follow Shia
Islam with other Muslims
sects being very small in number.
Qatar is 67.7%
Muslim , 13.8%
Christian , 13.8%
Hindu , and 3.1%
Buddhist ; other religions and
religiously unaffiliated people accounted for the remaining 1.6%.
Sharia law is the main source of Qatari legislation according to
Christian population is composed almost entirely of foreigners.
Since 2008, Christians have been allowed to build churches on ground
donated by the government, though foreign missionary activity is
officially discouraged. Active churches include the Mar Thoma Church
Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church , the
Roman Catholic Church of Our
Lady of the Rosary and the
Anglican Church of the Epiphany. There
are also two Mormon wards .
Arabic is the official language of Qatar, with Qatari
Qatari Sign Language is the language of the deaf
community. English is commonly used as a second language, and a
rising lingua franca , especially in commerce, to the extent that
steps are being taken to try to preserve
Arabic from English's
encroachment. English is particularly useful for communication with
Qatar's large expatriate community. Reflecting the multicultural
make-up of the country, many other languages are also spoken,
including Baluchi ,
Pashto , Tamil , Telugu
, Nepali , Sinhalese , Bengali , Tagalog , and
Bahasa Indonesia .
Qatar joined the international French-speaking organisation
of La Francophonie (OIF) as a new associate member. However, in
December 2013, the French daily _
Le Monde _ revealed that Qatar, which
has very few native French speakers, had not yet paid any contribution
to the OIF, while the outgoing Administrator of the OIF complained in
Qatar had not kept any of the promises it made when it
joined the organisation and had never paid its annual membership fees.
Culture of Qatar
Qatar's culture is similar to other countries in
Eastern Arabia ,
being significantly influenced by Islam.
Qatar National Day , hosted
annually on 18 December, has had an important role in developing a
sense of national identity. It is observed in remembrance of Jassim
bin Mohammed Al Thani 's succession to the throne and his subsequent
unification of the country's various tribes. Since 1 July 2008,
Hamad Bin Abdulaziz Al-Kawari has been the Minister for Culture, Arts
and Heritage of Qatar.
ARTS AND MUSEUMS
Qatar Museums Authority
Qatar Museums Authority , Collecting practices of the
Al-Thani Family , and
Qatari art Museum of Islamic Art,
Several senior members of Qatar's ruling Al Thani family are noted
collectors of Islamic and contemporary art.
The Museum of Islamic Art , opened in 2008, is regarded as one of the
best museums in the region. This, and several other Qatari museums,
like the Arab Museum of Modern Art , falls under the
Authority (_QMA_) which is led by Sheikha Al-Mayassa bint Hamad bin
Khalifa Al-Thani , the sister of the ruling Emir of the State of
Qatar, and the prominent collector and art patron Sheikh Hassan bin
Mohammed Al Thani . The QMA also sponsors artistic events abroad,
such as major exhibitions by Takahashi Murakami in Versailles (2010)
and Damien Hirst in London (2012).
Qatar is the world's biggest buyer in the art market by value. The
Qatari cultural sector is being developed to enable the country to
reach world recognition to contribute to the development of a country
that comes mainly from its resources from the gas industry.
Media of Qatar
Media of Qatar The news desk of Al Jazeera
English , a Qatari news channel
Qatar's media was classified as "not free" in the 2014 Freedom of the
Press report by
Freedom House . TV broadcasting in
Qatar was started
Al Jazeera is a main television network headquartered in
Doha , Qatar.
Al Jazeera initially launched in 1996 as an
and current affairs satellite TV channel of the same name, but has
since expanded into a global network of several speciality TV channels
known collectively as the
Al Jazeera Media Network .
It has been reported that journalists practice self-censorship ,
particularly in regards to the government and ruling family of Qatar.
Criticism of the government, Emir and ruling family in the media is
illegal. According to article 46 of the press law "The Emir of the
Qatar shall not be criticised and no statement can be
attributed to him unless under a written permission from the manager
of his office." Journalists are also subject to prosecution for
In 2014, a Cybercrime Prevention Law was passed. The law is said to
restrict press freedom, and carries prison sentences and fines for
broad reasons such as jeopardising local peace or publishing false
news. The Gulf Center for Human Rights has stated that the law is a
threat to freedom of speech and has called for certain articles of the
law to be revoked.
Press media has undergone expansion in recent years. There are
currently seven newspapers in circulation in
Qatar , with four being
Arabic and three being published in English. There are
also newspapers from India,
Sri Lanka with editions printed
In regards to telecommunication infrastructure,
Qatar is the highest
ranked Middle Eastern country in the World Economic Forum's Network
Readiness Index (NRI) – an indicator for determining the development
level of a country's information and communication technologies. Qatar
ranked number 23 overall in the 2014 NRI ranking, unchanged from 2013.
Music of Qatar
Music of Qatar
The music of
Qatar is based on
Bedouin poetry, song and dance.
Traditional dances in
Doha are performed on Friday afternoons; one
such dance is the
Ardah , a stylised martial dance performed by two
rows of dancers who are accompanied by an array of percussion
instruments , including al-ras (a large drum whose leather is heated
by an open fire), tambourines and cymbals with small drums. Other
percussion instruments used in folk music include _galahs_ (a tall
clay jar) and tin drinking cups known as _tus_ or _tasat_, usually
used in conjunction with a _tabl_, a longitudinal drum beaten with a
stick. String instruments , such as the oud and rebaba , are also
Sport in Qatar
2015 Ladies Tour of Qatar
2015 Ladies Tour of Qatar
Association football is the most popular sport in Qatar, both in
terms of players and spectators. The
Qatar national under-20 team
finished runners-up to West Germany in the 1981 FIFA World Youth
Championship after a 4–0 defeat in the final. In January 2011, the
Asian Football Confederation's fifteenth Asian Cup was held in Qatar.
