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Google LLC is an American
multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multinational state, a sovereign state that comprises two or more nat ...
technology company A technology company (or tech company) is an electronics Electronics comprises the physics, engineering, technology and applications that deal with the emission, flow and control of electrons in vacuum and matter. It uses active devices to contr ...
that specializes in
Internet The Internet (or internet) is the global system of interconnected s that uses the (TCP/IP) to communicate between networks and devices. It is a ' that consists of private, public, academic, business, and government networks of local to ...

Internet
-related services and products, which include online advertising technologies, a
search engine A search engine is a software system A software system is a system of intercommunicating software component, components based on forming part of a computer system (a combination of Computer hardware, hardware and software). It "consists of a n ...
,
cloud computing Cloud computing is the on-demand availability of computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern computers can perform generic sets of operatio ...

cloud computing
, software, and hardware. It is considered one of the
Big FiveBig Five may refer to: Animals * the Big five game, Big Five, large African wild animals said to be most difficult to hunt: lion, leopard, rhinoceros, elephant and Cape buffalo * Big Five animals of the Kaziranga National Park, Assam, India: Ind ...
companies in the American information technology industry, along with
Amazon Amazon usually refers to: * Amazons In Greek mythology, the Amazons (Ancient Greek: Ἀμαζόνες ''Amazónes'', singular Ἀμαζών ''Amazōn'') are portrayed in a number of ancient Greek, ancient epic poems and legends, such as the ...
,
Apple An apple is an edible fruit produced by an apple tree (''Malus domestica''). Apple fruit tree, trees are agriculture, cultivated worldwide and are the most widely grown species in the genus ''Malus''. The tree originated in Central Asia, wher ...
,
Meta Meta (from the Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approxim ...
(
Facebook Facebook is an American online social media and social networking service owned by Meta Platforms. Founded in 2004 by Mark Zuckerberg with fellow Harvard College students and roommates Eduardo Saverin, Andrew McCollum, Dustin Moskovitz, an ...

Facebook
) and
Microsoft Microsoft Corporation is an American multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multination ...

Microsoft
. Google was founded on September 4, 1998, by
Larry Page Lawrence Edward Page (born March 26, 1973) is an American computer scientist A computer scientist is a person who has acquired the knowledge of computer science Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information, a ...

Larry Page
and
Sergey Brin Sergey Mikhaylovich Brin (russian: Серге́й Миха́йлович Брин, tr. ''Sergéj Mixájlovič Brin''; born August 21, 1973) is an American computer scientist and Internet entrepreneur. Together with Larry Page Lawrence ...
while they were
Ph.D A Doctor of Philosophy (PhD, Ph.D., or DPhil; Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as La ...
. students at
Stanford University Stanford University, officially Leland Stanford Junior University, is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Du ...

Stanford University
in California. Together they own about 14% of its publicly-listed shares and control 56% of the stockholder voting power through super-voting stock. The company went
public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information from an individual or an organization An organization, or organisation (English in the Commonwealth of Nations, Commonwealth Engli ...
via an
initial public offering An initial public offering (IPO) or stock launch is a in which shares of a company are sold to s and usually also retail (individual) investors. An IPO is typically by one or more , who also arrange for the shares to be listed on one or more s ...
(IPO) in 2004. In 2015, Google was reorganized as a wholly-owned subsidiary of
Alphabet Inc. Alphabet Inc. is an American multinational conglomerate Conglomerate or conglomeration may refer to: * Conglomerate (company) * Conglomerate (geology) * Conglomerate (mathematics) In popular culture: * The Conglomerate (American group), a pro ...
. Google is Alphabet's largest subsidiary and is a
holding company A holding company is a company whose primary business is holding a controlling interest in the securities of other companies. A holding company usually does not produce goods or services itself. Its purpose is to own shares of other companies ...
for Alphabet's Internet properties and interests.
Sundar Pichai Pichai Sundararajan (born June 10, 1972), better known as Sundar Pichai (), is an Indian-American Indian Americans or Indo-Americans are Americans Americans are the Citizenship of the United States, citizens and United States natio ...

Sundar Pichai
was appointed CEO of Google on October 24, 2015, replacing Larry Page, who became the CEO of Alphabet. On December 3, 2019, Pichai also became the CEO of Alphabet. In 2021, the
Alphabet Workers Union Alphabet Workers Union (AWU), also informally referred to as the Google Union, is a trade union A trade union (or a labor union in American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English ...
was founded, mainly composed of Google employees. The company's rapid growth since incorporation has included products,
acquisitions In corporate finance, mergers and acquisitions (M&A) are transactions in which the ownership of Company, companies, other business organizations, or their operating units are transferred or Consolidation (business), consolidated with other entit ...
, and partnerships beyond Google's core
search engine A search engine is a software system A software system is a system of intercommunicating software component, components based on forming part of a computer system (a combination of Computer hardware, hardware and software). It "consists of a n ...
, (
Google Search Google Search (also known simply as Google), is a search engine A search engine is a software system A software system is a system of intercommunicating software component, components based on forming part of a computer system (a combin ...
). It offers services designed for work and productivity (
Google Docs Google Docs is a word processor WordPerfect, first released for minicomputers in 1979 and later ported to microcomputers A word processor (WP) is a device or computer program that provides for input, editing, formatting, and output of text, o ...
,
Google Sheets Google Sheets is a spreadsheet A spreadsheet is a computer application for organization, analysis, and storage of data in tabular form. Spreadsheets were developed as computerized analogs of paper accounting worksheets. The program operates on ...
, and
Google Slides Google Slides is a presentation program included as part of the free, Web application, web-based Google Docs Editors suite offered by Google. The service also includes Google Docs, Google Sheets, Google Drawings, Google Forms, Google Sites, and Goo ...
), email (
Gmail Gmail is a free service provided by . As of 2019, it had 1.5 billion active worldwide. A user typically accesses Gmail in a or the official . Google also supports the use of s via the and protocols. At its launch in 2004, Gmail provided ...
), scheduling and time management (
Google Calendar Google Calendar is a time-management and scheduling calendar A calendar is a system of organizing days. This is done by giving names to periods of time, typically days, weeks, months and years. A calendar date, date is the designation o ...

Google Calendar
), cloud storage (
Google Drive Google Drive is a file storage and synchronization service developed by Google Google LLC is an American Multinational corporation, multinational technology company that specializes in Internet-related services and products, which incl ...
), instant messaging and video chat (
Google Duo Google Duo is a video chat Videotelephony comprises the technologies for the reception and transmission of audio- video signals by users in different locations, for communication between people in real time.McGraw-Hill Concise Encyclopedia of ...
,
Google Chat Google Chat (formerly known as Hangouts Chat) is a communication software developed by Google built for teams that provides direct messages and team chat rooms, along with a group messaging function that allows Google Drive content sharing. It is ...

Google Chat
, and
Google Meet Google Meet (formerly known as Hangouts Meet) is a Videotelephony, video-communication service developed by Google. It is one of two Application software, apps that constitute the replacement for Google Hangouts, the other being Google Chat. Hist ...
), language translation (
Google Translate Google Translate is a multilingual neural machine translation service developed by Google, to translate text, documents and websites from one language into another. It offers a web application, website interface, a mobile app for Android (operat ...
), mapping and navigation (
Google Maps Google Maps is a web mapping Web most often refers to: * Spider web, a silken structure created by the animal * World Wide Web upright=1.35, A global map of the web index for countries in 2014 The World Wide Web (WWW), commonly know ...

Google Maps
,
Waze Waze ( he, ווייז, ; formerly FreeMap Israel) is a subsidiary A subsidiary, subsidiary company or daughter company is a company A company, abbreviated as co., is a Legal personality, legal entity representing an association of people, w ...
,
Google Earth Google Earth is a computer program, formerly known as Keyhole EarthViewer, that renders a 3D computer graphics, 3D representation of Earth based primarily on satellite imagery. The program maps the Earth by superimposition, superimposing satell ...
, and
Street View Google Street View is a technology featured in Google Maps and Google Earth that provides interactive panoramas from positions along many streets in the world. It was launched in 2007 in several cities in the United States, and has since expan ...

Street View
), podcast hosting (
Google Podcasts Google Podcasts is a podcast A podcast is an episodic series of spoken word digital audio Digital audio is a representation of sound recorded in, or converted into, Digital signal (signal processing), digital form. In digital audio, the so ...

Google Podcasts
), video sharing (
YouTube YouTube is an American online video sharing and social media platform Social media are interactive technologies that allow the Content creation, creation or information sharing, sharing/exchange of information, ideas, career interests, an ...

