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United Nations
United Nations
Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture (in French)

ABBREVIATION UNESCO

FORMATION 16 November 1945

TYPE Specialized agency

LEGAL STATUS Active

HEADQUARTERS Place de Fontenoy , Paris, France

MEMBERSHIP 195 member states

HEAD Irina Bokova Director-General of UNESCO
UNESCO

WEBSITE www.unesco.org

The UNITED NATIONS EDUCATIONAL, SCIENTIFIC AND CULTURAL ORGANIZATION (UNESCO) (French : _Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture_) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris
Paris
. Its declared purpose is to contribute to peace and security by promoting international collaboration through educational, scientific, and cultural reforms in order to increase universal respect for justice, the rule of law , and human rights along with fundamental freedom proclaimed in the United Nations Charter . It is the successor of the League of Nations ' International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation .

UNESCO
UNESCO
has 195 member states and ten associate members. Most of its field offices are "cluster" offices covering three or more countries; national and regional offices also exist.

UNESCO
UNESCO
pursues its objectives through five major programs: , natural sciences , social /human sciences , culture and communication/information. Projects sponsored by UNESCO
UNESCO
include literacy , technical, and teacher-training programmes, international science programmes, the promotion of independent media and freedom of the press , regional and cultural history projects, the promotion of cultural diversity , translations of world literature, international cooperation agreements on secure the world cultural and natural heritage (World Heritage Sites ) and to preserve human rights, and attempts to bridge the worldwide digital divide . It is also a member of the United Nations
United Nations
Development Group .

UNESCO's aim is "to contribute to the building of peace, the eradication of poverty , sustainable development and intercultural dialogue through education, the sciences, culture, communication and information". Other priorities of the organization include attaining quality Education For All and lifelong learning , addressing emerging social and ethical challenges, fostering cultural diversity , a culture of peace and building inclusive knowledge societies through information and communication.

The broad goals and objectives of the international community – as set out in the internationally agreed development goals, including the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) – underpin all UNESCO
UNESCO
strategies and activities.

CONTENTS

* 1 History * 2 Activities * 3 Media * 4 Official UNESCO
UNESCO
NGOs * 5 Institutes and centres

* 6 Prizes

* 6.1 Inactive prizes

* 7 International Days observed at UNESCO
UNESCO
* 8 Member states

* 9 Governing bodies

* 9.1 Director-General * 9.2 General Conference * 9.3 Executive Board

* 10 Offices

* 10.1 Field offices by region

* 10.1.1 Africa * 10.1.2 Arab States * 10.1.3 Asia and Pacific * 10.1.4 Europe and North America * 10.1.5 Latin America and the Caribbean
Caribbean

* 11 Controversies

* 11.1 New World Information and Communication order

* 11.2 Israel
Israel

* 11.2.1 Occupied Palestine Resolution

* 11.3 Palestine

* 11.3.1 Palestinian Youth Magazine controversy * 11.3.2 Islamic University of Gaza controversy

* 11.4 Wikileaks * 11.5 Che Guevara * 11.6 Listing Nanjing Massacre documents

* 12 Products or services

* 12.1 Information Processing Tools

* 13 See also * 14 References and notes * 15 External links

HISTORY

UNESCO
UNESCO
and its mandate for international cooperation can be traced back to a League of Nations resolution on 21 September 1921, to elect a Commission to study feasibility. On 18 December 1925, the International Bureau of Education (IBE) began work as a non-governmental organization in the service of international educational development. However, the work of these predecessor organizations was largely interrupted by the onset of World War II
World War II
.

After the signing of the Atlantic Charter
Atlantic Charter
and the Declaration of the United Nations
United Nations
, the Conference of Allied Ministers of Education (CAME) began meetings in London which continued between 16 November 1942 to 5 December 1945. On 30 October 1943, the necessity for an international organization was expressed in the Moscow Declaration, agreed upon by China, the United Kingdom, the United States
United States
and the USSR. This was followed by the Dumbarton Oaks Conference proposals of 9 October 1944. Upon the proposal of CAME and in accordance with the recommendations of the United Nations
United Nations
Conference on International Organization (UNCIO), held in San Francisco in April–June 1945, a United Nations
United Nations
Conference for the establishment of an educational and cultural organization (ECO/CONF) was convened in London 1–16 November 1945 with 44 governments represented. A prominent figure in the initiative for UNESCO
UNESCO
was Rab Butler , the Minister of Education for the United Kingdom. At the ECO/CONF, the Constitution of UNESCO was introduced and signed by 37 countries, and a Preparatory Commission was established. The Preparatory Commission operated between 16 November 1945, and 4 November 1946—the date when UNESCO's Constitution came into force with the deposit of the twentieth ratification by a member state.

The first General Conference took place between 19 November to 10 December 1946, and elected Dr. Julian Huxley to Director-General. The Constitution was amended in November 1954 when the General Conference resolved that members of the Executive Board would be representatives of the governments of the States of which they are nationals and would not, as before, act in their personal capacity. This change in governance distinguished UNESCO
UNESCO
from its predecessor, the CICI, in how member states would work together in the organization's fields of competence. As member states worked together over time to realize UNESCO's mandate, political and historical factors have shaped the organization's operations in particular during the Cold War, the decolonization process, and the dissolution of the USSR.

Among the major achievements of the organization is its work against racism, for example through influential statements on race starting with a declaration of anthropologists (among them was Claude Lévi-Strauss ) and other scientists in 1950 and concluding with the 1978 Declaration on Race and Racial Prejudice . In 1956, the Republic of South Africa
South Africa
withdrew from UNESCO
UNESCO
claiming that some of the organization's publications amounted to "interference" in the country's "racial problems." South Africa
South Africa
rejoined the organization in 1994 under the leadership of Nelson Mandela
Nelson Mandela
.

