Coordinates: 25°30′N 51°15′E / 25.500°N 51.250°E /
State of Qatar
دولة قطر (Arabic)
Anthem: السلام الأميري
As-Salam al-Amiri (transliteration)
Location and extent of
Qatar (dark green) on the Arabian Peninsula.
and largest city
25°18′N 51°31′E / 25.300°N 51.517°E / 25.300; 51.517
Ethnic groups (2015)
Unitary constitutional monarchy
Tamim bin Hamad Al Thani
• Deputy Emir
Abdullah bin Hamad bin Khalifa Al Thani
• Prime Minister
Abdullah bin Nasser bin Khalifa Al Thani
Qatar National Day
18 December 1878
• Declared independence
1 September 1971
• Independence from the United Kingdom
3 September 1971
11,581 km2 (4,471 sq mi) (158th)
• Water (%)
• 2017 estimate
• 2010 census
176/km2 (455.8/sq mi) (76th)
$359.163 billion (51st)
• Per capita
$180.910 billion (56th)
• Per capita
very high · 32nd
Drives on the
ISO 3166 code
You may need rendering support to display the
Arabic text in this
Qatar (/ˈkætɑːr/, /ˈkɑːtɑːr/ ( listen),
/ˈkɑːtər/ or /kəˈtɑːr/ ( listen); Arabic:
Qatar [ˈqɑtˤɑr]; local vernacular pronunciation:
[ˈɡɪtˤɑr]), officially the State of
دولة قطر Dawlat Qatar), is a sovereign country located in
Western Asia, occupying the small
Peninsula on the northeastern
coast of the Arabian Peninsula. Its sole land border is with Saudi
Arabia to the south, with the rest of its territory surrounded by the
Persian Gulf. An arm of the
Persian Gulf separates
Qatar from the
nearby island country of Bahrain.
Following Ottoman rule,
Qatar became a
British protectorate in the
early 20th century until gaining independence in 1971.
Qatar has been
ruled by the
House of Thani
House of Thani since the early 19th century. Sheikh
Jassim bin Mohammed Al Thani
Jassim bin Mohammed Al Thani was the founder of the State of Qatar.
Qatar is a hereditary monarchy and its head of state is Emir Sheikh
Tamim bin Hamad Al Thani. Whether it should be regarded as a
constitutional or an absolute monarchy is
disputed. In 2003, the constitution was overwhelmingly approved in a
referendum, with almost 98% in favour. In early 2017, Qatar's
total population was 2.6 million: 313,000 Qatari citizens and 2.3
Qatar is a high-income economy, backed by the world's third-largest
natural-gas reserves and oil reserves. The country has the highest
per capita income in the world.
Qatar is classified by the UN as a
country of very high human development and is widely regarded as the
most advanced Arab state for human development.
Qatar is a
significant power in the Arab world, reportedly supporting several
rebel groups during the
Arab Spring both financially and through its
globally expanding media group,
Al Jazeera Media Network.
For its size,
Qatar wields disproportionate influence in the world,
and has been identified as a middle power.
Qatar will host the
2022 FIFA World Cup, becoming the first Arab country to do so.
In June 2017, Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, the UAE, and Egypt, among other
Gulf states, cut off diplomatic relations with the country, accusing
it of supporting and funding terrorism and manipulating internal
affairs of its neighboring states, an escalation of longstanding
tensions with Saudi Arabia.
2.2 Early and late Islamic period (661–1783)
2.3 Bahraini and Saudi rule (1783–1868)
2.4 Ottoman rule (1871–1915)
2.5 British rule (1916–1971)
2.6 Independence and aftermath (1971–present)
3.1 Sharia law
3.2 Human rights
3.3 Foreign relations
4 Administrative divisions
5.1 Biodiversity and environment
8.1 Arts and museums
11 See also
13 External links
Pliny the Elder, a Roman writer, documented the earliest account
pertaining to the inhabitants of the
Peninsula around the mid-first
century AD, referring to them as the Catharrei, a designation which
may have derived from the name of a prominent local
settlement. A century later,
Ptolemy produced the first known
map to depict the peninsula, referring to it as Catara. The
map also referenced a town named "Cadara" to the east of the
peninsula. The term 'Catara' (inhabitants, Cataraei) was
exclusively used until the 18th century, after which 'Katara' emerged
as the most commonly recognised spelling. Eventually, the modern
Qatar was adopted as the country's name.
In Standard Arabic, the name is pronounced [ˈqɑtˤɑr], while in the
local dialect it is [ˈɡitˤar].
Main article: History of Qatar
Dot carvings at Jebel Jassassiyeh, dating to c. 4000 BC
Human habitation of
Qatar dates back to 50,000 years ago.
Settlements and tools dating back to the
Stone Age have been unearthed
in the peninsula. Mesopotamian artefacts originating from the
Ubaid period (c. 6500–3800 BC) have been discovered in abandoned
coastal settlements. Al Da'asa, a settlement located on the
western coast of Qatar, is the most important Ubaid site in the
country and is believed to have accommodated a small seasonal
Kassite Babylonian material dating back to the second millennium BC
Al Khor Islands
Al Khor Islands attests to trade relations between the
Qatar and the
Kassites in modern-day Bahrain. Among
the findings were 3,000,000 crushed snail shells and Kassite
potsherds. It has been suggested that
Qatar is the earliest known
site of shellfish dye production, owing to a Kassite purple dye
industry which existed on the coast.
In 224 AD, the
Sasanian Empire gained control over the territories
surrounding the Persian Gulf.
Qatar played a role in the
commercial activity of the Sasanids, contributing at least two
commodities: precious pearls and purple dye. Under the Sasanid
reign, many of the inhabitants in
Eastern Arabia were introduced to
Christianity following the eastward dispersal of the religion by
Mesopotamian Christians. Monasteries were constructed and further
settlements were founded during this era. During the latter
part of the
Qatar comprised a region known as 'Beth
Qatraye' (Syriac for "house of the Qataris"). The region was not
limited to Qatar; it also included Bahrain, Tarout Island, Al-Khatt,
Muhammad sent a
Muslim envoy to a ruler in Eastern Arabia
Munzir ibn Sawa Al Tamimi
Munzir ibn Sawa Al Tamimi and requested that he and his subjects
accept Islam. Munzir obliged his request, and accordingly, most of the
Arab tribes in the region converted to
Islam.[better source needed] After the adoption of
Islam, the Arabs[which?] led the
Muslim conquest of Persia
Muslim conquest of Persia which
resulted in the fall of the Sasanian Empire.
Early and late Islamic period (661–1783)
Abbasid Caliphate at its greatest extent, c. 850.
Qatar was described as a famous horse and camel breeding centre during
the Umayyad period. In the 8th century, it started benefiting from
its commercially strategic position in the
Persian Gulf and went on to
become a centre of pearl trading.
Substantial development in the pearling industry around the Qatari
Peninsula occurred during the Abbasid era. Ships voyaging from
China would make stops in Qatar's ports during this
period. Chinese porcelain, West African coins and artefacts from
Thailand have been discovered in Qatar. Archaeological remains
from the 9th century suggest that Qatar's inhabitants used greater
wealth to construct higher quality homes and public buildings. Over
100 stone-built houses, two mosques, and an Abbasid fort were
Murwab during this period. However, when the
caliphate's prosperity declined in Iraq, so too did it in Qatar.