YouTube
), blog publishing (
Blogger A blog (a Clipping (morphology), truncation of "weblog") is a discussion or informational website published on the World Wide Web consisting of discrete, often informal diary-style text entries (posts). Posts are typically displayed in Reverse ...
), note-taking (
Google Keep Google Keep is a note-taking service included as part of the free, Web application, web-based Google Docs Editors suite offered by Google. The service also includes Google Docs, Google Sheets, Google Slides, Google Drawings, Google Forms, and Goo ...
and
Jamboard Jamboard is a digital interactive whiteboard 2007 Image:Digibord klokkijken.jpg, A student uses the interactive whiteboard An interactive whiteboard (IWB), also known as interactive board or smart board, is a large interactive display board in ...
), and photo organizing and editing (
Google Photos Google Photos is a photo sharing and Cloud storage, storage service developed by Google. It was announced in May 2015 and separated from Google+, the company's former Social networking service, social network. In its free tier, Google Photos ...
). The company leads the development of the
Android Android may refer to: Science and technology * Android (robot), a humanoid robot or synthetic organism designed to imitate a human * Android (operating system), Google's mobile operating system ** Android (operating system)#Mascot, Unnamed Androi ...

Android
mobile operating system, the
Google Chrome Google Chrome is a cross-platform web browser developed by Google. It was first released in 2008 for Microsoft Windows, built with free software components from Apple WebKit and Mozilla Firefox. It was later ported to Linux, macOS, iOS, and An ...

Google Chrome
web browser, and
Chrome OS Chrome OS (sometimes styled as chromeOS) is a Gentoo Linux Gentoo Linux (pronounced ) is a Linux distribution A Linux distribution (often abbreviated as distro) is an operating system An operating system (OS) is system software that m ...
(a lightweight, proprietary operating system based on the
free and open-source Free and open-source software (FOSS) is software that is both free software and open-source software where anyone is free software license, freely licensed to use, copy, study, and change the software in any way, and the source code is openly sh ...
Chromium OS Chromium OS is a free and open-source Free and open-source software (FOSS) is software that is both free software and open-source software where anyone is free software license, freely licensed to use, copy, study, and change the software in ...
operating system). Google has moved increasingly into hardware; from 2010 to 2015, it partnered with major electronics manufacturers in the production of its
Google Nexus Google Nexus is a discontinued line of consumer electronic Consumer electronics or home electronics are electronic ( analog or digital) equipment intended for everyday use, typically in private homes. Consumer electronics include devices ...

Google Nexus
devices, and it released multiple hardware products in 2016, including the
Google Pixel Google Pixel is a brand of consumer electronic devices developed by Google Google LLC is an American Multinational corporation, multinational technology company that specializes in Internet-related services and products, which include o ...
line of smartphones,
Google Home Google Nest, previously named Google Home, is a line of Smart speaker, smart speakers developed by Google under the Google Nest brand. The devices enable users to speak Speech recognition, voice commands to interact with services through Google A ...
smart speaker, Google Wifi mesh wireless router. Google has also experimented with becoming an Internet carrier (
Google Fiber Google Fiber is part of the Access division of Alphabet Inc. Alphabet Inc. is an American multinational conglomerate headquartered in Mountain View, California. It was created through a restructuring of Google Google LLC is an A ...

Google Fiber
and
Google Fi Google Fi (pronounced ), formerly Project Fi, is a MVNOA mobile virtual network operator (MVNO) is a wireless communications services provider that does not own the Base station subsystem, wireless network infrastructure over which it provides se ...
). Google.com is the most visited website worldwide. Several other Google-owned websites also are on the
list of most popular websites This is a list of the most visited websites worldwide according to the first 50 website A website (also written as web site) is a collection of web pages and related content that is identified by a common domain name and published on at lea ...
, including
YouTube YouTube is an American online video sharing and social media platform Social media are interactive technologies that allow the Content creation, creation or information sharing, sharing/exchange of information, ideas, career interests, an ...

YouTube
and
Blogger A blog (a Clipping (morphology), truncation of "weblog") is a discussion or informational website published on the World Wide Web consisting of discrete, often informal diary-style text entries (posts). Posts are typically displayed in Reverse ...
. On the
list of most valuable brands The following article lists the most valuable company brands in the world according to different estimates by Kantar Group Kantar Group is a data analytics and brand consulting company, based in London, England. It was founded in 1992, and has a ...
, Google is ranked second by
Forbes ''Forbes'' () is an American business magazine owned by Integrated Whale Media Investments and the Forbes family The Forbes family is one of the Boston Brahmins—a wealthy extended American family long prominent in Boston, Massachusett ...

Forbes
and fourth by Interbrand. It has received significant
criticism Critique is a wikt:method, method of disciplined, systematic study of a written or oral discourse. Although critique is commonly understood as fault finding and negative judgment,Rodolphe Gasché (2007''The honor of thinking: critique, theory, ph ...
involving issues such as privacy concerns,
tax avoidance Tax avoidance is the legal usage of the tax A tax is a compulsory financial charge or some other type of levy imposed on a taxpayer (an individual or legal entity In law, a legal person is any person A person (plural people or persons ...
,
censorship Censorship is the suppression of speech, public communication, or other information. This may be done on the basis that such material is considered objectionable, harmful, sensitive, or "inconvenient". Censorship can be conducted by governments ...
, search neutrality,
antitrust Competition law is a law Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whole. A system, surrounded and influenced by its environment, is ...
and abuse of its
monopoly A monopoly (from Greek el, μόνος, mónos, single, alone, label=none and el, πωλεῖν, pōleîn, to sell, label=none) is as described by Irving Fisher, a market with the "absence of competition", creating a situation where a specific ...

monopoly
position.


History


Early years

Google began in January 1996 as a research project by
Larry Page Lawrence Edward Page (born March 26, 1973) is an American computer scientist A computer scientist is a person who has acquired the knowledge of computer science Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information, a ...

Larry Page
and
Sergey Brin Sergey Mikhaylovich Brin (russian: Серге́й Миха́йлович Брин, tr. ''Sergéj Mixájlovič Brin''; born August 21, 1973) is an American computer scientist and Internet entrepreneur. Together with Larry Page Lawrence ...
when they were both PhD students at
Stanford University Stanford University, officially Leland Stanford Junior University, is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Du ...

Stanford University
in
California California is a U.S. state, state in the Western United States. With over 39.3million residents across a total area of approximately , it is the List of states and territories of the United States by population, most populous and the List of ...

California
. The project initially involved an unofficial "third founder", Scott Hassan, the original lead programmer who wrote much of the code for the original
Google Search Google Search (also known simply as Google), is a search engine A search engine is a software system A software system is a system of intercommunicating software component, components based on forming part of a computer system (a combin ...
engine, but he left before Google was officially founded as a company; Hassan went on to pursue a career in
robotics Robotics is an interdisciplinary Interdisciplinarity or interdisciplinary studies involves the combination of two or more academic disciplines into one activity (e.g., a research project). It draws knowledge from several other fields like ...

robotics
and founded the company
Willow Garage Willow Garage was a robotics Robotics is an interdisciplinarity, interdisciplinary branch of computer science and engineering. Robotics involves design, construction, operation, and use of robots. The goal of robotics is to design machines t ...
in 2006. While conventional search engines ranked results by counting how many times the search terms appeared on the page, they theorized about a better system that analyzed the relationships among websites. They called this algorithm
PageRank PageRank (PR) is an algorithm In and , an algorithm () is a finite sequence of , computer-implementable instructions, typically to solve a class of problems or to perform a computation. Algorithms are always and are used as specifications ...

