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Droseraceae
Aldrovanda Dionaea Drosera
Drosera
†? Droserapollis †? Droserapites †? Droseridites
Droseridites
†? Fischeripollis
Fischeripollis
†? Palaeoaldrovanda †? Saxonipollis Wikimedia Commons has media related to DROSERACEAE .DROSERACEAE is a family of flowering plants . The family is also known as the sundew family. It is a small family of carnivorous plants , which consist of approximately 180 species in three extant genera: CONTENTS* 1 Description * 1.1 Drosera
Drosera
* 1.2 Dionaea * 1.3 Aldrovanda * 2 Phylogeny * 3 References * 4 External links DESCRIPTIONMost of the members of Droseraceae
Droseraceae
are contained in Drosera
Drosera
, the true sundews. Both Dionaea and Aldrovanda have only one extant species. Droseras secrete a sticky substance from their leaves that traps prey. Dionaea and Aldrovanda both use snap-traps that close rapidly when the leaves are disturbed, Dionaea is terrestrial, while Aldrovanda is strictly aquatic. Like carnivorous plants of other families, the Droseraceae
Droseraceae
are able to supplement their nutrient intake, especially that of nitrogen, by capturing and digesting small animals such as insects
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Late Cretaceous
The LATE CRETACEOUS (100.5–66 Ma ) is the younger of two epochs into which the Cretaceous period is divided in the geologic timescale . Rock strata from this epoch form the UPPER CRETACEOUS series . The Cretaceous is named after the white limestone known as chalk which occurs widely in northern France and is seen in the white cliffs of south-eastern England, and which dates from this time. CONTENTS * 1 Climate * 2 Geography * 3 Vertebrate fauna * 3.1 Dinosaurs * 3.2 Pterosaurs * 3.3 Mammals * 3.4 Marine life * 4 Flora * 5 Cretaceous– Paleogene mass extinction * 6 See also * 7 References CLIMATEDuring the Late Cretaceous, the climate was warmer than present, although throughout the period a cooling trend is evident. The tropics became restricted to equatorial regions and northern latitudes experienced markedly more seasonal climatic conditions. GEOGRAPHYDue to plate tectonics, the Americas were gradually moving westward, causing the Atlantic Ocean to expand. The Western Interior Seaway divided North America into eastern and western halves; Appalachia and Laramidia . India maintained a northward course towards Asia. In the Southern Hemisphere, Australia and Antarctica seem to have remained connected and began to drift away from Africa and South America. Europe was an island chain. Populating some of these islands were endemic dwarf dinosaur species
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Venus Flytrap
The VENUS FLYTRAP (also referred to as VENUS\'S FLYTRAP or VENUS\' FLYTRAP), DIONAEA MUSCIPULA, is a carnivorous plant native to subtropical wetlands on the East Coast of the United States
East Coast of the United States
in North Carolina and South Carolina
South Carolina
. It catches its prey—chiefly insects and arachnids —with a trapping structure formed by the terminal portion of each of the plant's leaves, which is triggered by tiny hairs on their inner surfaces. When an insect or spider crawling along the leaves contacts a hair, the trap prepares to close, snapping shut only if another contact occurs within approximately twenty seconds of the first strike. The requirement of redundant triggering in this mechanism serves as a safeguard against wasting energy by trapping objects with no nutritional value, and the plant will only begin digestion after five more stimuli to ensure it has caught a live bug worthy of consumption. Dionaea is a monotypic genus closely related to the waterwheel plant ( Aldrovanda vesiculosa
Aldrovanda vesiculosa
) and sundews ( Drosera
Drosera
), all of which belong to the family Droseraceae
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Taxonomy (biology)
