THAUMALEIDAE, the SOLITARY MIDGES or TRICKLE MIDGES, are a group of
nematoceran flies related to the
Chironomidae , and
Simuliidae . They are small, stocky, yellow to brown flies (3-4
mm). Very few species are known for this family (about 120 species in
five genera). Larvae are found in films on rocks and the nonfeeding
adults are usually found on foliage along the same streams in which
the larvae are found. A few solitary midges are found in the Southern
Hemisphere , but
Thaumaleidae are generally an
* 1 Description
* 2 Biology
* 3 Name
* 4 References
* 5 External links
Adults are recognised by the seven veins reaching the margin, the
costa running around the entire margin, the absence of ocelli, and
particularly by the short antennae which are no longer than the head.
Wing venation of
Larvae resemble larval Lutzomyia (
Psychodidae ), Forcipomyia
Ceratopogonidae ), and some
Chironomidae . However, unpaired prolegs,
a ventrally directed truncate head, and prothoracic spiracles on a
short respiratory tube differentiate them.
For further information see * Family keys and image
Thaumaleidae are encountered infrequently, usually close to the
hygropetric aquatic larval habitat. The undersides of bridges over
smaller running waters are common adult gathering sites. Thaumaleid
larvae are usually hygropetric in vertical, thin water films alongside
waterfalls and torrents. They prefer low temperatures and are most
frequent in fully shaded localities. They feed by grazing on diatoms .
Little or no life history information is available.
The dipteran family name Orphnephilidae Rondani , 1847, based on
Orphnephila Haliday , 1832, was used until Bezzi (1913) synonymized
Orphnephila with Thaumalea Ruthe , 1831 and adopted Thaumaleidae,
based on the senior synonym Thaumalea. This family name has been
almost universally used since that time and it is to be maintained.
Thaumaleidae not come into prevailing usage, Orphnephilidae would
continue in use despite the fact that Orphnephila is a junior synonym.
Thaumaleidae is cited with its own author and date, followed by the
date of the replaced name in parentheses:
Thaumaleidae Bezzi, 1913
(1847). It takes precedence over Orphnephilidae Rondani, 1847, and any
subsequently published synonyms.
* Arnaud, P.H. 1977. Thaumaleidae. Pp. 283-85. In: Hurlbert, S.H.,
ed. Biota Acuatica de Sudamérica Austral Siendo una Recopilacion de
Bibliografias Taxonomicas Referentes a la Fauna y Flora de Aguas
Continentales de Sur de Sudamérica. San Diego State University, San
* Arnaud, P.H. and I.A. Boussy. 1994. The adult Thaumaleidae
(Diptera: Culicomorpha) of western America. Myia 5: 41-152.
* Bezzi, M. 1913. Taumaleidi (Orfnefilidi) italiani con descrizione
di nuove specie. Bollettino del Laboratorio di Zoologia Generale e
Agraria del Reale Istituto Superiore Agrario di Portici 7: 227-266.
* Boussy, I.A., J.M. Gillespie, and P.H. Arnaud, Jr. 1994. External
structure of larval Thaumalea buckae Arnaud and Boussy (Diptera:
Thaumaleidae). Myia 5: 195-201.
* Gillespie, J.M., W.F. Barr, and S.T. Elliott. 1994. The taxonomy
and biology of the immature stages of species of Thaumalea occurring
in Idaho and California (Diptera: Thaumaleidae). Myia 5: 153-193.
* McLellan, I.D. 1983. New diagnosis for genus Austrothaumalea, and
redescription of A. neozealandica (Diptera: Thaumaleidae). New Zealand
Journal of Zoology 10: 267-270.
* McLellan, I.D. 1988. A revision of New Zealand Thaumaleidae
(Diptera: Nematocera) with descriptions of new species and a new
genus. New Zealand Journal of Zoology 15: 563-575.
* Sinclair, B.J. 1996. A review of the
Culicomorpha) of eastern North America, including a redefinition of
genus Androprosopa Mik. Entomologica Scandinavica 27: 361-376.
* Sinclair, B.J. 2000. Immature stages of Australian Austrothaumalea
Tonnoir and Niphta Theischinger (Diptera: Thaumaleidae). Australian
Journal of Entomology 39: 171-176.
* Stone, A. and B.V. Peterson. 1981. Thaumaleidae. Pp. 351-353. In:
McAlpine, J.F., B.V. Peterson, G.E. Shewell, H.J. Teskey, J.R.
Vockeroth, and D.M. Wood, eds. Manual of Nearctic Diptera. Volume 1.
Agriculture Canada Monograph 27. Ottawa.
* Stuckenberg, B. 1960. A new genus and species of
South Africa (Diptera). Proceedings of the Royal Entomological
Society, London 29: 107-109.
* Stuckenberg, B. 1961.
Diptera (Nematocera): Thaumaleidae. South
Animal Life 8: 409-412.
* Theischinger, G. 1986. Australian
Thaumaleidae (Insecta: Diptera).
Records of the Australian Museum 38: 291-317.
* Theischinger, G. 1988. Austrothaumalea bickeli spec. nov., a new
thaumaleid from Australia (Insecta: Diptera: Thaumaleidae). Stapfia
Wikispecies has information related to: THAUMALEIDAE