PageRank
; it determined a website's
relevance Relevance is the concept of one topic being connected to another topic in a way that makes it useful to consider the second topic when considering the first. The concept of relevance is studied in many different fields, including cognitive scie ...
by the number of pages, and the importance of those pages that linked back to the original site. Page told his ideas to Hassan, who began writing the code to implement Page's ideas. Page and Brin originally nicknamed the new search engine " BackRub", because the system checked backlinks to estimate the importance of a site. Hassan as well as Alan Steremberg were cited by Page and Brin as being critical to the development of Google.
Rajeev Motwani Rajeev Motwani ( hi, राजीव मोटवानी; March 26, 1962 – June 5, 2009) was a professor of Computer Science at Stanford University , mottoeng = "The wind of freedom blows" , type = Private university, Private research univ ...
and
Terry Winograd Terry Allen Winograd (born February 24, 1946) is an American professor Professor (commonly abbreviated as Prof.) is an Academy, academic rank at university, universities and other post-secondary education and research institutions in most ...
later co-authored with Page and Brin the first paper about the project, describing PageRank and the initial prototype of the Google search engine, published in 1998. Héctor García-Molina and
Jeff Ullman Jeffrey David Ullman (born November 22, 1942) is an American computer scientist and the Stanford W. Ascherman Professor of Engineering, Emeritus, at Stanford University , mottoeng = "The wind of freedom blows" , type = Private university, P ...
were also cited as contributors to the project. PageRank was influenced by a similar page-ranking and site-scoring algorithm earlier used for
RankDex Baidu, Inc. (, meaning "a hundred times" or "a hundred degrees", anglicized ) is a Chinese multinational technology company specializing in Internet-related services and products and artificial intelligence Artificial intelligence (AI ...
, developed by
Robin Li Robin Li Yanhong (; born 17 November 1968) is a Chinese software engineer and billionaire internet entrepreneur. He is the co-founder of the search engine Baidu Baidu, Inc. (, meaning "a hundred times" or "a hundred degrees", anglicized ) ...
in 1996, with Larry Page's PageRank patent including a citation to Li's earlier RankDex patent; Li later went on to create the Chinese search engine
Baidu Baidu, Inc. (, meaning "a hundred times" or "a hundred degrees", anglicized ) is a Chinese multinational specializing in Internet-related services and products and (AI), headquartered in 's . It is one of the largest AI and Internet compan ...
. Eventually, they changed the name to Google; the name of the search engine was a play on the word "
googol A googol is the large number Numbers that are significantly larger than those typically used in everyday life, for instance in simple counting or in monetary transactions, appear frequently in fields such as mathematics Mathematics (fro ...

googol
", the number 1 followed by 100 zeros, which was picked to signify that the search engine was intended to provide large quantities of information. The domain name www.google.com was registered on September 15, 1997, and the company was incorporated on September 4, 1998. It was based in the garage of
Susan Wojcicki Susan Diane Wojcicki ( ; born July 5, 1968) is a Polish-American Polish Americans ( pl, Polonia amerykańska) are Americans Americans are the Citizenship of the United States, citizens and United States nationality law, nationals of the U ...
in
Menlo Park, California Menlo Park is a city at the eastern edge of San Mateo County San Mateo County ( ), officially the County of San Mateo, is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictiona ...
. Craig Silverstein, a fellow PhD student at Stanford, was hired as the first employee. Google was initially funded by an August 1998 investment of $100,000 from
Andy Bechtolsheim Andreas Maria Maximilian Freiherr (; male, abbreviated as ), (; his wife, abbreviated as , literally "free lord" or "free lady") and (, his unmarried daughters and maiden aunts) are designations used as title of nobility, titles of nobility ...
, co-founder of
Sun Microsystems Sun Microsystems, Inc. (Sun for short) was an American technology company that sold computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to Execution (computing), carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. M ...
, a few weeks prior to September 7, 1998, the day Google was officially incorporated. Google received money from three other
angel investor An angel investor (also known as a business angel, informal investor, angel funder, private investor, or seed investor) is an individual who provides capital for a business start-up, usually in exchange for convertible debt or ownership equity. ...
s in 1998:
Amazon.com Amazon.com, Inc. ( ) is an American multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multinational ...
founder
Jeff Bezos Jeffrey Preston Bezos ( ; né Jorgensen; born January 12, 1964) is an American entrepreneur, media proprietor A media proprietor, media mogul or media tycoon refers to a successful entrepreneur or businessperson who controls, through person ...

Jeff Bezos
, Stanford University computer science professor David Cheriton, and entrepreneur Ram Shriram. Between these initial investors, friends, and family Google raised around $1,000,000, which is what allowed them to open up their original shop in
Menlo Park, California Menlo Park is a city at the eastern edge of San Mateo County San Mateo County ( ), officially the County of San Mateo, is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictiona ...
. After some additional, small investments through the end of 1998 to early 1999, a new $25 million round of funding was announced on June 7, 1999, with major investors including the
venture capital Venture capital (VC) is a form of private equity Private equity (PE) typically refers to investment funds, generally organized as limited partnerships, that buy and restructure companies that are not publicly traded. Private equity is a ty ...
firms
Kleiner Perkins Kleiner Perkins, formerly Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers (KPCB), is an American venture capital firm which specializes in investing in incubation, early stage and growth companies. Since its founding in 1972, the firm has backed entrepreneurs ...
and
Sequoia Capital Sequoia Capital is an American venture capital Venture capital (VC) is a form of private equity Private equity (PE) typically refers to investment funds, generally organized as limited partnerships, that buy and restructure companies that ...
.


Growth

In March 1999, the company moved its offices to
Palo Alto, California Palo Alto (; Spanish language, Spanish for "tall stick") is a charter city located in the northwestern corner of Santa Clara County, California, United States, in the San Francisco Bay Area. The city is named after a Sequoia sempervirens, coast ...

Palo Alto, California
, which is home to several prominent
Silicon Valley Silicon Valley is a region in Northern California Northern California (colloquially known as NorCal) is a geographic and cultural region that generally comprises the northern portion of the U.S. state of California California is a U.S ...

Silicon Valley
technology start-ups. The next year, Google began selling advertisements associated with search keywords against Page and Brin's initial opposition toward an advertising-funded search engine. To maintain an uncluttered page design, advertisements were solely text-based. In June 2000, it was announced that Google would become the default search engine provider for
Yahoo! Yahoo (, styled as yahoo''!'') is an American web services The term Web service (WS) is either: * a service offered by an electronic device to another electronic device, communicating with each other via the World Wide Web, or * a server run ...
, one of the most popular websites at the time, replacing
Inktomi Inktomi Corporation was a company that provided software for Internet service providers (ISPs). It was incorporated in Delaware and headquartered in Foster City, California, United States. Customers included Microsoft, HotBot, Amazon.com, eBay, a ...
. In 2003, after outgrowing two other locations, the company leased an office complex from
Silicon Graphics Silicon Graphics, Inc. (stylized as ''SiliconGraphics'' before 1999, later rebranded SGI, historically known as Silicon Graphics Computer Systems or SGCS) was an American high-performance computing A supercomputer is a computer with a hig ...
, at 1600 Amphitheatre Parkway in
Mountain View, California Mountain View is a city in Santa Clara County, California Santa Clara County, officially the County of Santa Clara, is California's List of counties in California, 6th most populous county, with a population of 1,781,642, as of the 2010 United ...
. The complex became known as the
Googleplex The Googleplex is the corporate headquarters complex of Google and its parent company, Alphabet Inc. It is located at 1600 Amphitheatre Parkway in Mountain View, California. The original complex, with of office space, is the company's second l ...

Googleplex
, a play on the word
googolplex A googolplex is the number 10, or equivalently, 10. Written out in ordinary decimal notation The decimal numeral system A numeral system (or system of numeration) is a writing system A writing system is a method of visually represent ...
, the number one followed by a googol zeroes. Three years later, Google bought the property from SGI for $319 million. By that time, the name "Google" had found its way into everyday language, causing the verb "
google Google LLC is an American multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multinational stat ...
" to be added to the ''
Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary ''Webster's Dictionary'' is any of the dictionaries A dictionary is a listing of lexemes from the lexicon of one or more specific language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken ...
'' and the ''Oxford English Dictionary'', denoted as: "to use the Google search engine to obtain information on the Internet". The first use of the verb on television appeared in an October 2002 episode of ''Buffy the Vampire Slayer''. Additionally, in 2001 Google's Investors felt the need to have a strong internal management, and they agreed to hire Eric Schmidt as the chairman and CEO of Google


Initial public offering

On August 19, 2004, Google became a public company via an
initial public offering An initial public offering (IPO) or stock launch is a in which shares of a company are sold to s and usually also retail (individual) investors. An IPO is typically by one or more , who also arrange for the shares to be listed on one or more s ...
. At that time
Larry Page Lawrence Edward Page (born March 26, 1973) is an American computer scientist A computer scientist is a person who has acquired the knowledge of computer science Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information, a ...

Larry Page
,
Sergey Brin Sergey Mikhaylovich Brin (russian: Серге́й Миха́йлович Брин, tr. ''Sergéj Mixájlovič Brin''; born August 21, 1973) is an American computer scientist and Internet entrepreneur. Together with Larry Page Lawrence ...
, and Eric Schmidt agreed to work together at Google for 20 years, until the year 2024. The company offered 19,605,052 shares at a price of $85 per share. Shares were sold in an online auction format using a system built by Morgan Stanley and Credit Suisse, underwriters for the deal. The sale of $1.67 billion gave Google a market capitalization of more than $23 billion. On November 13, 2006, Google acquired
YouTube YouTube is an American online video sharing and social media platform Social media are interactive technologies that allow the Content creation, creation or information sharing, sharing/exchange of information, ideas, career interests, an ...