Qatar is mentioned in 13th-century
Muslim scholar Yaqut al-Hamawi's
book, Mu'jam Al-Buldan, which alludes to the Qataris' fine striped
woven cloaks and their skills in improvement and finishing of
Eastern Arabia was controlled by the
Usfurids in 1253, but
control of the region was seized by the prince of
Ormus in 1320.
Qatar's pearls provided the kingdom with one of its main sources of
income. In 1515,
Manuel I of Portugal
Manuel I of Portugal vassalised the Kingdom of
Portugal went on to seize a significant portion of Eastern
Arabia in 1521. In 1550, the inhabitants of Al-Hasa
voluntarily submitted to the rule of the Ottomans, preferring them to
the Portuguese. Having retained a negligible military presence in
the area, the Ottomans were expelled by the
Bani Khalid tribe in
Bahraini and Saudi rule (1783–1868)
A map of East Arabia in 1794.
In 1766, the
Utub tribe of Al Khalifa migrated from
Kuwait to Zubarah
in Qatar. By the time of their arrival, the Bani Khalid
exercised weak authority over the peninsula, not withholding that the
largest village was ruled by a distant kin of the Bani Khalid. In
Bani Utbah clans and allied Arab tribes invaded and
Bahrain from the Persians. The Al Khalifa imposed their
Bahrain and extended their area of jurisdiction to
A partially restored section of the ruined town of Zubarah.
Following the swearing in of Saud ibn Abd al-Aziz as crown prince of
Wahhabi in 1788, he moved to expand his empire eastward towards
Persian Gulf and Qatar. After defeating the
Bani Khalid in 1795,
Wahhabi were attacked on two fronts. The Ottomans and Egyptians
assaulted the western front, while the Al Khalifa in
Bahrain and the
Omanis launched an attack against the eastern front. Upon
being made aware of advancements by the
Egyptians on the western
frontier in 1811, the
Wahhabi amir reduced his garrisons in Bahrain
Zubarah in order to re-position his troops. Said bin Sultan of
Muscat capitalised on this opportunity and raided the Wahhabi
garrisons on the eastern coast, setting fire to the fort in Zubarah.
The Al Khalifa were effectively returned to power thereafter.
As punishment for piracy, an East
India Company vessel bombarded Doha
in 1821, destroying the town and forcing hundreds of residents to
flee. In 1825, the
House of Thani
House of Thani was established with Sheikh Mohammed
bin Thani as the first leader.
Qatar had the legal status of a dependency, there was a
popular sentiment of resentment against the Al Khalifa. In 1867, the
Al Khalifa, along with the ruler of Abu Dhabi, sent a massive naval
Al Wakrah in an effort to crush the Qatari rebels. This
resulted in the maritime
Qatari–Bahraini War of 1867–1868, in
which Bahraini and
Abu Dhabi forces sacked and looted
Doha and Al
Wakrah. However, the Bahraini hostilities were in violation of the
1820 Anglo-Bahraini Treaty. The joint incursion, in addition to the
Qatari counterattack, prompted British political agent
Lewis Pelly to
impose a settlement in 1868. His mission to
Qatar and the
resulting peace treaty were milestones because they implicitly
recognised the distinctness of
Bahrain and explicitly
acknowledged the position of Mohammed bin Thani. In addition to
Bahrain for its breach of agreement, the British
protectorate asked to negotiate with a representative from Qatar, a
Mohammed bin Thani
Mohammed bin Thani was selected to fulfil. The results of
the negotiations left the nation with a new-found sense of political
identity, although it did not gain an official standing as a
protectorate until 1916.
Ottoman rule (1871–1915)
Qatar in an 1891
Adolf Stieler map
Old city of Doha, January 1904.
Under military and political pressure from the governor of the Ottoman
Vilayet of Baghdad, Midhat Pasha, the ruling Al Thani tribe submitted
to Ottoman rule in 1871. The Ottoman government imposed reformist
(Tanzimat) measures concerning taxation and land registration to fully
integrate these areas into the empire. Despite the disapproval of
local tribes, Al Thani continued supporting Ottoman rule. However,
Qatari-Ottoman relations soon stagnated, and in 1882 they suffered
further setbacks when the Ottomans refused to aid Al Thani in his
expedition of Abu Dhabi-occupied Al Khor. In addition, the Ottomans
supported the Ottoman subject Mohammed bin Abdul Wahab who attempted
to supplant Al Thani as kaymakam of
Qatar in 1888. This eventually
led Al Thani to rebel against the Ottomans, whom he believed were
seeking to usurp control of the peninsula. He resigned as kaymakam and
stopped paying taxes in August 1892.
In February 1893, Mehmed Hafiz Pasha arrived in
Qatar in the interests
of seeking unpaid taxes and accosting Jassim bin Mohammed's opposition
to proposed Ottoman administrative reforms. Fearing that he would face
death or imprisonment, Jassim retreated to Al Wajbah (10 miles
west of Doha), accompanied by several tribe members. Mehmed's demand
that Jassim disband his troops and pledge his loyalty to the Ottomans
was met with refusal. In March, Mehmed imprisoned Jassim's brother and
13 prominent Qatari tribal leaders on the Ottoman corvette Merrikh as
punishment for his insubordination. After Mehmed declined an offer to
release the captives for a fee of 10,000 liras, he ordered a column of
approximately 200 troops to advance towards Jassim's Al Wajbah Fort
under the command of Yusuf Effendi, thus signalling the start of the
Battle of Al Wajbah.
Effendi's troops came under heavy gunfire by a sizable troop of Qatari
infantry and cavalry shortly after arriving to Al Wajbah. They
retreated to Shebaka fortress, where they were again forced to draw
back from a Qatari incursion. After they withdrew to Al Bidda
fortress, Jassim's advancing column besieged the fortress, resulting
in the Ottomans' concession of defeat and agreement to relinquish
their captives in return for the safe passage of Mehmed Pasha's
Hofuf by land. Although
Qatar did not gain full
independence from the Ottoman Empire, the result of the battle forced
a treaty that would later form the basis of Qatar's emerging as an
autonomous country within the empire.
British rule (1916–1971)
Zubarah Fort built in 1938.
Ottoman Empire fell into disorder after losing battles in
different fronts in the Middle Eastern theatre of World War I. Qatar
took part in the
Arab revolt against the Ottomans. The revolt was
successful and Ottoman rule in the country further declined. The
United Kingdom and the
Ottoman Empire accorded their recognition to
Abdullah bin Jassim Al Thani
Abdullah bin Jassim Al Thani and his successors' right to rule
over the whole of the Qatari Peninsula. The Ottomans renounced all
their rights to
Qatar and, following the outbreak of the First World
Abdullah bin Jassim Al Thani
Abdullah bin Jassim Al Thani (who was pro-British) forced them to
Doha in 1915.