TAXONOMY (from Ancient Greek τάξις (taxis ), meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία (-nomia), meaning 'method ') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank ; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus and species. The Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus is regarded as the father of taxonomy, as he developed a system known as Linnaean taxonomy for categorization of organisms and binomial nomenclature for naming organisms. With the advent of such fields of study as phylogenetics , cladistics , and systematics , the Linnaean system
Linnaean system
has progressed to a system of modern biological classification based on the evolutionary relationships between organisms, both living and extinct
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Plant
PLANTS are mainly multicellular , predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom PLANTAE. The term is today generally limited to the GREEN PLANTS, which form an unranked clade VIRIDIPLANTAE (Latin for "green plants"). This includes the flowering plants , conifers and other gymnosperms , ferns , clubmosses , hornworts , liverworts , mosses and the green algae , and excludes the red and brown algae . Historically, plants formed one of two kingdoms covering all living things that were not animals , and both algae and fungi were treated as plants; however all current definitions of "plant" exclude the fungi and some algae, as well as the prokaryotes (the archaea and bacteria ). Green plants have cell walls containing cellulose and obtain most of their energy from sunlight via photosynthesis by primary chloroplasts , derived from endosymbiosis with cyanobacteria . Their chloroplasts contain chlorophylls a and b, which gives them their green color. Some plants are parasitic and have lost the ability to produce normal amounts of chlorophyll or to photosynthesize. Plants are characterized by sexual reproduction and alternation of generations , although asexual reproduction is also common. There are about 300–315 thousand species of plants, of which the great majority, some 260–290 thousand, are seed plants (see the table below ). Green plants provide most of the world's molecular oxygen and are the basis of most of Earth's ecologies, especially on land
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Flowering Plant
sweet bay SCIENTIFIC CLASSIFICATION Kingdom: Plantae Subkingdom: Embryophyta (unranked): Spermatophyta (unranked): ANGIOSPERMS GROUPS (APG IV) Basal angiosperms * Amborellales * Nymphaeales * Austrobaileyales Core angiosperms * magnoliids * Chloranthales * monocots * Ceratophyllales * eudicots SYNONYMS * Anthophyta Cronquist * Angiospermae Lindl. * Magnoliophyta Cronquist , Takht. they are distinguished from gymnosperms by characteristics including flowers , endosperm within the seeds, and the production of fruits that contain the seeds. Etymologically, angiosperm means a plant that produces seeds within an enclosure, in other words, a fruiting plant. The term "angiosperm" comes from the Greek composite word (_angeion_, "case" or "casing", and _sperma_, "seed") meaning "enclosed seeds", after the enclosed condition of the seeds. The ancestors of flowering plants diverged from gymnosperms in the Triassic Period , during the range 245 to 202 million years ago (mya), and the first flowering plants are known from 160 mya. They diversified extensively during the Lower Cretaceous , became widespread by 120 mya, and replaced conifers as the dominant trees from 100 to 60 mya
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Eudicots
The EUDICOTS, EUDICOTIDAE or EUDICOTYLEDONS are a monophyletic clade of flowering plants that had been called TRICOLPATES or NON-MAGNOLIID DICOTS by previous authors. The botanical terms were introduced in 1991 by evolutionary botanist James A. Doyle and paleobotanist Carol L. Hotton to emphasize the later evolutionary divergence of tricolpate dicots from earlier, less specialized, dicots. The close relationships among flowering plants with tricolpate pollen grains was initially seen in morphological studies of shared derived characters . These plants have a distinct trait in their pollen grains of exhibiting three