It was the second time
Qatar had hosted the tournament, with the other
instance being the 1988 edition .
On 2 December 2010,
Qatar won their bid to host the 2022 FIFA World
Cup , despite never previously qualifying for the FIFA World Cup
Finals . Local organisers are planning to build 9 new stadiums and
expand 3 existing stadiums for this event. Qatar's winning bid for the
2022 World Cup was greeted enthusiastically in the
Persian Gulf region
as it was the first time a country in the
Middle East had been
selected to host the tournament. However, the bid has been embroiled
in much controversy, including allegations of bribery and interference
in the investigation of the alleged bribery. European football
associations have also objected to the 2022 World Cup being held in
Qatar for a variety of reasons, from the impact of warm temperatures
on players' fitness, to the disruption it might cause in European
domestic league calendars should the event be rescheduled to take
place during winter. In May 2014, Qatari football official Mohammed
bin Hammam was accused of making payments totalling £3m to officials
in return for their support for the
Qatar bid. However, a FIFA
inquiry into the bidding process in November 2014 cleared
Qatar of any
Qatar Emir Cup
Qatar Emir Cup in 2009
The Guardian _, a British national daily newspaper, produced a short
documentary named "Abuse and exploitation of migrant workers preparing
emirate for 2022". A 2014 investigation by
The Guardian reports that
migrant workers who have been constructing luxurious offices for the
organisers of the 2022 World Cup have not been paid in over a year,
and are now "working illegally from cockroach-infested lodgings." For
2014, Nepalese migrants involved in constructing infrastructure for
the 2022 World Cup died at a rate of one every two days. The Qatar
2022 organising committee have responded to various allegations by
claiming that hosting the World Cup in
Qatar would act as a "catalyst
for change" in the region.
Though football is the most popular sport, other team sports have
experienced considerable success at senior level. In 2015, the
national handball team emerged as runners-up to
France in the World
Men\'s Handball Championship as hosts, however the tournament was
marred by numerous controversies regarding the host nation and its
team. Further, in 2014,
Qatar won the world championship in men's 3x3
Khalifa International Tennis and Squash Complex in
Doha hosted the
WTA Tour Championships in women's tennis between 2008 and 2010. Doha
holds the WTA Premier tournament
Qatar Ladies Open
Qatar Ladies Open annually. Since
Qatar has hosted the annual
Tour of Qatar
Tour of Qatar , a cycling race in
six stages. Every February, riders are racing on the roads across
Qatar's flat land for six days. Each stage covers a distance of more
than 100 km, though the time trial usually is a shorter distance. Tour
Qatar is organised by the
Qatar Cycling Federation for professional
riders in the category of Elite Men.
Qatar Army Skydiving Team has several different skydiving
disciplines placing among the top nations in the world. The Qatar
National Parachute team performs annually during Qatar's National Day
and at other large events, such as the 2015 World Handball
Doha four times was the host of the official FIVB
Volleyball Men\'s Club World Championship and three times host FIVB
Volleyball Women\'s Club World Championship .
Doha one time Host Asian
Volleyball Championship .
Education in Qatar
Education in Qatar UNESCO Institute for
Statistics Literacy Rate
Qatar population plus 15 1985-2015
Qatar University , main area
Qatar University , east view
Qatar hired the
RAND Corporation to reform its K–12 education
Qatar Foundation , the country has built Education
City , a campus which hosts local branches of the Weill Cornell
Medical College ,
Carnegie Mellon School of Computer Science
Carnegie Mellon School of Computer Science ,
Georgetown University School of Foreign Service , Northwestern\'s
Medill School of Journalism , Texas A&M\'s School of Engineering , and
other Western institutions.
The illiteracy rate in
Qatar was 3.1% for males and 4.2% for females
in 2012, the lowest in the Arab-speaking world, but 86th in the world.
Citizens are required to attend government-provided education from
kindergarten through high school.
Qatar University , founded in 1973,
is the country's oldest and largest institution of higher education.
In November 2002, emir
Hamad bin Khalifa Al Thani created The Supreme
Education Council . The Council directs and controls education for
all ages from the pre-school level through the university level,
including the "Education for a New Era" initiative which was
established to try to position
Qatar as a leader in education reform.
According to the
Webometrics Ranking of World Universities , the
top-ranking universities in the country are
Qatar University (1,881st
Texas A&M University at Qatar (3,905th) and Weill Cornell
Medical College in
Qatar established the
Qatar Science padding:0.4em 2em">
Arab world portal
Middle East portal
* ^ "Population structure". Ministry of Development Planning and
Statistics. 31 January 2017.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ "Populations". Qsa.gov.qa. Retrieved 2 October
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ "Report for qatar (PPP valuation of country GDP)".
IMF. October 2016.
* ^ _A_ _B_ "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects (PPP
valuation of country GDP)". IMF. October 2016.
* ^ "GINI index". World Bank. Retrieved 22 January 2013.
* ^ "2015 Human Development Report" (PDF). United Nations
Development Programme. 2015. Retrieved 14 December 2015.
* ^ "List of left- & right-driving countries - World Standards".
Retrieved 5 June 2017.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ _H_ "Qatar". _
CIA World Factbook _.
Central Intelligence Agency
Central Intelligence Agency . 8 February 2012. Retrieved 4 March 2012.
* ^ Pronunciation adopted by
Qatar Airways ' advertisements, such
Qatar Airways: the Art of Flight Redefined_
* ^ "CMU Pronouncing Dictionary". CS. Retrieved 28 March 2010.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Johnstone, T. M. (2008). "Encyclopaedia of Islam".
_Ķaṭar_. Brill Online. Retrieved 22 January 2013. (subscription
* ^ "How do you say \'Qatar\'? Senate hearing has the answer".
