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DoubleClick
DOUBLECLICK is a subsidiary of Google
Google
which develops and provides Internet ad serving services. Its clients include agencies, marketers ( Universal McCann , AKQA etc.) and publishers who serve customers like Microsoft
Microsoft
, General Motors
General Motors
, Coca-Cola
Coca-Cola
, Motorola
Motorola
, L\'Oréal , Palm, Inc. , Apple Inc.
Apple Inc.
, Visa USA, Nike , Carlsberg among others. DoubleClick's headquarters is in New York City
New York City
, United States
United States
. DoubleClick was founded in 1996 by Kevin O\'Connor and Dwight Merriman . It was formerly listed as "DCLK " on the NASDAQ
NASDAQ
, and was purchased by private equity firms Hellman & Friedman and JMI Equity in July 2005
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Antitrust
COMPETITION LAW is a law that promotes or seeks to maintain market competition by regulating anti-competitive conduct by companies. Competition
Competition
law is implemented through public and private enforcement. Competition
Competition
law is known as anti-trust law in the United States
United States
, and as anti-monopoly law in China
China
and Russia
Russia
. In previous years it has been known as trade practices law in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and Australia . In the European Union
European Union
, it is referred to as both antitrust and competition law. The history of competition law reaches back to the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
. The business practices of market traders, guilds and governments have always been subject to scrutiny, and sometimes severe sanctions
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Monopoly
A MONOPOLY (from Greek μόνος mónos and πωλεῖν pōleîn ) exists when a specific person or enterprise is the only supplier of a particular commodity. This contrasts with a monopsony which relates to a single entity's control of a market to purchase a good or service, and with oligopoly which consists of a few sellers dominating a market). Monopolies are thus characterized by a lack of economic competition to produce the good or service , a lack of viable substitute goods , and the possibility of a high monopoly price well above the seller's marginal cost that leads to a high monopoly profit . The verb monopolise or monopolize refers to the process by which a company gains the ability to raise prices or exclude competitors. In economics, a monopoly is a single seller. In law, a monopoly is a business entity that has significant market power, that is, the power to charge overly high prices
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Federal Trade Commission
The FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION (FTC) is an independent agency of the United States
United States
government , established in 1914 by the Federal Trade Commission Act . Its principal mission is the promotion of consumer protection and the elimination and prevention of anticompetitive business practices, such as coercive monopoly . The Federal Trade Commission Act was one of President Woodrow Wilson 's major acts against trusts . Trusts and trust-busting were significant political concerns during the Progressive Era . Since its inception, the FTC has enforced the provisions of the Clayton Act , a key antitrust statute, as well as the provisions of the FTC Act , 15 U.S.C. § 41 et seq. Over time, the FTC has been delegated with the enforcement of additional business regulation statutes and has promulgated a number of regulations (codified in Title 16 of the Code of Federal Regulations )
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European Union
The EUROPEAN UNION (EU) is a political and economic union of 28 member states that are located primarily in Europe. It has an area of 4,475,757 km2 (1,728,099 sq mi), and an estimated population of over 510 million. The EU has developed an internal single market through a standardised system of laws that apply in all member states. EU policies aim to ensure the free movement of people, goods, services, and capital within the internal market, enact legislation in justice and home affairs, and maintain common policies on trade, agriculture , fisheries , and regional development . Within the Schengen Area , passport controls have been abolished. A monetary union was established in 1999 and came into full force in 2002, and is composed of 19 EU member states which use the euro currency
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Abacus
The ABACUS (plural ABACI or ABACUSES), also called a COUNTING FRAME, is a calculating tool that was in use in Europe, China
China
and Russia, centuries before the adoption of the written Hindu–Arabic numeral system . The exact origin of the abacus is still unknown. Today, abaci are often constructed as a bamboo frame with beads sliding on wires, but originally they were beans or stones moved in grooves in sand or on tablets of wood, stone, or metal. Abaci come in different designs. Some designs, like the bead frame consisting of beads divided into tens, are used mainly to teach arithmetic, although they remain popular in the post-Soviet states as a tool. Other designs, such as the Japanese soroban , have been used for practical calculations even involving several digits
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Personally Identifiable Information
PERSONALLY IDENTIFIABLE INFORMATION (PII), or SENSITIVE PERSONAL INFORMATION (SPI), as used in information security and privacy laws, is information that can be used on its own or with other information to identify, contact, or locate a single person, or to identify an individual in context. The abbreviation PII is widely accepted in the U.S. context, but the phrase it abbreviates has four common variants based on personal / personally, and identifiable / identifying. Not all are equivalent, and for legal purposes the effective definitions vary depending on the jurisdiction and the purposes for which the term is being used
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Private Equity
In finance , PRIVATE EQUITY is a type of equity and one of the asset classes consisting of equity securities and debt in operating companies that are not publicly traded on a stock exchange . A private equity investment will generally be made by a private equity firm , a venture capital firm or an angel investor . Each of these categories of investors has its own set of goals, preferences and investment strategies; however, all provide working capital to a target company to nurture expansion, new-product development, or restructuring of the company’s operations, management, or ownership. Bloomberg Businessweek
Bloomberg Businessweek
has called private equity a rebranding of leveraged-buyout firms after the 1980s. Common investment strategies in private equity include: leveraged buyouts , venture capital , growth capital , distressed investments and mezzanine capital
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Billion