UNESCO's early work in the field of education included the pilot project on fundamental education in the Marbial Valley, Haiti, started in 1947. This project was followed by expert missions to other countries, including, for example, a mission to Afghanistan
Afghanistan
in 1949. In 1948, UNESCO
UNESCO
recommended that Member States should make free primary education compulsory and universal. In 1990, the World Conference on Education for All, in Jomtien , Thailand, launched a global movement to provide basic education for all children, youths and adults. Ten years later, the 2000 World Education Forum held in Dakar
Dakar
, Senegal, led member governments to commit to achieving basic education for all by 2015.

UNESCO's early activities in culture included, for example, the Nubia Campaign, launched in 1960. The purpose of the campaign was to move the Great Temple of Abu Simbel to keep it from being swamped by the Nile after construction of the Aswan Dam . During the 20-year campaign, 22 monuments and architectural complexes were relocated. This was the first and largest in a series of campaigns including Mohenjo-daro
Mohenjo-daro
(Pakistan), Fes
Fes
(Morocco), Kathmandu
Kathmandu
(Nepal), Borobudur (Indonesia) and the Acropolis
Acropolis
(Greece). The organization's work on heritage led to the adoption, in 1972, of the Convention concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage. The World Heritage Committee was established in 1976 and the first sites inscribed on the World Heritage List in 1978. Since then important legal instruments on cultural heritage and diversity have been adopted by UNESCO
UNESCO
member states in 2003 (Convention for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage ) and 2005 (Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions ).

An intergovernmental meeting of UNESCO
UNESCO
in Paris
Paris
in December 1951 led to the creation of the European Council for Nuclear Research, which was responsible for establishing the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) in 1954.

Arid Zone programming, 1948–1966, is another example of an early major UNESCO
UNESCO
project in the field of natural sciences. In 1968, UNESCO
UNESCO
organized the first intergovernmental conference aimed at reconciling the environment and development, a problem which continues to be addressed in the field of sustainable development. The main outcome of the 1968 conference was the creation of UNESCO's Man and the Biosphere Programme .

In communication, the free flow of information has been a priority for UNESCO
UNESCO
from its beginnings. In the years immediately following World War II, efforts were concentrated on reconstruction and on the identification of needs for means of mass communication around the world. UNESCO
UNESCO
started organizing training and education for journalists in the 1950s. In response to calls for a "New World Information and Communication Order " in the late 1970s, UNESCO established the International Commission for the Study of Communication Problems, which produced the 1980 MacBride report (named after the Chair of the Commission, the Nobel Peace Prize laureate Seán MacBride ). Following the MacBride report, UNESCO introduced the Information Society for All programme and Toward Knowledge Societies programme in the lead up to the World Summit on the Information Society in 2003 ( Geneva
Geneva
) and 2005 ( Tunis
Tunis
).

In 2011, Palestine became a UNESCO
UNESCO
member following a vote in which 107 member states supported and 14 opposed. Laws passed in the United States
United States
in 1990 and 1994 mean that it cannot contribute financially to any UN organisation that accepts Palestine as a full member. As a result, it withdrew its funding which accounted for about 22% of UNESCO's budget. Israel
Israel
also reacted to Palestine's admittance to UNESCO
UNESCO
by freezing Israel
Israel
payments to the UNESCO
UNESCO
and imposing sanctions to the Palestinian Authority , claiming that Palestine's admittance would be detrimental "to potential peace talks". Two years after they stopped paying their dues to UNESCO, US and Israel
Israel
lost UNESCO
UNESCO
voting rights in 2013 without losing the right to be elected (as a consequence, US was elected as a member of the Executive Board for the period 2016-2019).

ACTIVITIES

UNESCO
UNESCO
offices in Brasília

UNESCO
UNESCO
implements its activities through the five programme areas: education, natural sciences, social and human sciences, culture, and communication and information.

* Education: UNESCO
UNESCO
supports research in comparative education ; and provide expertise and fosters partnerships to strengthen national educational leadership and the capacity of countries to offer quality education for all. This includes the

* UNESCO Chairs , an international network of 644 UNESCO
UNESCO
Chairs, involving over 770 institutions in 126 countries. * Environmental Conservation Organisation * Convention against Discrimination in Education adopted in 1960 * Organization of the International Conference on Adult Education (CONFINTEA) in an interval of 12 years * Publication of the Education for All Global Monitoring Report * Publication of the Four Pillars of Learning seminal document * UNESCO ASPNet , an international network of 8,000 schools in 170 countries.

UNESCO
UNESCO
does not accredit institutions of higher learning.

* UNESCO
UNESCO
also issues public statements to educate the public:

* Seville Statement on Violence : A statement adopted by UNESCO
UNESCO
in 1989 to refute the notion that humans are biologically predisposed to organised violence.

* Designating projects and places of cultural and scientific significance, such as:

* Global Geoparks Network * Biosphere reserves , through the Programme on Man and the Biosphere (MAB), since 1971 * City of Literature ; in 2007, the first city to be given this title was Edinburgh
Edinburgh
, the site of Scotland's first circulating library . In 2008, Iowa City, Iowa became the City of Literature. * Endangered languages and linguistic diversity projects * Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity * Memory of the World International Register, since 1997 * Water resources management , through the International Hydrological Programme (IHP), since 1965 * World Heritage Sites * World Digital Library
World Digital Library

* Encouraging the "free flow of ideas by images and words" by:

* Promoting freedom of expression , freedom of the press and freedom of information legislation , through the International Programme for the Development of Communication and the Communication and Information Programme * Promoting universal access to Information and Communications Technology , through the Information for All Programme * Promoting pluralism and cultural diversity in the media

* Promoting events, such as:

* International Decade for the Promotion of a Culture of Peace and Non-Violence for the Children of the World : 2001–2010, proclaimed by the UN in 1998 * World Press Freedom Day , 3 May each year, to promote freedom of expression and freedom of the press as a basic human right and as crucial components of any healthy, democratic and free society. * Criança Esperança in Brazil, in partnership with Rede Globo , to raise funds for community-based projects that foster social integration and violence prevention. * International Literacy
Literacy
Day * International Year for the Culture of Peace