YouTube
for $1.65 billion in Google stock, On March 11, 2008, Google acquired DoubleClick for $3.1 billion, transferring to Google valuable relationships that DoubleClick had with Web publishers and advertising agencies. By 2011, Google was handling approximately 3 billion searches per day. To handle this workload, Google built 11 data centers around the world with several thousand servers in each. These data centers allowed Google to handle the ever-changing workload more efficiently. In May 2011, the number of monthly unique visitors to Google surpassed one billion for the first time. In May 2012, Google acquired Motorola Mobility for $12.5 billion, in its largest acquisition to date. This purchase was made in part to help Google gain Motorola's considerable patent portfolio on mobile phones and wireless technologies, to help protect Google in its ongoing patent disputes with other companies, mainly
Apple An apple is an edible fruit produced by an apple tree (''Malus domestica''). Apple fruit tree, trees are agriculture, cultivated worldwide and are the most widely grown species in the genus ''Malus''. The tree originated in Central Asia, wher ...
and
Microsoft Microsoft Corporation is an American multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multination ...

Microsoft
, and to allow it to continue to freely offer Android.


2012 onward

In June 2013, Google acquired
Waze Waze ( he, ווייז, ; formerly FreeMap Israel) is a subsidiary A subsidiary, subsidiary company or daughter company is a company A company, abbreviated as co., is a Legal personality, legal entity representing an association of people, w ...
, a $966 million deal. While Waze would remain an independent entity, its social features, such as its crowdsourced location platform, were reportedly valuable integrations between Waze and
Google Maps Google Maps is a web mapping Web most often refers to: * Spider web, a silken structure created by the animal * World Wide Web upright=1.35, A global map of the web index for countries in 2014 The World Wide Web (WWW), commonly know ...

Google Maps
, Google's own mapping service. Google announced the launch of a new company, called Calico (company), Calico, on September 19, 2013, to be led by Apple Inc. chairman Arthur D. Levinson, Arthur Levinson. In the official public statement, Page explained that the "health and well-being" company would focus on "the challenge of ageing and associated diseases". On January 26, 2014, Google announced it had agreed to acquire DeepMind Technologies, a privately held artificial intelligence company from London. Technology news website ''Recode'' reported that the company was purchased for $400 million, yet the source of the information was not disclosed. A Google spokesperson declined to comment on the price. The purchase of DeepMind aids in Google's recent growth in the artificial intelligence and robotics community. According to Interbrand's annual Best Global Brands report, Google has been the second most valuable brand in the world (behind Apple Inc.) in 2013, 2014, 2015, and 2016, with a valuation of $133 billion. On August 10, 2015, Google announced plans to reorganize its various interests as a Conglomerate (company), conglomerate named Alphabet Inc., Alphabet Inc. Google became Alphabet's largest subsidiary and the umbrella company for Alphabet's Internet interests. Upon completion of the restructuring,
Sundar Pichai Pichai Sundararajan (born June 10, 1972), better known as Sundar Pichai (), is an Indian-American Indian Americans or Indo-Americans are Americans Americans are the Citizenship of the United States, citizens and United States natio ...

Sundar Pichai
became Chief executive officer, CEO of Google, replacing
Larry Page Lawrence Edward Page (born March 26, 1973) is an American computer scientist A computer scientist is a person who has acquired the knowledge of computer science Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information, a ...

Larry Page
, who became CEO of Alphabet. On August 8, 2017, Google fired employee James Damore after he distributed a memo throughout the company that argued bias and "Google's Ideological Echo Chamber" clouded their thinking about diversity and inclusion, and that it is also biological factors, not discrimination alone, that cause the average woman to be less interested than men in technical positions. Google CEO Sundar Pichai accused Damore in violating company policy by "advancing harmful gender stereotypes in our workplace", and he was fired on the same day. Between 2018 and 2019, Google worker organization, tensions between the company's leadership and its workers escalated as staff protested company decisions on internal sexual harassment, Dragonfly (search engine), Dragonfly, a censored Chinese search engine, and Project Maven, a military drone artificial intelligence, which had been seen as areas of revenue growth for the company. On October 25, 2018, ''The New York Times'' published the ''exposé'', "How Google Protected Andy Rubin, the 'Father of Android'". The company subsequently announced that "48 employees have been fired over the last two years" for sexual misconduct. On November 1, 2018, more than 20,000 Google employees and contractors staged a global walk-out to protest the company's handling of sexual harassment complaints. CEO Sundar Pichai was reported to be in support of the protests. Later in 2019, some workers accused the company of retaliating against internal activists. On March 19, 2019, Google announced that it would enter the video game market, launching a cloud gaming platform called Google Stadia. On June 3, 2019, the United States Department of Justice reported that it would investigate Google for
antitrust Competition law is a law Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whole. A system, surrounded and influenced by its environment, is ...
violations. This led to the filing of an antitrust lawsuit in October 2020, on the grounds the company had abused a monopoly position in the Web search engine, search and search advertising markets. In December 2019, former PayPal chief operating officer Bill Ready became Google's new commerce chief. Ready's role will not be directly involved with Google Pay. In April 2020, due to the COVID-19 pandemic, Google announced several cost-cutting measures. Such measures included slowing down hiring for the remainder of 2020, except for a small number of strategic areas, recalibrating the focus and pace of investments in areas like data centers and machines, and non-business essential marketing and travel. The 2020 Google services outages disrupted Google services: one in August that affected
Google Drive Google Drive is a file storage and synchronization service developed by Google Google LLC is an American Multinational corporation, multinational technology company that specializes in Internet-related services and products, which incl ...
among others, another in November affecting
YouTube YouTube is an American online video sharing and social media platform Social media are interactive technologies that allow the Content creation, creation or information sharing, sharing/exchange of information, ideas, career interests, an ...

YouTube
, and a third in December affecting the entire suite of Google applications. All three outages were resolved within hours. In January 2021, the Australian Government proposed legislation that would require Google and Facebook to pay media companies for the right to use their content. In response, Google threatened to close off access to its search engine in Australia. In March 2021, Google reportedly paid $20 million for Ubisoft ports on Google Stadia. Google spent "tens of millions of dollars" on getting major publishers such as Ubisoft and Take-Two to bring some of their biggest games to Stadia. In April 2021, ''The Wall Street Journal'' reported that Google ran a years-long program called 'Project Bernanke' that used data from past advertising bids to gain an advantage over competing for ad services. This was revealed in documents concerning the antitrust lawsuit filed by ten US states against Google in December. In September 2021, the Australian government announced plans to curb Google’s capability to sell targeted ads, claiming that the company has a monopoly on the market harming publishers, advertisers, and consumers.


Products and services


Search engine

Google search engine indexing, indexes billions of web pages to allow users to search for the information they desire through the use of keywords and Operator (computer programming), operators. According to comScore market research from November 2009,
Google Search Google Search (also known simply as Google), is a search engine A search engine is a software system A software system is a system of intercommunicating software component, components based on forming part of a computer system (a combin ...
is the dominant search engine in the United States market, with a market share of 65.6%. In May 2017, Google enabled a new "Personal" tab in Google Search, letting users search for content in their Google accounts' various services, including email messages from Gmail and photos from
Google Photos Google Photos is a photo sharing and Cloud storage, storage service developed by Google. It was announced in May 2015 and separated from Google+, the company's former Social networking service, social network. In its free tier, Google Photos ...
. Google launched its Google News service in 2002, an automated service which summarizes news articles from various websites. Google also hosts Google Books, a service which searches the text found in books in its database and shows limited previews or and the full book where allowed.


Advertising

Google generates most of its revenues from advertising. This includes sales of apps, purchases made in-app, digital content products on Google and YouTube, Android and licensing and service fees, including fees received for Google Cloud offerings. Forty-six percent of this profit was from clicks (cost per clicks), amounting to US$109,652 million in 2017. This includes three principal methods, namely AdMob, AdSense (such as AdSense for Content, AdSense for Search, etc.) and DoubleClick AdExchange. In addition to its own algorithms for understanding search requests, Google uses technology its acquisition of DoubleClick, to project user interest and target advertising to the search context and the user history. In 2007, Google launched "AdSense for Mobile", taking advantage of the emerging mobile advertising market. Google Analytics allows website owners to track where and how people use their website, for example by examining click rates for all the links on a page. Google advertisements can be placed on third-party websites in a two-part program. Google Ads allows advertisers to display their advertisements in the Google content network, through a cost-per-click scheme. The sister service, Google AdSense, allows website owners to display these advertisements on their website and earn money every time ads are clicked. One of the criticisms of this program is the possibility of click fraud, which occurs when a person or automated script clicks on advertisements without being interested in the product, causing the advertiser to pay money to Google unduly. Industry reports in 2006 claimed that approximately 14 to 20 percent of clicks were fraudulent or invalid. Google Search Console (rebranded from Google Webmaster Tools in May 2015) allows webmasters to check the sitemap, crawl rate, and for security issues of their websites, as well as optimize their website's visibility.