colpi or grooves paralleling the polar axis. Later molecular evidence confirmed the genetic basis for the evolutionary relationships among flowering plants with tricolpate pollen grains and dicotyledonous traits. The term means "true dicotyledons", as it contains the majority of plants that have been considered dicots and have characteristics of the dicots. The term "eudicots" has subsequently been widely adopted in botany to refer to one of the two largest clades of angiosperms (constituting over 70% of the angiosperm species), monocots being the other. The remaining angiosperms are sometimes referred to as basal angiosperms or paleodicots, but these terms have not been widely or consistently adopted, as they do not refer to a monophyletic group. The other name for the eudicots is TRICOLPATES, a name which refers to the grooved structure of the pollen
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Caryophyllales
Caryophyllineae Polygonineae SYNONYMS Centrospermae CARYOPHYLLALES (/ˌkærioʊfiˈleɪliːz/ _kair-ee-uu-fil-LAY-leez_ ) is an order of flowering plants that includes the cacti , carnations , amaranths , ice plants , beets , and many carnivorous plants . Many members are succulent , having fleshy stems or leaves . CONTENTS * 1 Description * 2 Circumscription * 2.1 APG III * 2.2 APG II * 2.3 APG * 2.4 Cronquist * 2.5 Earlier circumscriptions * 3 References * 4 External links DESCRIPTIONThe members of Caryophyllales include about 6% of eudicot species . This order is part of the core eudicots . Currently, the Caryophyllales contains 33 families, 692 genera and 11,155 species. The monophyly of the Caryophyllales has been supported by DNA sequences , cytochrome c sequence data and heritable characters such as anther wall development and vessel-elements with simple perforations. CIRCUMSCRIPTIONAs with all taxa , the circumscription of Caryophyllales has changed within various classification systems. All systems recognize a core of families with centrospermous ovules and seeds. More recent treatments have expanded the Caryophyllales to include many carnivorous plants . Although the monophyly of the order has been strongly supported, their placement is still uncertain
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Richard Anthony Salisbury
RICHARD ANTHONY SALISBURY, FRS (born RICHARD ANTHONY MARKHAM; 2 May 1761 – 23 March 1829) was a British botanist. While he carried out valuable work in horticultural and botanical sciences, several bitter disputes caused him to be ostracised by his contemporaries. CONTENTS * 1 Life * 2 Works * 2.1 Published works * 3 References * 4 Bibliography LIFERichard Anthony Markham was born in Leeds, England
Leeds, England
, the son of Richard Markham, a cloth merchant. He attended the University of Edinburgh —possibly instructed by John Hope —and became friendly with James Edward Smith . He changed his last name to Salisbury following a supposed financial arrangement for support in his studies. This arrangement made with a Mrs. Anna Salisbury, related by marriage to his grandmother, or so he claimed in correspondence with Joseph Banks . Salisbury married Caroline Staniforth in 1796. One child, Eleanor, was born to the couple in 1797; the two separated shortly thereafter. Salisbury had apparently misrepresented his finances when he had proposed marriage, and had large debts at the time of his daughter's birth and had declared bankruptcy for dubious purposes. His honesty in legal and financial matters seems to have been questionable, if not devious. He apparently recovered financially by 1802, when he bought a house
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Genus