* Founding and funding projects, such as:

* Migration Museums Initiative: Promoting the establishment of museums for cultural dialogue with migrant populations. * UNESCO-CEPES , the European Centre for Higher Education: established in 1972 in Bucharest, Romania, as a de-centralized office to promote international co-operation in higher education in Europe as well as Canada, USA and Israel. _Higher Education in Europe_ is its official journal. * Free Software Directory : since 1998 UNESCO
UNESCO
and the Free Software Foundation have jointly funded this project cataloguing free software . * FRESH Focussing Resources on Effective School Health . * OANA , Organization of Asia-Pacific News Agencies * International Council of Science * UNESCO
UNESCO
Goodwill Ambassadors * ASOMPS , _Asian Symposium on Medicinal Plants and Spices_, a series of scientific conferences held in Asia * Botany 2000 , a programme supporting taxonomy, and biological and cultural diversity of medicinal and ornamental plants, and their protection against environmental pollution * The UNESCO Collection of Representative Works , translating works of world literature both to and from multiple languages, from 1948 to 2005 * GoUNESCO
GoUNESCO
, an umbrella of initiatives to make heritage fun supported by UNESCO, New Delhi
New Delhi
Office

The UNESCO
UNESCO
transparency portal has been designed to enable public access to information regarding Organization's activities, such as its aggregate budget for a biennium, as well as links to relevant programmatic and financial documents. These two distinct sets of information are published on the IATI registry, respectively based on the IATI Activity Standard and the IATI Organization Standard.

MEDIA

UNESCO
UNESCO
and its specialized institutions issue a number of magazines.

_The UNESCO
UNESCO
Courier_ magazine states its mission to "promote UNESCO’s ideals, maintain a platform for the dialogue between cultures and provide a forum for international debate." Since March 2006 it is available online, with limited printed issues. Its articles express the opinions of the authors which are not necessarily the opinions of UNESCO. As of 2016, the latest issue posted was October–December 2011.

In 1950, UNESCO
UNESCO
initiated the quarterly review _Impact of Science on Society_ (also known as _Impact_) to discuss the influence of science on society. UNESCO
UNESCO
also publish museum international quarterly from the year 1948.

OFFICIAL UNESCO
UNESCO
NGOS

UNESCO
UNESCO
has official relations with 322 international non-governmental organizations (NGOs). Most of these are what UNESCO
UNESCO
calls "operational", a select few are "formal". The highest form of affiliation to UNESCO
UNESCO
is "formal associate", and the 22 NGOs with _formal associate_ (ASC) relations occupying offices at UNESCO
UNESCO
are:

ABBR ORGANIZATION

IB International Baccalaureate

CCIVS Co-ordinating Committee for International Voluntary Service

EI Education International

IAU International Association of Universities

IFTC International Council for Film, Television and Audiovisual Communication

ICPHS International Council for Philosophy and Humanistic Studies which publishes Diogenes

ICSU International Council for Science

ICOM International Council of Museums

ICSSPE International Council of Sport Science and Physical Education

ICA International Council on Archives

ICOMOS International Council on Monuments and Sites

IFJ International Federation of Journalists

IFLA International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions

IFPA International Federation of Poetry Associations

IMC International Music Council

IPA International Police Association

INSULA International Scientific Council for Island Development

ISSC International Social Science Council

ITI International Theatre Institute

IUCN International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

IUTAO International Union of Technical Associations and Organizations

UIA Union of International Associations

WAN World Association of Newspapers

WFEO World Federation of Engineering Organizations

WFUCA World Federation of UNESCO
UNESCO
Clubs, Centres and Associations

UNESCO
UNESCO
Institute for Water Education in Delft
Delft

INSTITUTES AND CENTRES

The institutes are specialized departments of the organization that support UNESCO's programme, providing specialized support for cluster and national offices.

ABBR NAME LOCATION

IBE International Bureau of Education Geneva
Geneva

UIL UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning Hamburg
Hamburg

IIEP UNESCO International Institute for Educational Planning Paris
Paris
(headquarters) and Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
(regional office)

IITE UNESCO
UNESCO
Institute for Information Technologies in Education Moscow

IICBA UNESCO
UNESCO
International Institute for Capacity Building in Africa Addis Ababa
Addis Ababa

IESALC UNESCO
UNESCO
International Institute for Higher Education in Latin America and the Caribbean Caracas
Caracas

UNESCO-UNEVOC UNESCO-UNEVOC International Centre for Technical and Vocational Education and Training Bonn
Bonn

CEPES UNESCO
UNESCO
European Centre for Higher Education Bucharest
Bucharest

UNESCO-IHE UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education Delft
Delft

ICTP International Centre for Theoretical Physics
International Centre for Theoretical Physics
Trieste
Trieste

UIS UNESCO Institute for Statistics Montreal
Montreal

PRIZES

UNESCO
UNESCO
awards 22 prizes in education, science, culture and peace:

* Félix Houphouët-Boigny Peace Prize * L\'Oréal- UNESCO
UNESCO
Awards for Women in Science * UNESCO/King Sejong Literacy
Literacy
Prize * UNESCO/Confucius Prize for Literacy
Literacy
* UNESCO/Emir Jaber al-Ahmad al-Jaber al-Sabah Prize to promote Quality Education for Persons with Intellectual Disabilities * UNESCO King Hamad Bin Isa Al-Khalifa Prize for the Use of Information and Communication Technologies in Education * UNESCO/Hamdan Bin Rashid Al-Maktoum Prize for Outstanding Practice and Performance in Enhancing the Effectiveness of Teachers * UNESCO/ Kalinga Prize for the Popularization of Science * UNESCO/Institut Pasteur Medal for an outstanding contribution to the development of scientific knowledge that has a beneficial impact on human health * UNESCO/ Sultan Qaboos Prize for Environmental Preservation * Great Man-Made River International Water Prize for Water Resources in Arid Zones presented by UNESCO
UNESCO
(title to be reconsidered) * Michel Batisse Award for Biosphere Reserve Management * UNESCO/Bilbao Prize for the Promotion of a Culture of Human Rights