As a result of the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire,
Qatar became a
British protectorate on 3 November 1916. On that day, the United
Kingdom signed a treaty with Sheikh
Abdullah bin Jassim Al Thani
Abdullah bin Jassim Al Thani to
Qatar under its Trucial System of Administration. While Abdullah
agreed not to enter into any relations with any other power without
prior consent of the British government, the British guaranteed the
Qatar from all aggression by sea. On 5 May 1935,
Abdullah signed another treaty with the British government which
Qatar protection against internal and external threats.
Oil reserves were first discovered in 1939. However, exploitation was
delayed by World War II.
The influence of the
British Empire started diminishing after World
War II, particularly after the Independence of
India and Pakistan
in 1947. In the 1950s, oil began replacing pearling and fishing as
Qatar's main sources of revenue. Oil earnings began to fund the
expansion and modernisation of Qatar's infrastructure. Pressure for a
British withdrawal from the Arab emirates in the Persian Gulf
increased during the 1950s. When Britain officially announced in 1968
that it would politically disengage from the
Persian Gulf in three
Bahrain and seven other
Trucial States in a
federation. Regional disputes, however, quickly compelled
resign and declare independence from the coalition which would
eventually evolve into the United Arab Emirates.
Independence and aftermath (1971–present)
Traditional dhows in front of the West Bay skyline as seen from the
The State of
Qatar entered into a general maritime truce with the
United Kingdom in 1968. A General Treaty was concluded between the two
on 3 November 1916. The General Treaty reserved foreign affairs and
defence to the
United Kingdom but allowed internal autonomy. On 3
September 1971, those "special treaty arrangements" that were
"inconsistent with full international responsibility as a sovereign
and independent state" were terminated. This was done under an
agreement reached between the Ruler of
Qatar and the Government of the
Qatar played a significant role in the Gulf War, particularly
Battle of Khafji
Battle of Khafji in which Qatari tanks rolled through the
streets of the town and provided fire support for Saudi Arabian
National Guard units that were engaging
Iraqi Army troops. Qatar
allowed coalition troops from Canada to use the country as an airbase
to launch aircraft on CAP duty and also permitted air forces from the
United States and
France to operate in its territories.
In 1995, Emir
Hamad bin Khalifa Al Thani
Hamad bin Khalifa Al Thani seized control of the country
from his father Khalifa bin Hamad Al Thani, with the support of the
armed forces and cabinet, as well as neighbouring states and
France. Under Emir Hamad,
Qatar has experienced a moderate degree
of liberalisation, including the launch of the
Al Jazeera television
station (1996), the endorsement of women's suffrage or right to vote
in municipal elections (1999), drafting its first written constitution
(2005) and inauguration of a
Roman Catholic church (2008). In 2010,
Qatar won the rights to host the 2022 FIFA World Cup, making it the
first country in the
Middle East to be selected to host the
tournament. The Emir announced Qatar's plans to hold its first
national legislative elections in 2013. They were scheduled to be held
in the second half of 2013, but were postponed in June 2013 and may be
delayed until 2019.
Qatar served as the US Central Command headquarters and one
of the main launching sites of the invasion of Iraq. In March
2005, a suicide bombing killed a British teacher at the
Theatre, shocking the country, which had not previously experienced
acts of terrorism. The bombing was carried out by Omar Ahmed Abdullah
Ali, an Egyptian resident in
Qatar who had suspected ties to Al-Qaeda
in the Arabian Peninsula. In 2011,
Qatar joined NATO
Libya and reportedly armed
Libyan opposition groups.
It is also currently a major funder of weapons for rebel groups in the
Syrian civil war.
Qatar is pursuing an Afghan peace deal and in
January 2012 the Afghan
Taliban said they were setting up a political
Qatar to facilitate talks. This was done in order to
facilitate peace negotiations and with the support of other countries
including the United States and Afghanistan. Ahmed Rashid, writing in
the Financial Times, stated that through the office
"facilitated meetings between the
Taliban and many countries and
organisations, including the US state department, the UN, Japan,
several European governments and non-governmental organisations, all
of whom have been trying to push forward the idea of peace talks.
Suggestions in September 2017 by the presidents of both the United
Afghanistan have reportedly lead to protests from senior
officials of the American State Department.
In June 2013, Sheikh
Tamim bin Hamad Al Thani
Tamim bin Hamad Al Thani became the Emir of Qatar
after his father handed over power in a televised speech. Sheikh
Tamim has prioritised improving the domestic welfare of citizens,
which includes establishing advanced healthcare and education systems,
and expanding the country's infrastructure in preparation for the
hosting of the 2022 World Cup.
Qatar participated in the Saudi Arabian-led intervention in Yemen
Houthis and forces loyal to former President Ali Abdullah
Saleh, who was deposed in the 2011
Arab Spring uprisings.
In June 2017, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, and Bahrain
cut off diplomatic relations with Qatar, citing the country's alleged
support of groups they considered to be extremist. 
Main article: Politics of Qatar
Tamim bin Hamad Al Thani
Tamim bin Hamad Al Thani with U.S. President
Donald Trump in May
Qatar is either a constitutional or an absolute
monarchy ruled by the Al Thani family. The Al Thani
dynasty has been ruling
Qatar since the family house was established
in 1825. In 2003,
Qatar adopted a constitution that provided for
the direct election of 30 of the 45 members of the Legislative
Council. The constitution was overwhelmingly approved in a
referendum, with almost 98% in favour.
The eighth Emir of
Qatar is Tamim bin Hamad Al Thani, whose father
Hamad bin Khalifa Al Thani
Hamad bin Khalifa Al Thani handed power to him on 25 June 2013.
The supreme chancellor has the exclusive power to appoint and remove
the prime minister and cabinet ministers who, together, constitute the
Council of Ministers, which is the supreme executive authority in the
country. The Council of Ministers also initiates legislation. Laws
and decrees proposed by the Council of Ministers are referred to the
Advisory Council (Majilis Al Shura) for discussion after which they
are submitted to the Emir for ratification. A Consultative
Assembly has limited legislative authority to draft and approve laws,
but the Emir has final say on all matters. The current Council is
composed entirely of members appointed by the Emir, as no
legislative elections have been held since 1970 when there were
partial elections to the body. Legislative elections have been
postponed until at least 2019.
Qatari law does not permit the establishment of political bodies or
See also: Human rights in Qatar
According to Qatar's Constitution,
Sharia law is the main source of
Qatari legislation. Although in practice, Qatar's legal system
is a mixture of civil law and Sharia law.
Sharia law is
applied to family law, inheritance, and several criminal acts
(including adultery, robbery and murder). In some cases, Sharia-based
family courts treat a female's testimony as being worth half that of a
man. Codified family law was introduced in 2006. Islamic polygyny
Judicial corporal punishment
Judicial corporal punishment is common in
Qatar due to the Wahhabi
interpretation of Sharia Law, although in
Qatar it had originally been
Hanbali school of mainstream Sunnism.
Flogging is employed as a
punishment for alcohol consumption or illicit sexual relations.
