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Castoridae
See text Skull of a beaver The family CASTORIDAE contains the two living species of beavers and their fossil relatives. This was once a highly diverse group of rodents , but is now restricted to a single genus, Castor . CONTENTS * 1 Characteristics * 2 Evolution * 3 Taxonomy * 4 References CHARACTERISTICS Main article: Beaver
Beaver
Castorids are medium-sized mammals, although large compared with most other rodents. They are semiaquatic , with sleek bodies and webbed hind feet, and are more agile in the water than on land. Their tails are flattened and scaly, adaptations that help them manoeuvre in the water. Castorids live in small family groups that each occupy a specific territory, based around a lodge and dam constructed from sticks and mud. They are herbivores, feeding on leaves and grasses in the summer, and woody plants such as willow in the winter
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Dentition
DENTITION pertains to the development of teeth and their arrangement in the mouth . In particular, it is the characteristic arrangement, kind, and number of teeth in a given species at a given age. That is, the number, type, and morpho-physiology (the physical shape) of the teeth of an animal. Animals whose teeth are all of the same type, such as most non-mammalian vertebrates, are said to have homodont dentition, whereas those whose teeth differ morphologically are said to have heterodont dentition. The dentition of animals with two successions of teeth (deciduous , permanent ) is referred to as diphyodont , while the dentition of animals with only one set of teeth throughout life is monophyodont . The dentition of animals in which the teeth are continuously discarded and replaced throughout life is termed polyphyodont
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Eocene
The EOCENE ( /ˈiːəˌsiːn, ˈiːoʊ-/ ) Epoch, lasting from 56 to 33.9 million years ago, is a major division of the geologic timescale and the second epoch of the Paleogene Period in the Cenozoic Era. The Eocene
Eocene
spans the time from the end of the Paleocene Epoch to the beginning of the Oligocene
Oligocene
Epoch. The start of the Eocene
Eocene
is marked by a brief period in which the concentration of the carbon isotope 13C in the atmosphere was exceptionally low in comparison with the more common isotope 12C . The end is set at a major extinction event called the Grande Coupure (the "Great Break" in continuity) or the Eocene– Oligocene
Oligocene
extinction event , which may be related to the impact of one or more large bolides in Siberia and in what is now Chesapeake Bay
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Oligocene
The OLIGOCENE ( /ˈɒlᵻɡoʊsiːn/ ) is a geologic epoch of the Paleogene Period and extends from about 33.9 million to 23 million years before the present (7001339000000000000♠33.9±0.1 to 7014726771528000000♠23.03±0.05 Ma ). As with other older geologic periods, the rock beds that define the epoch are well identified but the exact dates of the start and end of the epoch are slightly uncertain. The name Oligocene
Oligocene
comes from the Ancient Greek ὀλίγος (oligos, "few") and καινός (kainos, "new"), and refers to the sparsity of extant forms of molluscs . The Oligocene
Oligocene
is preceded by the Eocene Epoch and is followed by the Miocene
Miocene
Epoch. The Oligocene
Oligocene
is the third and final epoch of the Paleogene Period
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Incisor
INCISORS (from Latin
Latin
incidere, "to cut") are the front teeth present in most mammals . They are located in the premaxilla above and on the mandible below. Humans have a total of eight (two on each side, top and bottom). Opossums have 18, whereas armadillos have none. CONTENTS* 1 Structure * 1.1 Other animals * 2 Function * 3 Additional images * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links STRUCTUREAdult humans normally have eight incisors, two of each type. The types of incisor are: * maxillary central incisor (upper jaw, closest to the center of the lips) * maxillary lateral incisor (upper jaw, beside the maxillary central incisor) * mandibular central incisor (lower jaw, closest to the center of the lips) * mandibular lateral incisor (lower jaw, beside the mandibular central incisor)Children with a full set of deciduous teeth (primary teeth) also have eight incisors, named the same way as in permanent teeth
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Precambrian
The PRECAMBRIAN (or PRE-CAMBRIAN, sometimes abbreviated PЄ, or CRYPTOZOIC) is the earliest period of Earth\'s history , set before the current Phanerozoic Eon. The Precambrian
Precambrian
is so named because it preceded the Cambrian, the first period of the Phanerozoic eon, which is named after Cambria , the Latinised name for Wales
Wales
, where rocks from this age were first studied. The Precambrian
Precambrian
accounts for 88% of the Earth's geologic time. The Precambrian
Precambrian
(colored green in the timeline figure) is a supereon that is subdivided into three eons (Hadean, Archean, Proterozoic) of the geologic time scale . It spans from the formation of Earth about 4.6 billion years ago (Ga ) to the beginning of the Cambrian
Cambrian
Period, about 541 million years ago (Ma ), when hard-shelled creatures first appeared in abundance
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Genus
A GENUS (/ˈdʒiːnəs/ , pl. GENERA) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms in biology . In the hierarchy of biological classification, genus comes above species and below family . In binomial nomenclature , the genus name forms the first part of the binomial species name for each species within the genus. E.g. Felis catus
Felis catus
and Felis silvestris are two species within the genus Felis
Felis
. Felis
Felis
is a genus within the family Felidae . The composition of a genus is determined by a taxonomist . The standards for genus classification are not strictly codified, so different authorities often produce different classifications for genera
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Fossil
FOSSILS (from Classical Latin
Latin
fossilis; literally, "obtained by digging") are the preserved remains or traces of animals, plants, and other organisms from the remote past. The totality of fossils, both discovered and undiscovered, and their placement in fossiliferous (fossil-containing) rock formations and sedimentary layers (strata ) is known as the fossil record. The study of fossils across geological time , how they were formed, and the evolutionary relationships between taxa (phylogeny ) are some of the most important functions of the science of paleontology . Such a preserved specimen is called a "fossil" if it is older than some minimum age, most often the arbitrary date of 10,000 years. Hence, fossils range in age from the youngest at the start of the Holocene Epoch to the oldest, chemical fossils from the Archaean Eon, up to 3.48 billion years old, or even older, 4.1 billion years old, according to a 2015 study