* UNESCO Prize for Peace Education * UNESCO-Madanjeet Singh Prize for the Promotion of Tolerance and Non-Violence * UNESCO/ International José Martí Prize * UNESCO/ Avicenna Prize for Ethics in Science * UNESCO/Juan Bosch Prize for the Promotion of Social Science Research in Latin America and the Caribbean * Sharjah Prize for Arab Culture * Melina Mercouri International Prize for the Safeguarding and Management of Cultural Landscapes (UNESCO-Greece) * IPDC- UNESCO
UNESCO
Prize for Rural Communication * UNESCO/Guillermo Cano World Press Freedom Prize * UNESCO/Jikji Memory of the World Prize * UNESCO-Equatorial Guinea
Guinea
International Prize for Research in the Life Sciences * Carlos J. Finlay Prize for Microbiology

INACTIVE PRIZES

* International Simón Bolívar Prize (inactive since 2004) * UNESCO Prize for Human Rights Education * UNESCO/Obiang Nguema Mbasogo International Prize for Research in the Life Sciences (inactive since 2010) * UNESCO
UNESCO
Prize for the Promotion of the Arts

INTERNATIONAL DAYS OBSERVED AT UNESCO

International Days

DATE NAME

27 January International Day of Commemoration in Memory of the Victims of the Holocaust

13 February World Radio Day

21 February International Mother Language Day

8 March International Women\'s Day

20 March International Francophonie Day

21 March International Day of Nowruz

21 March World Poetry Day

21 March International Day for the Elimination of Racial Discrimination

22 March World Day for Water

23 April World Book and Copyright Day

30 April International Jazz Day

3 May World Press Freedom Day

21 May World Day for Cultural Diversity for Dialogue and Development

22 May International Day for Biological Diversity

25 May Africa Day / Africa Week

5 June World Environment Day

8 June World Oceans Day

21 June International Yoga Day

9 August International Day of the World\'s Indigenous People

12 August International Youth Day

23 August International Day for the Remembrance of the Slave Trade and its Abolition

8 September International Literacy
Literacy
Day

15 September International Day of Democracy

21 September International Day of Peace

28 September International Day for the Universal Access to Information

5 October World Teachers\' Day

2nd Wednesday in October International Day for Disaster Reduction

17 October International Day for the Eradication of Poverty

20 October World Statistics Day

27 October World Day for Audiovisual Heritage

10 November World Science Day for Peace and Development

3rd Thursday in November World Philosophy Day

16 November International Day for Tolerance

19 November International Men\'s Day

25 November International Day for the Elimination of Violence against Women

29 November International Day of Solidarity with the Palestinian People

1 December World AIDS Day

10 December Human Rights Day

18 December International Migrants Day

MEMBER STATES

Main article: Member states of UNESCO

UNESCO
UNESCO
counts 195 member states and 9 associate members. Some members are not independent states and some members have additional National Organizing Committees from some of their dependent territories . UNESCO
UNESCO
state parties are the United Nations
United Nations
member states (except Liechtenstein ), Cook Islands
Cook Islands
, Niue , and the State of Palestine .

GOVERNING BODIES

DIRECTOR-GENERAL

Elections for the renewal of the position of Director-General took place in Paris
Paris
from 7 to 23 September 2009. Eight candidates ran for the position, and 58 countries voted for them. The Executive Council gathered from 7 to 23 September, the vote itself beginning on the 17th. Irina Bokova was elected the new Director-General.

The list of the Directors-General of UNESCO
UNESCO
since its establishment in 1946 is as follows:

Irina Bokova Bulgaria
Bulgaria
2009–present

Koïchiro Matsuura Japan
Japan
1999–2009

Federico Mayor Zaragoza Spain
Spain
1987–99

Amadou-Mahtar M\'Bow Senegal
Senegal
1974–87

René Maheu France
France
1961–74; acting 1961

Vittorino Veronese Italy
Italy
1958–61

Luther Evans United States
United States
1953–58

John Wilkinson Taylor United States
United States
acting 1952–53

Jaime Torres Bodet Mexico
Mexico
1948–52

Julian Huxley United Kingdom
United Kingdom
1946–48

GENERAL CONFERENCE

This is the list of the sessions of UNESCO
UNESCO
General Conference held since 1946:

SESSION LOCATION YEAR CHAIRED BY FROM

38th Paris 2015 Stanley Mutumba Simataa Namibia
Namibia

37th Paris 2013 Hao Ping China
China

36th Paris 2011 Katalin Bogyay Hungary
Hungary

35th Paris 2009 Davidson Hepburn Bahamas
Bahamas

34th Paris 2007 George N. Anastassopoulos Greece
Greece

33rd Paris 2005 Musa Bin Jaafar Bin Hassan Oman
Oman

32nd Paris 2003 Michael Omolewa Nigeria
Nigeria

31st Paris 2001 Ahmad Jalali Iran
Iran

30th Paris 1999 Jaroslava Moserova Czech Republic
Czech Republic

29th Paris 1997 Eduardo Portella Brazil
Brazil

28th Paris 1995 Torben Krogh Denmark
Denmark

27th Paris 1993 Ahmed Saleh Sayyad Yemen
Yemen

26th Paris 1991 Bethwell Allan Ogot Kenya
Kenya

25th Paris 1989 Anwar Ibrahim Malaysia
Malaysia

24th Paris 1987 Guillermo Putzeys Alvarez Guatemala
Guatemala

23rd Sofia
Sofia
1985 Nikolai Todorov Bulgaria
Bulgaria

22nd Paris 1983 Saïd Tell Jordan
Jordan

4th extraordinary Paris 1982

21st Belgrade
Belgrade
1980 Ivo Margan Yugoslavia

20th Paris 1978 Napoléon LeBlanc Canada
Canada

19th Nairobi
Nairobi
1976 Taaita Toweett Kenya
Kenya

18th Paris 1974 Magda Jóború Hungary
Hungary

3rd extraordinary Paris 1973

17th Paris 1972 Toru Haguiwara Japan
Japan

16th Paris 1970 Atilio Dell'Oro Maini Argentina
Argentina

15th Paris 1968 William Eteki Mboumoua Cameroon
Cameroon

14th Paris 1966 Bedrettin Tuncel Turkey
Turkey

13th Paris 1964 Norair Sisakian Armenian SSR

12th Paris 1962 Paulo de Berrêdo Carneiro Brazil
Brazil

11th Paris 1960 Akale-Work Abte-Wold Ethiopia
Ethiopia

10th Paris 1958 Jean Berthoin France
France

9th New Delhi 1956 Abul Kalam Azad India
India

8th Montevideo
Montevideo
1954 Justino Zavala Muñiz Uruguay
Uruguay

2nd extraordinary Paris 1953

7th Paris 1952 Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan
Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan
India
India

6th Paris 1951 Howland H. Sargeant United States
United States

5th Florence
Florence
1950 Stefano Jacini Italy
Italy

4th Paris 1949 Edward Ronald Walker Australia
Australia

1st extraordinary Paris 1948

3rd Beirut
Beirut
1948 Hamid Bey Frangie Lebanon
Lebanon

2nd Mexico
Mexico
City 1947 Manuel Gual Vidal Mexico
Mexico

1st Paris 1946 Léon Blum
Léon Blum
France
France

EXECUTIVE BOARD

TERM Group I (9 seats) Group II (7 seats) Group III (10 seats) Group IV (12 seats)

India
India
()1seats) Group V(a) (14 seats) Group V(b) (7 seats)

2016–19

France
France
Greece
Greece
Italy
Italy
Spain
Spain
United Kingdom
United Kingdom
United States
United States

Lithuania
Lithuania
Russia
Russia
Serbia
Serbia
Slovenia
Slovenia

Brazil
Brazil
Haiti
Haiti
Mexico
Mexico
Nicaragua Paraguay
Paraguay

Iran
Iran
Malaysia
Malaysia
Pakistan
Pakistan
South Korea
South Korea
Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
Vietnam
Vietnam

Cameroon
Cameroon
Ivory Coast Ghana
Ghana
Kenya
Kenya
Nigeria
Nigeria
Senegal
Senegal
South Africa
South Africa

Lebanon
Lebanon
Oman
Oman
Qatar
Qatar
Sudan
Sudan

2014–17

Germany
Germany
Netherlands
Netherlands
Sweden
Sweden

Albania
Albania
Estonia
Estonia
Ukraine
Ukraine

Argentina
Argentina
Belize
Belize
Dominican Republic El Salvador
El Salvador
Saint Kitts and Nevis
Saint Kitts and Nevis
Trinidad and Tobago

Bangladesh
Bangladesh
China
China
India
India
Japan
Japan
Nepal
Nepal
Turkmenistan

Chad
Chad
Guinea
Guinea
Mauritius
Mauritius
Mozambique
Mozambique
Togo
Togo
Uganda
Uganda

Algeria
Algeria
Egypt
Egypt
Kuwait
Kuwait
Morocco
Morocco

2012–15

Austria
Austria
France
France
Italy
Italy
India
India
Spain
Spain
United Kingdom
United Kingdom
United States
United States

Czech Republic
Czech Republic
Montenegro
Montenegro
Russia
Russia
Macedonia

Brazil
Brazil
Cuba
Cuba
Ecuador
Ecuador
Mexico
Mexico

Afghanistan
Afghanistan
Indonesia
Indonesia
Pakistan
Pakistan
Papua New Guinea
Guinea
South Korea
South Korea
Thailand
Thailand

Angola
Angola
Ethiopia
Ethiopia
Gabon
Gabon
Gambia Malawi Mali
Mali
Namibia
Namibia
Nigeria
Nigeria

Tunisia
Tunisia
United Arab Emirates
United Arab Emirates

OFFICES

The Garden of Peace, UNESCO
UNESCO
headquarters, Paris. Donated by the Government of Japan, this garden was designed by American-Japanese sculptor artist Isamu Noguchi in 1958 and installed by Japanese gardener Toemon Sano.

UNESCO
UNESCO
headquarters are located at Place de Fontenoy in Paris, France.

UNESCO's field offices across the globe are categorized into four primary office types based upon their function and geographic coverage: cluster offices, national offices, regional bureaus and liaison offices.

FIELD OFFICES BY REGION

The following list of all UNESCO
UNESCO
Field Offices is organized geographically by UNESCO
UNESCO
Region and identifies the members states and associate members of UNESCO
UNESCO
which are served by each office.

Africa

* Abidjan
Abidjan
– National Office to Côte d\'Ivoire * Abuja
Abuja
– National Office to Nigeria
Nigeria
* Accra – Cluster Office for Benin
Benin
, Côte d\'Ivoire , Ghana
Ghana
, Liberia
Liberia
, Nigeria
Nigeria
, Sierra Leone
Sierra Leone
and Togo
Togo
* Addis Ababa
Addis Ababa
– Liaison Office with the African Union
African Union
and with the Economic Commission for Africa * Bamako – Cluster Office for Burkina Faso
Burkina Faso
, Guinea
Guinea
, Mali
Mali
and Niger
Niger
* Brazzaville – National Office to the Republic of the Congo
Republic of the Congo
* Bujumbura – National Office to Burundi * Dakar
Dakar
– Regional Bureau for Education in Africa and Cluster Office for Cape Verde , Gambia , Guinea-Bissau , and Senegal
Senegal
* Dar es Salaam
Dar es Salaam
– Cluster Office for Comoros , Madagascar
Madagascar
, Mauritius
Mauritius
, Seychelles
Seychelles
and Tanzania
Tanzania
* Harare – Cluster Office for Botswana
Botswana
, Malawi , Mozambique
Mozambique
, Zambia
Zambia
and Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
* Juba
Juba
– National Office to South Sudan
Sudan
* Kinshasa
Kinshasa
– National Office to the Democratic Republic of the Congo * Libreville
Libreville
– Cluster Office for the Republic of the Congo
Republic of the Congo
, Democratic Republic of the Congo
Republic of the Congo
, Equatorial Guinea
Guinea
, Gabon
Gabon
and Sao Tome and Principe * Maputo – National Office to Mozambique
Mozambique
* Nairobi
Nairobi
– Regional Bureau for Sciences in Africa and Cluster Office for Burundi , Djibouti , Eritrea
Eritrea
, Kenya
Kenya
, Rwanda
Rwanda
, Somalia
Somalia
, South Sudan
Sudan
and Uganda
Uganda
* Windhoek
Windhoek
– National Office to Namibia
Namibia
* Yaoundé – Cluster Office to Cameroon
Cameroon
, Central African Republic and Chad
Chad