Washington Post. 12 June 2014. Retrieved 12 March 2015.
* ^ _A_ _B_ BBC News, _How democratic is the Middle East?_, 9
* ^ _A_ _B_
United States Department of State
Country Reports on
Human Rights Practices for 2011: Qatar, 2011.
* ^ "US State Dept\'s
Country Political Profile - Qatar" (PDF).
* ^ _A_ _B_ Gardener, David. "
Qatar shows how to manage a modern
Financial Times .
* ^ "The World Factbook".
CIA Factbook .
* ^ _A_ _B_ "Canada –
Qatar Bilateral Relations". Government of
* ^ _A_ _B_ "IFES Election Guide - Elections:
Qatar Referendum Apr
29 2003". _www.electionguide.org_. Retrieved 5 June 2017.
* ^ _A_ _B_ "
Qatar 2003". _www.princeton.edu_. Retrieved 5 June
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ "Population of
Qatar by nationality - 2017
report". Retrieved 7 February 2017.
* ^ "Indices & Data Human Development Reports". United Nations
Development Programme. 14 March 2013. Archived from the original on 12
January 2013. Retrieved 27 June 2013.
* ^ "
Qatar human development".
* ^ Dagher, Sam (17 October 2011). "Tiny Kingdom\'s Huge Role in
Libya Draws Concern". Online.wsj.com. Retrieved 30 December 2013.
* ^ "Qatar: Rise of an Underdog". Politicsandpolicy.org. Retrieved
30 December 2013.
* ^ Ian Black in Tripoli. "
Qatar admits sending hundreds of troops
Libya rebels". Theguardian.com. Retrieved 30 December 2013.
* ^ Cooper, Andrew F. "Middle Powers: Squeezed out or Adaptive?".
Public Diplomacy Magazine. Retrieved 12 March 2015.
* ^ Kamrava, Mehran. "Mediation and Qatari Foreign Policy" (PDF).
Retrieved 12 March 2015.
* ^ Paul Rhys in Doha. "Blatter reaches out to Arabia".
Aljazeera.com. Retrieved 30 December 2013.
* ^ Casey, Paula; Vine, Peter (1992). _The heritage of Qatar_.
Immel Publishing. p. 17.
* ^ _A_ _B_ "History of Qatar".
Qatar Statistics Authority.
Retrieved 11 May 2015.
* ^ "Maps".
Qatar National Library. Retrieved 11 May 2015.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ "About us". Katara. Retrieved 11 May 2015.
* ^ Hazlitt, William (1851). _The Classical Gazetteer: A Dictionary
of Ancient Geography, Sacred and Profane_. Whittaker & co.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Toth, Anthony. "Qatar: Historical Background." _A
Country Study: Qatar_ (Helen Chapin Metz, editor). Library of Congress
Federal Research Division (January 1993). _This article incorporates
text from this source, which is in the public domain _.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Khalifa, Haya; Rice, Michael (1986). _
the Ages: The Archaeology_. Routledge. pp. 79, 215. ISBN
* ^ _A_ _B_ "History of Qatar" (PDF). _www.qatarembassy.or.th_.
Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Qatar. London: Stacey International,
2000. Retrieved 9 January 2015.
* ^ Rice, Michael (1994). _Archaeology of the
Routledge. pp. 206, 232–233. ISBN 978-0415032681 .
* ^ Magee, Peter (2014). _The Archaeology of Prehistoric Arabia_.
Cambridge Press. pp. 50, 178. ISBN 9780521862318 .
* ^ Sterman, Baruch (2012). _Rarest Blue: The Remarkable Story Of
An Ancient Color Lost To History And Rediscovered_. Lyons Press. pp.
21–22. ISBN 978-0762782222 .
* ^ Cadène, Philippe (2013). _Atlas of the Gulf States_. BRILL. p.
10. ISBN 978-9004245600 .
* ^ "
Qatar – Early history". globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 17
* ^ Gillman, Ian; Klimkeit, Hans-Joachim (1999). _Christians in
Asia Before 1500_. University of Michigan Press. pp. 87, 121. ISBN
* ^ Commins, David (2012). _The Gulf States: A Modern History_. I.
B. Tauris. p. 16. ISBN 978-1848852785 .
* ^ Habibur Rahman, p. 33
* ^ "AUB academics awarded $850,000 grant for project on the Syriac
Qatar in the 7th century AD" (PDF). American University of
Beirut. 31 May 2011. Retrieved 12 May 2015.
* ^ Kozah, Mario; Abu-Husayn, Abdulrahim; Al-Murikhi, Saif Shaheen
(2014). _The Syriac Writers of
Qatar in the Seventh Century_. Gorgias
Press LLC. p. 24. ISBN 978-1463203559 .
* ^ "Bahrain". maritimeheritage.org. Retrieved 17 January 2015.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Fromherz, Allen (13 April 2012). _Qatar: A Modern
History_. Georgetown University Press. pp. 44, 60, 98. ISBN
* ^ _A_ _B_ Rahman, Habibur (2006). _The Emergence Of Qatar_.
Routledge. p. 34. ISBN 978-0710312136 .
* ^ _A political chronology of the Middle East_. Routledge / Europa
Publications. 2001. p. 192. ISBN 978-1857431155 .
* ^ Page, Kogan (2004). _
Middle East Review 2003–04: The Economic
and Business Report_. Kogan Page Ltd. p. 169. ISBN 978-0749440664 .
* ^ _Qatar, 2012 (The Report: Qatar)_. Oxford Business Group. 2012.
p. 233. ISBN 978-1907065682 .
* ^ Casey, Paula; Vine, Peter (1992). _The heritage of Qatar_.
Immel Publishing. pp. 184–185.
* ^ Russell, Malcolm (2014). _The
Middle East and South
Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. p. 151. ISBN 978-1475812350 .
