Coordinates: 39°N 71°E / 39°N 71°E / 39; 71
Republic of Tajikistan
Ҷумҳурии Тоҷикистон (Tajik)
Anthem: Суруди Миллӣ
Location of Tajikistan (green)
and largest city
38°33′N 68°48′E / 38.550°N 68.800°E / 38.550; 68.800
Ethnic groups (2010)
Unitary dominant-party presidential republic
• Prime Minister
• Upper house
• Lower house
Assembly of Representatives
Independence from the Soviet Union
9 September 1991
• CIS full membership
21 December 1991
26 December 1991
• Admitted to the United Nations
2 March 1992
• Current constitution
6 November 1994
143,100 km2 (55,300 sq mi) (94th)
• Water (%)
• 2016 estimate
• 2010 census
48.6/km2 (125.9/sq mi) (155th)
$27.802 billion (128th)
• Per capita
$7.242 billion (136th)
• Per capita
medium · 129th
Drives on the
ISO 3166 code
Tajikistan (/tɑːˈdʒiːkɪstɑːn/ ( listen),
/təˈdʒiːkɪstæn/, or /tæˈdʒiːkiːstæn/; Tajik:
Тоҷикистон [tɔːd͡ʒikɪsˈtɔːn]), officially the
Tajikistan (Tajik: Ҷумҳурии Тоҷикистон,
Çumhuriji Toçikiston), is a mountainous, landlocked country in
Central Asia with an estimated population of 8.7 million people as of
2016, and an area of 143,100 km2 (55,300 sq mi). It is
Afghanistan to the south,
Uzbekistan to the west,
Kyrgyzstan to the north, and
China to the east. Traditional homelands
Tajik people included present-day Tajikistan,
The territory that now constitutes
Tajikistan was previously home to
several ancient cultures, including the city of Sarazm of the
Neolithic and the Bronze Age, and was later home to kingdoms ruled by
people of different faiths and cultures, including the Oxus
civilisation, Andronovo culture, Buddhism, Nestorian Christianity,
Manichaeism and Islam. The area has been ruled by
numerous empires and dynasties, including the Achaemenid Empire,
Sasanian Empire, Hephthalite Empire,
Samanid Empire, Mongol Empire,
Timurid dynasty, the Russian Empire, and subsequently the Soviet
Union, upon whose dissolution in 1991
Tajikistan became an independent
nation. A civil war was fought almost immediately after independence,
lasting from 1992 to 1997. Since the end of the war, newly established
political stability and foreign aid have allowed the country's economy
to grow. Like all other Central Asian neighbouring states, the
country, led by President
Emomali Rahmon since 1994, has been
criticised for authoritarian leadership, lack of religious freedom,
corruption and widespread violations of human rights by a number of
Tajikistan is a presidential republic consisting of four provinces.
Most of Tajikistan's 8.7 million people belong to the Tajik ethnic
group, who speak Tajik (a dialect of Persian). Many
Tajiks also speak
Russian as their second language. While the state is constitutionally
Islam is practiced by 98% of the population. The
Gorno-Badakhshan Oblast of
Tajikistan despite its sparse population is
home to incredible linguistic diversity where Rushani, Shughni,
Ishkashimi, Wakhi and Tajik number among the languages spoken.
Mountains cover more than 90% of the country. It has a transition
economy that is highly dependent on remittances, aluminium and cotton
Tajikistan is a member of the United Nations, CIS, OSCE,
OIC, ECO, SCO and CSTO as well as an
NATO PfP partner.
2.1 Early history
2.2 Russian Tajikistan
2.3 Soviet Tajikistan
4.1 Administrative divisions
11 Notable individuals
12 See also
14 Further reading
15 External links
Main article: Tajik people
Tajikistan means the "Land of the Tajiks". The suffix "-stan" is
Persian for "place of" or "country" and Tajik is, most likely,
the name of a pre-Islamic (before the seventh century A.D.) tribe.
According to the Library of Congress's 1997 Country Study of
Tajikistan, it is difficult to definitively state the origins of the
word "Tajik" because the term is "embroiled in twentieth-century
political disputes about whether Turkic or Iranian peoples were the
original inhabitants of Central Asia."
Tajikistan appeared as Tadjikistan or Tadzhikistan in English prior to
1991. This is due to a transliteration from the Russian:
"Таджикистан". In Russian, there is no single letter j to
represent the phoneme /ʤ/ and дж, or dzh, is used. Tadzhikistan is
the most common alternate spelling and is widely used in English
literature derived from Russian sources. "Tadjikistan" is the
spelling in French and can occasionally be found in English language
texts. The way of writing
Tajikistan in the Perso-Arabic script is:
Main article: History of Tajikistan
Cultures in the region have been dated back to at least the 4th
millennium BCE, including the
Bronze Age Bactria–Margiana
Archaeological Complex, the Andronovo cultures and the pro-urban site
of Sarazm, a UNESCO World Heritage site.
The earliest recorded history of the region dates back to about 500
BCE when much, if not all, of modern
Tajikistan was part of the
Achaemenid Empire. Some authors have also suggested that in the 7th
and 6th century BCE parts of modern Tajikistan, including territories
in the Zeravshan valley, formed part of
Kambojas before it became part
of the Achaemenid Empire. After the region's conquest by Alexander
the Great it became part of the Greco-Bactrian Kingdom, a successor
state of Alexander's empire. Northern
Tajikistan (the cities of
Khujand and Panjakent) was part of Sogdia, a collection of city-states
which was overrun by
Yuezhi nomadic tribes around 150
Silk Road passed through the region and following the
expedition of Chinese explorer
Zhang Qian during the reign of Wudi
(141–87 BCE) commercial relations between Han
China and Sogdiana
flourished. Sogdians played a major role in facilitating trade
and also worked in other capacities, as farmers, carpetweavers,
glassmakers, and woodcarvers.
The Kushan Empire, a collection of
Yuezhi tribes, took control of the
region in the first century CE and ruled until the 4th century CE
during which time Buddhism, Nestorian Christianity, Zoroastrianism,
Manichaeism were all practised in the region. Later the
Hephthalite Empire, a collection of nomadic tribes, moved into the
region and Arabs brought
Islam in the early eighth century.
Central Asia continued in its role as a commercial crossroads, linking
China, the steppes to the north, and the Islamic heartland.
Mansur I (961–976)
Flag of Tajik SSR
19th-century painting of lake
Zorkul and a local Tajik inhabitant
It was temporarily under the control of the
Tibetan empire and Chinese
from 650–680 and then under the control of the Umayyads in 710. The
Samanid Empire, 819 to 999, restored Persian control of the region and
enlarged the cities of
Bukhara (both cities are today
part of Uzbekistan) which became the cultural centres of
Iran and the
region was known as Khorasan. The
Kara-Khanid Khanate conquered
Transoxania (which corresponds approximately with modern-day
Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, southern
Kyrgyzstan and southwest Kazakhstan)
and ruled between 999–1211. Their arrival in Transoxania
signalled a definitive shift from Iranian to Turkic predominance in
Central Asia, but gradually the Kara-khanids became assimilated
into the Perso-
Muslim culture of the region.
During Genghis Khan's invasion of Khwarezmia in the early 13th century
Mongol Empire took control over nearly all of Central Asia. In
less than a century the
Mongol Empire broke up and modern Tajikistan
came under the rule of the Chagatai Khanate.
Tamerlane created the
Timurid dynasty and took control of the region in the 14th century.