Arab States

* Amman
Amman
– National Office to Jordan
Jordan
* Beirut
Beirut
– Regional Bureau for Education in the Arab States and Cluster Office to Lebanon
Lebanon
, Syria
Syria
, Jordan
Jordan
, Iraq
Iraq
and Palestine * Cairo
Cairo
– Regional Bureau for Sciences in the Arab States and Cluster Office for Egypt
Egypt
, Libya
Libya
and Sudan
Sudan
* Doha
Doha
– Cluster Office to Bahrain
Bahrain
, Kuwait
Kuwait
, Oman
Oman
, Qatar
Qatar
, Saudi Arabia , United Arab Emirates
United Arab Emirates
and Yemen
Yemen
* Iraq
Iraq
– National Office for Iraq
Iraq
(currently located in Amman
Amman
, Jordan
Jordan
) * Khartoum
Khartoum
– National Office to Sudan
Sudan
* Rabat – Cluster Office to Algeria
Algeria
, Mauritania
Mauritania
, Morocco
Morocco
and Tunisia
Tunisia
* Ramallah – National Office to the Palestinian Territories

Asia And Pacific

See also: UNESCO Asia Pacific Heritage Awards

* Apia
Apia
– Cluster Office to Australia, Cook Islands
Cook Islands
, Fiji
Fiji
, Kiribati , Marshall Islands , Federated States of Micronesia , Nauru , New Zealand
New Zealand
, Niue , Palau
Palau
, Papua New Guinea
Guinea
, Samoa
Samoa
, Solomon Islands , Tonga
Tonga
, Tuvalu
Tuvalu
, Vanuatu
Vanuatu
and Tokelau (Associate Member) * Bangkok
Bangkok
– Regional Bureau for Education in Asia and the Pacific and Cluster Office to Thailand
Thailand
, Burma
Burma
, Laos
Laos
, Singapore
Singapore
and Vietnam
Vietnam
* Beijing – Cluster Office to North Korea
North Korea
, Japan, Mongolia
Mongolia
, the People\'s Republic of China
China
and South Korea
South Korea
* Dhaka
Dhaka
– National Office to Bangladesh
Bangladesh
* Hanoi
Hanoi
– National Office to Vietnam
Vietnam
* Islamabad
Islamabad
– National Office to Pakistan
Pakistan
* Jakarta
Jakarta
– Regional Bureau for Sciences in Asia and the Pacific and Cluster Office to Brunei
Brunei
, Indonesia
Indonesia
, Malaysia
Malaysia
, the Philippines and East Timor
East Timor
* Kabul
Kabul
– National Office to Afghanistan
Afghanistan
* Kathmandu
Kathmandu
– National Office to Nepal
Nepal
* New Delhi
New Delhi
– Cluster Office to Bangladesh
Bangladesh
, Bhutan
Bhutan
, India
India
, Maldives
Maldives
, Nepal
Nepal
and Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
* Phnom Penh – National Office to Cambodia
Cambodia
* Tashkent – National Office to Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
* Tehran
Tehran
– Cluster Office to Afghanistan
Afghanistan
, Iran
Iran
, Pakistan
Pakistan
and Turkmenistan

Europe And North America

* Almaty – Cluster Office to Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
, Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
* Brussels
Brussels
– Liaison Office to the European Union
European Union
and its subsidiary bodies in Brussels
Brussels
* Geneva
Geneva
– Liaison Office to the United Nations
United Nations
in Geneva
Geneva
* New York City – Liaison Office to the United Nations
United Nations
in New York

* Moscow – Cluster Office to Armenia
Armenia
, Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
, Belarus
Belarus
, Moldova
Moldova
and Russia * Venice
Venice
– Regional Bureau for Sciences and Culture in Europe

Latin America And The Caribbean

Carondelet Palace , Presidential Palace – with changing of the guards. The Historic Center of Quito , Ecuador
Ecuador
is one of the largest, least-altered and best-preserved historic centers in the Americas . This center was, together with the historic centre of Kraków in Poland, the first to be declared World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
by UNESCO
UNESCO
on 18 September 1978.

* Brasilia
Brasilia
– National Office to Brazil
Brazil
* Guatemala
Guatemala
City – National Office to Guatemala
Guatemala
* Havana
Havana
– Regional Bureau for Culture in Latin America and the Caribbean
Caribbean
and Cluster Office to Cuba
Cuba
, Dominican Republic , Haiti
Haiti
and Aruba * Kingston – Cluster Office to Antigua and Barbuda , Bahamas
Bahamas
, Barbados
Barbados
, Belize
Belize
, Dominica , Grenada , Guyana
Guyana
, Jamaica
Jamaica
, Saint Kitts and Nevis , Saint Lucia
Saint Lucia
, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines , Suriname
Suriname
and Trinidad and Tobago as well as the associate member states of British Virgin Islands , Cayman Islands , Curaçao and Sint Maarten * Lima
Lima
– National Office to Peru
Peru
* Mexico
Mexico
City – National Office to Mexico
Mexico
* Montevideo
Montevideo
– Regional Bureau for Sciences in Latin America and the Caribbean
Caribbean
and Cluster Office to Argentina
Argentina
, Brazil
Brazil
, Chile
Chile
, Paraguay
Paraguay
and Uruguay
Uruguay
* Port-au-Prince – National Office to Haiti
Haiti
* Quito – Cluster Office to Bolivia
Bolivia
, Colombia
Colombia
, Ecuador
Ecuador
and Venezuela
Venezuela
* San José – Cluster Office to Costa Rica
Costa Rica
, El Salvador
El Salvador
, Guatemala
Guatemala
, Honduras
Honduras
, Mexico
Mexico
, Nicaragua and Panama
Panama
* Santiago de Chile
Chile
– Regional Bureau for Education in Latin America and the Caribbean
Caribbean
and National Office to Chile
Chile