Article 88 of Qatar's criminal code declares that the penalty for
adultery is 100 lashes, and in 2006, a Filipino woman received
that punishment. In 2010, at least 18 people (mostly foreign
nationals) were sentenced to receive between 40 and 100 lashes for
offences involving "illicit sexual relations" or alcohol
consumption. In 2011, at least 21 people (mostly foreign
nationals) were sentenced to between 30 and 100 lashes for the same
reasons, and in 2012, six expatriates were sentenced to either 40
or 100 lashes. Only Muslims considered medically fit are liable
to have such sentences carried out. It is unknown if the sentences
were implemented. In April 2013, a
Muslim expatriate was
sentenced to 40 lashes for alcohol consumption, and in
June 2014, a
Muslim expatriate was sentenced to 40 lashes for
consuming alcohol and driving under the influence.
Stoning is a
legal punishment in Qatar, and apostasy and homosexuality are
crimes punishable by the death penalty.
Blasphemy can result
in up to seven years in prison, while proselytising can incur a
Alcohol consumption is partially legal in Qatar; some five-star luxury
hotels are allowed to sell alcohol to their non-Muslim
customers. Muslims are not allowed to consume alcohol, and
those caught consuming it are liable to flogging or deportation.
Muslim expatriates can obtain a permit to purchase alcohol for
personal consumption. The
Qatar Distribution Company (a subsidiary of
Qatar Airways) is permitted to import alcohol and pork; it operates
the one and only liquor store in the country, which also sells pork to
holders of liquor licences. Qatari officials have also
indicated a willingness to allow alcohol in "fan zones" at the 2022
FIFA World Cup.
Until 2011, restaurants on the Pearl-
Qatar (a man-made island near
Doha) were allowed to serve alcoholic drinks. In December
2011, however, Pearl restaurants were told to stop selling
alcohol. No explanation was given for the ban,
though speculation included encouraging a more pious image before a
significant election and rumours of a financial dispute between the
government and resort developers. The alcohol ban was later
In 2014, a modesty campaign was launched to remind tourists of the
country's restrictive dress code. Female tourists were advised
not to wear leggings, miniskirts, sleeveless dresses, or short or
tight clothing in public. Men were warned against wearing only shorts
Main article: Human rights in Qatar
According to the U.S. State Department, expatriate workers from
Asia and parts of
Africa voluntarily migrate to
Qatar as low-skilled labourers or domestic servants, but some
subsequently face conditions indicative of involuntary servitude. Some
of the more common labour rights violations include beatings,
withholding of payment, charging workers for benefits for which the
employer is responsible, restrictions on freedom of movement (such as
the confiscation of passports, travel documents, or exit permits),
arbitrary detention, threats of legal action, and sexual assault.
Many migrant workers arriving for work in
Qatar have paid exorbitant
fees to recruiters in their home countries.
As of 2014[update], certain provisions of the Qatari Criminal Code
allows punishments such as flogging and stoning to be imposed as
criminal sanctions. The
UN Committee Against Torture
UN Committee Against Torture found that these
practices constituted a breach of the obligations imposed by the UN
Convention Against Torture.
Qatar retains the death penalty,
mainly for threats against national security such as terrorism. Use of
the death penalty is rare and no state executions have taken place in
Qatar since 2003. In Qatar, homosexual acts are illegal and can
be punished by death.
Under the provisions of Qatar's sponsorship law, sponsors have the
unilateral power to cancel workers' residency permits, deny workers'
ability to change employers, report a worker as "absconded" to police
authorities, and deny permission to leave the country. As a
result, sponsors may restrict workers' movements and workers may be
afraid to report abuses or claim their rights. According to the
ITUC, the visa sponsorship system allows the exaction of forced labour
by making it difficult for a migrant worker to leave an abusive
employer or travel overseas without permission.
Qatar also does
not maintain wage standards for its immigrant labourers. Qatar
commissioned international law firm
DLA Piper to produce a report
investigating the immigrant labour system. In May 2014 DLA Piper
released over 60 recommendations for reforming the kafala system
including the abolition of exit visas and the introduction of a
minimum wage which
Qatar has pledged to implement.
In May 2012, Qatari officials declared their intention to allow the
establishment of an independent trade union.
Qatar also announced
it will scrap its sponsor system for foreign labour, which requires
that all foreign workers be sponsored by local employers.
Additional changes to labour laws include a provision guaranteeing
that all workers' salaries are paid directly into their bank accounts
and new restrictions on working outdoors in the hottest hours during
the summer. New draft legislation announced in early 2015
mandates that companies that fail to pay workers' wages on time could
temporarily lose their ability to hire more employees.
In October 2015 Qatar's Emir signed into law new reforms to the
country's sponsorship system, with the new law taking effect within
one year. Critics claim that the changes could fail to address
some labour rights issues.
The country enfranchised women at the same time as men in connection
with the 1999 elections for a Central Municipal Council.
These elections—the first ever in Qatar—were deliberately held on
8 March 1999, International Women's Day.
Main article: Foreign relations of Qatar
Hamad bin Khalifa Al Thani
Hamad bin Khalifa Al Thani and U.S. Secretary of State
John Kerry in 2013.
As a small country with larger neighbours,
Qatar seeks to project
influence and protect its state and ruling dynasty. The history
of Qatar's alliances provides insight into the basis of their policy.
Between 1760 and 1971,
Qatar sought formal protection from the high
transitory powers of the Ottomans, British, the Al-Khalifas from
Bahrain, the Arabians, and the Wahhabis from Saudi
Arabia.[page needed] Qatar's rising international profile
and active role in international affairs has led some analysts to
identify it as a middle power.
Qatar was an early member of
OPEC and a
founding member of the
Gulf Cooperation Council
Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC). It is a member
of the Arab League. The country has not accepted compulsory
International Court of Justice
International Court of Justice jurisdiction.
Qatar in Washington, D.C.
Qatar also has bilateral relationships with a variety of foreign
Qatar hosts the Al Udeid Air Base, a joint U.S.-British base,
which acts as the hub for all American and British air operations in
the Persian Gulf. It has allowed American and British forces to
use an air base to send supplies to
Iraq and Afghanistan.
According to leaked documents published in The New York Times, Qatar's
record of counter-terrorism efforts was the "worst in the
region". The cable suggested that Qatar's security service was
"hesitant to act against known terrorists out of concern for appearing
to be aligned with the U.S. and provoking reprisals".
Qatar has mixed relations with its neighbours in the Persian Gulf
Qatar signed a defence co-operation agreement with Iran,
with whom it shares the largest single non-associated gas field in the
world. It was the second nation, the first being France, to have
publicly announced its recognition of the Libyan opposition's National
Transitional Council as the legitimate government of
Libya amidst the
2011 Libyan civil war.
In 2014, Qatar's relations with Bahrain, Saudi Arabia, and the United
Arab Emirates came to a boiling point over Qatar's support for the
Muslim Brotherhood and extremist groups in Syria. This
culminated in the three aforementioned countries withdrawing their
Qatar in March 2014.
Qatar's flag in
Libya after the Libyan Civil War;
Qatar played an
influential role during the Arab Spring.
