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Axymyiomorpha Culicomorpha Blephariceromorpha Bibionomorpha Psychodomorpha Ptychopteromorpha Tipulomorpha

The NEMATOCERA (thread-horns) are a suborder of elongated flies with thin, segmented antennae and mostly aquatic larvae , consisting of the mosquitoes , crane flies , gnats , black flies , and midges .

Nematocera
Nematocera
are typically characterized by filamentous, multisegmented antennae which may be plumose in some males.

Examples of the Nematocera
Nematocera
include the mosquitoes ( Culicidae
Culicidae
), crane flies ( Tipulidae
Tipulidae
) and black flies ( Simuliidae ). Many of the remaining families (especially Mycetophilidae , Anisopodidae
Anisopodidae
, and Sciaridae
Sciaridae
), are called gnats , while others (especially Chironomidae , Cecidomyiidae
Cecidomyiidae
, and Ceratopogonidae
Ceratopogonidae
) are called midges .

The larvae are mostly aquatic and have distinct heads with mouthparts that may be modified for filter feeding. The pupae are orthorrhaphous (meaning adults emerge from the pupa through a straight seam in the pupal cuticle). The bodies and legs of the adults are usually elongate, and these flies often have relatively long abdomens.

Many species form mating swarms of males, and in some of these, competition for females is extreme. Although many species (as larvae) have a strong association with water, even within a single family there may be a trend toward semiaquatic and terrestrial habitats.

FAMILIES

* Anisopodidae
Anisopodidae
– wood gnats or window-gnats * Axymyiidae - * Bibionidae
Bibionidae
– march flies and love bugs * Blephariceridae – net-winged midges * Bolitophilidae - * Canthyloscelididae - * Cecidomyiidae
Cecidomyiidae
– gall midges or gall gnats * Ceratopogonidae
Ceratopogonidae
– biting midges * Chaoboridae
Chaoboridae
– phantom midges * Chironomidae
Chironomidae
– chironomids or nonbiting midges * Corethrellidae
Corethrellidae
- * Culicidae
Culicidae
– mosquitoes * Deuterophlebiidae – * Diadocidiidae – * Ditomyiidae
Ditomyiidae
– * Dixidae
Dixidae
– * Hesperinidae – * Keroplatidae
Keroplatidae
– * Lygistorrhinidae - * Mycetophilidae – fungus gnats * Nymphomyiidae - * Pachyneuridae - * Pediciidae - * Perissommatidae - * Psychodidae
Psychodidae
– moth flies or drain flies * Ptychopteridae – phantom crane flies * Rangomaramidae - * Scatopsidae
Scatopsidae
– minute black scavenger flies or dung midges * Sciaridae
Sciaridae
– dark-winged fungus gnats * Simuliidae – black flies * Tanyderidae - * Thaumaleidae - * Tipulidae
Tipulidae
– crane flies * Trichoceridae – winter crane flies

REFERENCES

* Borror, D. J., DeLong, D. M., Triplehorn, C. A.(1976) Fourth edition. An introduction to the study of insects. Holt, Rinehart and Winston. New York, Chicago. ISBN 0-03-088406-3 * Arnett, R. H. Jr. (2000) Second edition. American insects. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Londres,New York, Washington, D. C. ISBN 0-8493-0212-9

EXTERNAL LINKS

* Bugguide.net * Image

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