Tajikistan fell under the rule of the Khanate of
the 16th century and with the empire's collapse in the 18th century it
came under the rule of both the Emirate of
Bukhara and Khanate of
Kokand. The Emirate of
Bukhara remained intact until the 20th century
but during the 19th century, for the second time in world history, a
European power (the Russian Empire) began to conquer parts of the
See also: The Great Game, Russian conquest of Turkestan, and Russian
Imperialism led to the Russian Empire's conquest of Central
Asia during the late 19th century's Imperial Era. Between 1864 and
Russia gradually took control of the entire territory of Russian
Tajikistan portion of which had been controlled by the
Bukhara and Khanate of Kokand.
Russia was interested in
gaining access to a supply of cotton and in the 1870s attempted to
switch cultivation in the region from grain to cotton (a strategy
later copied and expanded by the Soviets). By 1885
Tajikistan's territory was either ruled by the
Russian Empire or its
vassal state, the Emirate of Bukhara, nevertheless
Tajiks felt little
Russian influence.
During the late 19th Century the Jadidists established themselves as
an Islamic social movement throughout the region. Although the
Jadidists were pro-modernization and not necessarily anti-Russian, the
Russians viewed the movement as a threat. Russian
troops were required to restore order during uprisings against the
Khanate of Kokand
Khanate of Kokand between 1910 and 1913. Further violence occurred in
July 1916 when demonstrators attacked Russian soldiers in
the threat of forced conscription during World War I. Despite Russian
troops quickly bringing
Khujand back under control, clashes continued
throughout the year in various locations in Tajikistan.[citation
Basmachi movement and Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic
Soviet negotiations with basmachi, 1921
Russian Revolution of 1917 guerrillas throughout Central
Asia, known as basmachi, waged a war against
Bolshevik armies in a
futile attempt to maintain independence. The Bolsheviks prevailed
after a four-year war, in which mosques and villages were burned down
and the population heavily suppressed. Soviet authorities started a
campaign of secularisation. Practising Islam, Judaism, and
Christianity was discouraged and repressed, and many mosques,
churches, and synagogues were closed. As a consequence of the
conflict and Soviet agriculture policies, Central Asia, Tajikistan
included, suffered a famine that claimed many lives.
In 1924, the
Tajik Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic
Tajik Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic was created as
a part of Uzbekistan, but in 1929 the Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic
(Tajik SSR) was made a separate constituent republic; however, the
predominantly ethnic Tajik cities of
Bukhara remained in
the Uzbek SSR. Between 1927 and 1934, collectivisation of agriculture
and a rapid expansion of cotton production took place, especially in
the southern region. Soviet collectivisation policy brought
violence against peasants and forced resettlement occurred throughout
Tajikistan. Consequently, some peasants fought collectivisation and
Basmachi movement. Some small scale industrial development
also occurred during this time along with the expansion of irrigation
Two rounds of Soviet purges directed by Moscow (1927–1934 and
1937–1938) resulted in the expulsion of nearly 10,000 people, from
all levels of the Communist Party of Tajikistan. Ethnic Russians
were sent in to replace those expelled and subsequently Russians
dominated party positions at all levels, including the top position of
first secretary. Between 1926 and 1959 the proportion of Russians
among Tajikistan's population grew from less than 1% to 13%.
Bobojon Ghafurov, Tajikistan's First Secretary of the Communist Party
Tajikistan from 1946–1956 was the only Tajikistani politician of
significance outside of the country during the Soviet Era. He was
followed in office by
Tursun Uljabayev (1956–61), Jabbor Rasulov
Rahmon Nabiyev (1982–1985, 1991–1992).
Tajiks began to be conscripted into the Soviet Army in 1939 and during
World War II
World War II around 260,000 Tajik citizens fought against Germany,
Finland and Japan. Between 60,000 (4%) and 120,000 (8%) of
Tajikistan's 1,530,000 citizens were killed during World War II.
Following the war and Stalin's reign attempts were made to further
expand the agriculture and industry of Tajikistan. During
1957–58 Nikita Khrushchev's
Virgin Lands Campaign
Virgin Lands Campaign focused attention
on Tajikistan, where living conditions, education and industry lagged
behind the other Soviet Republics. In the 1980s,
the lowest household saving rate in the USSR, the lowest
percentage of households in the two top per capita income groups,
and the lowest rate of university graduates per 1000 people. By
the late 1980s Tajik nationalists were calling for increased rights.
Real disturbances did not occur within the republic until 1990. The
following year, the
Soviet Union collapsed, and
Tajik men and women rally on Ozodi square in
Dushanbe shortly after
See also: Tajikistani Civil War
Spetsnaz soldiers during the civil war, 1992
The nation almost immediately fell into civil war that involved
various factions fighting one another; these factions were often
distinguished by clan loyalties. More than 500,000 residents fled
during this time because of persecution, increased poverty and better
economic opportunities in the West or in other former Soviet
Emomali Rahmon came to power in 1992, defeating former
Abdumalik Abdullajanov in a November presidential
election with 58% of the vote. The elections took place shortly
after the end of the war, and
Tajikistan was in a state of complete
devastation. The estimated dead numbered over 100,000. Around 1.2
million people were refugees inside and outside of the country. In
1997, a ceasefire was reached between Rahmon and opposition parties
under the guidance of Gerd D. Merrem,
Special Representative to the
Secretary General, a result widely praised as a successful United
Nations peacekeeping initiative. The ceasefire guaranteed 30% of
ministerial positions would go to the opposition. Elections were
held in 1999, though they were criticised by opposition parties and
foreign observers as unfair and Rahmon was re-elected with 98% of the
vote. Elections in 2006 were again won by Rahmon (with 79% of the
vote) and he began his third term in office. Several opposition
parties boycotted the 2006 election and the Organization for Security
and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) criticised it, although observers
Commonwealth of Independent States
Commonwealth of Independent States claimed the elections were
legal and transparent. Rahmon's administration came under
further criticism from the OSCE in October 2010 for its censorship and
repression of the media. The OSCE claimed that the Tajik Government
censored Tajik and foreign websites and instituted tax inspections on
independent printing houses that led to the cessation of printing
activities for a number of independent newspapers.
Russian border troops were stationed along the Tajik–Afghan border
until summer 2005. Since the September 11, 2001 attacks, French troops
have been stationed at the
Dushanbe Airport in support of air
operations of NATO's
International Security Assistance Force
International Security Assistance Force in
United States Army
United States Army and Marine Corps personnel
Tajikistan to conduct joint training missions of up
to several weeks duration. The
Government of India
Government of India rebuilt the Ayni
Air Base, a military airport located 15 km southwest of Dushanbe,
at a cost of $70 million, completing the repairs in September
2010. It is now the main base of the
Tajikistan air force. There
have been talks with
Russia concerning use of the Ayni facility,
Russia continues to maintain a large base on the outskirts of
In 2010, there were concerns among Tajik officials that Islamic
militarism in the east of the country was on the rise following the
escape of 25 militants from a Tajik prison in August, an ambush that
killed 28 Tajik soldiers in the
Rasht Valley in September, and
another ambush in the valley in October that killed 30 soldiers,
followed by fighting outside
Gharm that left 3 militants dead. To date
the country's Interior Ministry asserts that the central government
maintains full control over the country's east, and the military
operation in the
Rasht Valley was concluded in November 2010.
However, fighting erupted again in July 2012. In 2015,
more troops to Tajikistan.
In May 2015, Tajikistan's national security suffered a serious setback
when Colonel Gulmurod Khalimov, commander of the special-purpose
police unit (OMON) of the Interior Ministry, defected to the Islamic
Main article: Politics of Tajikistan
See also: Elections in Tajikistan, Foreign relations of Tajikistan,
Military of Tajikistan, and Human rights in Tajikistan
The Palace of Nations in Dushanbe
Almost immediately after independence,
Tajikistan was plunged into a
civil war that saw various factions, allegedly[according to whom?]
