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Afrothaumalea Androprosopa Austrothaumalea Niphta Oterere Thaumalea Trichothaumalea

Thaumaleidae, the solitary midges or trickle midges, are a group of nematoceran flies related to the Ceratopogonidae, Chironomidae, and the Simuliidae. They are small, stocky, yellow to brown flies (3–4 mm). Very few species are known for this family (about 120 species in five genera). Larvae are found in films on rocks and the nonfeeding adults are usually found on foliage along the same streams in which the larvae are found. A few solitary midges are found in the Southern Hemisphere, but Thaumaleidae
Thaumaleidae
are generally an Holarctic family.

Contents

1 Description 2 Biology 3 Name 4 References 5 External links

Description[edit] Adults are recognised by the seven veins reaching the margin, the costa running around the entire margin, the absence of ocelli, and particularly by the short antennae which are no longer than the head.

Wing venation of Thaumaleidae

Larvae resemble larval Lutzomyia (Psychodidae), Forcipomyia (Ceratopogonidae), and some Chironomidae. However, unpaired prolegs, a ventrally directed truncate head, and prothoracic spiracles on a short respiratory tube differentiate them. For further information see * Family keys and image Biology[edit] Adult Thaumaleidae
Thaumaleidae
are encountered infrequently, usually close to the hygropetric aquatic larval habitat. The undersides of bridges over smaller running waters are common adult gathering sites. Thaumaleid larvae are usually hygropetric in vertical, thin water films alongside waterfalls and torrents. They prefer low temperatures and are most frequent in fully shaded localities. They feed by grazing on diatoms. Little or no life history information is available. Name[edit] The dipteran family name Orphnephilidae Rondani, 1847, based on Orphnephila Haliday, 1832, was used until Bezzi (1913) synonymized Orphnephila with Thaumalea Ruthe, 1831 and adopted Thaumaleidae, based on the senior synonym Thaumalea. This family name has been almost universally used since that time and it is to be maintained. Had Thaumaleidae
Thaumaleidae
not come into prevailing usage, Orphnephilidae would continue in use despite the fact that Orphnephila is a junior synonym. Thaumaleidae
Thaumaleidae
is cited with its own author and date, followed by the date of the replaced name in parentheses: Thaumaleidae
Thaumaleidae
Bezzi, 1913 (1847). It takes precedence over Orphnephilidae Rondani, 1847, and any subsequently published synonyms. References[edit]

Arnaud, P.H. 1977. Thaumaleidae. pp. 283–85. In: Hurlbert, S.H., ed. Biota Acuatica de Sudamérica Austral Siendo una Recopilacion de Bibliografias Taxonomicas Referentes a la Fauna y Flora de Aguas Continentales de Sur de Sudamérica. San Diego State University, San Diego. Arnaud, P.H. and I.A. Boussy. 1994. The adult Thaumaleidae
Thaumaleidae
(Diptera: Culicomorpha) of western America. Myia 5: 41-152. Bezzi, M. 1913. Taumaleidi (Orfnefilidi) italiani con descrizione di nuove specie. Bollettino del Laboratorio di Zoologia Generale e Agraria del Reale Istituto Superiore Agrario di Portici 7: 227-266. Boussy, I.A., J.M. Gillespie, and P.H. Arnaud, Jr. 1994. External structure of larval Thaumalea buckae Arnaud and Boussy (Diptera: Thaumaleidae). Myia 5: 195-201. Gillespie, J.M., W.F. Barr, and S.T. Elliott. 1994. The taxonomy and biology of the immature stages of species of Thaumalea occurring in Idaho and California (Diptera: Thaumaleidae). Myia 5: 153-193. McLellan, I.D. 1983. New diagnosis for genus Austrothaumalea, and redescription of A. neozealandica (Diptera: Thaumaleidae). New Zealand Journal of Zoology 10: 267-270. McLellan, I.D. 1988. A revision of New Zealand Thaumaleidae
Thaumaleidae
(Diptera: Nematocera) with descriptions of new species and a new genus. New Zealand Journal of Zoology 15: 563-575. Sinclair, B.J. 1996. A review of the Thaumaleidae
Thaumaleidae
(Diptera: Culicomorpha) of eastern North America, including a redefinition of genus Androprosopa Mik. Entomologica Scandinavica 27: 361-376. Sinclair, B.J. 2000. Immature stages of Australian Austrothaumalea Tonnoir and Niphta Theischinger (Diptera: Thaumaleidae). Australian Journal of Entomology 39: 171-176. Stone, A. and B.V. Peterson. 1981. Thaumaleidae. pp. 351–353. In: McAlpine, J.F., B.V. Peterson, G.E. Shewell, H.J. Teskey, J.R. Vockeroth, and D.M. Wood, eds. Manual of Nearctic Diptera. Volume 1. Agriculture Canada Monograph 27. Ottawa. Stuckenberg, B. 1960. A new genus and species of Thaumaleidae
Thaumaleidae
from South Africa (Diptera). Proceedings of the Royal Entomological Society, London 29: 107-109. Stuckenberg, B. 1961. Diptera
Diptera
(Nematocera): Thaumaleidae. South African Animal
Animal
Life 8: 409-412. Theischinger, G. 1986. Australian Thaumaleidae
Thaumaleidae
(Insecta: Diptera). Records of the Australian Museum 38: 291-317. Theischinger, G. 1988. Austrothaumalea bickeli spec. nov., a new thaumaleid from Australia (Insecta: Diptera: Thaumaleidae). Stapfia 17: 211-213.

