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Cusco
CUSCO (Spanish: Cuzco, ; Quechua : Qusqu or Qosqo, IPA: ), often spelled CUZCO (/ˈkuːskoʊ/ ), is a city in southeastern Peru
Peru
, near the Urubamba Valley of the Andes
Andes
mountain range. It is the capital of the Cusco Region
Cusco Region
as well as the Cusco Province
Cusco Province
. In 2013, the city had a population of 435,114. Located on the eastern end of the Knot of Cuzco, its elevation is around 3,400 m (11,200 ft). The site was the historic capital of the Inca Empire
Inca Empire
from the 13th until the 16th-century Spanish conquest. In 1983 Cusco
Cusco
was declared a World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
by UNESCO
UNESCO
. It has become a major tourist destination, hosting nearly 2 million visitors a year
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Sacred
SACRED means revered due to SANCTITY and is generally the state of being perceived by religious individuals as associated with divinity and considered worthy of spiritual respect or devotion; or inspiring awe or reverence among believers. From an anthropological or atheistic perspective, the religious view of the sacred is an emic perspective on a culture's collection of thoughts and practices that function as a basis for the community's social structure. Objects are often considered sacred if used for spiritual purposes, such as the worship or service of gods . The property is often ascribed to objects (a "sacred artifact" that is venerated and blessed ), or places ("sacred ground")
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Effigy
An EFFIGY is a representation of a specific person in the form of sculpture or some other three-dimensional medium. The use of the term is normally restricted to certain contexts in a somewhat arbitrary way: recumbent effigies on tombs are so called, but standing statues of individuals, or busts, are usually not. Likenesses of religious figures in sculpture are not normally called effigies. Effigies are common elements of funerary art , especially as a recumbent effigy (in a lying position) in stone or metal placed on a tomb, or a less permanent "funeral effigy", placed on the coffin in a grand funeral, wearing real clothing. Figures, often caricatural in style, that are damaged, destroyed or paraded in order to harm the person represented by magical means, or merely to mock or insult them or their memory, are also called effigies. It is common to burn an effigy of a person ("BURN IN EFFIGY") as an act of protest
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World Heritage Committee
The WORLD HERITAGE COMMITTEE establishes the sites to be listed as UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Sites . It decides about inscriptions on the World Heritage List and the List of World Heritage in Danger, monitors the state of conservation of the World Heritage properties, defines the use of the World Heritage Fund and allocates financial assistance upon requests from States Parties. It is composed of 21 state parties that are elected by the GENERAL ASSEMBLY OF STATES PARTIES for a four-year term. According to the World Heritage Convention, a committee member's term of office is for six years, however many states parties choose voluntarily to be Members of the Committee for only four years, in order to give other states' parties an opportunity to be on the committee. All members elected at the 15th General Assembly (2005) voluntarily decided to reduce their period of term of office from six to four years
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Transliteration
TRANSLITERATION is a type of conversion of a text from one script to another that involves swapping letters (thus trans- + liter-) in predictable ways (such as α → a , д → d , χ → ch , or æ → e ). For instance, for the Greek term "Ελληνική Δημοκρατία", which is usually translated as "Hellenic Republic ", the usual transliteration to Latin script
Latin script
is "Ellēnikḗ Dēmokratía", and the name for Russia
Russia
in Cyrillic script
Cyrillic script
, "Россия", is usually transliterated as "Rossiya". Transliteration
Transliteration
is not primarily concerned with representing the sounds of the original but rather with representing the characters, ideally accurately and unambiguously
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Telephone Numbering Plan
A TELEPHONE NUMBERING PLAN is a type of numbering scheme used in telecommunication to assign telephone numbers to subscriber telephones or other telephony endpoints. Telephone numbers are the addresses of participants in a telephone network, reachable by a system of destination code routing. Telephone numbering plans are defined in each of administrative regions of the public switched telephone network (PSTN) and they are also present in private telephone networks. For public number systems, geographic location plays a role in the sequence of numbers assigned to each telephone subscriber. Numbering plans may follow a variety of design strategies which have often arisen from the historical evolution of individual telephone networks and local requirements. A broad division is commonly recognized, distinguishing open numbering plans and closed numbering plans
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Aqueduct (watercourse)
An AQUEDUCT is a watercourse constructed to convey water. In modern engineering, the term aqueduct is used for any system of pipes, ditches, canals, tunnels, and other structures used for this purpose. The term aqueduct also often refers specifically to a bridge on an artificial watercourse. The word is derived from the Latin aqua ("water") and ducere ("to lead"). Aqueducts were used in ancient Greece
Greece
, ancient Egypt , and ancient Rome . In modern times, the largest aqueducts of all have been built in the United States to supply the country's biggest cities. The simplest aqueducts are small ditches cut into the earth. Much larger channels may be used in modern aqueducts. Aqueducts sometimes run for some or all of their path through tunnels constructed underground. Modern aqueducts may also use pipelines. Historically, agricultural societies have constructed aqueducts to irrigate crops and supply large cities with drinking water
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UNESCO