Russia and Iran, fighting one another. All
but 25,000 of the more than 400,000 ethnic Russians, who were mostly
employed in industry, fled to Russia. By 1997, the war had cooled
down, and a central government began to take form, with peaceful
elections in 1999.
President of Tajikistan
President of Tajikistan Emomali Rahmon, has ruled the country since
"Longtime observers of
Tajikistan often characterize the country as
profoundly averse to risk and skeptical of promises of reform, a
political passivity they trace to the country’s ruinous civil war,"
Ilan Greenberg wrote in a news article in
The New York Times
The New York Times just
before the country's November 2006 presidential election.
Tajikistan is officially a republic, and holds elections for the
presidency and parliament, operating under a presidential system. It
is, however, a dominant-party system, where the People's Democratic
Tajikistan routinely has a vast majority in Parliament.
Emomalii Rahmon has held the office of President of Tajikistan
continually since November 1994. The Prime Minister is Kokhir
Rasulzoda, the First Deputy Prime Minister is Matlubkhon Davlatov and
the two Deputy Prime Ministers are Murodali Alimardon and Ruqiya
The parliamentary elections of 2005 aroused many accusations from
opposition parties and international observers that President Emomalii
Rahmon corruptly manipulates the election process and unemployment.
The most recent elections, in February 2010, saw the ruling PDPT lose
four seats in Parliament, yet still maintain a comfortable majority.
Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe
Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe election
observers said the 2010 polling "failed to meet many key OSCE
commitments" and that "these elections failed on many basic democratic
standards." The government insisted that only minor violations
had occurred, which would not affect the will of the Tajik
The presidential election held on 6 November 2006 was boycotted by
"mainline" opposition parties, including the 23,000-member Islamic
Renaissance Party. Four remaining opponents "all but endorsed the
Iran its support in Iran's
membership bid to join the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, after a
meeting between the Tajik President and the Iranian foreign
Freedom of the press is ostensibly officially guaranteed by the
government, but independent press outlets remain restricted, as does a
substantial amount of web content. According to the Institute for War
& Peace Reporting, access is blocked to local and foreign websites
including avesta.tj, Tjknews.com, ferghana.ru, centrasia.ru and
journalists are often obstructed from reporting on controversial
events. In practice, no public criticism of the regime is tolerated
and all direct protest is severely suppressed and does not receive
coverage in the local media.
Main article: Geography of Tajikistan
Satellite photograph of Tajikistan
Tajikistan map of Köppen climate classification
Tajikistan is landlocked, and is the smallest nation in Central Asia
by area. It lies mostly between latitudes 36° and 41° N, and
longitudes 67° and 75° E. It is covered by mountains of the Pamir
range, and more than fifty percent of the country is over 3,000 metres
(9,800 ft) above sea level. The only major areas of lower land
are in the north (part of the Fergana Valley), and in the southern
Kofarnihon and Vakhsh river valleys, which form the Amu Darya.
Dushanbe is located on the southern slopes above the Kofarnihon
Somoni Peak (highest)
North-western edge of
south of the Kyrgyz border
Ibn Sina Peak
Ibn Sina Peak (Lenin Peak)
Northern border in the Trans-Alay Range,
north-east of Ismoil
North of Ismoil
Somoni Peak, on the south bank
of Muksu River
Independence Peak (Revolution Peak)
Central Gorno-Badakhshan, south-east of Ismoil
Academy of Sciences Range
North-western Gorno-Badakhshan, stretches in
the north-south direction
Karl Marx Peak
GBAO, near the border to
Afghanistan in the
northern ridge of the Karakoram Range
Extreme south-west of GBAO, near the border to
Southern border in the northern ridge of the
Northern border in the Trans-Alay Range
Amu Darya and Panj rivers mark the border with Afghanistan, and
the glaciers in Tajikistan's mountains are the major source of runoff
for the Aral Sea. There are over 900 rivers in
Tajikistan longer than
Provinces of Tajikistan
Provinces of Tajikistan and Districts of Tajikistan
Mountains of Tajikistan
Tajikistan consists of 4 administrative divisions. These are the
provinces (viloyat) of
Sughd and Khatlon, the autonomous province of
Gorno-Badakhshan (abbreviated as GBAO), and the Region of Republican
Subordination (RRP – Raiony Respublikanskogo Podchineniya in
transliteration from Russian or NTJ – Ноҳияҳои тобеи
ҷумҳурӣ in Tajik; formerly known as Karotegin Province). Each
region is divided into several districts, (Tajik: Ноҳия, nohiya
or raion), which in turn are subdivided into jamoats (village-level
self-governing units) and then villages (qyshloqs). As of
2006[update], there were 58 districts and 367 jamoats in
Pop (2010) Census
Region of Republican Subordination
About 2% of the country's area is covered by lakes, the best known of
which are the following:
Kayrakum (Qairoqqum) Reservoir (Sughd)
Iskanderkul (Fann Mountains)
Kulikalon (Kul-i Kalon) (Fann Mountains)
Nurek Reservoir (Khatlon)
Karakul (Template:Lang-Kg; eastern Pamir)
Shadau Lake (Pamir)
Main article: Economy of Tajikistan
See also: Agriculture in Tajikistan
A Tajik dry fruit seller
Nearly 47% of Tajikistan's
GDP comes from immigrant remittances
Tajiks working in Russian Federation). The
current economic situation remains fragile, largely owing to
corruption, uneven economic reforms, and economic mismanagement. With
foreign revenue precariously dependent upon remittances from migrant
workers overseas and exports of aluminium and cotton, the economy is
highly vulnerable to external shocks. In FY 2000, international
assistance remained an essential source of support for rehabilitation
programs that reintegrated former civil war combatants into the
civilian economy, which helped keep the peace. International
assistance also was necessary to address the second year of severe
drought that resulted in a continued shortfall of food production. On
21 August 2001, the
Red Cross announced that a famine was striking
Tajikistan, and called for international aid for
Uzbekistan; however, access to food remains a problem today. In
January 2012, 680,152 of the people living in
Tajikistan were living
with food insecurity. Out of those, 676,852 were at risk of Phase 3
(Acute Food and Livelihoods Crisis) food insecurity and 3,300 were at
risk of Phase 4 (Humanitarian Emergency). Those with the highest risk
of food insecurity were living in the remote
Murghob District of
TadAZ aluminium smelting plant, in Tursunzoda, is the largest
aluminium manufacturing plant in Central Asia, and Tajikistan's chief
Tajikistan's economy grew substantially after the war. The
Tajikistan expanded at an average rate of 9.6% over the period of
2000–2007 according to the
World Bank data. This improved
Tajikistan's position among other Central Asian countries (namely
Turkmenia and Uzbekistan), which seem to have degraded economically
ever since. The primary sources of income in
aluminium production, cotton growing and remittances from migrant
Cotton accounts for 60% of agricultural output,
supporting 75% of the rural population, and using 45% of irrigated
arable land. The aluminium industry is represented by the
Tajik Aluminum Company
Tajik Aluminum Company – the biggest aluminium plant in
Central Asia and one of the biggest in the world.
Tajikistan's rivers, such as the Vakhsh and the Panj, have great
hydropower potential, and the government has focused on attracting
investment for projects for internal use and electricity exports.
Tajikistan is home to the Nurek Dam, the highest dam in the world.