A BILLION is a number with two distinct definitions: * 1,000,000,000 , i.e. one thousand million, or 109 (ten to the ninth power ), as defined on the short scale . This is now generally the meaning in both British and American English. * 1,000,000,000,000 , i.e. one million million, or 1012 (ten to the twelfth power), as defined on the long scale . This is one thousand times larger than the short scale billion, and equivalent to the short scale trillion .American English always uses the short scale definition but British English has employed both versions. Historically, the United Kingdom used the long scale billion but since 1974 official UK statistics have used the short scale. Since the 1950s the short scale has been increasingly used in technical writing and journalism, although the long scale definition still enjoys common usage. Other countries use the word billion (or words cognate to it) to denote either the long scale or short scale billion
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Application Service Provider
An APPLICATION SERVICE PROVIDER (ASP) is a business providing computer-based services to customers over a network; such as access to a particular software application (such as customer relationship management ) using a standard protocol (such as HTTP
HTTP
). The need for ASPs has evolved from the increasing costs of specialized software that have far exceeded the price range of small to medium-sized businesses. As well, the growing complexities of software have led to huge costs in distributing the software to end-users. Through ASPs, the complexities and costs of such software can be cut down. In addition, the issues of upgrading have been eliminated from the end-firm by placing the onus on the ASP to maintain up-to-date services, 24 x 7 technical support, physical and electronic security and in-built support for business continuity and flexible working. The importance of this marketplace is reflected by its size
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Page View
A PAGE VIEW (PV) or PAGE IMPRESSION is a request to load a single HTML
HTML
file (web page ) of an Internet site . On the World Wide Web , a page request would result from a web surfer clicking on a link on another "page" pointing to the page in question. A hit , which refers to a request for any file from a web server . There may, therefore, be many hits per page view since an HTML
HTML
page can contain multiple files—images, CSS
CSS
, etc. On balance, page views refer to a number of pages viewed or clicked on the site during the given time. Page views may be counted as part of web analytics . For the owner of the site, this information can be useful to see if any change in the "page" (such as the information or the way it is presented) results in more visits
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Spyware
SPYWARE is software that aims to gather information about a person or organization without their knowledge, that may send such information to another entity without the consumer's consent, or that asserts control over a device without the consumer's knowledge. "Spyware" is mostly classified into four types: adware , system monitors, tracking cookies , and trojans ; examples of other notorious types include digital rights management capabilities that "phone home", keyloggers , rootkits , and web beacons . Spyware
Spyware
is mostly used for the purposes of tracking and storing Internet users' movements on the Web and serving up pop-up ads to Internet users. Whenever spyware is used for malicious purposes, its presence is typically hidden from the user and can be difficult to detect. Some spyware, such as keyloggers, may be installed by the owner of a shared, corporate, or public computer intentionally in order to monitor users
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HTTP Cookie
An HTTP
HTTP
COOKIE (also called WEB COOKIE, INTERNET COOKIE, BROWSER COOKIE, or simply COOKIE) is a small piece of data sent from a website and stored on the user's computer by the user's web browser while the user is browsing. Cookies were designed to be a reliable mechanism for websites to remember stateful information (such as items added in the shopping cart in an online store) or to record the user's browsing activity (including clicking particular buttons, logging in , or recording which pages were visited in the past). They can also be used to remember arbitrary pieces of information that the user previously entered into form fields such as names, addresses, passwords, and credit card numbers. Other kinds of cookies perform essential functions in the modern web. Perhaps most importantly, AUTHENTICATION COOKIES are the most common method used by web servers to know whether the user is logged in or not, and which account they are logged in with
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Exploit (computer Security)
An EXPLOIT (from the English verb to exploit, meaning "to use something to one’s own advantage") is a piece of software , a chunk of data, or a sequence of commands that takes advantage of a bug or vulnerability to cause unintended or unanticipated behavior to occur on computer software, hardware, or something electronic (usually computerized). Such behavior frequently includes things like gaining control of a computer system, allowing privilege escalation , or a denial-of-service (DoS or related DDoS) attack . CONTENTS* 1 Classification * 1.1 Types * 1.2 Pivoting * 2 See also * 3 Notes * 4 References CLASSIFICATIONThere are several methods of classifying exploits. The most common is by how the exploit contacts the vulnerable software. A remote exploit works over a network and exploits the security vulnerability without any prior access to the vulnerable system
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Advertising Agencies
An ADVERTISING AGENCY, often referred to as a creative agency, is a business dedicated to creating, planning, and handling advertising and sometimes other forms of promotion and marketing for its clients. An ad agency is generally independent from the client; it may be an internal department or agency that provides an outside point of view to the effort of selling the client's products or services, or an outside firm. An agency can also handle overall marketing and branding strategies promotions for its clients, which may include sales as well. Typical ad agency clients include businesses and corporations,non-profit organizations and private agencies. Agencies may be hired to produce television commercials , radio commercials , online advertising , out-of-home advertising , mobile marketing , and AR advertising , as part of an advertising campaign
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Mass Media
The MASS MEDIA is a diversified collection of media technologies that reach a large audience via mass communication . The technologies through which this communication takes place include a variety of outlets. Broadcast media transmit information electronically, via such media as film , radio , recorded music, or television . Digital media comprises both Internet
Internet
and mobile mass communication. Internet
Internet
media comprise such services as email , social media sites, websites , and Internet-based radio and television. Many other mass media outlets have an additional presence on the web, by such means as linking to or running TV ads online, or distributing QR Codes in outdoor or print media to direct mobile users to a website
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