In recent years,
Qatar has been using Islamist militants in a number
of countries including Egypt, Syria, Libya,
further its foreign policy. Courting Islamists from the Muslim
Brotherhood to Salafist groups has served as a power amplifier for the
country, as it believes since the beginning of the
Arab Spring that
these groups represented the wave of the future. David
Cohen, the Under Secretary for terrorism and financial intelligence at
the U.S. Treasury, said that
Qatar is a "permissive jurisdiction for
terrorist financing." There is evidence that these groups
Qatar include the hard-line Islamic militant groups
active in northern Syria. As of 2015[update], Qatar, Saudi Arabia
Turkey are openly backing the Army of Conquest, an
umbrella group of anti-government forces fighting in the Syrian Civil
War that reportedly includes an al-Qaeda linked al-Nusra Front and
Salafi coalition known as Ahrar ash-Sham.
Qatar supported the democratically elected President Mohamed Morsi
with diplomatic support and the state-owned
Al Jazeera network before
he was deposed in a military coup.
$7.5 billion loan during the year he was in power.
Qatar's alignment with Hamas, first reported in early 2012, has
drawn criticism from Israel, the United States,
Egypt and Saudi
Arabia, "who accuse
Qatar of undermining regional stability by
supporting Hamas." However, the Foreign Minister of
Hamas and corrected their alleged claims, stating
"We do not support
Hamas but we support the Palestinians."
Following a peace agreement,
Qatar pledged $1 billion in humanitarian
aid to Gaza.
Qatar has hosted academic, religious, political, and economic
conferences. The 11th annual
Doha Forum recently brought in key
thinkers, professionals of various backgrounds, and political figures
from all over the world to discuss democracy, media and information
technology, free trade, and water security issues. In addition, the
forum has featured the
Middle East Economic Future conference since
2006. In more recent times,
Qatar has hosted peace talks between
rival factions across the globe. Notable among these include the
Darfur Agreement. The
Doha Declaration is the basis of the peace
process in Darfur and it has achieved significant gains on the ground
for the African region. Notable achievements included the restoration
of security and stability, progress made in construction and
reconstruction processes, return of displaced residents and uniting of
Darfur people to face challenges and push forward the peace
Qatar donated £88.5million in funds to finance recovery
and reconstruction in Darfur.
In June 2017, Saudi Arabia, the UAE, Bahrain,
diplomatic ties with Qatar, accusing
Qatar of supporting
terrorism, escalating a dispute over Qatar’s support of the
Muslim Brotherhood, considered a terrorist organization by those 5
Saudi Arabia explained the move to be a necessary
measure in protecting the kingdom's security. Qatari troops were also
removed from the military coalition in Yemen.
Egypt closed its
airspace and seaports to all Qatari transportation.
Qatar Armed Forces
Dassault Mirage 2000
Dassault Mirage 2000 flying over Libya
The US Combined Air Operations Center at
Al Udeid Air Base
Al Udeid Air Base in Qatar
Qatar Armed Forces
Qatar Armed Forces are the military forces of Qatar. The country
maintains a modest military force of approximately 11,800 men,
including an army (8,500), navy (1,800) and air force (1,500). Qatar's
defense expenditures accounted for approximately 4.2% of gross
national product in 1993, and 1.5% of gross domestic product in 2010,
the most recent year available in the SIPRI statistical database.
Qatar has recently signed defense pacts with the United States and
United Kingdom, as well as with
France earlier in 1994.
Qatar plays an
active role in the collective defense efforts of the Gulf Cooperation
Council; the other five members are Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Bahrain, the
UAE, and Oman. The presence of the large Al Udeid Air Base, operated
by the United States and several other UN nations, provides a
guaranteed source of defense and national security. In 2008 Qatar
spent US$2.355 billion on military expenditures, 2.3% of the gross
domestic product. Qatari special forces have been trained by
France and other Western countries, and are believed to possess
considerable skill. They also helped the Libyan rebels during the
2011 Battle of Tripoli.
Stockholm International Peace Research Institute
Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI) found
that in 2010–14
Qatar was the 46th-largest arms importer in the
world. However, SIPRI writes, Qatar's plans to transform and
significantly enlarge its armed forces have accelerated. Orders in
2013 for 62 tanks and 24 self-propelled guns from Germany were
followed in 2014 by a number of other contracts, including 24 combat
helicopters and 3 early-warning-and-control aircraft from the USA, and
2 tanker aircraft from Spain. In 2015,
Qatar was the 16th largest
arms importer in the world, and in 2016, it was the 11th largest,
according to SIPRI.
Qatar's military participated in the Saudi Arabian–led intervention
Yemen against the Shia Houthis. In 2015,
Al Jazeera America
reported: "Numerous reports suggest that the Saudi-led coalition
against opposition groups in
Yemen has indiscriminately attacked
civilians and used cluster bombs in civilian-populated areas, in
violation of international law." Many civilians have been killed
and the large parts of the infrastructure in this region is now
destroyed. Hospitals have also been bombed by the Saudis and
those operating with them.
Main article: Municipalities of Qatar
Municipalities of Qatar
Municipalities of Qatar in 2004
Qatar has been divided into eight municipalities (Arabic:
For statistical purposes, the municipalities are further subdivided
into 98 zones (as of 2015[update]), which are in turn subdivided
Main article: Geography of Qatar
Desert landscape in Qatar
The Qatari peninsula protrudes 160 kilometres (100 mi) into the
Persian Gulf, north of Saudi Arabia. It lies between latitudes 24°
and 27° N, and longitudes 50° and 52° E. Most of the country
consists of a low, barren plain, covered with sand. To the southeast
lies the Khor al Adaid ("Inland Sea"), an area of rolling sand
dunes surrounding an inlet of the Persian Gulf. There are mild winters
and very hot, humid summers.
The highest point in
Qatar is Qurayn Abu al Bawl at 103 metres
(338 ft) in the Jebel Dukhan to the west, a range of low
limestone outcroppings running north-south from Zikrit through Umm Bab
to the southern border. The Jebel Dukhan area also contains Qatar's
main onshore oil deposits, while the natural gas fields lie offshore,
to the northwest of the peninsula.
Biodiversity and environment
See also: Wildlife of Qatar
Arabian oryx, the national animal of Qatar
Ostriches in Qatar
Qatar signed the Rio
Convention on Biological Diversity
Convention on Biological Diversity on 11 June
1992, and became a party to the convention on 21 August 1996. It
has subsequently produced a National Biodiversity Strategy and Action
Plan, which was received by the convention on 18 May 2005. A
total of 142 fungal species have been recorded from Qatar. A book
recently produced by the Ministry of Environment documents the lizards
known or believed to occur in Qatar, based on surveys conducted by an
international team of scientists and other collaborators.
For two decades,
Qatar has had the highest per-capita carbon dioxide
emissions in the world, at 49.1 metric tons per person in
2008. Qataris are also some of the highest consumers of water per
capita per day, using around 400 litres.
Qatar launched its National Vision 2030 which highlights
environmental development as one of the four main goals for
the next two decades. The National Vision pledges to develop
sustainable alternatives to oil-based energy to preserve the local and
Climate data for Qatar
Average high °C (°F)
Average low °C (°F)
Average precipitation mm (inches)
Main article: Economy of Qatar
Graphical depiction of Qatar's product exports in 28 color-coded
Commercial district in Doha.