RAO UES energy giant has been working on the
Sangtuda-1 hydroelectric power station (670 MW capacity)
commenced operations on 18 January 2008. Other projects at the
development stage include Sangtuda-2 by Iran, Zerafshan by the Chinese
company SinoHydro, and the Rogun power plant that, at a projected
height of 335 metres (1,099 ft), would supersede the
Nurek Dam as
highest in the world if it is brought to completion. A planned
project, CASA-1000, will transmit 1000 MW of surplus electricity from
Pakistan with power transit through Afghanistan. The
total length of transmission line is 750 km while the project is
planned to be on Public-Private Partnership basis with the support of
WB, IFC, ADB and IDB. The project cost is estimated to be around
US$865 million. Other energy resources include sizeable coal
deposits and smaller reserves of natural gas and petroleum.
Graphical depiction of Tajikistan's product exports in 28 colour-coded
Tajikistan was the world's most remittance-dependent economy
with remittances accounting for 49% of
GDP and expected to fall by 40%
in 2015 due to the economic crisis in the Russian Federation.
Tajik migrant workers abroad, mainly in the Russian Federation, have
become by far the main source of income for millions of Tajikistan's
people and with the 2014–2015 downturn in the Russian economy
World Bank has predicted large numbers of young Tajik men will
return home and face few economic prospects.
According to some estimates about 20% of the population lives on less
than US$1.25 per day. Migration from
Tajikistan and the consequent
remittances have been unprecedented in their magnitude and economic
impact. In 2010, remittances from Tajik labour migrants totalled an
estimated $2.1 billion US dollars, an increase from 2009. Tajikistan
has achieved transition from a planned to a market economy without
substantial and protracted recourse to aid (of which it by now
receives only negligible amounts), and by purely market-based means,
simply by exporting its main commodity of comparative
advantage — cheap labour. The
Note 2006 concludes that remittances have played an important role as
one of the drivers of Tajikistan's robust economic growth during the
past several years, have increased incomes, and as a result helped
significantly reduce poverty.
Drug trafficking is the major illegal source of income in
Tajikistan as it is an important transit country for Afghan
narcotics bound for Russian and, to a lesser extent, Western European
markets; some opium poppy is also raised locally for the domestic
market. However, with the increasing assistance from international
organisations, such as UNODC, and co-operation with the US, Russian,
EU and Afghan authorities a level of progress on the fight against
illegal drug-trafficking is being achieved.
Tajikistan holds third
place in the world for heroin and raw opium confiscations
(1216.3 kg of heroin and 267.8 kg of raw opium in the first
half of 2006). Drug money corrupts the country's government;
according to some experts the well-known personalities that fought on
both sides of the civil war and have held the positions in the
government after the armistice was signed are now involved in the drug
UNODC is working with
Tajikistan to strengthen border
crossings, provide training, and set up joint interdiction teams. It
also helped to establish Tajikistani Drug Control Agency.
Tajikistan is an active member of the Economic Cooperation
Main article: Transport in Tajikistan
Dushanbe railway station
In 2013 Tajikistan, like many of the other Central Asian countries,
was experiencing major development in its transportation sector.
As a landlocked country
Tajikistan has no ports and the majority of
transportation is via roads, air, and rail. In recent years Tajikistan
has pursued agreements with
Pakistan to gain port access in
those countries via Afghanistan. In 2009, an agreement was made
between Tajikistan, Pakistan, and
Afghanistan to improve and build a
1,300 km (810 mi) highway and rail system connecting the
three countries to Pakistan's ports. The proposed route would go
Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Province in the eastern part
of the country. And in 2012, the presidents of Tajikistan,
Iran signed an agreement to construct roads and
railways as well as oil, gas, and water pipelines to connect the three
Main article: Rail transport in Tajikistan
The railroad system totals only 680 kilometres (420 mi) of
track, all of it 1,520 mm
(4 ft 11 27⁄32 in) broad gauge. The principal
segments are in the southern region and connect the capital with the
industrial areas of the
Hisor and Vakhsh valleys and with Uzbekistan,
Kazakhstan and Russia. Most international freight
traffic is carried by train. The recently constructed
Kulob railway connected the
Kulob District with the
central area of the country.
The old terminal building at
Dushanbe International Airport
Tajikistan had 26 airports, 18 of which had paved runways, of
which two had runways longer than 3,000 meters. The country's main
Dushanbe International Airport which as of April 2015, had
regularly scheduled flights to major cities in Russia, Central Asia,
as well as Delhi, Dubai, Frankfurt, Istanbul, Kabul, Tehran, and
Ürümqi amongst others. There are also international flights, mainly
to Russia, from
Khujand Airport in the northern part of the country as
well as limited international services from
Kulob Airport, and
Qurghonteppa International Airport.
Khorog Airport is a domestic
airport and also the only airport in the sparsely populated eastern
half of the country.
Tajikistan has two major airlines (
Somon Air and Tajik Air) and is
also serviced by over a dozen foreign airlines.
The total length of roads in the country is 27,800 kilometres.
Automobiles account for more than 90% of the total volume of passenger
transportation and more than 80% of domestic freight
In 2004 the
Tajik–Afghan Friendship Bridge
Tajik–Afghan Friendship Bridge between
Tajikistan was built, improving the country's access to South Asia.
The bridge was built by the United States.
As of 2014[update] many highway and tunnel construction projects are
underway or have recently been completed. Major projects include
rehabilitation of the
Dushanbe – Chanak (Uzbek border),
Kulma (Chinese border), and Kurgan-Tube – Nizhny Pyanj (Afghan
border) highways, and construction of tunnels under the mountain
passes of Anzob, Shakhristan, Shar-Shar and Chormazak. These
were supported by international donor countries.
Main article: Demographics of Tajikistan
Tajikistan: trends in its
Human Development Index
Human Development Index indicator
Tajikistan has a population of 8,734,951 (2016 est.) of which 70%
are under the age of 30 and 35% are between the ages of 14 and 30.
Tajiks who speak Tajik (a dialect of Persian) are the main ethnic
group, although there are sizeable minorities of
Uzbeks and Russians,
whose numbers are declining due to emigration. The Pamiris of
Badakhshan, a small population of Yaghnobi people, and a sizeable
Ismailis are all considered to belong to the larger group
of Tajiks. All citizens of
Tajikistan are called Tajikistanis.
Group of Tajik children
In 1989, ethnic
Tajikistan made up 7.6% of the population,
but they are now less than 0.5%, after the civil war spurred Russian
emigration. The ethnic German population of
Tajikistan has also
declined due to emigration: having topped at 38,853 in 1979, it has
almost vanished since the collapse of the Soviet Union.
The official and vernacular language of
Tajikistan is Tajik although
Russian is routinely used in business and communication. The
Constitution mentions Russian as the "language for inter-ethnic
communication", but an amendment passed in 2009 was thought to remove
all Russian's official roles, but it was later clarified that the
status was later re-instated and Russian has returned to its status,
being a language permissible for law-making, although all official
communications should formally first take place in Tajik.
Russian is regularly used unregulated between different ethnic groups
in the country and thereby fulfilling its stated constitutional role.
Despite its poverty,
Tajikistan has a high rate of literacy due to the
old Soviet system of free education, with an estimated 99.5% of the
population having the ability to read and write.
In 2009 nearly one million
Tajiks worked abroad (mainly in
Russia). More than 70% of the female population lives in
Largest cities or towns in Tajikistan
Districts of Republican Subordination
Districts of Republican Subordination
Main article: Culture of Tajikistan
See also: Music of Tajikistan, Tajik literature, Public holidays in
Tajikistan, and Tajik cuisine
Tajik young women during Navrūz (Persian New Year). They are holding
sprouting plants which symbolize rebirth.