* ^ "History". qatarembassy.net. Retrieved 18 January 2015.
* ^ Larsen, Curtis (1984). _Life and Land Use on the Bahrain
Islands: The Geoarchaeology of an Ancient Society (Prehistoric
Archeology and Ecology series)_. University of Chicago Press. p. 54.
ISBN 978-0226469065 .
* ^ _A_ _B_ Althani, Mohamed (2013). _Jassim the Leader: Founder of
Qatar_. Profile Books. p. 16. ISBN 978-1781250709 .
* ^ Gillespie, Carol Ann (2002). _
Bahrain (Modern World Nations)_.
Chelsea House Publications. p. 31. ISBN 978-0791067796 .
* ^ Anscombe, Frederick (1997). _The Ottoman Gulf: The Creation of
Kuwait, Saudia Arabia, and Qatar_. Columbia University Press. p. 12.
ISBN 978-0231108393 .
* ^ Potter, Lawrence (2010). _The
Persian Gulf in History_.
Palgrave Macmillan. p. 262. ISBN 978-0230612822 .
* ^ _A_ _B_ Heard-Bey, Frauke (2008). _From Tribe to State. The
Transformation of Political Structure in Five States of the GCC_. p.
39. ISBN 978-88-8311-602-5 .
* ^ 'Gazetteer of the
Persian Gulf. Vol I. Historical. Part IA &
IB. J G Lorimer. 1915' (1155/1782), p. 1001
* ^ Crystal, Jill (1995). _Oil and Politics in the Gulf: Rulers and
Kuwait and Qatar_. Cambridge University Press. p. 27.
ISBN 978-0521466356 .
* ^ Casey, Michael S. (2007). _The History of
Kuwait (The Greenwood
Histories of the Modern Nations)_. Greenwood. pp. 37–38. ISBN
* ^ _A_ _B_ "\'Gazetteer of the
Persian Gulf. Vol I. Historical.
Part IA & IB. J G Lorimer. 1915\' (998/1782)". qdl.qa. Retrieved 13
* ^ "Qatar". Teachmideast.org. Retrieved 27 June 2013.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Kursun, Zekeriya (2004). _Katar'da Osmanlilar
1871–1916_. Turk Tarih Kurumu.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Rogan, Eugene; Murphey, Rhoads; Masalha, Nur; Durac,
Vincent; Hinnebusch, Raymond (November 1999). "Review of The Ottoman
Gulf: The Creation of Kuwait,
Saudi Arabia and
Qatar by Frederick F.
Anscombe; The Blood-Red Arab Flag: An Investigation into Qasimi
Piracy, 1797–1820 by Charles E. Davies; The Politics of Regional
Trade in Iraq, Arabia and the Gulf, 1745–1900 by Hala Fattah".
_British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies_. 26 (2): 339–342. JSTOR
195948 . doi :10.1080/13530199908705688 .
* ^ Habibur Rahman, pgs.143–144
* ^ Habibur Rahman, pgs.150–151
* ^ Habibur Rahman, p. 152
* ^ "Battle of Al Wajbah".
Qatar Visitor. 2 June 2007. Retrieved 22
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ "Amiri Diwan – Shaikh Abdullah Bin Jassim Al
Thani". Diwan.gov.qa. Archived from the original on 10 February 2012.
Retrieved 28 October 2012.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Exchange of Notes constituting an Agreement between the
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and Kuwait
regarding relations between the United ... Exchange of Notes
concerning the Termination of
Special Treaty Relations ... Northern
Ireland and the State of Qatar, 3 September 1971
* ^ A Treaty of Friendship and an Exchange of Notes, each entered
into on 3 September 1971
* ^ _A_ _B_ "New Qatari emir Sheikh Tamim \'set to announce
reshuffle\'". BBC News. 26 June 2013. Retrieved 26 June 2013.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ nouvelobs.com: "
Qatar : "S\'ils pouvaient, ils
achèteraient la Tour Eiffel", 7 April 2013
* ^ "
Qatar (01/10)". State.gov. Retrieved 28 March 2010.
* ^ Coman, Julian (21 March 2005). "Egyptian Suicide Bomber Blamed
for Attack in Qatar". _The Independent_.
* ^ Analytica, Oxford (25 March 2005). "The Advent of Terrorism in
* ^ "
Qatar Timeline". BBC News. 14 June 2012. Retrieved 7 January
* ^ Roula Khalaf & Abigail Fielding Smith (16 May 2013). "Qatar
bankrolls Syrian revolt with cash and arms". _Financial Times_.
Retrieved 3 June 2013.
* ^ Nordland, Rod (24 June 2013). "In Surprise, Emir of
to Abdicate, Handing Power to Son". _NYTimes.com_. Retrieved 26 June
* ^ "The World factbook". CIA.Gov. 20 June 2014. Retrieved 20 June
* ^ "Saudi-led coalition strikes rebels in Yemen, inflaming
tensions in region".
CNN . 27 March 2015.
* ^ "
Saudi Arabia and
Bahrain break diplomatic ties with
\'terrorism\'". _The Guardian_. The Guardian. Retrieved 5 June 2017.
* ^ "BBC NEWS -
Middle East - How democratic is the Middle East?".
_news.bbc.co.uk_. Retrieved 5 June 2017.
* ^ https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/186656.pdf
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Lambert, Jennifer (2011). "Political Reform in
Qatar: Participation, Legitimacy and Security". 19 (1). Middle East
* ^ "
Qatar to hold advisory council elections in 2013". _Reuters
(UK edition)_. Reuters. 1 November 2011. Retrieved 4 March 2012.
* ^ "Qatari emir Sheikh Hamad hands power to son Tamim". _BBC_. 25
June 2013. Retrieved 25 June 2013.