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List Of Semiaquatic Tetrapods
This is a list of tetrapods that spend part of their life cycle or a significant fraction of their time in water. Semiaquatic Tetrapoda are those that are primarily or partly terrestrial but that spend a large amount of time swimming or otherwise occupied in water, either as part of their life cycle or as an essential behavior (e.g. feeding ). Some marine mammals , such as the marine otter , the polar bear and pinnipeds , are semiaquatic, while others, such as the sea otter , cetaceans and sirenians , are fully aquatic . The only fully aquatic nonmarine mammals are several manatees (the Amazonian manatee and some populations of African manatee ) and certain small cetaceans (river dolphins , the tucuxi , and some populations of Irrawaddy dolphin
Irrawaddy dolphin
and finless porpoise ). Among marine reptiles , marine iguanas and partly marine crocodiles (such as the saltwater crocodile and the American crocodile ) are all semiaquatic
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North America
NORTH AMERICA is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere . It can also be considered a northern subcontinent of the Americas . It is bordered to the north by the Arctic Ocean
Arctic Ocean
, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean , to the west and south by the Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
, and to the southeast by South America
South America
and the Caribbean Sea
Caribbean Sea
. North America
North America
covers an area of about 24,709,000 square kilometers (9,540,000 square miles), about 16.5% of the earth's land area and about 4.8% of its total surface
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Asia
Major Cities of Asia
Asia
List of cities in Asia List * Tokyo
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Swamp
A SWAMP is a wetland that is forested. Many swamps occur along large rivers where they are critically dependent upon natural water level fluctuations. Other swamps occur on the shores of large lakes. Some swamps have hammocks , or dry-land protrusions, covered by aquatic vegetation , or vegetation that tolerates periodic inundation. The two main types of swamp are "true" or swamp forests and "transitional" or shrub swamps . In the boreal regions of Canada, the word swamp is colloquially used for what is more correctly termed a bog or muskeg . The water of a swamp may be fresh water , brackish water or seawater . Some of the world's largest swamps are found along major rivers such as the Amazon , the Mississippi , and the Congo
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Fossorial
A FOSSORIAL (from Latin fossor, "digger") animal is one that is adapted to digging and life underground such as the badger , the naked mole-rat , or the mole salamanders . Most bees and many wasps are called "fossorial Hymenoptera
Hymenoptera
", and a great many rodents are considered fossorial although the physical adaptations to living underground are minimal. Nevertheless, mostly from 2000 on, for rodents the term fossorial has been used for species that live in burrows during a considerable part of the day but are surface-dwelling during other parts of the day, while for species that live all their life underground (or at least almost all the time) the term subterranean has been applied. Some organisms are fossorial to aid in temperature regulation , while others use the underground habitat for protection from predators or food storage . An animal is said to be subfossorial if it shows limited adaptations to a fossorial lifestyle
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Paraphyletic
In taxonomy , a group is PARAPHYLETIC if it consists of the group's last common ancestor and all descendants of that ancestor excluding a few—typically only one or two—monophyletic subgroups. The group is said to be paraphyletic with respect to the excluded subgroups. The arrangement of the members of a paraphyletic group is called a PARAPHYLY. The term is commonly used in phylogenetics (a subfield of biology ) and in linguistics . The term was coined to apply to well-known taxa like reptiles (Reptilia) which, as commonly named and traditionally defined, is paraphyletic with respect to mammals and birds. Reptilia contains the last common ancestor of reptiles and all descendants of that ancestor—including all extant reptiles as well as the extinct synapsids —except for mammals and birds . Other commonly recognized paraphyletic groups include fish , monkeys and lizards . If many subgroups are missing from the named group, it is said to be polyparaphyletic
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American Black Bear
16, see text SYNONYMS Euarctos americanus The AMERICAN BLACK BEAR (Ursus americanus) is a medium-sized bear native to North America
North America
. It is the continent's smallest and most widely distributed bear species. Black bears are omnivores , with their diets varying greatly depending on season and location. They typically live in largely forested areas, but do leave forests in search of food. Sometimes they become attracted to human communities because of the immediate availability of food. The American black bear
American black bear
is the world's most common bear species. It is listed by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) as a least-concern species , due to its widespread distribution and a large global population estimated to be twice that of all other bear species combined
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Pleistocene
The PLEISTOCENE ( /ˈplaɪstəˌsiːn, -toʊ-/ , often colloquially referred to as the ICE AGE) is the geological epoch which lasted from about 2,588,000 to 11,700 years ago, spanning the world's most recent period of repeated glaciations . The end of the Pleistocene corresponds with the end of the last glacial period and also with the end of the Paleolithic
Paleolithic
age used in archaeology . The Pleistocene
Pleistocene
is the first epoch of the Quaternary Period or sixth epoch of the Cenozoic Era . In the ICS timescale, the Pleistocene
Pleistocene
is divided into four stages or ages , the Gelasian , Calabrian , Ionian and Tarantian . All of these stages were defined in southern Europe . In addition to this international subdivision, various regional subdivisions are often used
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