A GENUS (/ˈdʒiːnəs/ , pl. GENERA) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms in biology . In the hierarchy of biological classification, genus comes above species and below family . In binomial nomenclature , the genus name forms the first part of the binomial species name for each species within the genus. E.g. _ Felis catus _ and _ Felis silvestris _ are two species within the genus _ Felis _. _Felis_ is a genus within the family Felidae . The composition of a genus is determined by a taxonomist . The standards for genus classification are not strictly codified, so different authorities often produce different classifications for genera. There are some general practices used, however, including the idea that a newly defined genus should fulfill these three criteria to be descriptively useful: * monophyly – all descendants of an ancestral taxon are grouped together (i.e. phylogenetic analysis should clearly demonstrate both monophyly and validity as a separate lineage ). * reasonable compactness – a genus should not be expanded needlessly; and * distinctness – with respect to evolutionarily relevant criteria, i.e
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Aldrovanda
ALDROVANDA /ældrəˈvændə/ is a genus of carnivorous plants encompassing one extant species ( Aldrovanda vesiculosa
Aldrovanda vesiculosa
, the waterwheel plant) and numerous extinct taxa . The genus is named in honor of the Italian naturalist Ulisse Aldrovandi
Ulisse Aldrovandi
, the founder of the Botanical Garden of Bologna, Orto Botanico dell\'Università di Bologna . Aldrovanda vesiculosa
Aldrovanda vesiculosa
has been reported from scattered locations in Europe, Asia, Africa, and Australia. CONTENTS* 1 Description * 1.1 Trap mechanism * 2 Extinct relatives * 3 Evolution * 4 Species * 5 References DESCRIPTIONThe waterwheel is a small, free floating and rootless aquatic plant, with a length of about 1.5 to 20 cm (9⁄16 to 7 7⁄8 in), and whorls of about 1 to 2 cm (3⁄8 to 13⁄16 in) in diameter. At every 3 to 4 cm (1 3⁄16 to 1 9⁄16 in) the plant branches, sometimes forming offshoots. An average of 12 to 19 whorls spans the length of the plant, each with about 5 to 9 leaves, each up to 11 mm (7⁄16 in) long. The growth is faster than terrestrial carnivorous plants, sometimes growing about 4 to 9 mm (3⁄16 to 3⁄8 in) a day. In temperate regions the plant goes dormant in the winter, forming turions of about 4–6 mm (3⁄16–1⁄4 in) and sinking to the bottom. In tropical regions, the plant grows all year long without forming turions
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Drosera
DROSERA, commonly known as the SUNDEWS, is one of the largest genera of carnivorous plants , with at least 194 species . These members of the family Droseraceae lure, capture, and digest insects using stalked mucilaginous glands covering their leaf surfaces. The insects are used to supplement the poor mineral nutrition of the soil in which the plants grow. Various species, which vary greatly in size and form, are native to every continent except Antarctica
Antarctica
. Both the botanical name (from the Greek δρόσος: drosos = "dew, dewdrops") and the English common name (sundew, derived from Latin
Latin
ros solis, meaning "dew of the sun") refer to the glistening drops of mucilage at the tip of each tentacle that resemble drops of morning dew . CONTENTS* 1 Characteristics * 1.1 Habit * 1.2 Leaves and carnivory * 1.3 Flowers and fruit * 1.4 Roots * 2 Taxonomy and phylogenetics * 3 Reproduction * 4 Distribution * 5 Habitat * 6 Conservation status * 7 Uses * 7.1 As a medicinal plant * 7.2 As ornamental plants * 7.3 Nanobiotechnology * 7.4 Other uses * 8 Chemical constituents * 9 Notes * 10 Sources * 11 External links CHARACTERISTICS A tuber of D
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Droserapollis
D. gemmatus Huang (1978) D. khasiensis Kumar (1995) D. lusaticus Krutzsch (1959) D. taiwanensis Shaw (1999) DROSERAPOLLIS is a genus of extinct plants in the family Droseraceae . It is a form taxon known only from fossil pollen . Droserapollis pollen grains are united in tetrahedral tetrads (groups of four). Individual grains are possibly porate-like. The exine is mixed with gemmate and short baculate processes, whereas the sexine is granulate. Poorly preserved pollen of D. gemmatus has been found in the Miocene Yutengping Sandstone of Taiwan
Taiwan
, whereas that of D. khasiensis originates from the Paleocene Lakadong Sandstone of Laitryngew , Khasi Hills , Meghalaya , India