* ^ _A_ _B_ "Council of Ministers". Embassy of the State of Qatar
in Washington DC. Archived from the original on 12 June 2010.
Retrieved 4 March 2012.
* ^ "Legislative elections in
Qatar postponed until at least 2019".
Doha News_. 2016-06-17. Retrieved 2017-05-26.
* ^ "The People Want Reform… In Qatar, Too.". _Jadaliyya_.
* ^ _A_ _B_ "The Permanent Constitution of the State of Qatar".
Government of Qatar.
* ^ _A_ _B_ "Constitution of Qatar". According to Article 1: Qatar
is an independent Arab country.
Islam is its religion and Sharia law
is the main source of its legislation.
* ^ "The World Factbook". U.S. Central Intelligence Agency.
* ^ "Qatar" (PDF).
US Department of State .
* ^ "
Qatar Gender Equality Profile" (PDF). UNICEF.
* ^ _A_ _B_ "Amnesty International Annual Report 2012 – Qatar".
Amnesty International. Retrieved 19 March 2014.
* ^ _A_ _B_ "Filipino woman gets 100 lashes for giving birth in
* ^ "Qatar". Amnesty International.
* ^ "Qatar". Amnesty International.
* ^ "Annual Report". _Amnesty International_. 23 October 2014.
* ^ "
Qatar sentences man to 40 lashes for drinking alcohol".
* ^ "
Qatar sentences man to lashes for drinking alcohol". Al
* ^ "
Qatar court orders lashing of
Muslim barber over drinking
alcohol". Al Arabiya.
* ^ "Indian expat sentenced to 40 lashes in
drink-driving". Arabian Business.
* ^ "
Special report: The punishment was death by stoning. The
crime? Having a mobile phone".
* ^ _A_ _B_ Jenifer Fenton. "Religious law, prison for "blasphemy",
severe sexual inequalilty: Qatar\'s human rights review".
* ^ "What are the worst countries in the world to be gay?".
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Alex Delmar-Morgan (7 January 2012). "Qatar,
Unveiling Tensions, Suspends Sale of Alcohol". _Wall Street Journal_.
Retrieved 17 January 2012.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Jenifer Fenton (16 January 2012). "Qatar\'s
Impromptu Alcohol Ban". The Arabist. Retrieved 17 January 2012.
* ^ "
Qatar Distribution Company".
* ^ "Purchasing Alcohol in Qatar".
Qatar Visitor. 2 June 2007.
Retrieved 1 May 2011.
* ^ Walid, Tamara (11 November 2009). "
Qatar would \'welcome\'
Israel in 2022". _The National _. Retrieved 10 August 2013.
* ^ _A_ _B_ James M. Dorsey (17 January 2012). "Debate Questions
Emir\'s Powers To Shape Qatar\'s Positioning As Sports Hub And Sponsor
of Revolts – Analysis". The Eurasia Review. Retrieved 17 January
* ^ "Alcohol ban lifted for new hotel on The Pearl-Qatar". _Arabian
Business_. Retrieved 2017-06-19.
* ^ Elgot, Jessica (28 May 2014). "\'Leggings Are Not Pants\'
Qatar\'s New Modesty Campaign Aimed At Westerners\'". _Huffington
* ^ Aningtias Jatmika (29 May 2014). "
Qatar Bans Tourists from
Wearing Leggings in Public".
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ "
Country Narratives". _Human Trafficking Report
2011_. Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons, United
States Department of State . June 2011. Retrieved 21 January 2012.
* ^ Kelly, Tobias (2009). "The UN Committee against Torture: Human
Rights Monitoring and the Legal Recognition of Cruelty". _Human Rights
Quarterly_. 313 (3): 777–800. doi :10.1353/hrq.0.0094 .
* ^ Conclusions and Recommendations:
Qatar (Report). UN Committee
Against Torture. 25 July 2006. U.N. Doc. CAT/C/QAT/CO/1. Retrieved 9
January 2012. "Certain provisions of the Criminal Code allow
punishments such as flogging and stoning to be imposed as criminal
sanctions by judicial and administrative authorities. These practices
constitute a breach of the obligations imposed by the Convention. The
Committee notes with interest that authorities are presently
considering amendments to the Prison Act that would abolish flogging."
* ^ "Death penalties in the world -Qatar". 2014.
* ^ "LGBT relationships are illegal in 74 countries, research
finds". _The Independent_. 17 May 2016.
* ^ "International unions warn Qatar\'s work visa system allows
employers to use forced labour". ITUC-CSI-IGB.
* ^ Owen Gibson (14 May 2014). "
Qatar government admits almost
1,000 fatalities among migrants".
* ^ _A_ _B_ "
Qatar to allow trade union, scrap \'sponsor\' system".
Al Arabiya. 1 May 2012. Retrieved 12 March 2015.
* ^ Wilson, Nigel (21 July 2014). "
Qatar Announces New Labour Law
Reforms Amid Workers\' Rights Outcry". International Business Times.
Retrieved 12 March 2015.
* ^ Walker, Lesley (15 January 2015). "Firms in
Qatar who fail to
pay workers on time could face suspensions".
Doha News. Retrieved 12
* ^ Peter Kovessy (27 October 2015). "Qatar’s Emir signs into law
kafala changes (updated)".
* ^ "Qatar’s inaction on labor reform a \'human rights
disaster\', Amnesty". _RT_.
Russia Today. 1 December 2015.
* ^ "Qatar: New reforms Won\'t Protect Migrant Workers". Human
Rights Watch. 8 November 2015.
* ^ Chris Arsenault (28 October 2015). "
Qatar complicit in \'modern
slavery\' despite reforms – unions". Reuters.
* ^ Miles, Hugh (2005). _Al-Jazeera_.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Boghardt, Lori Plotkin (6 October 2014). "
Qatar Is a
U.S. Ally. They Also Knowingly Abet Terrorism. What\'s Going On?".