CONTROVERSIES

NEW WORLD INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION ORDER

UNESCO
UNESCO
has been the centre of controversy in the past, particularly in its relationships with the United States
United States
, the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
, Singapore
Singapore
and the former Soviet Union
Soviet Union
. During the 1970s and 1980s, UNESCO's support for a "New World Information and Communication Order " and its MacBride report calling for democratization of the media and more egalitarian access to information was condemned in these countries as attempts to curb freedom of the press . UNESCO
UNESCO
was perceived by some as a platform for communists and Third World dictators to attack the West, a stark contrast to accusations made by the USSR in the late 1940s and early 1950s. In 1984, the United States withheld its contributions and withdrew from the organization in protest, followed by the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
in 1985. Singapore
Singapore
took the opportunity to withdraw also at the end of 1985, citing rising membership fees. Following a change of government in 1997, the UK rejoined. The United States
United States
rejoined in 2003, followed by Singapore
Singapore
on 8 October 2007.

ISRAEL

Israel
Israel
was admitted to UNESCO
UNESCO
in 1949, one year after its creation. Israel
Israel
has maintained its membership since 1949. In 2010, Israel designated the Cave of the Patriarchs , Hebron and Rachel\'s Tomb , Bethlehem
Bethlehem
as National Heritage Sites and announced restoration work, prompting criticism from the United States
United States
and protests from Palestinians. In October 2010, UNESCO's Executive Board voted to declare the sites as "al-Haram al-Ibrahimi/Tomb of the Patriarchs" and "Bilal bin Rabah Mosque/Rachel's Tomb" and stated that they were "an integral part of the occupied Palestinian Territories " and any unilateral Israeli action was a violation of international law . UNESCO
UNESCO
described the sites as significant to "people of the Muslim, Christian and Jewish traditions", and accused Israel
Israel
of highlighting only the Jewish character of the sites. Israel
Israel
in turn accused UNESCO of "detach the Nation of Israel
Israel
from its heritage", and accused it of being politically motivated. The Rabbi of the Western Wall claimed that Rachel's tomb had not previously been declared a holy Muslim site. Israel
Israel
partially suspended ties with UNESCO. Israeli Deputy Foreign Minister Danny Ayalon declared that the resolution was a "part of Palestinian escalation". Zevulun Orlev , chairman of the Knesset Education and Culture Committee, referred to the resolutions as an attempt to undermine the mission of UNESCO
UNESCO
as a scientific and cultural organization that promotes cooperation throughout the world.

On 28 June 2011, UNESCO's World Heritage Committee, at Jordan
Jordan
's insistence, censured Israel's decision to demolish and rebuild the Mughrabi Gate Bridge in Jerusalem for safety reasons. Israel
Israel
stated that Jordan
Jordan
had signed an agreement with Israel
Israel
stipulating that the existing bridge must be dismantled for safety reasons; Jordan
Jordan
disputed the agreement, saying that it was only signed under U.S. pressure. Israel
Israel
was also unable to address the UNESCO
UNESCO
committee over objections from Egypt
Egypt
.

In January 2014, days before it was scheduled to open, UNESCO Director-General, Irina Bokova , "indefinitely postponed" and effectively cancelled an exhibit created by the Simon Wiesenthal Center entitled, "The People, The Book, The Land: The 3,500-year relationship between the Jewish people and the Land of Israel
Israel
." The event was scheduled to run from 21 January through 30 January in Paris. Bokova cancelled the event after representatives of Arab states at UNESCO
UNESCO
argued that its display would "harm the peace process ". The author of the exhibition, Professor Robert Wistrich of the Hebrew University 's Vidal Sassoon International Center for the Study of Anti-Semitism , called the cancellation an "appalling act," and characterized Bokova's decision as "an arbitrary act of total cynicism and, really, contempt for the Jewish people and its history." UNESCO amended the decision to cancel the exhibit within the year, and it quickly achieved popularity and was viewed as a great success.

Occupied Palestine Resolution

Main article: Occupied Palestine Resolution

On 13 October 2016, UNESCO
UNESCO
passed a resolution on East Jerusalem that condemned Israel
Israel
for "aggressions" by Israeli police and soldiers and "illegal measures" against the freedom of worship and Muslims' access to their holy sites, while also recognizing Israel
Israel
as the occupying power. Palestinian leaders welcomed the decision. While the text acknowledged the "importance of the Old City of Jerusalem and its walls for the three monotheistic religions", it referred to the sacred hilltop compound in Jerusalem's Old City only by its Muslim name "Al-Haram al-Sharif", Arabic for Noble Sanctuary. In response, Israel denounced the UNESCO
UNESCO
resolution for its omission of the words "Temple Mount" stating that it denies Jewish ties to the key holy site . After receiving criticism from numerous Israeli politicians and diplomats, including Benjamin Netanyahu and Ayelet Shaked
Ayelet Shaked
, Israel froze all ties with the organization. The resolution was condemned by Ban ki-Moon and the Director-General of UNESCO, Irina Bokova, who said that Judaism, Islam and Christianity have clear historical connections to Jerusalem and "to deny, conceal or erase any of the Jewish, Christian or Muslim traditions undermines the integrity of the site. Al-Aqsa Mosque is also Temple Mount, whose Western Wall is the holiest place in Judaism." It was also rejected by the Czech Parliament which said the resolution reflects a "hateful anti-Israel sentiment", and hundreds of Italian Jews demonstrated in Rome over Italy
Italy
abstention. On 26 October, UNESCO
UNESCO
approved a reviewed version of the resolution, which also criticized Israel
Israel
for its continuous "refusal to let the body's experts access Jerusalem's holy sites to determine their conservation status." Despite containing some softening of language following Israeli protests over a previous version, Israel
Israel
continued to denounce the text. The resolution refers to the site Jews and Christians refer to as the Temple Mount only by its Arab name — a significant semantic decision also adopted by UNESCO's executive board last week, triggering condemnation from Israel
Israel
and its allies. U.S. Ambassador Crystal Nix Hines stated: "This item should have been defeated. These politicized and one-sided resolutions are damaging the credibility of UNESCO." In November 2016, the City Council of Beverly Hills, California passed a resolution to condemn the UNESCO
UNESCO
resolution.