Consumer services


Web-based services

Google offers
Gmail Gmail is a free service provided by . As of 2019, it had 1.5 billion active worldwide. A user typically accesses Gmail in a or the official . Google also supports the use of s via the and protocols. At its launch in 2004, Gmail provided ...
for email,
Google Calendar Google Calendar is a time-management and scheduling calendar A calendar is a system of organizing days. This is done by giving names to periods of time, typically days, weeks, months and years. A calendar date, date is the designation o ...

Google Calendar
for time-management and scheduling,
Google Maps Google Maps is a web mapping Web most often refers to: * Spider web, a silken structure created by the animal * World Wide Web upright=1.35, A global map of the web index for countries in 2014 The World Wide Web (WWW), commonly know ...

Google Maps
for mapping, navigation and satellite imagery,
Google Drive Google Drive is a file storage and synchronization service developed by Google Google LLC is an American Multinational corporation, multinational technology company that specializes in Internet-related services and products, which incl ...
for File hosting service, cloud storage of files,
Google Docs Google Docs is a word processor WordPerfect, first released for minicomputers in 1979 and later ported to microcomputers A word processor (WP) is a device or computer program that provides for input, editing, formatting, and output of text, o ...
, Google Sheets, Sheets and Google Slides, Slides for productivity,
Google Photos Google Photos is a photo sharing and Cloud storage, storage service developed by Google. It was announced in May 2015 and separated from Google+, the company's former Social networking service, social network. In its free tier, Google Photos ...
for photo storage and sharing,
Google Keep Google Keep is a note-taking service included as part of the free, Web application, web-based Google Docs Editors suite offered by Google. The service also includes Google Docs, Google Sheets, Google Slides, Google Drawings, Google Forms, and Goo ...
for note-taking,
Google Translate Google Translate is a multilingual neural machine translation service developed by Google, to translate text, documents and websites from one language into another. It offers a web application, website interface, a mobile app for Android (operat ...
for language translation,
YouTube YouTube is an American online video sharing and social media platform Social media are interactive technologies that allow the Content creation, creation or information sharing, sharing/exchange of information, ideas, career interests, an ...

YouTube
for video viewing and sharing, Google My Business for managing public business information, and Google Duo, Duo for social interaction. In March 2019, Google unveiled a cloud gaming service named Google Stadia, Stadia. A job search product has also existed since before 2017, Google for Jobs is an enhanced search feature that aggregates listings from job boards and career sites. Some Google services are not web-based.
Google Earth Google Earth is a computer program, formerly known as Keyhole EarthViewer, that renders a 3D computer graphics, 3D representation of Earth based primarily on satellite imagery. The program maps the Earth by superimposition, superimposing satell ...
, launched in 2005, allowed users to see high-definition satellite pictures from all over the world for free through a client software downloaded to their computers.


Software

Google develops the Android mobile operating system, as well as its Wear OS, smartwatch, Android TV, television, Android Auto, car, and Internet of things-enabled Android Things, smart devices variations. It also develops the
Google Chrome Google Chrome is a cross-platform web browser developed by Google. It was first released in 2008 for Microsoft Windows, built with free software components from Apple WebKit and Mozilla Firefox. It was later ported to Linux, macOS, iOS, and An ...

Google Chrome
web browser, and
Chrome OS Chrome OS (sometimes styled as chromeOS) is a Gentoo Linux Gentoo Linux (pronounced ) is a Linux distribution A Linux distribution (often abbreviated as distro) is an operating system An operating system (OS) is system software that m ...
, an operating system based on Chrome.


Hardware

In January 2010, Google released Nexus One, the first Android phone under its own brand. It spawned a number of phones and tablets under the "Google Nexus, Nexus" branding until its eventual discontinuation in 2016, replaced by a new brand called Google Pixel, Pixel. In 2011, the Chromebook was introduced, which runs on
Chrome OS Chrome OS (sometimes styled as chromeOS) is a Gentoo Linux Gentoo Linux (pronounced ) is a Linux distribution A Linux distribution (often abbreviated as distro) is an operating system An operating system (OS) is system software that m ...
. In July 2013, Google introduced the Chromecast dongle, which allows users to stream content from their smartphones to televisions. In June 2014, Google announced Google Cardboard, a simple cardboard viewer that lets user place their smartphone in a special front compartment to view virtual reality (VR) media. Other hardware products include: * Google Nest (smart speakers), Nest, a series of voice assistant smart speakers that can answer voice queries, play music, find information from apps (calendar, weather etc.), and control third-party smart home appliances (users can tell it to turn on the lights, for example). The Google Nest line includes the original
Google Home Google Nest, previously named Google Home, is a line of Smart speaker, smart speakers developed by Google under the Google Nest brand. The devices enable users to speak Speech recognition, voice commands to interact with services through Google A ...
(later succeeded by the Nest Audio), the Google Home Mini (later succeeded by the Google Nest (smart speakers)#Nest Mini (second generation), Nest Mini, the Google Home Max, the Google Home Hub (later rebranded as the Nest Hub), and the Nest Hub Max. * Google Nest Wifi, Nest Wifi (originally Google Wifi), a connected set of Wi-Fi routers to simplify and extend coverage of home Wi-Fi.


Enterprise services

Google Workspace (formerly G Suite until October 2020) is a monthly subscription offering for organizations and businesses to get access to a collection of Google's services, including Gmail,
Google Drive Google Drive is a file storage and synchronization service developed by Google Google LLC is an American Multinational corporation, multinational technology company that specializes in Internet-related services and products, which incl ...
and
Google Docs Google Docs is a word processor WordPerfect, first released for minicomputers in 1979 and later ported to microcomputers A word processor (WP) is a device or computer program that provides for input, editing, formatting, and output of text, o ...
,
Google Sheets Google Sheets is a spreadsheet A spreadsheet is a computer application for organization, analysis, and storage of data in tabular form. Spreadsheets were developed as computerized analogs of paper accounting worksheets. The program operates on ...
and
Google Slides Google Slides is a presentation program included as part of the free, Web application, web-based Google Docs Editors suite offered by Google. The service also includes Google Docs, Google Sheets, Google Drawings, Google Forms, Google Sites, and Goo ...
, with additional administrative tools, unique domain names, and 24/7 support. On September 24, 2012, Google launched Google for Entrepreneurs, a largely not-for-profit business incubator providing startups with Coworking, co-working spaces known as Campuses, with assistance to startup founders that may include workshops, conferences, and mentorships. Presently, there are seven Campus locations: Berlin, London, Madrid, Seoul, São Paulo, Tel Aviv, and Warsaw. On March 15, 2016, Google announced the introduction of Google Analytics 360 Suite, "a set of integrated data and marketing analytics products, designed specifically for the needs of enterprise-class marketers" which can be integrated with BigQuery on the Google Cloud Platform. Among other things, the suite is designed to help "enterprise class marketers" "see the complete customer journey", generate "useful insights", and "deliver engaging experiences to the right people". Jack Marshall of ''The Wall Street Journal'' wrote that the suite competes with existing marketing cloud offerings by companies including Adobe Systems, Adobe, Oracle Corporation, Oracle, Salesforce.com, Salesforce, and IBM.


Internet services

In February 2010, Google announced the
Google Fiber Google Fiber is part of the Access division of Alphabet Inc. Alphabet Inc. is an American multinational conglomerate headquartered in Mountain View, California. It was created through a restructuring of Google Google LLC is an A ...

Google Fiber
project, with experimental plans to build an ultra-high-speed broadband network for 50,000 to 500,000 customers in one or more American cities. Following Google's corporate restructure to make Alphabet Inc. its parent company,
Google Fiber Google Fiber is part of the Access division of Alphabet Inc. Alphabet Inc. is an American multinational conglomerate headquartered in Mountain View, California. It was created through a restructuring of Google Google LLC is an A ...

Google Fiber
was moved to Alphabet's Access division. In April 2015, Google announced Project Fi, a mobile virtual network operator, that combines Wi-Fi and cellular networks from different telecommunication providers in an effort to enable seamless connectivity and fast Internet signal.