_New Republic_. Retrieved 7 October 2014. Two overarching goals have
driven Qatari policy. One has been to maximize Qatar's influence on
the regional and international stage. This originally reflected the
personal ambition of the former ruler and current emir's father,
Shaykh Hamad bin Khalifa al Thani, and his foreign minister and
eventual prime minister, Shaykh Hamad bin Jassim al Thani. The two men
directed foreign policy until the father abdicated in favor of his
son, Emir Tamim bin Hamad al Thani, in July 2013. The second objective
has been to preserve the security of the ruling family and state.
* ^ H Rahman (2005). _The Emergence of Qatar_. Routledge. ISBN
978-0-7103-1213-6 . Retrieved 26 June 2013.
* ^ "
Qatar relies on US base amid Gulf tensions". FT.com. Retrieved
16 June 2013.
* ^ Zacharia, Janine (4 March 2008). "For Qatar, relations with
West are a balancing act". _New York Times_. Retrieved 30 January
* ^ Siegel, Robert (23 December 2013). "How Tiny
Above Its Weight\'". _NPR_. Retrieved 5 June 2015.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Mark Mazzetti; C.J. Chivers; Eric Schmitt (30
June 2013). "Taking Outsize Role in Syria,
Qatar Funnels Arms to
Rebels". New York Times. Retrieved 21 January 2014.
* ^ "
Saudi Arabia sign defense agreement".
Tehrantimes.com. 25 February 2010. Retrieved 2 October 2010.
* ^ "
Qatar recognizes Libyan rebels after oil deal". Al Jazeera. 28
March 2011. Retrieved 29 March 2011.
* ^ Kirkpatrick, David D. (7 September 2014). "Qatar\'s Support of
Islamists Alienates Allies Near and Far". _The New York Times_.
Retrieved 5 June 2015.
Islam Hassan (31 March 2015). "GCC\'s 2014 Crisis: Causes,
Issues and Solutions".
Al Jazeera Research Center. Retrieved 4 June
* ^ _A_ _B_ "
Saudi Arabia uses terrorism as an excuse for human
rights abuses". _
Al Jazeera America _. December 3, 2015.
* ^ Jay Solomon (10 October 2014), _U.S.-
Qatar Alliance Strains
Coalition Against Islamic State_, Wall Street Journal
* ^ _A_ _B_ John Defterios (27 October 2014). _CNN_ "ISIS: Can
coalition cut off funding of world\'s wealthiest terror group?".
* ^ "\'Army of Conquest\' rebel alliance pressures
Yahoo News. 28 April 2015.
* ^ "Gulf allies and \'Army of Conquest\'". _
Al-Ahram Weekly _. 28
* ^ Kim Sengupta (12 May 2015). "
Saudi Arabia alarm the
West by backing Islamist extremists the Americans had bombed in
Syria". _The Independent_.
* ^ The Daily Beast. "
Qatar Sends Aid Money to
TheDailyBeast.com. Retrieved 4 November 2013.
* ^ "The Al-Jazeera Effect". Foreign Policy. 9 February 2011.
* ^ Reuters. "
Egypt Returns $2 Billion to
Qatar in Sign of Growing
Tensions". Voanews.com. Retrieved 30 December 2013.
* ^ bbc.com: "
Hamas political leaders leave
Qatar", 28 February 2012
* ^ "Gaza conflict spotlights role of Qatar, the Hamas-funding U.S.
ally". 28 July 2014. Retrieved 30 July 2014.
* ^ "Al Attiyah to CNN:
Israel doesn\'t want peace". 28 July 2014.
Retrieved 26 October 2014.
* ^ "
Qatar pledges $1 billion for Gaza rebuilding at Cairo
conference". 12 October 2014. Retrieved 26 October 2014.
* ^ "Enriching the Middle East\'s Economic Future Conferences".
Qatar Conferences. Retrieved 12 March 2015.
* ^ "
Sudan Minister Lauds
Doha Declaration For Initiating Darfur
Peace Process". _
Qatar Chronicle_. 9 June 2013. Retrieved 22 June
* ^ "
Qatar donates $88.5 Million for Darfur". 24 September 2014.
Retrieved 21 September 2014.
* ^ "Six nations cut diplomatic ties to
Qatar as Arab rift
deepens". Hurriyet Ddaily News. 5 June 2017.
* ^ _A_ _B_ "Saudi Arabia, UAE,
Bahrain break diplomatic
Qatar over \'terrorism\'". The Guardian. 5 June 2017.
* ^ "
Yemen cuts diplomatic ties with Qatar: state news agency".
_reuters_. 5 June 2017.
* ^ "Military expenditure by country as percentage of gross
domestic product, 2003-2016" (PDF). _SIPRI_.
* ^ "The SIPRI Military Expenditure Database". Stockholm
International Peace Research Institute. Retrieved 29 October 2011.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ "The Strange Power of
Qatar by Hugh Eakin".
The New York Review of Books. Retrieved 16 June 2013.
* ^ "Trends in International Arms Transfer, 2014". _www.sipri.org_.
Stockholm International Peace Research Institute. Retrieved 18 March
* ^ "TIV of arms imports to the top 50 largest importers,
* ^ "
Yemen crisis: Who is fighting whom?". 28 March 2017. Retrieved
5 June 2017 – via www.bbc.com.
* ^ "Airstrike Hits Doctors Without Borders Hospital in Yemen".
Retrieved 5 June 2017.
* ^ "
Yemen conflict: MSF hospital destroyed by air strikes". 27
October 2015. Retrieved 5 June 2017 – via www.bbc.com.
* ^ "
Qatar Ministry of Municipality and
Environment. Retrieved 8 August 2017.