Tajik language is the mother tongue of around 80% of the citizens
of Tajikistan. The main urban centres in today's
Dushanbe (the capital), Khujand, Kulob, Panjakent, Qurghonteppa,
Khorugh and Istaravshan. There are also Uzbek, Kyrgyz and Russian
Pamiri people of
Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Province in the
Afghanistan and China, though considered part of
the Tajik ethnicity, nevertheless are distinct linguistically and
culturally from most Tajiks. In contrast to the mostly Sunni Muslim
residents of the rest of Tajikistan, the Pamiris overwhelmingly follow
Ismaili branch of
Shia Islam, and speak a number of Eastern
Iranian languages, including Shughni, Rushani, Khufi and Wakhi.
Isolated in the highest parts of the Pamir Mountains, they have
preserved many ancient cultural traditions and folk arts that have
been largely lost elsewhere in the country.
Yaghnobi people live in mountainous areas of northern Tajikistan.
The estimated number of Yaghnobis is now about 25,000. Forced
migrations in the 20th century decimated their numbers. They speak the
Yaghnobi language, which is the only direct modern descendant of the
ancient Sogdian language.
Tajikistan artisans created the
Dushanbe Tea House, which was
presented in 1988 as a gift to the sister city of Boulder,
Main article: Religion in Tajikistan
Islam in Tajikistan
Religion in Tajikistan, 2010
A mosque in Isfara, Tajikistan
Islam of the
Hanafi school has been officially recognised by the
government since 2009.
Tajikistan considers itself a secular state
with a Constitution providing for freedom of religion. The Government
has declared two Islamic holidays,
Eid ul-Fitr and Eid al-Adha, as
state holidays. According to a
US State Department
US State Department release and Pew
research group, the population of
Tajikistan is 98% Muslim.
Approximately 87%–95% of them are Sunni and roughly 3% are
roughly 7% are non-denominational Muslims. The remaining 2% of
the population are followers of Russian Orthodoxy, Protestantism,
Zoroastrianism and Buddhism. A great majority of Muslims fast during
Ramadan, although only about one third in the countryside and 10% in
the cities observe daily prayer and dietary restrictions.
Bukharan Jews had lived in
Tajikistan since the 2nd century BC, but
today almost none are left. In the 1940s, the Jewish community of
Tajikistan numbered nearly 30,000 people. Most were Persian-speaking
Bukharan Jews who had lived in the region for millennia along with
Ashkenazi Jews from Eastern Europe who resettled there in the Soviet
era. The Jewish population is now estimated at less than 500, about
half of whom live in Dushanbe.
Relationships between religious groups are generally amicable,
although there is some concern among mainstream
that minority religious groups undermine national unity. There is a
concern for religious institutions becoming active in the political
sphere. The Islamic Renaissance Party (IRP), a major combatant in the
1992–1997 Civil War and then-proponent of the creation of an Islamic
state in Tajikistan, constitutes no more than 30% of the government by
statute. Membership in Hizb ut-Tahrir, a militant Islamic party which
today aims for an overthrow of secular governments and the unification
Tajiks under one Islamic state, is illegal and members are subject
to arrest and imprisonment. Numbers of large mosques appropriate
for Friday prayers are limited and some[who?] feel this is
By law, religious communities must register by the State Committee on
Religious Affairs (SCRA) and with local authorities. Registration with
the SCRA requires a charter, a list of 10 or more members, and
evidence of local government approval prayer site location. Religious
groups who do not have a physical structure are not allowed to gather
publicly for prayer. Failure to register can result in large fines and
closure of place of worship. There are reports that registration on
the local level is sometimes difficult to obtain. People under
the age of 18 are also barred from public religious practice.
As of January, 2016, as part of an "anti-radicalisation campaign",
police in the
Khatlon region reportedly shaved the beards of 13,000
men and shut down 160 shops selling the hijab. Shaving beards and
discouraging women from wearing hijab is part of a government campaign
targeting trends that are deemed "alien and inconsistent with Tajik
culture", and "to preserve secular traditions".
Main article: Health in Tajikistan
A hospital in Dushanbe
Despite repeated efforts by the Tajik government to improve and expand
health care, the system remains extremely underdeveloped and poor,
with severe shortages of medical supplies. The state's Ministry of
Labor and Social Welfare reported that 104,272 disabled people are
Tajikistan (2000). This group of people suffers most
from poverty in Tajikistan. The government of
Tajikistan and the World
Bank considered activities to support this part of the population
described in the World Bank's Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper.
Public expenditure on health was at 1% of the
GDP in 2004.
Life expectancy at birth was estimated to be 66.38 years in 2012.
The infant mortality rate was approximately 37 deaths per 1,000
children in 2012. In 2011, there were 170 physicians per 100,000
In 2010 the country experienced an outbreak of polio that caused more
than 457 cases of polio in both children and adults, and resulted in
29 deaths before being brought under control.
Tajik National University
Tajik National University in Dushanbe
Public education in
Tajikistan consists of 11 years of primary and
secondary education but the government has plans to implement a
12-year system in 2016. There is a relatively large number of
tertiary education institutions including
Khujand State University
which has 76 departments in 15 faculties,
University of Law, Business, & Politics,
Khorugh State University,
Agricultural University of Tajikistan, Tajik National University, and
several other institutions. Most, but not all, universities were
established during the Soviet Era. As of 2008[update] tertiary
education enrolment was 17%, significantly below the sub-regional
average of 37%. Many
Tajiks left the education system due to low
demand in the labour market for people with extensive educational
training or professional skills.
Public spending on education was relatively constant between
2005–2012 and fluctuated from 3.5% to 4.1% of GDP significantly
OECD average of 6%. The
United Nations reported that
the level of spending was "severely inadequate to meet the
requirements of the country’s high-needs education system."
According to a UNICEF-supported survey, about 25 percent of girls in
Tajikistan fail to complete compulsory primary education because of
poverty and gender bias, although literacy is generally high in
Tajikistan. Estimates of out of school children range from 4.6%
to 19.4% with the vast majority being girls.
In September 2017, the University of
Central Asia will launch its
second campus in Khorog, Tajikistan, offering majors in Earth &
Environmental Sciences and Economics.
The national sport of
Tajikistan is gushtigiri, a form of traditional
Another popular sport is buzkashi, a game played on horseback, like
polo. One plays it on one's own and in teams. The aim of the game is
to grab a 50 kg dead goat, ride clear of the other players, get
back to the starting point and drop it in a designated circle. It is
also practised in Afghanistan, Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan,
Turkmenistan. It is often played at
Tajikistan is a popular destination amongst mountaineers. 1982
expedition to Tartu Ülikool 350.
Tajikistan's mountains provide many opportunities for outdoor sports,
such as hill climbing, mountain biking, rock climbing, skiing,
snowboarding, hiking, and mountain climbing. The facilities are
limited, however. Mountain climbing and hiking tours to the Fann and
Pamir Mountains, including the 7,000 m peaks in the region, are
seasonally organised by local and international alpine agencies.
Football is a popular sport in Tajikistan. The
football team competes in
FIFA and AFC competitions. The top clubs in
Tajikistan compete in the Tajik League.
Tajikistan Cricket Federation was formed in 2012 as the governing
body for the sport of cricket in Tajikistan. It was granted affiliate
membership of the Asian
Cricket Council in the same year.
Rugby union in Tajikistan is a minor but growing sport.