Corporate affairs


Stock price performance and quarterly earnings

Google's
initial public offering An initial public offering (IPO) or stock launch is a in which shares of a company are sold to s and usually also retail (individual) investors. An IPO is typically by one or more , who also arrange for the shares to be listed on one or more s ...
(IPO) took place on August 19, 2004. At IPO, the company offered 19,605,052 shares at a price of $85 per share. The sale of $1.67 billion gave Google a market capitalization of more than $23 billion. The stock performed well after the IPO, with shares hitting $350 for the first time on October 31, 2007, primarily because of strong sales and earnings in the online advertising market. The surge in stock price was fueled mainly by individual investors, as opposed to large institutional investors and mutual funds. GOOG shares split into GOOG class C shares and GOOGL class A shares. The company is listed on the NASDAQ stock exchange under the ticker symbols GOOGL and GOOG, and on the Frankfurt Stock Exchange under the ticker symbol GGQ1. These ticker symbols now refer to Alphabet Inc., Google's holding company, In the third quarter of 2005, Google reported a 700% increase in profit, largely due to large companies shifting their advertising strategies from newspapers, magazines, and television to the Internet. For the 2006 fiscal year, the company reported $10.492 billion in total advertising revenues and only $112 million in licensing and other revenues. In 2011, 96% of Google's revenue was derived from its advertising programs. Google generated $50 billion in annual revenue for the first time in 2012, generating $38 billion the previous year. In January 2013, then-CEO Larry Page commented, "We ended 2012 with a strong quarter ... Revenues were up 36% year-on-year, and 8% quarter-on-quarter. And we hit $50 billion in revenues for the first time last year – not a bad achievement in just a decade and a half." Google's consolidated revenue for the third quarter of 2013 was reported in mid-October 2013 as $14.89 billion, a 12 percent increase compared to the previous quarter. Google's Internet business was responsible for $10.8 billion of this total, with an increase in the number of users' clicks on advertisements. By January 2014, Google's market capitalization had grown to $397 billion.


Tax avoidance strategies

Google uses various tax avoidance strategies. On the list of the largest information technology companies, it pays the lowest taxes to the countries of origin of its revenues. Google between 2007 and 2010 saved $3.1 billion in taxes by shuttling non-U.S. profits through Ireland and the Netherlands and then to Bermuda. Such techniques lower its non-U.S. tax rate to 2.3 per cent, while normally the corporate tax rate in, for instance, the UK is 28 per cent. This has reportedly sparked a French investigation into Google's transfer pricing practices. Google said it overhauled its controversial global tax structure and consolidated all of its intellectual property holdings back to the US. Google Vice-President Matt Brittin testified to the Public Accounts Committee (United Kingdom), Public Accounts Committee of the UK House of Commons that his UK sales team made no sales and hence owed no sales taxes to the UK. In January 2016, Google reached a settlement with the UK to pay £130m in back taxes plus higher taxes in future. In 2017, Google channeled $22.7 billion from the Netherlands to Bermuda to reduce its tax bill. In 2013, Google ranked 5th in Lobbying in the United States, lobbying spending, up from 213th in 2003. In 2012, the company ranked 2nd in campaign donations of technology and Internet sections.


Corporate identity

The name "Google" originated from a misspelling of "
googol A googol is the large number Numbers that are significantly larger than those typically used in everyday life, for instance in simple counting or in monetary transactions, appear frequently in fields such as mathematics Mathematics (fro ...

googol
",Hanley, Rachael. " ." ''The Stanford Daily.'' February 12, 2003. Retrieved on August 26, 2010. which refers to the number represented by a 1 followed by one-hundred zeros. Page and Brin write in their original paper on
PageRank PageRank (PR) is an algorithm In and , an algorithm () is a finite sequence of , computer-implementable instructions, typically to solve a class of problems or to perform a computation. Algorithms are always and are used as specifications ...

PageRank
: "We chose our systems name, Google, because it is a common spelling of googol, or 10100 and fits well with our goal of building very large-scale search engines." Having found its way increasingly into everyday language, the verb "Google (verb), google" was added to the ''Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, Merriam Webster Collegiate Dictionary'' and the ''Oxford English Dictionary'' in 2006, meaning "to use the Google search engine to obtain information on the Internet." Google's mission statement, from the outset, was "to organize the world's information and make it universally accessible and useful", and its unofficial slogan is "Don't be evil". In October 2015, a related motto was adopted in the Alphabet corporate code of conduct by the phrase: "Do the right thing". The original motto was retained in the code of conduct of Google, now a subsidiary of Alphabet. The original Google logo was designed by Sergey Brin. Google has been designing special, temporary alternate logos to place on their homepage intended to celebrate holidays, events, achievements and people. The first Google Doodle was in honor of the Burning Man, Burning Man Festival of 1998. The doodle was designed by
Larry Page Lawrence Edward Page (born March 26, 1973) is an American computer scientist A computer scientist is a person who has acquired the knowledge of computer science Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information, a ...

Larry Page
and
Sergey Brin Sergey Mikhaylovich Brin (russian: Серге́й Миха́йлович Брин, tr. ''Sergéj Mixájlovič Brin''; born August 21, 1973) is an American computer scientist and Internet entrepreneur. Together with Larry Page Lawrence ...
to notify users of their absence in case the servers crashed. Subsequent Google Doodles were designed by an outside contractor, until Larry and Sergey asked then-intern Dennis Hwang to design a logo for Bastille Day in 2000. From that point onward, Doodles have been organized and created by a team of employees termed "Doodlers". Google has a tradition of creating April Fools' Day jokes. Its first on April 1, 2000, was Google's hoaxes#2000, Google MentalPlex which allegedly featured the use of mental power to search the web. In 2007, Google announced a free Internet service called TiSP, or Toilet Internet Service Provider, where one obtained a connection by flushing one end of a optical fiber, fiber-optic cable down their toilet. Google's services contain Easter egg (media), easter eggs, such as the Swedish Chef's "Bork bork bork," Pig Latin, "Hacker" or leetspeak, Elmer Fudd, International Talk Like a Pirate Day, Pirate, and Klingon language, Klingon as language selections for its search engine. When searching for the word "anagram," meaning a rearrangement of letters from one word to form other valid words, Google's suggestion feature displays "Did you mean: nag a ram?"


Workplace culture

On ''Fortune (magazine), Fortune'' magazine's list of the best companies to work for, Google ranked first in 2007, 2008 and 2012, and fourth in 2009 and 2010. Google was also nominated in 2010 to be the world's most attractive employer to graduating students in the Universum Communications talent attraction index. Google's corporate philosophy includes principles such as "you can make money without doing evil," "you can be serious without a suit," and "work should be challenging and the challenge should be fun." Alphabet Inc. had 132,121 employees, of which more than 100,000 worked for Google. Google's diversity report states that 32 percent of its workforce are women and 68 percent are men, with the ethnicity of its workforce being predominantly white (51.7%) and Asian (41.9%). Within tech roles, 23.6 percent were women; and 26.7 percent of leadership roles were held by women. In addition to its 100,000+ full-time employees, Google used about 121,000 temporary workers and contractors, . Google's employees are hired based on a hierarchical system. Employees are split into six hierarchies based on experience and can range "from entry-level data center workers at level one to managers and experienced engineers at level six." As a motivation technique, Google uses a policy known as Innovation Time Off, where Google engineers are encouraged to spend 20% of their work time on projects that interest them. Some of Google's services, such as Gmail, Google News, Orkut, and AdSense originated from these independent endeavors. In a talk at Stanford University, Marissa Mayer, Google's Vice-President of Search Products and User Experience until July 2012, showed that half of all new product launches in the second half of 2005 had originated from the Innovation Time Off. In 2005, articles in ''The New York Times'' and other sources began suggesting that Google had lost its anti-corporate, no evil philosophy. In an effort to maintain the company's unique culture, Google designated a Chief Culture Officer whose purpose was to develop and maintain the culture and work on ways to keep true to the core values that the company was founded on. Google has also faced allegations of sexism and ageism from former employees. In 2013, a High-Tech Employee Antitrust Litigation, class action against several
Silicon Valley Silicon Valley is a region in Northern California Northern California (colloquially known as NorCal) is a geographic and cultural region that generally comprises the northern portion of the U.S. state of California California is a U.S ...

Silicon Valley
companies, including Google, was filed for alleged "no cold call" agreements which restrained the recruitment of high-tech employees. In a lawsuit filed January 8, 2018, multiple employees and job applicants alleged Google discriminated against a class defined by their “conservative political views[,] male gender[,] and/or […] Caucasian or Asian race”. On January 25, 2020, the formation of an international workers union of Google employees, Alpha Global, was announced. The coalition is made up of "13 different unions representing workers in 10 countries, including the United States, United Kingdom, and Switzerland." The group is affiliated with UNI Global Union, which represents nearly 20 million international workers from various unions and federations. The formation of the union is in response to persistent allegations of mistreatment of Google employees and a toxic workplace culture. Google had previously been accused of surveilling and firing employees who were suspected of organizing a workers union.