The UNITED NATIONS EDUCATIONAL, SCIENTIFIC AND CULTURAL ORGANIZATION (UNESCO; French : Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris
Paris
. Its declared purpose is to contribute to peace and security by promoting international collaboration through educational, scientific, and cultural reforms in order to increase universal respect for justice, the rule of law , and human rights along with fundamental freedom proclaimed in the United Nations Charter . It is the successor of the League of Nations
League of Nations
' International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation . UNESCO
UNESCO
has 195 member states and ten associate members. Most of its field offices are "cluster" offices covering three or more countries; national and regional offices also exist
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Radiocarbon Dating
RADIOCARBON DATING (also referred to as CARBON DATING or CARBON-14 DATING) is a method for determining the age of an object containing organic material by using the properties of radiocarbon (14 C), a radioactive isotope of carbon . The method was developed by Willard Libby in the late 1940s and soon became a standard tool for archaeologists. Libby received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his work in 1960. The radiocarbon dating method is based on the fact that radiocarbon is constantly being created in the atmosphere by the interaction of cosmic rays with atmospheric nitrogen . The resulting radiocarbon combines with atmospheric oxygen to form radioactive carbon dioxide , which is incorporated into plants by photosynthesis ; animals then acquire 14 C by eating the plants
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Archaeologist
ARCHAEOLOGY, or ARCHEOLOGY, is the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis of material culture . The archaeological record consists of artifacts , architecture , biofacts or ecofacts, and cultural landscapes . Archaeology
Archaeology
can be considered both a social science and a branch of the humanities . In North America
North America
, archaeology is considered a sub-field of anthropology , while in Europe
Europe
archaeology is often viewed as either a discipline in its own right or a sub-field of other disciplines. Archaeologists study human prehistory and history , from the development of the first stone tools at Lomekwi in East Africa
Africa
3.3 million years ago up until recent decades. Archaeology
Archaeology
as a field is distinct from the discipline of palaeontology , the study of fossil remains
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Constitution Of Peru
The CONSTITUTION OF PERU is the supreme law of Peru
Peru
. The current constitution, enacted on December 31, 1993, is Peru's fifth in the 20th century and replaced the 1979 Constitution. The Constitution was drafted by the Democratic Constitutional Congress
Democratic Constitutional Congress
that was convened by President Alberto Fujimori
Alberto Fujimori
during the Peruvian Constitutional Crisis of 1992 that followed his 1992 dissolution of Congress , was promulgated on December 29, 1993. A Democratic Constitutional Congress (CCD) was elected in 1992, and the final text was approved in a 1993 referendum . The current Constitution of Peru
Peru
differs from the 1979 Constitution in that it gives greater power to the president
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Daylight Saving Time
DAYLIGHT SAVING TIME (abbreviated DST), commonly referred to as DAYLIGHT SAVINGS TIME in speech, and known as SUMMER TIME in some countries, is the practice of advancing clocks during summer months so that evening daylight lasts longer, while sacrificing normal sunrise times. Typically, regions that use daylight saving time adjust clocks forward one hour close to the start of spring and adjust them backward in the autumn to standard time. George Hudson proposed the idea of daylight saving in 1895. The German Empire
German Empire
and Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
organized the first nationwide implementation, starting on April 30, 1916. Many countries have used it at various times since then, particularly since the energy crisis of the 1970s . DST is generally not observed near the equator, where sunrise times do not vary enough to justify it
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World Heritage Site
A WORLD HERITAGE SITE is a landmark or area which has been officially recognized by the United Nations
United Nations
, specifically by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization ( UNESCO
UNESCO
). Sites are selected on the basis of having cultural, historical, scientific or some other form of significance, and they are legally protected by international treaties. UNESCO
UNESCO
regards these sites as being important to the collective interests of humanity
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Qullasuyu
QULLASUYU (Aymara : Qullasuyu
Qullasuyu
listen (help ·info ) and Quechua , qulla south , Qulla a people, suyu region, part of a territory, each of the four regions which formed the Inca Empire
Inca Empire
, "southern region", Hispanicized spellings Collasuyu, Kholla Suyu) was the southeastern provincial region of the Inca Empire. Qullasuyu
Qullasuyu
is the region of the Qulla and related specifically to the native Qulla Quechuas who primarily resided in areas such as Cochabamba
Cochabamba
and Potosí
Potosí

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Split Inheritance
The INCA practice of SPLIT INHERITANCE was the process in which a ruler's chosen successor obtained all political power and rights, while the dead ruler maintained control over all the lands he had conquered during his life. The term was coined by Arthur A. Demarest & Geoffrey W Conrad in 1984. In addition, the newly enthroned Inca
Inca
king would be required to build his own palace complex and burial chamber. This was because the city from which the new king would rule had to be in a territory that he had conquered himself. For this reason, supreme effort was made by rulers to secure as much land as possible, to ensure not only wealth for one's descendants and cult , but also to secure a place for eternity . This was consistent with the Inca
Inca
belief of eternity in the afterlife being dependent upon such proliferative measures taken during time on earth
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