India
. In addition, palynomorphs from Germany have also been assigned to the genus. Droserapollis pollen matches that of extant Drosera
Drosera
in morphology. The tetrads of D. gemmatus are 53–56 µm in deter. Individual grains are prolate and measure 35–40 by 25–26 µm. The exine is 1.5–2.4 µm thick, with 1–2 µm long gemmae or bacula. REFERENCES * ^ A B Krutzsch, W. 1970. Zur Kenntnis fossiler disperser Tetradenpollen. Paläontologische Abhandlungen Abteilung B, Paläobotanik 3(3): 399–433. * ^ A B C D Huang, T.-C. 1978. " Miocene
Miocene
palynomorphs of Taiwan. II. Tetrad grains." (PDF)
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Droserapites
D. clavatus Huang (1978) DROSERAPITES is a genus of extinct plants of somewhat uncertain droseracean affinity. It is a form taxon known only from fossil pollen . Droserapites pollen grains are united in tetrads (groups of four). Individual grains are inaperturate. The exine is mixed with dense, superposed clavate and baculate processes, whereas the sexine is reticulate. Pollen of D. clavatus has been found in the Miocene
Miocene
Peliao Sandstone of Taiwan
Taiwan
. It generally matches that of extant Drosera
Drosera
in morphology. In his formal description of the genus, Tseng-Chieng Huang suggested that Droserapites may be related to Droseridites and Quadrisperites . The tetrads of D. clavatus are tetrahedral and 34–40 µm in diameter. Individual grains are subspheroidal and measure 18–25 µm in width. They have a roughly circular amb that is abruptly acute at the distal pole. The exine is 0.5–1 µm thick, with 2–3 µm long clavae or bacula. REFERENCES * ^ A B C D E Huang, T.-C. 1978. " Miocene
Miocene
palynomorphs of Taiwan. II. Tetrad grains." (PDF). Botanical Bulletin of Academia Sinica 19: 77–81. * ^ Song, Z.-C., W.-M
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Droseridites
D. baculatus Ibrahim (1996) D. echinosporus R.Potonié (1954) D. major Krutzsch (1970) D. parvus Dutta & Sah (1970) D. senonicus Jardiné "> * ^ A B C D E Krutzsch, W. 1985. Über Nepenthes- Pollen im europäischen Tertiär. Gleditschia 13: 89–93. * ^ A B C D E F Saxena, R.K. ">(PDF). Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeobotany, Lucknow. * ^ A B Ibrahim, M.I.A. 1996. Aptian-Turonian palynology of the Ghazalat-1 Well (GTX-1), Qattara Depression, Egypt. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 94(1–2): 137–168. doi :10.1016/0034-6667(95)00135-2 * ^ A B C D E F G Ehrendorfer, F. 1989. Woody Plants—Evolution and Distribution Since the Tertiary. Springer-Verlag, Vienna. * ^ A B C Meimberg, H., A. Wistuba, P. Dittrich & G. Heubl 2001. Molecular phylogeny of Nepenthaceae based on cladistic analysis of plastid trnK intron sequence data. Plant
Plant
Biology (Stuttgart) 3(2): 164–175. doi :10.1055/s-2001-12897 * ^ Baksi, S.K. & U. Deb 1976. On Mulleripollis gen. nov., a pollen tetrad from the Upper Cretaceous of the Bengal Basin, West Bengal, India. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 22(1): 73–77. doi :10.1016/0034-6667(76)90012-9 * ^ Krutzsch, W. 1989. Paleogeography and historical phytogeography (paleochorology) in the Neophyticum. Plant
Plant
Systematics and Evolution 162(1–4): 5–61. doi :10.1007/BF00936909 * ^ A B Cheek, M.R. & M.H.P. Jebb 2001. Nepenthaceae
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Fischeripollis
FISCHERIPOLLIS is a genus of extinct plants in the family Droseraceae . Several species have been formally described and another has been temporarily designated Fischeripollis
Fischeripollis
sp. A. F. halensis was described based on fossilised pollen from sediments in the Hale Basin of central Australia
Australia
, dated to the middle-late Eocene
Eocene
(48 to 34 million years ago ). F. krutschei was discovered in Saxony
Saxony
, Germany
Germany
. F. undulatus was also native to Europe
Europe
. REFERENCES * ^ Macphail, M.K. ">(PDF). (3.10 MiB ) Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program, Scientific Results 188. * ^ Truswell, E.M
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