Office locations

Google's headquarters in Mountain View, California, Mountain View, California is referred to as "the
Googleplex The Googleplex is the corporate headquarters complex of Google and its parent company, Alphabet Inc. It is located at 1600 Amphitheatre Parkway in Mountain View, California. The original complex, with of office space, is the company's second l ...

Googleplex
", a play on words on the number
googolplex A googolplex is the number 10, or equivalently, 10. Written out in ordinary decimal notation The decimal numeral system A numeral system (or system of numeration) is a writing system A writing system is a method of visually represent ...
and the headquarters itself being a ''complex'' of buildings. Internationally, Google has over 78 offices in more than 50 countries. In 2006, Google moved into about of office space at 111 Eighth Avenue in Manhattan, New York City. The office was designed and built specially for Google, and houses its largest advertising sales team. In 2010, Google bought the building housing the headquarter, in a deal that valued the property at around $1.9 billion. In March 2018, Google's parent company Alphabet bought the nearby Chelsea Market building for $2.4 billion. The sale is touted as one of the most expensive real estate transactions for a single building in the history of New York. In November 2018, Google announced its plan to expand its New York City office to a capacity of 12,000 employees. The same December, it was announced that a $1 billion, headquarters for Google would be built in Manhattan's Hudson Square neighborhood. Called Google Hudson Square, the new campus is projected to more than double the number of Google employees working in New York City. By late 2006, Google established a new headquarters for its AdWords division in Ann Arbor, Michigan. In November 2006, Google opened offices on Carnegie Mellon's campus in Pittsburgh, focusing on shopping-related advertisement coding and smartphone applications and programs. Other office locations in the U.S. include Atlanta, Georgia; Austin, Texas; Boulder, Colorado; Cambridge, Massachusetts; San Francisco,
California California is a U.S. state, state in the Western United States. With over 39.3million residents across a total area of approximately , it is the List of states and territories of the United States by population, most populous and the List of ...

California
; Seattle, Washington; Kirkland, Washington; Birmingham, Michigan; Reston, Virginia, Washington, D.C., and Madison, Wisconsin. It also has product research and development operations in cities around the world, namely Sydney (birthplace location of
Google Maps Google Maps is a web mapping Web most often refers to: * Spider web, a silken structure created by the animal * World Wide Web upright=1.35, A global map of the web index for countries in 2014 The World Wide Web (WWW), commonly know ...

Google Maps
) and London (part of Android development). In November 2013, Google announced plans for a new London headquarter, a 1 million square foot office able to accommodate 4,500 employees. Recognized as one of the biggest ever commercial property acquisitions at the time of the deal's announcement in January, Google submitted plans for the new headquarter to the Camden London Borough Council, Camden Council in June 2017. In May 2015, Google announced its intention to create its own campus in Hyderabad, India. The new campus, reported to be the company's largest outside the United States, will accommodate 13,000 employees. Google's Global Offices sum a total of 85 Locations worldwide, with 32 offices in North America, 3 of them in Canada and 29 in United States Territory,
California California is a U.S. state, state in the Western United States. With over 39.3million residents across a total area of approximately , it is the List of states and territories of the United States by population, most populous and the List of ...

California
being the state with the most Google's offices with 9 in total including the
Googleplex The Googleplex is the corporate headquarters complex of Google and its parent company, Alphabet Inc. It is located at 1600 Amphitheatre Parkway in Mountain View, California. The original complex, with of office space, is the company's second l ...

Googleplex
. In the Latin America Region Google counts with 6 offices, in Europe 24 (3 of them in United Kingdom, UK), The Asia-Pacific, Asia Pacific region counts with 18 offices principally in India and China, and the Africa Middle East region counts 5 offices.


North America


Latin America


Europe


Asia Pacific


Africa & Middle East


Infrastructure

Google data centers are located in North America, North and South America, Asia, and Europe. There is no official data on the number of Server (computing), servers in Google data centers; however, research and advisory firm Gartner estimated in a July 2016 report that Google at the time had 2.5 million servers. Traditionally, Google relied on parallel computing on commodity hardware like mainstream x86 computers (similar to home PCs) to keep costs per query low. In 2005, it started developing its own designs, which were only revealed in 2009. Google built its own private submarine communications cables; the first, named Curie, connects California with Chile and was completed on November 15, 2019. The second fully Google-owned undersea cable, named Dunant, connects the United States with France and is planned to begin operation in 2020. Google's third subsea cable, Equiano, will connect Lisbon, Portugal with Lagos, Nigeria and Cape Town, South Africa. The company's fourth cable, named Grace Hopper, connects landing points in New York (state), New York, US, Bude, United Kingdom, UK and Bilbao, Spain, and is expected to become operational in 2022.


Environment

In October 2006, the company announced plans to install thousands of solar panels to provide up to 1.6 MegaWatt, Megawatt of electricity, enough to satisfy approximately 30% of the campus' energy needs. The system is the largest rooftop photovoltaic power station constructed on a U.S. corporate campus and one of the largest on any corporate site in the world. Google has aimed for carbon neutrality in regard to its operations. Google disclosed in September 2011 that it "continuously uses enough electricity to power 200,000 homes", almost 260 million watts or about a quarter of the output of a nuclear power plant. Total carbon emissions for 2010 were just under 1.5 million metric tons, mostly due to fossil fuels that provide electricity for the data centers. Google said that 25 percent of its energy was supplied by renewable fuels in 2010. An average search uses only 0.3 watt-hours of electricity, so all global searches are only 12.5 million watts or 5% of the total electricity consumption by Google. In 2010, Google Energy made its first investment in a renewable energy project, putting $38.8 million into two wind farms in North Dakota. The company announced the two locations will generate 169.5 megawatts of power, enough to supply 55,000 homes. In February 2010, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission FERC granted Google an authorization to buy and sell energy at market rates. The corporation exercised this authorization in September 2013 when it announced it would purchase all the electricity produced by the not-yet-built 240-megawatt Happy Hereford wind farm. In July 2010, Google signed an agreement with an Iowa wind farm to buy 114 megawatts of power for 20 years. In December 2016, Google announced that—starting in 2017—it would purchase enough renewable energy to match 100% of the energy usage of its data centers and offices. The commitment will make Google "the world's largest corporate buyer of renewable power, with commitments reaching 2.6 gigawatts (2,600 megawatts) of wind and solar energy". In November 2017, Google bought 536 megawatts of wind power. The purchase made the firm reach 100% renewable energy. The wind energy comes from two power plants in South Dakota, one in Iowa and one in Oklahoma. In September 2019, Google's chief executive announced plans for a $2 billion wind and solar investment, the biggest renewable energy deal in corporate history. This will grow their green energy profile by 40%, giving them an extra 1.6 gigawatt of clean energy, the company said. In September 2020, Google announced it had retroactively offset all of its carbon emissions since the company's foundation in 1998. It also committed to operating its data centers and offices using only carbon-free energy by 2030. In October 2020, the company pledged to make the packaging for its hardware products 100% plastic-free and 100% recyclable by 2025. It also said that all its final assembly manufacturing sites will achieve a UL (safety organization), UL 2799 Zero waste#Corporate initiatives, Zero Waste to Landfill certification by 2022 by ensuring that the vast majority of waste from the manufacturing process is recycled instead of ending up in a landfill. Google donates to politicians who deny climate change, including Jim Inhofe, and sponsors climate change denial political groups including the State Policy Network and the Competitive Enterprise Institute.


Philanthropy

In 2004, Google formed the not-for-profit philanthropic Google.org, with a start-up fund of $1 billion. The mission of the organization is to create Climate change education, awareness about climate change, global public health, and global poverty. One of its first projects was to develop a viable plug-in hybrid electric vehicle that can attain 100 miles per gallon. Google hired Larry Brilliant as the program's executive director in 2004 and Megan Smith has replaced him as director. In March 2007, in partnership with the Mathematical Sciences Research Institute (MSRI), Google hosted the first Julia Robinson Mathematics Festival at its headquarters in Mountain View. In 2011, Google donated 1 million euros to International Mathematical Olympiad to support the next five annual International Mathematical Olympiads (2011–2015). In July 2012, Google launched a "Legalize Love" campaign in support of gay rights. In 2008, Google announced its "project 10100" which accepted ideas for how to help the community and then allowed Google users to vote on their favorites. After two years of silence, during which many wondered what had happened to the program, Google revealed the winners of the project, giving a total of ten million dollars to various ideas ranging from non-profit organizations that promote education to a website that intends to make all legal documents public and online.


