D. baculatus Ibrahim (1996)
D. echinosporus R.Potonié (1954)
D. major Krutzsch (1970)
D. parvus Dutta & Sah (1970)
D. senonicus Jardiné & Magloire (1965)
D. spinosus (type) (Cookson) R.Potonié (1960)
Droseridites is a genus of extinct plants of possible droseracean or
nepenthacean affinity. It is a form taxon known only from fossil
Species assigned to this genus originate from numerous regions
of the world, including
France to the Caucasus),
India, Egypt, the Arabian Peninsula, and the Kerguelen
This genus is characterised by inaperturate and spinose pollen grains
that are united in loose tetrahedral tetrads (groups of four). The
grains are prolate, striate, and tricolpate. The colpi are slender and
long, whereas the striae are very fine, densely packed, and situated
parallel to the polar axis.
Droseridites spinosus, the type species, has been recorded from the
Tertiary of the Kerguelen Islands and the
Miocene of India,
including the Warkalli Formation (Bharathi and Kundra Clay Mines,
Kerala) and the Sindhudurg Formation (Mavli Mine at Redi, Sindhudurg
District, Maharashtra). It is of possible nepenthacean affinity.
Specimens identified in the literature as D. cf. spinosus have
also been reported from Hungarian
Droseridites baculatus was described from the Ghazalat-1 Well, Qattara
Droseridites echinosporus has been recorded from European Tertiary
strata and is a member of a group of similar species that have been
interpreted as belonging to the genus Nepenthes.
Sites for D. major, a possible nepenthacean species, include
Tertiary of Europe and the Palaeocene-early
Coalfield of Garo Hills, Meghalaya, India.
Droseridites parvus was originally described from the lower Eocene
Cherry Formation of Assam, India. It has also been recorded from
Palaeocene Tura Formation of the "Retialetes emendatus zone" in
Assam and the Oligocene-
Neogene Dharmsala and Siwalik (Dharmsala
and Nurpur areas, Kangra District, Himachal Pradesh). The species
is characterised by wart-like sculpturing and is "presently impossible
Pollen matching the description of D. senonicus has been found in
formations of the
Arabian Peninsula dating to as early as the Middle
Cretaceous to late Upper Cretaceous, and it has been suggested that
this species may represent an early palm taxon.
Droseridites palynomorphs have been recorded from
numerous sites in India, including the
Miocene Cuddalore Formation
(Neyveli Lignitefield, Tamil Nadu), the
Palaeocene Tura Formation
(Langrin Coalfield, Khasi Hills, Meghalaya), the
Palaeocene Seam No. 1
(Rekmangiri Coalfield, Garo Hills, Meghalaya), and the
Neogene Dharmsala and Siwalik.
Pollen of a number of species originally described under the genus
Droseridites has been tentatively assigned to Nepenthes. In 1985,
Wilfried Krutzsch transferred three species of the
"D. echinosporus group", creating the new combinations Nepenthes
echinatus, N. echinosporus, and N. major. However,
at more than 40 µm in diameter, the tetrads of D. major are
larger than those of any known extant Nepenthes, and within the lower
range of extant
Pollen from the Kerguelen Islands
originally described as D. spinosus has also been interpreted as
belonging to Nepenthes.
Some authors consider D. major and D. parvus as synonyms of
Nepenthidites laitryngewensis of the
Palaeocene Lakadong Sandstone in
Laitryngew, Khasi Hills, Meghalaya, India.
^ a b c d e Krutzsch, W. 1985. Über Nepenthes-
Pollen im europäischen
Tertiär. Gleditschia 13: 89–93.
^ a b c d e f Saxena, R.K. & G.K. Trivedi 2006. "A Catalogue of
Tertiary Spores and
Pollen from India" (PDF). Birbal Sahni
Institute of Palaeobotany, Lucknow.
^ a b Ibrahim, M.I.A. 1996. Aptian-Turonian palynology of the
Ghazalat-1 Well (GTX-1), Qattara Depression, Egypt. Review of
Palaeobotany and Palynology 94(1–2): 137–168.
^ a b c d e f g Ehrendorfer, F. 1989. Woody Plants—Evolution and
Distribution Since the Tertiary. Springer-Verlag, Vienna.
^ a b c Meimberg, H., A. Wistuba, P. Dittrich & G. Heubl 2001.
Molecular phylogeny of Nepenthaceae based on cladistic analysis of
plastid trnK intron sequence data.
Plant Biology (Stuttgart) 3(2):
^ Baksi, S.K. & U. Deb 1976. On Mulleripollis gen. nov., a pollen
tetrad from the Upper
Cretaceous of the Bengal Basin, West Bengal,
India. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 22(1): 73–77.
^ Krutzsch, W. 1989. Paleogeography and historical phytogeography
(paleochorology) in the Neophyticum.
Plant Systematics and Evolution
162(1–4): 5–61. doi:10.1007/BF00936909
^ a b Cheek, M.R. & M.H.P. Jebb 2001. Nepenthaceae. Flora
Malesiana 15: 1–157.
^ Heubl, G., G. Bringmann & H. Meimberg 2006. Molecular phylogeny
and character evolution of carnivorous plant families in
Caryophyllales — revisited.
Plant Biology 8(6): 821–830.
^ Kumar, M. 1995.
Pollen tetrads from
Palaeocene sediments of
Meghalaya, India: comments on their morphology, botanical affinity and
geological records. Palaeobotanist 43(1): 68–81.
Carnivorous and protocarnivorous plants
List of carnivorous plants
List of carnivorous plant periodicals