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East Iranian Languages
The Eastern Iranian languages
Iranian languages
are a subgroup of the Iranian languages emerging in Middle Iranian
Middle Iranian
times (from c. the 4th century BC). The Avestan language
Avestan language
is often classified as early Eastern Iranian. The largest living Eastern Iranian language is Pashto, with some 50–60 million speakers between the Hindu Kush
Hindu Kush
mountains in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and the Indus River
Indus River
in Pakistan
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Central Asia
Central Asia
Asia
is a region which stretches from the Caspian Sea
Caspian Sea
in the west to China
China
in the east, and from Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and Iran
Iran
in the south to Russia
Russia
in the north. The region consists of the former Soviet republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan.[2] It is also colloquially referred to as "the stans" as the countries generally considered to be within the region all have names ending with the Persian suffix "-stan", meaning "land of".[3] In pre-Islamic and early Islamic times, Central Asia
Asia
was predominantly Iranian,[4][5] populated by Eastern Iranian-speaking Bactrians, Sogdians, Chorasmians and the semi-nomadic Scythians
Scythians
and Dahae
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Khwarezmian Language
Khwarezmian (Khwarazmian, Khorezmian, Chorasmian) is an extinct East Iranian language[3][4][5][6] closely related to Sogdian
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West Asia
Western Asia, West Asia, Southwestern Asia
Asia
or Southwest Asia
Asia
is the westernmost subregion of Asia. The concept is in limited use, as it significantly overlaps with the Middle East
Middle East
(or the Near East), the main difference usually being the exclusion of the majority of Egypt (which would be counted as part of North Africa) and the inclusion of the Caucasus. The term is sometimes used for the purposes of grouping countries in statistics. The total population of Western Asia
Asia
is an estimated 300 million as of 2015. In an unrelated context, the term is also used in ancient history and archaeology to divide the Fertile Crescent
Fertile Crescent
into the "Asiatic" or "Western Asian" cultures as opposed to ancient Egypt
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Western Iranian
The Western Iranian languages
Iranian languages
are a branch of the Iranian languages, attested from the time of Old Persian
Old Persian
(6th century BC) and Median.Contents1 Languages 2 See also 3 References 4 BibliographyLanguages[edit] The traditional Northwestern branch is a convention for non-Southwestern languages, rather than a genetic group
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Yaz Culture
The Yaz culture
Yaz culture
(named after the type site Yaz-depe, Yaz Depe, or Yaz Tepe, near Baýramaly, Turkmenistan[1]) was an early Iron Age
Iron Age
culture of Margiana, Bactria
Bactria
and Sogdia
Sogdia
(ca. 1500–500 BC).[2][3][4][5][6][7][8] It emerges at the top of late Bronze Age sites (BMAC), sometimes as stone towers and sizeable houses associated with irrigation systems. Ceramics were mostly hand-made, but there was increasing use of wheel-thrown ware
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Indo-Greeks
The Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
Kingdoms or were partly Hellenistic
Hellenistic
kingdoms covering various parts of Afghanistan, and the northwest regions of the Indian subcontinent (parts of modern Pakistan
Pakistan
and northwestern India),[1][2][3][4][5][6] during the last two centuries BC and was ruled by more than thirty kings, often conflicting with one another. Euthydemus I
Euthydemus I
was, according to Polybius,[7] a Magnesian Greek. His son, Demetrius I, founder of the Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
kingdom, was therefore of Greek ethnicity at least by his father
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Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan[b] (Kazakh: Қазақстан, romanized: Qazaqstan, IPA: [qɑzɑqˈstɑn] (listen); Russian: Казахстан, romanized: Kazakhstan), officially the Republic
Republic
of Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
(Kazakh: Қазақстан Республикасы, romanized: Qazaqstan Respýblıkasy; Russian: Республика Казахстан, tr. Respublika Kazakhstan),[4][13] is the world's largest landlocked country, and the ninth largest country in the world, with an area of 2,724,900 square kilometres (1,052,100 sq mi).[4][14] It is a transcontinental country largely located in Asia; the most western parts are in Europe. Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