* ^ "2015 Population census" (PDF). Ministry of Development
Planning and Statistics. April 2015. Retrieved 8 August 2017.
* ^ "Population By Gender, Municipality And Zone, March 2004".
General Secretariat for Development Planning. Archived from the
original on 12 December 2006.
* ^ "List of Parties". Convention on Biological Diversity.
Retrieved 8 December 2012.
* ^ "National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan. State of
Qatar" (PDF). Convention on Biological Diversity. Retrieved 9 December
* ^ A. H. Moubasher (1993). _Soil Fungi in
Qatar and Other Arab
Countries_. Centre for Scientific and Applied Research, University of
Qatar. p. i–xvi, 570 pp., 86 plates. ISBN 978-99921-21-02-3 .
* ^ The
Lizards Living in Qatar. 2014. First edition, Published in
Doha (Qatar), 2014, 5 June (World Environment Day). 570 pages.
Archived 8 July 2014 at the
Wayback Machine .
* ^ "CO2 emissions (metric tons per capita)". Data.worldbank.org.
Retrieved 7 January 2013.
* ^ Pearce, Fred (14 January 2010). "
Qatar to use biofuels? What
about the country\'s energy consumption?". _The Guardian_. London.
* ^ _A_ _B_ "
Qatar National Vision 2030". Ministry of Development
Planning and Statistics. Archived from the original on 13 November
* ^ Rasoul Sorkhabi (2010). "The
Qatar Oil Discoveries". _GEO ExPro
* ^ Nordland, Rod (25 June 2013). "New Hope for Democracy in a
Dynastic Land". NYTimes.com. Retrieved 26 June 2013.
* ^ Bill Crane (20 April 2015). Gravediggers of the Gulf. _Jacobin
_. Retrieved 20 April 2015.
* ^ "Qatar: Migrant Construction Workers Face Abuse". Human Rights
* ^ Robert Tuttle (22 May 2014). World Cup Host
Qatar Ranked Among
Worst Places to Work by Unions. Bloomberg . Retrieved 29 July 2014.
* ^ "
Qatar tourist guide". Retrieved 14 February 2012.
* ^ "Doing Business in Qatar: 2012
Country Commercial Guide for
U.S. Companies" (PDF). US & Foreign Commercial Service And US
Department of State. Retrieved 7 January 2013.
* ^ "Qatar". OPEC. Retrieved 16 June 2013.
* ^ "The World\'s Richest Countries". _Forbes_.
* ^ Kortekaas, Vanessa (28 October 2013). "New
Qatar emir shakes up
sovereign wealth fund". _Financial Times_. Retrieved 30 December 2013.
* ^ "
Qatar Holding LLC Among Investors in BlackBerrys $1 Billion
Convertible Debt". Berryreview.com. 6 November 2013. Retrieved 30
* ^ Hall, Camilla (30 October 2013). "
Qatar fund quietly builds
Bank of America
Bank of America stake". _Financial Times_. Retrieved 30 December
* ^ Hall, Camilla (4 July 2013). "Qatar: what\'s next for the
world\'s most aggressive deal hunter?". _Financial Times_. Retrieved
30 December 2013.
* ^ "Taxes on junk food, luxury items to be rolled out in Qatar
soon". 16 February 2017. Retrieved 5 June 2017.
* ^ "layoffs Archives -
Doha News". _
Doha News_. Retrieved 5 June
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Simon Lincoln Reader (12 November 2013). "Qatar
shows how money can solve most problems". Bdlive.co.za. Retrieved 30
* ^ _A_ _B_ "History of Census in Qatar".
Authority. Retrieved 16 June 2013.
* ^ _A_ _B_ "Population structure".
Qatar Statistics Authority. 31
* ^ _A_ _B_ "Qatar\'s delicate balancing act". BBC News. 16 January
2013. Retrieved 23 May 2013.
* ^ Pandit, Mobin (5 January 2013). "Population rise will push up
Peninsula Qatar. Archived from the original on 29 October
* ^ Kovessy, Peter. "Though many leave Qatar, there are more people
here than ever". _DohaNews.Co_.
Doha News. Retrieved 17 January 2016.
* ^ Global Religious Landscape. Pew Forum.
* ^ "Population By Religion, Gender And Municipality March 2004".
Qatar Statistics Authority.
* ^ "Report on International Religious Freedom – Qatar". US
Department of State. The official state religion follows the
Wahhabi tradition of the
Hanbali school of
* ^ "Tiny Qatar\'s growing global clout". BBC. 30 April 2011.
Retrieved 12 March 2015.
* ^ "Qatar\'s modern future rubs up against conservative
traditions". Reuters. 27 September 2012.
* ^ "Rising power
Qatar stirs unease among some Mideast neighbors".
Reuters. 12 February 2013. Retrieved 13 June 2013.
* ^ "2011 Report on International Religious Freedom – Qatar". US
Department of State.
* ^ "Religious Composition by Country" (PDF). _Global Religious
Landscape_. Pew Forum. Retrieved 9 July 2013.
* ^ "Christians to Welcome Qatar\'s First
Christianpost.com. 24 February 2008. Retrieved 22 January 2013.
* ^ "CIA The World Fact Book". State.gov. 29 June 2006. Retrieved
28 March 2010.
* ^ _A_ _B_ "Report on Qatar". Cumorah Project. Retrieved 12 March
* ^ _A_ _B_ "The
Anglican Centre in Qatar". Epiphany-qatar.org.
Archived from the original on 16 January 2013. Retrieved 22 January
* ^ _A_ _B_ David B. Barrett; George Thomas Kurian; Todd M. Johnson
Christian encyclopedia: a comparative survey of
churches and religions in the modern world_. 1. Oxford University
Press. p. 617. ISBN 978-0-19-510318-2 .