Wikispecies
Wikispecies
has information related to Thaumaleidae

External links[edit]

Thaumeleidae page at the Bishop Museum's Australasian/Oceanian Diptera Catalog

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Extant Diptera
Diptera
families

Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Arthropoda Class: Insecta Subclass: Pterygota Infraclass: Neoptera Superorder: Endopterygota

Suborder Nematocera

Axymyiomorpha

Axymyiidae

Culicomorpha

Culicoidea

Dixidae
Dixidae
(meniscus midges) Corethrellidae
Corethrellidae
(frog-biting midges) Chaoboridae
Chaoboridae
(phantom midges) Culicidae (mosquitoes)

Chironomoidea

Thaumaleidae
Thaumaleidae
(solitary midges) Simuliidae
Simuliidae
(black flies) Ceratopogonidae
Ceratopogonidae
(biting midges) Chironomidae
Chironomidae
(non-biting midges)

Blephariceromorpha

Blephariceridae
Blephariceridae
(net-winged midges) Deuterophlebiidae (mountain midges) Nymphomyiidae

Bibionomorpha

Bibionoidea

Bibionidae
Bibionidae
(march flies, lovebugs)

Anisopodoidea

Anisopodidae
Anisopodidae
(wood gnats)

Sciaroidea (fungus gnats)

Bolitophilidae Diadocidiidae Ditomyiidae Keroplatidae Mycetophilidae Sciaridae
Sciaridae
(dark-winged fungus gnats) Cecidomyiidae
Cecidomyiidae
(gall midges)

Psychodomorpha

Scatopsoidea

Canthyloscelidae Perissommatidae Scatopsidae
Scatopsidae
(minute black scavenger flies, or dung midges)

Psychodoidea

Psychodidae
Psychodidae
(moth flies)

Ptychopteromorpha

Ptychopteridae
Ptychopteridae
(phantom crane flies) Tanyderidae (primitive crane flies)

Tipulomorpha

Trichoceroidea

Trichoceridae
Trichoceridae
(winter crane flies)

Tipuloidea

Pediciidae
Pediciidae
(hairy-eyed craneflies) Tipulidae (crane flies)

Suborder Brachycera

Asilomorpha

Asiloidea

Apioceridae (flower-loving flies) Apsilocephalidae Apystomyiidae Asilidae
Asilidae
(robber flies) Bombyliidae
Bombyliidae
(bee flies) Evocoidae Hilarimorphidae (hilarimorphid flies) Mydidae (mydas flies) Mythicomyiidae Scenopinidae
Scenopinidae
(window flies) Therevidae
Therevidae
(stiletto flies)

Empidoidea

Atelestidae Hybotidae
Hybotidae
(dance flies) Dolichopodidae
Dolichopodidae
(long-legged flies) Empididae
Empididae
(dagger flies, balloon flies)

Nemestrinoidea

Acroceridae
Acroceridae
(small-headed flies) Nemestrinidae
Nemestrinidae
(tangle-veined flies)

Muscomorpha

Aschiza

Platypezoidea

Phoridae
Phoridae
(scuttle flies, coffin flies, humpbacked flies) Opetiidae
Opetiidae
(flat-footed flies) Ironomyiidae (ironic flies) Lonchopteridae
Lonchopteridae
(spear-winged flies) Platypezidae
Platypezidae
(flat-footed flies)