Four Tajikistani athletes have won Olympic medals for their country
since independence. They are: wrestler
Yusup Abdusalomov (silver in
Beijing 2008), judoka
Rasul Boqiev (bronze in Beijing 2008), boxer
Mavzuna Chorieva (bronze in London 2012) and hammer thrower Dilshod
Nazarov (gold in Rio de Janeiro 2016).
Khorugh, capital of
Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Region, is the
location of highest altitude where bandy has been played.
Tajikistan has also one ski resort, called
Safed Dara (formerly
Takob), near the town of Varzob.
Yusup Abdusalomov, Olympic medalist, wrestler
Abdumalik Bahori, poet, writer
Nargis Bandishoeva, singer
Mavzuna Chorieva, Olympic medalist, boxer
Daler Nazarov, musician
Sherali Dostiev, boxer
Mamadsho Ilolov, scientist
Abduhamid Juraev, mathematician
Makhmadjon Khabibulloev, football coach
Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi, mathematician, astronomer, geographer
Otakhon Latifi, journalist, politician
Yuri Lobanov, Olympic medalist, sprint canoer
Shabnam Surayyo, singer
Farruh Negmat-Zadeh, artist
Central Asia portal
Tajikistan – book
Index of Tajikistan-related articles
Outline of Tajikistan
Central Asian Union
Ittihodi Scouthoi Tojikiston
Kingdom of Balhara
List of cities in Tajikistan
Telecommunications in Tajikistan
Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Province
This article incorporates public domain material from the
CIA World Factbook website
This article incorporates public domain material from the
Library of Congress
Library of Congress Country Studies website
^ Национальный состав, владение
языками и гражданство населения
Республики Таджикистан Том III. stat.tj
^ a b c d e f CIA World Factbook.
Tajikistan Archived 31 March 2001 at
the Wayback Machine.
^ a b "World Population Prospects: The 2017 Revision". ESA.UN.org
(custom data acquired via website).
United Nations Department of
Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 10
^ a b c d "
Tajikistan profile at". International Monetary Fund
website. Archived from the original on 29 March 2018.
^ "2016 Human Development Report" (PDF).
United Nations Development
Programme. 2016. Archived (PDF) from the original on 22 March 2017.
Retrieved 21 March 2017.
^ "Proto-urban Site of Sarazm". UNESCO.org. UNESCO. Archived from the
original on 4 August 2014. Retrieved 9 August 2014.
^ "What's the Story Behind All the 'Stans?". About.com. Archived from
the original on 30 March 2013. Retrieved 10 August 2014.
^ "-Stan". Online Etymology Dictionary. Archived from the original on
1 January 2014. Retrieved 10 August 2014.
^ a b c A Country Study: Tajikistan, Ethnic Background. Library of
Congress Call Number DK851. K34 (1997)
^ Anti-Armenian Riots Erupt in Soviet Republic of Tadzhikistan
Archived 30 November 2016 at the Wayback Machine..
Articles.latimes.com (2 November 1989). Retrieved on 2017-01-20.
^ Centre, UNESCO World Heritage. "Proto-urban Site of
UNESCO World Heritage Centre". unesco.org. Archived from the original
on 4 March 2016.
^ See: The Deeds of Harsha: Being a Cultural Study of Bāṇa's
Harshacharita, 1969, p 199, Dr Vasudeva Sharana Agrawala; Proceedings
and Transactions of the All-
India Oriental Conference, 1930, p 118, Dr
J. C. Vidyalankara; Prācīna Kamboja, jana aura janapada =: Ancient
Kamboja, people and country, 1981, Dr Jiyālāla Kāmboja, Dr
Satyavrat Śāstrī – Kamboja (Pakistan).
^ C. Michael Hogan, ''Silk Road, North China'', The Megalithic Portal,
ed. Andy Burnham Archived 2 October 2013 at the Wayback Machine..
Megalithic.co.uk. Retrieved on 20 January 2017.
^ Shiji, trans. Burton Watson
Frances Wood (2002) The Silk Road: Two Thousand Years in the Heart
of Asia. University of California Press. p. 66.
^ a b
Tajikistan Archived 21 December 2016 at the Wayback Machine..
^ "Encyclopedia – Britannica Online Encyclopedia". eb.com.
^ Grousset, Rene, (2004). The Empire of the Steppes. Rutgers
University Press. ISBN 0-8135-1304-9. CS1 maint: Multiple
names: authors list (link)
^ Svatopluk Soucek (2000). "Chapter 5 – The Qarakhanids". A history
of Inner Asia. Cambridge University Press.
^ ilak-khanids Archived 9 September 2015 at the Wayback Machine.:
Iranica. accessed May 2014.
^ Pipes, Richard (1955). "Muslims of Soviet Central Asia: Trends and
Prospects (Part I)". Middle East Journal. 9 (2): 149–150.
^ "A Country Study: Tajikistan, Impact of the Civil War". U.S. Library
of Congress. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016.
^ a b "
Tajikistan – Collectivization". countrystudies.us. Archived
from the original on 14 October 2012.
^ a b "
Tajikistan – The Purges". countrystudies.us. Archived from
the original on 14 October 2012.
Tajikistan – Ethnic Groups Archived 7 December 2010 at the Wayback
Machine., U.S. Library of Congress
^ a b c "
Tajikistan – The Postwar Period". countrystudies.us.
Archived from the original on 14 October 2012.
^ Kamoludin Abdullaev and Shahram Akbarzaheh (2010) Historical
Dictionary of Tajikistan, 2nd ed. p. 383. ISBN 0810860619.
^ Vadim Erlikman (2004). Poteri narodonaseleniia v XX veke. Moscow.
pp. 23–35. ISBN 5-93165-107-1
^ C. Peter Chen. "
Tajikistan in World War II". WW2DB. Archived from
the original on 26 July 2014.
^ Boris Rumer (1989) Soviet Central Asia: A Tragic Experiment, Unwin
Hyman, London. p. 126. ISBN 0044451466.
^ Statistical Yearbook of the USSR 1990, Goskomstat, Moscow, 1991, p.
115 (in Russian).
^ Statistical Yearbook of the USSR 1990, Goskomstat, Moscow, 1991, p.
210 (in Russian).
^ a b "Tajikistan: rising from the ashes of civil war". United
Nations. Archived from the original on 12 August 2014. Retrieved 10
^ "Human Rights Watch World Report 1994: Tajikistan". Human Rights
Watch. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 10
^ "Telling the truth for more than 30 years –
Tajikistan After the
Elections: Post-Soviet Dictatorship". Washington Report on Middle East
Affairs. June 1995. Retrieved 13 September 2013.
^ Jim Nichol. "Central Asia's Security: Issues and Implications for
U.S. Interests" (PDF). Federation of American Scientists. p. 8.
Archived (PDF) from the original on 20 May 2012. Retrieved 10 August
^ "REPUBLIC OF TAJIKISTAN PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION". Organization for
Security and Cooperation in Europe. Archived from the original on 10
August 2014. Retrieved 10 August 2014.
^ "OSCE and CIS Observers Disagree on Presidential Election in
Tajikistan". New Eurasia. Archived from the original on 22 July 2015.
Retrieved 10 August 2014.
^ "OSCE urges
Tajikistan to stop attacks on free media". Reuters. 18
October 2010. Archived from the original on 28 June 2017.
^ Kucera, Joshua (7 September 2010). "Tajikistan's Ayni airbase opens
– but who is using it?". The Bug Pit – The military and security
in Eurasia. The Open Society Institute. Archived from the original on
5 September 2013. Retrieved 12 September 2013.
Ayni Air Base
Ayni Air Base Before Russia".