* ^ Baker, Colin; Jones, Sylvia Prys (1998). _Encyclopedia of
Bilingualism and Bilingual Education_. Multilingual Matters. p. 429.
ISBN 978-1853593628 .
* ^ Guttenplan, D. D. (11 June 2012). "Battling to Preserve Arabic
From English\'s Onslaught". _The New York Times_. Retrieved 24
* ^ "
Qatar Facts". First
Qatar Orthodontic Conference.
* ^ Jacot, Martine (23 December 2013). "Le
Qatar ne paie pas ses
contributions à la francophonie". Retrieved 5 June 2017 – via Le
* ^ "Clément Duhaime : "Le
Qatar n\'a pas tenu ses promesses" à
l\'OIF - JeuneAfrique.com". 22 April 2015. Retrieved 5 June 2017.
* ^ Kamrava, Mehran (2013). _Qatar: Small State, Big Politics_.
Cornell University Press. ISBN 978-0801452093 .
* ^ "
Qatar National Day 2011". Time Out Doha. 29 November 2011.
Retrieved 12 March 2015.
* ^ "Everything you need to know about
Qatar National Day 2012".
Doha News. 10 December 2012. Retrieved 18 February 2015.
* ^ "Art in Qatar: A Smithsonian in the sand". The Economist. 1
January 2011. Retrieved 16 June 2013.
* ^ "QMA Board of Trustees".
Qatar Museums Authority. Retrieved 12
* ^ "
Qatar revealed as the world\'s biggest contemporary art
buyer". The Art Newspaper. Retrieved 16 June 2013.
* ^ Bohas, Alexander. "The Political Trump-Cards of Cultural
Potency Qatar\'s Policy of \'Cultural Grandeur\'". _Chaos
International_. Retrieved 13 April 2013.
* ^ _A_ _B_ "
Qatar Freedom of the Press". Freedom House. Retrieved
19 January 2015.
* ^ Barrie Gunter; Roger Dickinson (6 June 2013). _News Media in
the Arab World: A Study of 10 Arab and
Muslim Countries_. A&C Black.
p. 33. ISBN 1-4411-0239-6 . Retrieved 8 February 2014.
* ^ Blanchard, Christoper (2014). _Qatar: Background and U.S.
Relations_. Congressional Research Service. p. 17.
* ^ Roth, Richard J. (8 May 2013). "Awaiting a Modern Press Law in
Qatar". _New York Times_. Retrieved 16 June 2013.
* ^ "New cybercrime law could have serious consequences for press
freedom in Qatar". cpj.org. 27 September 2014. Retrieved 19 January
* ^ "Qatar: New Cyber Crime Law poses real threat to Freedom of
Expression". gc4hr.org. 17 September 2014. Retrieved 19 January 2015.
* ^ _The Report:
Qatar 2010_. Oxford Business Group. 2010. p. 237.
* ^ "NRI Overall Ranking 2014" (PDF). World Economic Forum.
Retrieved 28 June 2014.
* ^ _A_ _B_ "Arts and Culture". Embassy of
Qatar in London.
Retrieved 25 June 2015.
* ^ "Heritage and Culture".
Qatar e-Gov. Retrieved 26 April 2015.
* ^ "
Qatar – a Sporting Nation".
Qatar e-Government. Retrieved 12
* ^ Gibbes, Martin; Schiller, Emma (4 January 2011). "Fox Sports
brings you everything you need to know – and a few things you don\'t
– about the Asian Cup". Fox Sports. Retrieved 12 March 2015.
* ^ Paul Radford (2 December 2010). "Russia,
Qatar win 2018 and
2022 World Cups". _Reuters_. Retrieved 2 December 2010.
* ^ "Europe\'s Top Leagues protest against 2022 winter World Cup in
Qatar Chronicle_. 12 August 2013. Retrieved 21 August 2013.
* ^ "Fifa wants
Qatar 2022 postponed to Winter".
20 July 2013. Retrieved 21 August 2013.
* ^ "BBC Sport –
Qatar World Cup: \'£3m payments to officials\'
corruption claim". Bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 1 June 2014.
* ^ "World Cup inquiry clears
Qatar but criticises English FA".
BBC. 13 November 2014. Retrieved 12 March 2015.
* ^ Pattisson, Pete (25 September 2013). "Revealed: Qatar\'s World
Cup \'slaves\'". _The Guardian_. Retrieved 26 September 2013. So
entrenched is this exploitation that the Nepalese ambassador to Qatar,
Maya Kumari Sharma, recently described the emirate as an "open jail".
* ^ Booth, Robert; Pattisson, Pete (28 July 2014). "
Cup: migrants wait a year to be paid for building offices". _The
Guardian _. Retrieved 12 March 2015.
* ^ Owen Gibson and Pete Pattisson (23 December 2014). Death toll
among Qatar\'s 2022 World Cup workers revealed. _The Guardian._
Retrieved 29 May 2015.
* ^ Gibson, Owen (14 June 2014). "
Qatar hits back at allegations of
bribery over 2022 World Cup". _
The Guardian _. Retrieved 12 March
* ^ "Match report" (PDF). International Handball Federation.
Retrieved 12 March 2015.
* ^ "2014 FIBA 3x3 World Championships". International Basketball
Federation. Retrieved 13 November 2015.
* ^ "The homepage of Tour of Qatar". Letour.fr. 1 December 1994.
Retrieved 22 January 2013.
* ^ Gay, Chris. "Skydive Mag - Incredible Demo at Doha". Retrieved
5 June 2017.
* ^ "QVA -
Qatar Volleyball Association". _QVA_. Retrieved 5 June
* ^ "In the occasion of Literacy Arab Day,
Qatar has the Lowest
Illiteracy Rates in 2012".
Qatar Statistics Authority. 8 January 2013.
* ^ "