Syrphoidea

Syrphidae (hoverflies) Pipunculidae
Pipunculidae
(big-headed flies)

Schizophora

Acalyptratae

Conopoidea

Conopidae
Conopidae
(thick-headed flies)

Tephritoidea

Pallopteridae
Pallopteridae
(flutter flies) Piophilidae
Piophilidae
(cheese flies) Platystomatidae
Platystomatidae
(signal flies) Pyrgotidae Richardiidae Tephritidae
Tephritidae
(peacock flies) Ulidiidae
Ulidiidae
(picture-winged flies)

Nerioidea

Cypselosomatidae Micropezidae
Micropezidae
(stilt-legged flies) Neriidae
Neriidae
(cactus flies, banana stalk flies)

Diopsoidea

Diopsidae (stalk-eyed flies) Gobryidae Megamerinidae Nothybidae Psilidae
Psilidae
(rust flies) Somatiidae Strongylophthalmyiidae Syringogastridae Tanypezidae

Sciomyzoidea

Coelopidae
Coelopidae
(kelp flies) Dryomyzidae Helosciomyzidae Ropalomeridae Huttoninidae Heterocheilidae Phaeomyiidae Sepsidae
Sepsidae
(black scavenger flies) Sciomyzidae
Sciomyzidae
(marsh flies)

Sphaeroceroidea

Chyromyidae Heleomyzidae Sphaeroceridae
Sphaeroceridae
(small dung flies) Nannodastiidae

Lauxanioidea

Celyphidae
Celyphidae
(beetle-backed flies) Chamaemyiidae
Chamaemyiidae
(aphid flies) Lauxaniidae

Opomyzoidea

Agromyzidae
Agromyzidae
(leaf miner flies) Anthomyzidae Asteiidae Aulacigastridae (sap flies) Clusiidae
Clusiidae
(lekking, or druid flies) Fergusoninidae Marginidae Neminidae Neurochaetidae (upside-down flies) Odiniidae Opomyzidae Periscelididae Teratomyzidae Xenasteiidae

Ephydroidea

Camillidae Curtonotidae
Curtonotidae
(quasimodo flies) Diastatidae
Diastatidae
(bog flies) Ephydridae
Ephydridae
(shore flies) Drosophilidae
Drosophilidae
(vinegar and fruit flies)

Carnoidea

Acartophthalmidae Australimyzidae Braulidae
Braulidae
(bee lice) Canacidae
Canacidae
(beach flies) Carnidae Chloropidae
Chloropidae
(frit flies) Cryptochaetidae Inbiomyiidae Milichiidae
Milichiidae
(freeloader flies)

Lonchaeoidea

Cryptochetidae Lonchaeidae
Lonchaeidae
(lance flies)

Calyptratae

Muscoidea

Anthomyiidae
Anthomyiidae
(cabbage flies) Fanniidae
Fanniidae
(little house flies) Muscidae
Muscidae
(house flies, stable flies) Scathophagidae
Scathophagidae
(dung flies)

Oestroidea

Calliphoridae
Calliphoridae
(blow-flies: bluebottles, greenbottles) Mystacinobiidae (New Zealand batfly) Oestridae (botflies) Rhinophoridae Sarcophagidae (flesh flies) Tachinidae
Tachinidae
(tachina flies)

Hippoboscoidea

Glossinidae (tsetse flies) Hippoboscidae
Hippoboscidae
(louse flies) Mormotomyiidae
Mormotomyiidae
(frightful hairy fly) Nycteribiidae
Nycteribiidae
(bat flies) Streblidae
Streblidae
(bat flies)

Stratiomyomorpha

Stratiomyoidea

Pantophthalmidae
Pantophthalmidae
(timber flies) Stratiomyidae
Stratiomyidae
(soldier flies) Xylomyidae
Xylomyidae
(wood soldier flies)

Tabanomorpha

Rhagionoidea

Austroleptidae Bolbomyiidae Rhagionidae
Rhagionidae
(snipe flies)

Tabanoidea

Athericidae
Athericidae
(water snipe flies) Oreoleptidae Pelecorhynchidae Tabanidae (horse and deer flies)

Vermileonomorpha

Vermileonoidea

Vermileonidae

Xylophagomorpha

Xylophagoidea

Xylophagidae
Xylophagidae
(awl flies)

List of families of Diptera

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q1265944 BugGuide: 740925 EoL: 9026 Fauna Europaea: 11647 Fossilworks: 296911 GBIF: 3518 ITIS:

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