is the dominant nation of Central Asia economically, generating 60% of the region's GDP, primarily through its oil and gas industry
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Pontic Steppe
The Pontic–Caspian steppe, Pontic steppe
Pontic steppe
or Ukrainian steppe is the vast steppeland stretching from the northern shores of the Black Sea (called Euxeinos Pontos [Εὔξεινος Πόντος] in antiquity) as far east as the Caspian Sea, from Moldova
Moldova
and eastern Ukraine across the Southern Federal District
Southern Federal District
and the Volga Federal District
Volga Federal District
of Russia
Russia
to western Kazakhstan, forming part of the larger Eurasian steppe, adjacent to the Kazakh steppe
Kazakh steppe
to the east. It is a part of the Palearctic temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands ecoregion of the temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands biome. The area corresponds to Cimmeria, Scythia, and Sarmatia
Sarmatia
of classical antiquity
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Ukraine
42,418,235 [4] (32nd)• 2001 census48,457,102[3]• Density73.8/km2 (191.1/sq mi) (115th)GDP (PPP) 2017 estimate• Total$366 billion[5] (50th)• Per capita$8,656[5] (114th)GDP (nominal) 2017 estimate• Total$104 billion[5] (62nd)• Per capita$2,459[5] (132nd)Gini (2015)  25.5[6] low · 18thHDI (2015)  0.743[7] high · 84thCurrency Ukrainian hryvnia
Ukrainian hryvnia
(UAH)Time zone EET (UTC+2[8])• Summer (DST)EEST (UTC+3)Drives on the rightCalling code +380 ISO 3166 code UA Internet
Internet
TLD.ua .укрAn independence referendum was held on 1 December, after which Ukrainian independence was finalized on 26 December.This article contains Cyrillic text
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Language Area
A sprachbund (German: [ˈʃpʁaːxbʊnt], "federation of languages") – also known as a linguistic area, area of linguistic convergence, diffusion area or language crossroads – is a group of languages that have common features resulting from geographical proximity and language contact. They may be genetically unrelated, or only distantly related. Where genetic affiliations are unclear, the sprachbund characteristics might give a false appearance of relatedness
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Bactrian Language
Bactrian (Αριαο, Aryao, [arjaːu̯ɔ][?]) is an Iranian language which was spoken in the Central Asian region of Bactria
Bactria
(present-day Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and Tajikistan)[3] and used as the official language of
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Sogdian Language
The Sogdian language
Sogdian language
was an Eastern Iranian language spoken in the Central Asian region of Sogdia, located in modern-day Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan
Tajikistan
(capital: Samarkand; other chief cities: Panjakent, Fergana, Khujand, and Bukhara), as well as some Sogdian immigrant communities in ancient China. Sogdian is one of the most important Middle Iranian languages, along with Bactrian, Khotanese Saka, Middle Persian, and Parthian. It possesses a large literary corpus. The Sogdian language
Sogdian language
is usually assigned to a Northeastern group of the Iranian languages
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South Asia
South
South
Asia
Asia
or Southern Asia
Asia
(also known as Indian subcontinent) is a term used to represent the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan SAARC
SAARC
countries and, for some authorities, adjoining countries to the west and east. Topographically, it is dominated by the Indian Plate, which rises above sea level as Nepal
Nepal
and all parts of India
India
situated south of the Himalayas
Himalayas
and the Hindu
Hindu
Kush
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Saka Language
Pontic SteppeDomestication of the horse Kurgan Kurgan
Kurgan
culture Steppe culturesBug-Dniester Sredny Stog Dnieper-Donets Samara Khvalynsk YamnaMikhaylovka cultureCaucasusMaykopEast-AsiaAfanasevoEastern EuropeUsatovo Cernavodă CucuteniNorthern EuropeCorded wareBaden Middle DnieperBronze AgePontic SteppeChariot Yamna Catacomb Multi-cordoned ware Poltavka SrubnaNorthern/Eastern SteppeAbashevo culture Andronovo SintashtaEuropeGlobular Amphora Corded ware Beaker Unetice Trzciniec Nordi
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Northern Pashto
Northern Pashto
Pashto
or Northeastern Pashto,[4] sometimes known as Yusufzai Pashto
Pashto
after its principal subdialect, is a Northern dialect of Pashto spoken in northern Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan
Pakistan
and northeastern Afghanistan. Phonology[edit] Yusufzai Pashto
Pashto
has a difference in affricates: in other dialects t͡s, d͡z/z, ʒ, in Peshawari instead s, z, j
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