PALESTINE

Palestinian Youth Magazine Controversy

In February 2011, an article was published in a Palestinian youth magazine in which a teenage girl described one of her four role-models as Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
. In December 2011, UNESCO, which partly funded the magazine, condemned the material and subsequently withdrew support.

Islamic University Of Gaza Controversy

In 2012, UNESCO
UNESCO
decided to establish a chair at the Islamic University of Gaza in the field of astronomy , astrophysics , and space sciences , fueling much controversy and criticism. Israel
Israel
's foreign ministry criticized the move and stated that the university supports Hamas (which Israel
Israel
and other countries designate as a terrorist organization) and houses bomb laboratories for Hamas.

The head, Kamalain Shaath , defended UNESCO, stating that "the Islamic University is a purely academic university that is interested only in education and its development". Israeli ambassador to UNESCO
UNESCO
Nimrod Barkan planned to submit a letter of protest with information about the university's ties to Hamas, especially angry that this was the first Palestinian university that UNESCO
UNESCO
chose to cooperate with. The Jewish organization B\'nai B\'rith criticized the move as well.

WIKILEAKS

On 16 and 17 February 2012, UNESCO
UNESCO
held a conference entitled, "The Media World after WikiLeaks and News of the World ." Despite all six panels being focused on WikiLeaks, no member of WikiLeaks staff were invited to speak. After receiving a complaint from WikiLeaks spokesman Kristinn Hrafnsson , UNESCO
UNESCO
invited him to attend, but did not offer a place on any panels. The offer also came only a week before the conference, which was held in Paris, France. Many of the speakers featured, including David Leigh and Heather Brooke , had spoken out openly against WikiLeaks and its founder Julian Assange in the past. WikiLeaks released a press statement on 15 February 2012 denouncing UNESCO
UNESCO
which stated, " UNESCO
UNESCO
has made itself an international human rights joke. To use "freedom of expression" to censor WikiLeaks from a conference about WikiLeaks is an Orwellian absurdity beyond words."

CHE GUEVARA

In 2013, UNESCO
UNESCO
announced that the collection "The Life and Works of Ernesto Che Guevara " became part of the Memory of the World Register . Ileana Ros-Lehtinen , a US congresswoman , condemned this decision, saying that the organization acts against its own ideals:

This decision is more than an insult to the families of those Cubans who were lined up and summarily executed by Che and his merciless cronies it also serves as a direct contradiction to the UNESCO
UNESCO
ideals of encouraging peace and universal respect for human rights.

UN Watch , also condemned this selection by UNESCO.

LISTING NANJING MASSACRE DOCUMENTS

In 2015, Japan
Japan
threatened to halt funding for UNESCO
UNESCO
over the organization's decision to include documents relating to the 1937 Nanjing massacre in the latest listing for its "Memory of the World" program. In October 2016, Japanese Foreign Minister Fumio Kishida confirmed that Japan's 2016 annual funding of ¥4.4 billion had been suspended although denied any direct link with the Nanjing document controversy.

PRODUCTS OR SERVICES

* UNESDOC – Contains over 146,000 UNESCO
UNESCO
documents in full text published since 1945 as well as metadata from the collections of the UNESCO
UNESCO
Library and documentation centres in Field Offices and Institutes.

INFORMATION PROCESSING TOOLS

UNESCO
UNESCO
develops, maintains and disseminates, free-of-charge, two interrelated software packages for database management (CDS/ISIS) and data mining/statistical analysis (IDAMS).

* CDS/ISIS - a generalised Information Storage and Retrieval system. The Windows version may run on a single computer or in a local area network. The JavaISIS client/server components allow remote database management over the Internet and are available for Windows, Linux and Macintosh. Furthermore, GenISIS allows the user to produce HTML Web forms for CDS/ISIS database searching. The ISIS_DLL provides an API for developing CDS/ISIS based applications. * OpenIDAMS – a software package for processing and analysing numerical data developed, maintained and disseminated by UNESCO. The original package was proprietary but UNESCO
UNESCO
has initiated a project to provide it as open source. * IDIS - a tool for direct data exchange between CDS/ISIS and IDAMS.

SEE ALSO

* United Nations
United Nations
portal

* Academic Mobility Network * WikiProject UNESCO

REFERENCES AND NOTES

* ^ _A_ _B_ " UNESCO
UNESCO
history". UNESCO. Retrieved 23 April 2010. * ^ "UNESCO". _UNESCO_. Retrieved 25 September 2015. * ^ UNESCO's General Conference voted on 31 October 2011 "to admit Palestine as a member State". However, it notes that, for "its membership to take effect, Palestine must sign and ratify UNESCO's Constitution". " UNESCO
UNESCO
" Media Services " General Conference admits Palestine as UNESCO
UNESCO
Member State". UNESCO. * ^ "Member States United Nations
United Nations
Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization". UNESCO. * ^ "The Faroes become associated

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