EurasiaNet.org. 19 October 2010. Archived from the original on 5
September 2013. Retrieved 13 September 2013.
^ "Ratification of Russian military base deal provides
important security guarantees". Jane's. Archived from the original on
3 August 2014. Retrieved 10 August 2014.
Tajikistan says restive east is under control".
BBC News. 18
October 2010. Archived from the original on 15 November 2013.
Tajikistan Says Kills Three Suspected Islamist Militants". Radio
Free Europe Radio Liberty. 18 October 2010. Archived from the original
on 6 November 2013. Retrieved 12 September 2013.
^ "Tajikistan: The government withdraws troops from the Rasht valley".
Ferghana Information agency, Moscow. 3 November 2010. Archived from
the original on 15 April 2012. Retrieved 13 September 2013.
^ Khayrullo Fayz (24 July 2012). "
Tajikistan clashes: 'Many dead' in
BBC Uzbek. Archived from the original on 18
December 2012. Retrieved 13 September 2013.
Russia Will Send More Troops to Central Asia". Stratfor.
Archived from the original on 27 September 2015.
^ "Commander of elite Tajik police force defects to Islamic State".
Reuters. 28 May 2015. Archived from the original on 16 October
^ a b Greenberg, Ilan, "Media Muzzled and Opponents Jailed, Tajikistan
Readies for Vote", The New York Times, 4 November 2006 (article
dateline 3 November 2006), page A7, New York edition
^ a b "Change you can't believe in". The Economist. 4 March 2010.
Archived from the original on 30 December 2016. Retrieved 5 March
^ a b "
Tajikistan elections criticised by poll watchdog". BBC. 1 March
2010. Archived from the original on 4 March 2010. Retrieved 5 March
^ "Press TV –
Iran makes move to join SCO". Presstv.ir. 24 March
2008. Archived from the original on 15 June 2008. Retrieved 2 October
^ "Tajik Government's Fury Over Conflict Reporting". Iwpr.net. 22
October 2010. Archived from the original on 26 September 2014.
Retrieved 14 January 2011.
^ a b Population of the Republic of
Tajikistan as of 1 January 2008,
State Statistical Committee, Dushanbe, 2008 (in Russian)
Remittance man Archived 18 November 2017 at the Wayback Machine.".
The Economist. 7 September 2013.
^ a b Tajikistan: Building a Democracy (video) Archived 11 April 2016
at the Wayback Machine., United Nations, March 2014
^ "Integrated Food Security Phase Classification" (PDF). usaid.gov.
USAID. Archived (PDF) from the original on 10 August 2014. Retrieved 9
^ "BBC's Guide to Central Asia".
BBC News. 20 June 2005. Archived from
the original on 1 December 2006. Retrieved 1 November 2006.
^ "Background Note: Tajikistan". US Department of State, Bureau of
South and Central Asian Affairs. December 2007. Archived from the
original on 6 March 2008. Retrieved 8 March 2008.
^ "Tajikistan: Over 392.5 thousand tons of cotton picked in
Tajikistan". BS-AGRO. 12 December 2013. Archived from the original on
20 December 2013.
^ Алюминий по-таджикски [
Aluminium in Tajiki].
Kazakhstan (in Russian). 23 (25). 6 December 2004. Archived
from the original on 10 November 2011. Retrieved 8 March 2008.
^ "Highest Dams (World and U.S.)". ICOLD World Register of Dams. 1998.
Archived from the original on 5 April 2008. Retrieved 8 March
^ Первая очередь Сангтудинской ГЭС в
Таджикистане будет запущена 18 января
[First stage of the Sangtuda HPS launched on 18 January] (in Russian).
Vesti. 25 December 2007. Archived from the original on 3 March 2016.
Retrieved 28 February 2016.
^ "Sangtuda-1 HPS launched on January 18, 2008". Today Energy. 5
January 2008. Archived from the original on 16 January 2009. Retrieved
8 March 2008.
Iran participates in power plant project in Tajikistan". IRNA. 24
April 2007. Archived from the original on 28 April 2013. Retrieved 8
^ "Chinese To Build Tajik Hydroelectric Plant". Radio Free Europe /
Radio Liberty. 18 January 2007. Archived from the original on 15 March
2008. Retrieved 8 March 2008.
Pakistan can end power crisis thru CASA-1000". The Gazette of
Central Asia. Satrapia. 13 August 2011. Archived from the original on
10 August 2014. Retrieved 8 June 2012.
^ a b "Tajikistan:
Remittances to Plunge 40% – World Bank".
EurasiaNet.org. Archived from the original on 29 May 2015.
^ Dilip Ratha; Sanket Mohapatra; K. M. Vijayalakshmi; Zhimei Xu (29
November 2007). "
Remittance Trends 2007. Migration and Development
Brief 3" (PDF). World Bank. Archived (PDF) from the original on 26
February 2008. Retrieved 8 March 2008.
^ "UNDP: Human development indices – Table 3: Human and income
poverty (Population living below national poverty line (2000–2007))"
(PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 19 December 2008. Retrieved
2 October 2009.
^ Alexei Kireyev (January 2006). "The Macroeconomics of Remittances:
The Case of Tajikistan. IMF Working Paper WP/06/2" (PDF). IMF.
Archived (PDF) from the original on 26 February 2008. Retrieved 8
Tajikistan Policy Note. Poverty Reduction and Enhancing the
Development Impact of Remittances. Report No. 35771-TJ" (PDF). World
Bank. June 2006. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-03-04.
Retrieved 8 March 2008.
^ MEET THE STANS – episodes 3&4:
Uzbekistan and Tajikistan
Archived 3 April 2015 at the Wayback Machine., BBC, 2011
^ a b
Silk Road Studies, Country Factsheets, Eurasian Narcotics:
^ Roger McDermott (10 January 2006). "
Dushanbe looks towards
Afghanistan to combat drug trafficking". Eurasia Daily Monitor.
Archived from the original on 2 June 2008. Retrieved 8 March
^ Overview of the drug and crime situation in Central Asia. Factsand
Figures, Coordination and Analysis Unit of the
UNODC Regional Office
for Central Asia
^ Fighting Drugs, Crime and Terrorism in the CIS Dushanbe, 4 October
^ "President Zardari chairs PPP consultative meeting". Associated
Press of Pakistan. 10 August 2009. Archived from the original on 2
January 2014. Retrieved 11 August 2009.
^ "Iran, Afghanistan,
Tajikistan sign agreement on road, railway
construction". Tehran Times. Archived from the original on 6 April
2015. Retrieved 9 August 2014.
^ Migrant Express Part 1: Good-bye Dushanbe. YouTube. 1 September
2009. Archived from the original on 16 October 2015.
^ a b c d Administrator. "
Tajikistan Mission – Infrastructure".
tajikistanmission.ch. Archived from the original on 31 May 2014.
^ "US Army Corps of Engineer, Afghanistan-
Tajikistan Bridge". US Army
Corps of Engineer. Archived from the original on 3 April 2015.
Retrieved 8 March 2008.
^ Shar-Shar auto tunnel links
China Archived 31 May 2014
at the Wayback Machine., The 2.3 km (1 mi) Shar-Shar car
China opened to traffic on 30 Aug..,
Siyavush Mekhtan, 3 September 2009
^ Payrav Chorshanbiyev (12 February 2014) Chormaghzak Tunnel renamed
Khatlon Tunnel and Shar-Shar Tunnel renamed Ozodi Tunnel Archived 31
May 2014 at the Wayback Machine.. news.tj
^ Trade, tunnels, transit and training in mountainous Tajikistan
Archived 19 August 2013 at the Wayback Machine.. fco.gov.uk (7 May
Russians left behind in
Central Asia Archived 11 September 2013 at
the Wayback Machine., Robert Greenall,
BBC News, 23 November 2005.
