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Culicomorpha
Culicoidea
Culicoidea
Chironomoidea
Chironomoidea
See text for families. The CULICOMORPHA are an infraorder of Nematocera
Nematocera
, including mosquitoes , black flies , and several extant and extinct families of insects
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Endopterygota
ENDOPTERYGOTA, also known as HOLOMETABOLA, is a superorder of insects within the infraclass Neoptera that go through distinctive larval , pupal , and adult stages. They undergo a radical metamorphosis , with the larval and adult stages differing considerably in their structure and behaviour. This is called holometabolism , or complete metamorphism. The Endopterygota
Endopterygota
are among the most diverse insect superorders, with about 850,000 living species divided between 11 orders , containing insects such as butterflies , flies , fleas , bees , ants , and beetles . They are distinguished from the Exopterygota (or Hemipterodea) by the way in which their wings develop. Endopterygota
Endopterygota
(meaning literally "internal winged forms") develop wings inside the body and undergo an elaborate metamorphosis involving a pupal stage
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Neoptera
NEOPTERA is a classification group that includes most parts of the winged insects , specifically those that can flex their wings over their abdomens . This is in contrast with the more basal orders of winged insects (the " Palaeoptera " assemblage), which are unable to flex their wings in this way. CONTENTS * 1 Classification * 2 Phylogeny * 3 References * 4 External links CLASSIFICATIONThe taxon Neoptera
Neoptera
was proposed by А.М
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Pterygota
For alternative classifications and fossil orders, see text. The PTERYGOTA are a subclass of insects that includes the winged insects. It also includes insect orders that are secondarily wingless (that is, insect groups whose ancestors once had wings but that have lost them as a result of subsequent evolution). The pterygotan group comprises almost all insects. The insect orders not included are the Archaeognatha (jumping bristletails) and the Zygentoma (silverfishes and firebrats ), two primitively wingless insect orders. Also not included are the three orders no longer considered to be insects: Protura , Collembola
Collembola
, and Diplura
Diplura

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Jurassic
The JURASSIC ( /dʒʊˈræsɪk/ ; from Jura Mountains
Jura Mountains
) was a geologic period and system that spanned 56 million years from the end of the Triassic
Triassic
Period 201.3 million years ago (Mya ) to the beginning of the Cretaceous
Cretaceous
Period 145 Mya. The Jurassic
Jurassic
constituted the middle period of the Mesozoic Era , also known as the Age of Reptiles. The start of the period was marked by the major Triassic–Jurassic extinction event . Two other extinction events occurred during the period: the Pliensbachian/ Toarcian event in the Early Jurassic, and the Tithonian event at the end; however, neither event ranks among the "Big Five" mass extinctions
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Taxonomy (biology)
TAXONOMY (from Ancient Greek τάξις (taxis ), meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία (-nomia), meaning 'method ') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank ; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super-group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are domain , kingdom , phylum (division is sometimes used in botany in place of phylum), class , order , family , genus and species . The Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus
Carl Linnaeus
is regarded as the father of taxonomy, as he developed a system known as Linnaean taxonomy for categorization of organisms and binomial nomenclature for naming organisms
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Infraorder (biology)
In biological classification , the ORDER (Latin : ordo) is * a taxonomic rank used in the classification of organisms and recognized by the nomenclature codes . Other well-known ranks are life , domain , kingdom , phylum , class , family , genus , and species , with order fitting in between class and family. An immediately higher rank, SUPERORDER, may be added directly above order, while SUBORDER would be a lower rank. * a taxonomic unit, a taxon , in that rank. In that case the plural is orders (Latin ordines). Example: All owls belong to the order Strigiformes. What does and does not belong to each order is determined by a taxonomist , as is whether a particular order should be recognized at all. Often there is no exact agreement, with different taxonomists each taking a different position. There are no hard rules that a taxonomist needs to follow in describing or recognizing an order
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Insect
See text . SYNONYMS * Ectognatha * EntomidaINSECTS or INSECTA (from Latin
Latin
insectum, a calque of Greek ἔντομον , "cut into sections") are by far the largest group of hexapod invertebrates within the arthropod phylum . Definitions and circumscriptions vary; in one approach insects comprise a class within the Phylum
Phylum
Arthropoda. As the term is used here, it is synonymous with ECTOGNATHA. Insects have a chitinous exoskeleton , a three-part body (head , thorax and abdomen ), three pairs of jointed legs , compound eyes and one pair of antennae . They are the most diverse group of animals on the planet, including more than a million described species and representing more than half of all known living organisms . The number of extant species is estimated at between six and ten million, and potentially represent over 90% of the differing animal life forms on Earth
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Arthropod
Condylipoda Latreille, 1802 An ARTHROPOD (from Greek ἄρθρον arthron, "joint" and πούς pous, "foot") is an invertebrate animal having an exoskeleton (external skeleton ), a segmented body, and paired jointed appendages . Arthropods form the phylum EUARTHROPODA, which includes insects , arachnids , myriapods , and crustaceans . The term ARTHROPODA as originally proposed refers to a proposed grouping of Euarthropods and the phylum Onychophora . Arthropods are characterized by their jointed limbs and cuticle made of chitin , often mineralised with calcium carbonate . The arthropod body plan consists of segments, each with a pair of appendages. The rigid cuticle inhibits growth, so arthropods replace it periodically by moulting . Their versatility has enabled them to become the most species-rich members of all ecological guilds in most environments
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Animal
ANIMALS are eukaryotic , multicellular organisms that form the biological kingdom ANIMALIA. With few exceptions, animals are motile (able to move), heterotrophic (consume organic material), reproduce sexually , and their embryonic development includes a blastula stage. The body plan of the animal derives from this blastula, differentiating specialized tissues and organs as it develops; this plan eventually becomes fixed, although some undergo metamorphosis at some stage in their lives. Zoology is the study of animals. Currently there are over 66 thousand (less than 5% of all animals) vertebrate species, and over 1.3 million (over 95% of all animals) invertebrate species in existence. Classification of animals into groups (taxonomy ) is accomplished using either the hierarchical Linnaean system; or cladistics , which displays diagrams (phylogenetic trees ) called cladograms to show relationships based on the evolutionary principle of the most recent common ancestor
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Sciaridae
Many others Play media A Sciaridae
Sciaridae
ovipositing into a leaf of Urtica The SCIARIDAE are a family of flies , commonly known as DARK-WINGED FUNGUS GNATS. Commonly found in moist environments, they are known to be a pest of mushroom farms and are commonly found in household plant pots. This is one of the least studied of the large Diptera families, probably due to the small size of these insects and the difficulty in specific identification. Currently, around 1700 species are described, but an estimated 20,000 species are estimated to be awaiting discovery, mainly in the tropics . More than 600 species are known from Europe
Europe