Before the discovery of oil, the economy of the Qatari region focused
on fishing and pearl hunting. Report prepared by local governors of
Ottoman Empire in 1892 states that total income from pearl hunting in
1892 is 2,450,000 kran. After the introduction of the Japanese
cultured pearl onto the world market in the 1920s and 1930s, Qatar's
pearling industry crashed. Oil was discovered in
Qatar in 1940, in
Dukhan Field. The discovery transformed the state's economy. Now,
the country has a high standard of living for its legal citizens. With
no income tax,
Qatar (along with Bahrain) is one of the countries with
the lowest tax rates in the world. The unemployment rate in June 2013
was 0.1%. Corporate law mandates that Qatari nationals must hold
51% of any venture in the Emirate.
As of 2016[update],
Qatar has the fourth highest GDP per capita in the
world, according to the International Monetary Fund. It relies
heavily on foreign labor to grow its economy, to the extent that
migrant workers compose 86% of the population and 94% of the
Qatar has been criticized by the International
Trade Union Confederation. The economic growth of
Qatar has been
almost exclusively based on its petroleum and natural gas industries,
which began in 1940.
Qatar is the leading exporter of liquefied
natural gas. In 2012, it was estimated that
Qatar would invest
over $120 billion in the energy sector in the next ten
years. The country is a member state of Organization of Petroleum
Exporting Countries (OPEC), having joined in 1961.
Qatar Airways Airbus A380,
Qatar Airways, one of the world's largest
airlines, links over 150 international destinations from its base in
High-rise buildings in Doha.
Qatar retained its title of richest country in the world
(according to per capita income) for the third time in a row, having
Luxembourg in 2010. According to the study published
by the Washington based Institute of International Finance, Qatar's
per capita GDP at purchasing power parity (PPP) was $106,000
(QR387,000) in 2012, helping the country retain its ranking as the
world's wealthiest nation.
Luxembourg came a distant second with
nearly $80,000 and
Singapore third with per capita income of about
$61,000. The research put Qatar's GDP at $182bn in 2012 and said it
had climbed to an all-time high due to soaring gas exports and high
oil prices. Its population stood at 1.8 million in 2012. The same
study published that
Qatar Investment Authority
Qatar Investment Authority (QIA), with assets of
$115bn, was ranked 12th among the richest sovereign wealth funds in
Qatar Central Bank's office in Doha.
Established in 2005,
Qatar Investment Authority
Qatar Investment Authority is the country's
sovereign wealth fund, specializing in foreign investment. Due to
billions of dollars in surpluses from the oil and gas industry, the
Qatari government has directed investments into United States, Europe,
Asia Pacific. As of 2013[update], the holdings were valued at $100
billion in assets.
Qatar Holding is the international investment arm
of QIA. Since 2009,
Qatar Holding has received $30–40bn a year from
the state. As of 2014[update], it has investments around the world in
Valentino, Siemens, Printemps, Harrods, The Shard, Barclays Bank,
Heathrow Airport, Paris Saint-Germain F.C., Volkswagen Group, Royal
Dutch Shell, Bank of America, Tiffany, Agricultural Bank of China,
Sainsbury's, BlackBerry, and Santander Brasil.
The country has no taxes, but authorities have announced plans to levy
taxes on junk food and luxury items. The taxes would be implemented on
goods that harm the human body – for example fast food, tobacco
products, and soft drinks. The roll out of these initial taxes is
believed to be due to the fall in oil prices and a deficit that the
country faced in 2016. Additionally, the country has seen job cuts in
2016 from its petroleum companies and other sectors in the
Oryx GTL plant in Qatar
As of 2012[update],
Qatar has proven oil reserves of 15 billion
barrels and gas fields that account for more than 13% of the global
resource. As a result, it is the richest state per-capita in the
world. None of its 2 million residents live below the poverty line and
less than 1% are unemployed.
Qatar's economy was in a downturn from 1982 to 1989.
OPEC quotas on
crude oil production, the lower price for oil, and the generally
unpromising outlook on international markets reduced oil earnings. In
turn, the Qatari government's spending plans had to be cut to match
lower income. The resulting recessionary local business climate caused
many firms to lay off expatriate staff. With the economy recovering in
the 1990s, expatriate populations, particularly from
Egypt and South
Asia, have grown again.
Oil production will not long remain at peak levels of 500,000 barrels
(80,000 m³) per day, as oil fields are projected to be mostly
depleted by 2023. However, large natural gas reserves have been
located off Qatar's northeast coast. Qatar's proved reserves of gas
are the third-largest in the world, exceeding 250 trillion cubic feet
(7,000 km³). The economy was boosted in 1991 by completion of
the $1.5-billion Phase I of North Field gas development. In 1996, the
Qatargas project began exporting liquefied natural gas (LNG) to Japan.
Further phases of North Field gas development costing billions of
dollars are in various stages of planning and development.
Qatar's heavy industrial projects, all based in Umm Said, include a
refinery with a 50,000 barrels (8,000 m³) per day capacity, a
fertiliser plant for urea and ammonia, a steel plant, and a
petrochemical plant. All these industries use gas for fuel. Most are
joint ventures between European and Japanese firms and the state-owned
Qatar General Petroleum Corporation (QGPC). The US is the major
equipment supplier for Qatar's oil and gas industry, and US companies
are playing a major role in North Field gas development.
Qatar's National Vision 2030 has made investment in renewable
resources a major goal for the country over the next two decades.
Qatar pursues a vigorous programme of "Qatarisation", under which all
joint venture industries and government departments strive to move
Qatari nationals into positions of greater authority. Growing numbers
of foreign-educated Qataris, including many educated in the US, are
returning home to assume key positions formerly occupied by
expatriates. To control the influx of expatriate workers,
tightened the administration of its foreign manpower programmes over
the past several years. Security is the principal basis for Qatar's
strict entry and immigration rules and regulations.
Main article: Demographics of Qatar
Skyline of Doha
The number of people in
Qatar fluctuates considerably depending on the
season, since the country relies heavily on migrant labour. In early
2017, Qatar's total population was 2.6 million, with non-Arab
foreigners making up the vast majority of Qatar's population. Only
313,000 of the population (12%) were Qatari citizens, while the
remaining 2.3 million (88%) were expatriates.
The combined number of South Asians (from the countries of the Indian
subcontinent including Sri Lanka) by themselves represent over 1.5
million people (60%) of Qatar’s population. Among these, Indians are
the largest community, numbering 650,000 in 2017, followed by
350,000 Nepalis, 280,000 Bangladeshis, 145,000 Sri Lankans, and
125,000 Pakistanis. The contingent of expatriates which are not of
South Asian origin represent around 28% of Qatar’s population, of
which the largest group is 260,000 Filipinos and 200,000 Egyptians,
plus many other nationalities (including nationals of other Arab
countries, Europeans, etc).
Qatar's first demographic records date back to 1892, and were
conducted by Ottoman governors in the region. Based on this census,
which includes only the residents in cities, the total population in
1892 was 9,830.