Tajikistan – Ethnic Groups Archived 7 December 2010 at the Wayback
Machine.. Source: U.S. Library of Congress.
^ Russian-Germans in
Tajikistan Archived 20 August 2009 at the Wayback
Machine.. Pohl, J. Otto. "Russian-Germans in Tajikistan", Neweurasia,
29 March 2007.
Tajikistan Drops Russian As Official Language". RFE/RL - Rferl.org.
7 October 2009. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved
13 September 2013.
^ "The status of the
Russian language in
Tajikistan remains unchanged
– Rahmon". RIA – RIA.ru. 22 October 2009. Archived from the
original on 2 October 2016. Retrieved 30 September 2016.
^ "В Таджикистане русскому языку
вернули прежний статус". Lenta.ru. Archived from
the original on 5 September 2013. Retrieved 13 September 2013.
^ Deployment of Tajik workers gets green light Archived 10 June 2009
at the Wayback Machine..
Arab News. 21 May 2007.
^ Azimova, Aigul; Abazbekova, Nazgul (27 July 2011). "Millennium
Development Goals: Saving women's Lives". D+C. D+C. p. 289.
Archived from the original on 17 February 2014. Retrieved 12 September
^ The Dushanbe-Boulder tea house. boulder-dushanbe.org
^ Religious Composition by Country, 2010–2050 Pew Research Center
Archived 2 August 2017 at the Wayback Machine.. Pewforum.org (2 April
2015). Retrieved on 2017-01-20.
Tajikistan – Pew-Templeton Global Religious Futures Project
Archived 9 February 2017 at the Wayback Machine..
Globalreligiousfutures.org. Retrieved on 20 January 2017.
^ Avaz Yuldashev (5 March 2009). «Ханафия» объявлена
официальным религиозным течением
Таджикистана ["Hanafi" declared the official religious
movement in Tajikistan] (in Russian). Archived from the original on 25
^ Pew Forum on Religious & Public life, Chapter 1: Religious
Affiliation Archived 26 December 2016 at the Wayback Machine.
retrieved 29 October 2013.
^ "Background Note: Tajikistan". State.gov. Archived from the original
on 1 October 2009. Retrieved 2 October 2009.
^ "Home Stand". Tablet Magazine. Archived from the original on 11
^ "Hizb ut Tahrir".
BBC News. BBC. 27 August 2003. Archived from the
original on 13 September 2013. Retrieved 12 September 2013.
^ TAJIKISTAN: Religious freedom survey, November 2003 Archived 13 June
2010 at the Wayback Machine. -
Forum 18 News Service, 20 November 2003
^ U. S. Department of State International Religious Freedom Report for
2013, Executive Summary Archived 12 April 2014 at the Wayback Machine.
retrieved 2 August 2014.
^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 24 January 2016.
Retrieved 27 January 2016.
Tajikistan – Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP) and joint
assessment". World Bank. 31 October 2002. Archived from the original
on 26 May 2009. Retrieved 1 November 2006.
^ a b "Human Development Report 2009 – Tajikistan".
Hdrstats.undp.org. Archived from the original on 23 March 2010.
Retrieved 20 June 2010.
^ "Country Comparison: Life Expectancy at Birth". The World Factbook.
CIA. Archived from the original on 5 November 2013. Retrieved 12
^ "Country Comparison: Infant Mortality Rate". The World Factbook.
CIA. Archived from the original on 12 October 2013. Retrieved 12
^ "WHO/Europe – Data and statistics". who.int. Archived from the
original on 25 September 2014.
^ "2010 polio outbreak in Tajikistan: A reminder of the continued need
for vigilance as the Region marks 10 years of polio-free status".
World Health Organization. 10 July 2012. Archived from the original on
4 March 2016. Retrieved 28 February 2016.
^ a b "
Tajikistan Education System". classbase.com. Archived from the
original on 2 April 2014.
^ a b c d e
Education in Tajikistan Archived 6 November 2013 at the
Wayback Machine.. unicef.org
^ Tajikistan, Public spending on education, total (% of GDP) Archived
14 July 2014 at the Wayback Machine. World Bank
Tajikistan hosts education forum". News note. UNICEF. 9 June 2005.
Archived from the original on 4 November 2013. Retrieved 12 September
^ http://www.ucentralasia.org Archived 29 November 2016 at the Wayback
^ Ibbotson, Sophie; Lovell-Hoare, Max (2013). Tajikistan. Bradt Travel
Guides. p. 22. ISBN 978-1-84162-455-6. Archived from the
original on 29 March 2018.
^ Abdullaev, Kamoludin; Akbarzaheh, Shahram. Historical Dictionary of
Tajikistan. Scarecrow Press. Archived from the original on 1 January
2016. Retrieved 8 November 2015.
^ "Google Translate". google.co.uk.
^ "Safed Dara". Trip Advisor. Archived from the original on 11 August
Historical Dictionary of
Tajikistan by Kamoludin Abdullaev and Shahram
Land Beyond the River: The Untold Story of
Central Asia by Monica
Tajikistan: Disintegration or Reconciliation by Shirin Akiner
Tajikistan: The Trials of Independence by Shirin Akiner, Mohammad-Reza
Djalili and Frederic Grare
Tajikistan and the High Pamirs by Robert Middleton, Huw Thomas and
Markus Hauser, Odyssey Books,
Hong Kong 2008
Find more aboutTajikistanat's sister projects
Definitions from Wiktionary
Media from Wikimedia Commons
News from Wikinews
Quotations from Wikiquote
Texts from Wikisource
Textbooks from Wikibooks
Travel guide from Wikivoyage
Learning resources from Wikiversity
Tajikistan at UCB Libraries GovPubs
"Tajikistan". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency.
Tajikistan at Curlie (based on DMOZ)
Tajikistan profile from the
Wikimedia Atlas of Tajikistan
Key Development Forecasts for
Tajikistan from International Futures
Towns and villages
Tian Shan mountains
Central Asian Union
Supreme Assembly (parliament)
Postage and postal history
coat of arms
Regions of Tajikistan
Districts of Republican Subordination
Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Region
Countries and dependencies of Asia
East Timor (Timor-Leste)
States with limited recognition
Dependencies and special
Cocos (Keeling) Islands
Akrotiri and Dhekelia
British Indian Ocean Territory
Economic Cooperation Organization
Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO)
Treaty of Izmir
Cyprus (as Turkish Cypriot State)
Organisation of Islamic Cooperation
Commonwealth of Independent States
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS)
Customs Union of Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Russia
Eurasian Economic Union
Dissolution of the Soviet Union
Union of Sovereign States
Belavezha Accords (Near abroad)
Unified Team at the Olympics
Unified Team at the Paralympics
CIS national bandy team
CIS national football team
CIS national ice hockey team
CIS national rugby team
CIS Cup (football)
Collective Security Treaty Organization
Collective Rapid Reaction Force
Joint CIS Air Defense System
Eurasian Economic Community
Eurasian Patent Convention
Eurasian Patent Organization
EU Technical Aid
Interstate Aviation Committee
Council of Ministers of Defense of the CIS
Organisation of Islamic Cooperation
Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC)
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Central African Republic
Moro National Liberation Front
Economic Cooperation Organization
1 As the "Turkish Cypriot State".
Eurasian Economic Union
Shanghai Cooperation Organisation
Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO)
Eurasian Land Bridge
ISNI: 0000 0001 2105 2676