Criticism and controversies

Google's market dominance has led to prominent media coverage, including criticism of Google over issues such as Google tax avoidance, aggressive tax avoidance, Criticism of Google#Page rank, search neutrality, Criticism of Google#Copyright issues, copyright, censorship of search results and content, and Google privacy, privacy. Other criticisms include alleged misuse and manipulation of search results, its use of others' intellectual property, concerns that its Data collection, compilation of data may violate people's Internet privacy, privacy, and the energy consumption of its servers, as well as concerns over traditional business issues such as
monopoly A monopoly (from Greek el, μόνος, mónos, single, alone, label=none and el, πωλεῖν, pōleîn, to sell, label=none) is as described by Irving Fisher, a market with the "absence of competition", creating a situation where a specific ...

monopoly
, restraint of trade, anti-competitive practices, and patent infringement. Google formerly complied with Internet censorship in the People's Republic of China, Internet censorship policies of the People's Republic of China, enforced by means of filters colloquially known as "The Great Firewall of China", but Censorship by Google#China, no longer does so. As a result, all Google services except for Chinese Google Maps are blocked from access within mainland China without the aid of virtual private networks (VPNs), proxy servers, or other similar technologies. In August 2018, The Intercept reported that Google is developing for the People's Republic of China a censored version of its search engine (known as Dragonfly (search engine), Dragonfly) "that will blacklist websites and search terms about human rights, democracy, religion, and peaceful protest". However, the project had been withheld due to privacy concerns. Following media reports about PRISM (surveillance program), PRISM, the NSA's massive electronic Mass surveillance, surveillance program, in June 2013, several technology companies were identified as participants, including Google. According to unnamed sources, Google joined the PRISM program in 2009, as did its wholly-owned subsidiary
YouTube YouTube is an American online video sharing and social media platform Social media are interactive technologies that allow the Content creation, creation or information sharing, sharing/exchange of information, ideas, career interests, an ...

YouTube
in 2010. Google has worked with the United States Department of Defense on drone software through the 2017 Project Maven that could be used to improve the accuracy of drone strikes. In April 2018, thousands of Google employees, including senior engineers, signed a letter urging Google CEO Sundar Pichai to end this controversial contract with the Pentagon. Google ultimately decided not to renew this DoD contract, which was set to expire in 2019. In July 2018, Mozilla program manager Chris Peterson accused Google of intentionally slowing down YouTube performance on Firefox. In April 2019, former Mozilla executive Jonathan Nightingale accused Google of intentionally and systematically sabotaging the Firefox browser over the past decade in order to boost adoption of
Google Chrome Google Chrome is a cross-platform web browser developed by Google. It was first released in 2008 for Microsoft Windows, built with free software components from Apple WebKit and Mozilla Firefox. It was later ported to Linux, macOS, iOS, and An ...

Google Chrome
. In 2019, a hub for critics of Google dedicated to abstaining from using Google products coalesced in the Reddit online subreddit, community /r/degoogle. The DeGoogle grassroots campaign continues to grow as privacy activists highlight information about Google products, and the associated incursion on personal privacy rights by the company. In November 2019, the Office for Civil Rights of the United States Department of Health and Human Services began investigation into Project Nightingale, to assess whether the "mass collection of individuals’ medical records" complied with Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act, HIPAA. According to ''The Wall Street Journal'', Google secretively began the project in 2018, with St. Louis-based healthcare company Ascension (company), Ascension.


Anti-trust, privacy, and other litigation

Google has been involved in a number of lawsuits including the High-Tech Employee Antitrust Litigation which resulted in Google being one of four companies to pay a $415 million settlement to employees. On June 27, 2017, the company received a record fine of from the European Union for "promoting its own shopping comparison service at the top of search results." Commenting on the penalty, ''New Scientist'' magazine said:
"The hefty sum – the largest ever doled out by the EU's competition regulators – will sting in the short term, but Google can handle it. Alphabet, Inc., Alphabet, Google’s parent company, made a profit of $2.5 billion (€2.2 billion) in the first six weeks of 2017 alone. The real impact of the ruling is that Google must stop using its dominance as a search engine to give itself the edge in another market: online price comparisons."
Google (Alphabet) disputed the ruling. The hearing at the General Court (European Union), General Court of Luxembourg was scheduled for 2020. The court is going to deliver the ultimate judgment by the end of the year. On July 18, 2018, the European Commissioner for Competition, European Commission fined Google €4.34 billion for breaching EU antitrust rules. The abuse of dominant position has been referred to Google's constraint applied to Android device manufacturers and network operators to ensure that traffic on Android devices goes to the Google search engine. On October 9, 2018, Google confirmed that it had appealed the fine to the General Court (European Union), General Court of the European Union. On October 8, 2018, a class action lawsuit was filed against Google and Alphabet due to "non-public" Google+ account data being exposed as a result of a bug that allowed app developers to gain access to the private information of users. The litigation was settled in July 2020 for $7.5 million with a payout to claimants of at least $5 each, with a maximum of $12 each. On January 21, 2019, French data regulator CNIL imposed a record €50 million fine on Google for breaching the European Union's General Data Protection Regulation. The judgment claimed Google had failed to sufficiently inform users of its methods for collecting data to personalize advertising. Google issued a statement saying it was “deeply committed” to transparency and was “studying the decision” before determining its response. On March 20, 2019, the European Commission imposed a €1.49 billion ($1.69 billion) fine on Google for preventing rivals from being able to “compete and innovate fairly” in the online advertising market. European Union competition commissioner Margrethe Vestager said Google had violated EU antitrust rules by “imposing anti-competitive contractual restrictions on third-party websites” that required them to exclude search results from Google's rivals. Kent Walker, Google's senior vice-president of global affairs, said the company had “already made a wide range of changes to our products to address the Commission’s concerns,” and that "we'll be making further updates to give more visibility to rivals in Europe." After U.S. Congressional hearings in July 2020, and a report from the U.S. House of Representatives' Antitrust Subcommittee released in early October, the United States Department of Justice filed an antitrust lawsuit against Google on October 20, 2020, asserting that it has illegally maintained its monopoly position in web search and search advertising. The lawsuit alleged that Google engaged in anticompetitive behavior by paying Apple between $8 billion and $12 billion to be the default search engine on iPhones. Ken Paxton, the Texas Attorney General leading the suit, stated that "Google is a trillion-dollar monopoly brazenly abusing its monopolistic power, going so far as to induce senior Facebook executives to agree to a contractual scheme that undermines the heart of [the] competitive process." In part, the suit challenges Alphabet's capacity to fairly compete with the company in online advertising. No Democratic politicians joined Mr. Paxion in the suit. The majority of the accusations against Google involve their List of advertising technology companies, ad-tech software, of which Google owns the dominant tool at every link in the chain connecting online publishers and advertisers. Later that month, both
Facebook Facebook is an American online social media and social networking service owned by Meta Platforms. Founded in 2004 by Mark Zuckerberg with fellow Harvard College students and roommates Eduardo Saverin, Andrew McCollum, Dustin Moskovitz, an ...

Facebook
and Alphabet agreed to "cooperate and assist one another" in the face of investigation into their online advertising practices.


Private browsing lawsuit

In early June 2020, a $5 billion class-action lawsuit was filed against Google by a group of consumers, alleging that Google Chrome, Chrome’s Incognito browsing mode still collects their user history. The lawsuit became known in March 2021 when a federal judge denied Google's request to dismiss the case, ruling that they must face the group’s charges. Reuters reported that the lawsuit alleged that Google's CEO
Sundar Pichai Pichai Sundararajan (born June 10, 1972), better known as Sundar Pichai (), is an Indian-American Indian Americans or Indo-Americans are Americans Americans are the Citizenship of the United States, citizens and United States natio ...

Sundar Pichai
sought to keep the users unaware of this issue.


See also

* Outline of Google * History of Google * List of mergers and acquisitions by Alphabet * List of Google products * Google China * Google logo * Googlization * Google.org * Google ATAP


Notes


References


Further reading

* *Vaidhyanathan, Siya. 2011.
The Googlization of Everything: (And Why We Should Worry)
'. University of California Press.


External links

* {{Authority control Google, 1998 establishments in California 2004 initial public offerings Alphabet Inc. Artificial intelligence Cloud computing providers Companies based in Mountain View, California Companies in the PRISM network Computer companies established in 1998 Computer-related introductions in 1998 Internet properties established in 1998 Mobile phone manufacturers Multinational companies headquartered in the United States Technology companies based in the San Francisco Bay Area Technology companies established in 1998 University spin-offs Virtual reality companies Web portals Web service providers Webby Award winners World Wide Web American corporate subsidiaries