Qatar Statistics Authority (1904–2004); 2010 Census;
2013 est. 2016
The 2010 census recorded the total population at 1,699,435. In
January 2013, the
Qatar Statistics Authority estimated the country's
population at 1,903,447, of which 1,405,164 were males and 498,283
females. At the time of the first census, held in 1970, the
population was 111,133. The population has tripled in the decade
to 2011, up from just over 600,000 people in 2001, leaving Qatari
nationals as less than 15% of the total population. The influx of
male labourers has skewed the gender balance, and women are now just
one-quarter of the population.
Projections released by
Qatar Statistical Authority indicates that the
total population of
Qatar could reach 2.8 million by 2020. Qatar's
National Development Strategy (2011–16) had estimated that the
country's population would reach 1.78m in 2013, 1.81m in 2014, 1.84m
in 2015 and 1.86m in 2016 – the yearly growth rate being merely
2.1%. But the country's population has soared to 1.83 million by the
end of 2012, showing 7.5% growth over the previous year. Qatar's
total population hit a record high of 2.46 million in November 2015,
an increase of 8.5% from the previous year, far exceeding official
Main article: Religion in Qatar
Mosque in Qatar
Religion in Qatar (2010)
Islam is Qatar's predominant religion and is the official status
although not the only religion practiced in the country. Most
Qatari citizens belong to the
Muslim movement of
Wahhabism, and between 5–15% of Muslims in Qatar
Islam with other Muslims sects being very small in
Qatar is 67.7% Muslim, 13.8% Christian, 13.8% Hindu, and
3.1% Buddhist; other religions and religiously unaffiliated people
accounted for the remaining 1.6%.
Sharia law is the main source
of Qatari legislation according to Qatar's Constitution.
Christian population is composed almost entirely of foreigners.
Since 2008, Christians have been allowed to build churches on ground
donated by the government, though foreign missionary activity is
officially discouraged. Active churches include the Mar Thoma
Church, Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church, the
Roman Catholic Church of
Our Lady of the Rosary and the
Anglican Church of the
Epiphany. There are also two Mormon
Arabic is the official language of Qatar, with Qatari
Arabic the local
Qatari Sign Language is the language of the deaf community.
English is commonly used as a second language, and a rising
lingua franca, especially in commerce, to the extent that steps are
being taken to try to preserve
Arabic from English's
encroachment. English is particularly useful for communication
with Qatar's large expatriate community. Reflecting the multicultural
make-up of the country, many other languages are also spoken,
including Baluchi, Hindi, Malayalam, Urdu, Pashto, Kannada, Tamil,
Telugu, Nepali, Sinhalese, Bengali, Tagalog, and Bahasa
Qatar joined the international French-speaking organisation
of La Francophonie (OIF) as a new associate member. However, in
December 2013, the French daily
Le Monde revealed that Qatar, which
has very few native French speakers, had not yet paid any contribution
to the OIF, while the outgoing Administrator of the OIF
complained in 2015 that
Qatar had not kept any of the promises it made
when it joined the organisation and had never paid its annual
Main article: Culture of Qatar
Qatar's culture is similar to other countries in Eastern Arabia, being
significantly influenced by Islam.
Qatar National Day, hosted annually
on 18 December, has had an important role in developing a sense of
national identity. It is observed in remembrance of Jassim bin
Mohammed Al Thani's succession to the throne and his subsequent
unification of the country's various tribes. Since 1 July
Hamad Bin Abdulaziz Al-Kawari
Hamad Bin Abdulaziz Al-Kawari has been the Minister for Culture,
Arts and Heritage of Qatar.
Arts and museums
Qatar Museums Authority, Collecting practices of the
Al-Thani Family, and Qatari art
Museum of Islamic Art, Doha
Several senior members of Qatar's ruling Al Thani family are noted
collectors of Islamic and contemporary art.
The Museum of Islamic Art, opened in 2008, is regarded as one of the
best museums in the region. This, and several other Qatari
museums, like the Arab Museum of Modern Art, falls under the Qatar
Museums Authority (QMA) which is led by Sheikha Al-Mayassa bint Hamad
bin Khalifa Al-Thani, the sister of the ruling Emir of the State of
Qatar, and the prominent collector and art patron Sheikh Hassan bin
Mohammed Al Thani. The QMA also sponsors artistic events abroad,
such as major exhibitions by Takahashi Murakami in Versailles (2010)
and Damien Hirst in London (2012).
Qatar is the world's biggest buyer in the art market by value.
The Qatari cultural sector is being developed to enable the country to
reach world recognition to contribute to the development of a country
that comes mainly from its resources from the gas industry.
Main article: Media of Qatar
The news desk of
Al Jazeera English, a Qatari news channel
Qatar's media was classified as "not free" in the 2014 Freedom of the
Press report by Freedom House. TV broadcasting in
started in 1970.
Al Jazeera is a main television network
headquartered in Doha, Qatar.
Al Jazeera initially launched in 1996 as
Arabic news and current affairs satellite TV channel of the same
name, but has since expanded into a global network of several
speciality TV channels known collectively as the
Al Jazeera Media
It has been reported that journalists practice self-censorship,
particularly in regards to the government and ruling family of
Qatar. Criticism of the government, Emir and ruling family in the
media is illegal. According to article 46 of the press law "The Emir
of the state of
Qatar shall not be criticised and no statement can be
attributed to him unless under a written permission from the manager
of his office." Journalists are also subject to prosecution for
In 2014, a Cybercrime Prevention Law was passed. The law is said to
restrict press freedom, and carries prison sentences and fines for
broad reasons such as jeopardising local peace or publishing false
news. The Gulf Center for Human Rights has stated that the law is
a threat to freedom of speech and has called for certain articles of
the law to be revoked.
Press media has undergone expansion in recent years. There are
currently seven newspapers in circulation in Qatar, with four being
Arabic and three being published in English. There
are also newspapers from India,
Sri Lanka with editions
printed from Qatar.
In regards to telecommunication infrastructure,
Qatar is the highest
ranked Middle Eastern country in the World Economic Forum's Network
Readiness Index (NRI) – an indicator for determining the development
level of a country's information and communication technologies. Qatar
ranked number 23 overall in the 2014 NRI ranking, unchanged from
Main article: Music of Qatar
The music of
Qatar is based on
Bedouin poetry, song and dance.
Traditional dances in
Doha are performed on Friday afternoons; one
such dance is the Ardah, a stylised martial dance performed by two
rows of dancers who are accompanied by an array of percussion
instruments, including al-ras (a large drum whose leather is heated by
an open fire), tambourines and cymbals with small drums. Other
percussion instruments used in folk music include galahs (a tall clay
jar) and tin drinking cups known as tus or tasat, usually used in
conjunction with a tabl, a longitudinal drum beaten with a stick.
String instruments, such as the oud and rebaba, are also commonly
Main article: Sport in Qatar
2015 Ladies Tour of Qatar
Association football is the most popular sport in Qatar, both in terms
of players and spectators. The
Qatar national under-20 team
finished runners-up to West Germany in the 1981 FIFA World Youth
Championship after a 4–0 defeat in the final. In January 2011, the
Asian Football Confederation's fifteenth Asian Cup was held in Qatar.
It was the second time
Qatar had hosted the tournament, with the other
instance being the 1988 edition.