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Sciaroidea
SCIAROIDEA is a superfamily in the infraorder Bibionomorpha . Most of its constituent families are various gnats . FAMILIES * Bolitophilidae * Diadocidiidae * Ditomyiidae
Ditomyiidae
* Keroplatidae
Keroplatidae
* Mycetophilidae - fungus gnats * Rangomaramidae * Sciaridae
Sciaridae
- dark winged fungus gnats * Cecidomyiidae - gall midges or gall gnatsREFERENCES * ^ Jaschhof, Mathias; Didham, Raphael (2002). "Rangomaramidae Fam. Nov. from New Zealand: And Implications for the Phylogeny of the Sciaroidea
Sciaroidea
(Diptera: Biblionomorpha)". Ampyx-Verlag
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Mycetophilidae
See text DIVERSITY ca. 150 genera The MYCETOPHILIDAE are a family of small flies , forming the bulk of those species known as fungus gnats . About 3000 described species are placed in 150 genera, but the true number of species is undoubtedly much higher. They are generally found in the damp habitats favoured by their host fungi and sometimes form dense swarms. Adults of this family can usually be separated from other small flies by the strongly humped thorax , well-developed coxae , and often spinose legs, but identification within the family between genera and species generally requires close study of microscopic features such as subtle differences in wing venation and variation in chaetotaxy and genitalia . The terrestrial larvae usually feed on fungi, especially the fruiting bodies, but also spores and hyphae , but some species have been recorded on mosses and liverworts
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Ditomyiidae
The DITOMYIIDAE are a small (90 species) family of flies (Diptera).They are found worldwide (except in the Afrotropical Region), most species are found in the Australasian and Neotropical realms. There are only two genera in Europe Ditomyia Winnertz, 1846 and Symmerus Walker, 1848 Ditomyia is found in Central Europe Symmerus in Northern Europe Symmerus is endemic to the Palaearctic
Palaearctic

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Cecidomyiidae
CECIDOMYIIDAE (sometimes spelled CECIDOMYIDAE ) is a family of flies known as GALL MIDGES or GALL GNATS. As the name implies, the larvae of most gall midges feed within plant tissue, creating abnormal plant growths called galls . A cecidomyiid laying eggs on grass Play media Cecidomyiid in copula Cecidomyiidae
Cecidomyiidae
are very fragile small insects usually only 2–3 mm (0.079–0.118 in) in length; many are less than 1 mm (0.039 in) long. They are characterised by hairy wings, unusual in the order Diptera, and have long antennae . More than 6,000 species and 783 genera are found worldwide, but since 1,100 are from well-studied North America
North America
, this may be an underestimate
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Bolitophila
BOLITOPHILA is the sole genus in the BOLITOPHILIDAE, a family of Diptera
Diptera
, with around 40 Palaearctic
Palaearctic
and about 20 Nearctic
Nearctic
species, and three species from the Oriental region (Taiwan). They are small (6-9 mm.) Schematic representation of the wing veins in the sub Bolitophila (above) and Cliopisa (below). Note the different termination of R 4 in the two subgenera. Legenda: PT: pterostigma; C: costa; SC: subcosta; R: radio; M: media; CU: cubitus; A: anal; H: humeral; R-M: radio-medial; M-CU: medio-cubital. Conformation of the wing-veins in the subgenus Bolitophila
Bolitophila
CONTENTS * 1 Biology * 2 References * 3 Further reading * 4 External links BIOLOGYThe larvae of Bolitophila
Bolitophila
are mycetophagous and live in decaying wood or other organic debris overgrown by fungal plant substrates
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