On 2 December 2010,
Qatar won their bid to host the 2022 FIFA World
Cup, despite never previously qualifying for the FIFA World Cup
Finals. Local organisers are planning to build 9 new stadiums and
expand 3 existing stadiums for this event. Qatar's winning bid for the
2022 World Cup was greeted enthusiastically in the
Persian Gulf region
as it was the first time a country in the
Middle East had been
selected to host the tournament. However, the bid has been embroiled
in much controversy, including allegations of bribery and interference
in the investigation of the alleged bribery. European football
associations have also objected to the 2022 World Cup being held in
Qatar for a variety of reasons, from the impact of warm temperatures
on players' fitness, to the disruption it might cause in European
domestic league calendars should the event be rescheduled to take
place during winter. In May 2014, Qatari football official
Mohammed bin Hammam
Mohammed bin Hammam was accused of making payments totalling £3m to
officials in return for their support for the
Qatar bid. However,
a FIFA inquiry into the bidding process in November 2014 cleared Qatar
of any wrongdoing.
Qatar Emir Cup
Qatar Emir Cup in 2009
The Guardian, a British national daily newspaper, produced a short
documentary named "Abuse and exploitation of migrant workers preparing
emirate for 2022". A 2014 investigation by
The Guardian reports
that migrant workers who have been constructing luxurious offices for
the organisers of the 2022 World Cup have not been paid in over a
year, and are now "working illegally from cockroach-infested
lodgings." For 2014, Nepalese migrants involved in constructing
infrastructure for the 2022 World Cup died at a rate of one every two
Qatar 2022 organising committee have responded to
various allegations by claiming that hosting the World Cup in Qatar
would act as a "catalyst for change" in the region.
Though football is the most popular sport, other team sports have
experienced considerable success at senior level. In 2015, the
national handball team emerged as runners-up to
France in the World
Men's Handball Championship as hosts, however the tournament was
marred by numerous controversies regarding the host nation and its
team. Further, in 2014,
Qatar won the world championship in men's
Khalifa International Tennis and Squash Complex
Khalifa International Tennis and Squash Complex in
Doha hosted the WTA
Tour Championships in women's tennis between 2008 and 2010.
the WTA Premier tournament
Qatar Ladies Open
Qatar Ladies Open annually. Since 2002,
Qatar has hosted the annual Tour of Qatar, a cycling race in six
stages. Every February, riders are racing on the roads across Qatar's
flat land for six days. Each stage covers a distance of more than
100 km, though the time trial usually is a shorter distance. Tour
Qatar is organised by the
Qatar Cycling Federation for professional
riders in the category of Elite Men.
Qatar Army Skydiving Team has several different skydiving
disciplines placing among the top nations in the world. The Qatar
National Parachute team performs annually during Qatar's National Day
and at other large events, such as the 2015 World Handball
Doha four times was the host of the official FIVB
Volleyball Men's Club World Championship and three times host FIVB
Volleyball Women's Club World Championship.
Doha one time Host Asian
Main article: Education in Qatar
UNESCO Institute for Statistics Literacy Rate
Qatar population plus 15
Qatar University, main area
Qatar University, east view
Qatar hired the
RAND Corporation to reform its K–12 education
Qatar Foundation, the country has built Education
City, a campus which hosts local branches of the Weill Cornell Medical
College, Carnegie Mellon School of Computer Science, Georgetown
University School of Foreign Service, Northwestern's Medill School of
Journalism, Texas A&M's School of Engineering, Virginia
Commonwealth University School of the Arts and other Western
The illiteracy rate in
Qatar was 3.1% for males and 4.2% for females
in 2012, the lowest in the Arab-speaking world, but 86th in the
world. Citizens are required to attend government-provided
education from kindergarten through high school. Qatar
University, founded in 1973, is the country's oldest and largest
institution of higher education.
In November 2002, emir
Hamad bin Khalifa Al Thani
Hamad bin Khalifa Al Thani created The Supreme
Education Council. The Council directs and controls education for
all ages from the pre-school level through the university level,
including the "Education for a New Era" initiative which was
established to try to position
Qatar as a leader in education
reform. According to the Webometrics Ranking of World
Universities, the top-ranking universities in the country are Qatar
University (1,881st worldwide), Texas A&M University at Qatar
Weill Cornell Medical College in Qatar
Weill Cornell Medical College in Qatar (6,855th).
Qatar established the
Qatar Science & Technology Park in
Education City to link those universities with industry. Education
City is also home to a fully accredited international Baccalaureate
Qatar Academy. In addition, two Canadian institutions, the
College of the North Atlantic
College of the North Atlantic (headquarters in Newfoundland and
Labrador) and the University of Calgary, have inaugurated campuses in
Doha. Other for-profit universities have also established campuses in
the city. In 2009, under the patronage of H.H. Sheikha Mozah Al
World Innovation Summit for Education
World Innovation Summit for Education (WISE) was
established with the aim of transforming education through innovation.
Qatar was ranked third from the bottom of the 65 OECD
countries participating in the PISA test of maths, reading and skills
for 15- and 16-year-olds, comparable to Colombia or Albania, despite
having the highest per capita income in the world. As part
of its national development strategy,
Qatar has outlined a 10-year
strategic plan to improve the level of education. Furthermore,
the government has launched educational outreach programs, such as
Al-Bairaq. Al-Bairaq was launched in 2010 aims to provide high school
students with an opportunity to experience a research environment in
Center for Advanced Materials
Center for Advanced Materials in
Qatar University. The program
STEM fields and languages.
Main article: Healthcare in Qatar
List of Qatar-related topics
Outline of Qatar
Qatar's Kafala system—laws regarding foreign workers in Qatar
Amnesty International 2016/17 report on Qatari Human Rights
Arab world portal
Middle East portal
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Agency. 8 February 2012. Retrieved 4 March 2012.
^ "Population structure". Ministry of Development Planning and
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^ a b c "Populations". Qsa.gov.qa. Archived from the original on 9
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^ a b c d "World Economic Outlook Database, October 2017 – Report
for Selected Countries and Subjects". International Monetary Fund
(IMF). Retrieved 1 October 2017.
^ "GINI index". World Bank. Retrieved 22 January 2013.
^ "2015 Human Development Report" (PDF).
United Nations Development
Programme. 2015. Retrieved 14 December 2015.
^ "List of left- & right-driving countries – World Standards".
Retrieved 5 June 2017.
^ Pronunciation adopted by
Qatar Airways' advertisements, such as
Qatar Airways: the Art of Flight Redefined
^ "CMU Pronouncing Dictionary". CS. Retrieved 28 March 2010.
^ a b Johnstone, T. M. (2008). "Encyclopaedia of Islam". Ķaṭar.
Brill Online. Retrieved 22 January 2013. (subscription required)
^ "How do you say 'Qatar'? Senate hearing has the answer". Washington
Post. 12 June 2014. Retrieved 12 March 2015.
^ a b BBC News, How democratic is the Middle East?, 9 September 2005.
^ a b
United States Department of State
United States Department of State
Country Reports on Human
Rights Practices for 2011: Qatar, 2011.
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