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NEBRASKA /nᵻˈbræskə/ ( listen ) is a state that lies in both the Great Plains and the Midwestern United States . The state is bordered by South Dakota
South Dakota
to the north, Iowa
Iowa
to the east and Missouri to the southeast, both across the Missouri River , Kansas
Kansas
to the south, Colorado
Colorado
to the southwest and Wyoming
Wyoming
to the west. It is the only triply landlocked U.S. state . Nebraska's area is just over 77,220 sq mi (200,000 km2) with almost 1.9 million people. Its state capital is Lincoln , and its largest city is Omaha , which is on the Missouri River .

Indigenous peoples
Indigenous peoples
including Omaha , Missouria , Ponca , Pawnee , Otoe , and various branches of the Lakota ( Sioux
Sioux
) tribes lived in the region for thousands of years before European exploration. The state is crossed by many historic trails and was explored by the Lewis and Clark Expedition .

Nebraska
Nebraska
was admitted as the 37th state of the United States
United States
in 1867. It is the only state in the United States
United States
whose legislature is unicameral and officially nonpartisan .

Nebraska
Nebraska
is composed of two major land regions: the Dissected Till Plains and the Great Plains . The Dissected Till Plains is a region of gently rolling hills and contains the state's largest cities, Omaha and Lincoln. The Great Plains occupy most of western Nebraska, characterized by treeless prairie , suitable for cattle-grazing. The state has a large agriculture sector and is a major producer of beef, pork, corn and soybeans . There are two major climatic zones: the eastern half of the state has a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification _Dfa_), with a unique warmer subtype considered "warm-temperate" near the southern plains like in Kansas
Kansas
and Oklahoma which have a predominantly humid subtropical climate. The western half has a primarily semi-arid climate (Koppen _BSk_). The state has wide variations between winter and summer temperatures, decreasing south through the state. Violent thunderstorms and tornadoes occur primarily during spring and summer, but sometimes in autumn. Chinook winds tend to warm the state significantly in the winter and early spring.

CONTENTS

* 1 Etymology * 2 History

* 3 Geography

* 3.1 Federal land management * 3.2 Climate

* 4 Demographics

* 4.1 Ancestry * 4.2 Religion * 4.3 Birth data * 4.4 Settlement

* 5 Taxation

* 6 Economy

* 6.1 Industry

* 7 Transportation

* 7.1 Railroads * 7.2 Roads and highways

* 8 Law and government

* 8.1 Executive branch * 8.2 Legislative branch * 8.3 Judicial branch * 8.4 Federal government representation * 8.5 Politics

* 9 Education

* 9.1 Colleges and universities

* 10 Sports

* 10.1 Professional sports

* 10.2 Junior-level sports

* 10.2.1 United States
United States
Hockey League

* 10.3 College sports

* 10.3.1 NCAA Division I sports * 10.3.2 NCAA Division II sports * 10.3.3 NCAA Division III sports * 10.3.4 NAIA sports

* 11 See also * 12 References

* 13 Bibliography

* 13.1 Surveys * 13.2 Scholarly special studies

* 14 External links

ETYMOLOGY

Nebraska's name is derived from transliteration of the archaic Otoe words _Ñí Brásge_, pronounced (contemporary Otoe _Ñí Bráhge_), or the Omaha _Ní Btháska_, pronounced , meaning "flat water", after the Platte River that flows through the state.

HISTORY

Main article: History of Nebraska Nebraska
Nebraska
in 1718, Guillaume de L\'Isle map, with the approximate area of the future state highlighted.

Indigenous peoples
Indigenous peoples
lived in the region of present-day Nebraska
Nebraska
for thousands of years before European exploration. The historic tribes in the state included the Omaha , Missouria , Ponca , Pawnee , Otoe , and various branches of the Lakota ( Sioux
Sioux
), some of which migrated from eastern areas into this region. When European exploration, trade, and settlement began, both Spain and France sought to control the region. In the 1690s, Spain established trade connections with the Apaches , whose territory then included western Nebraska. By 1703, France had developed a regular trade with the native peoples along the Missouri River in Nebraska, and by 1719 had signed treaties with several of these peoples. After war broke out between the two countries, Spain dispatched an armed expedition to Nebraska
Nebraska
under Lieutenant General Pedro de Villasur in 1720. The party was attacked and destroyed near present-day Columbus by a large force of Pawnees and Otoes, both allied to the French. The massacre ended Spanish exploration of the area for the remainder of the 18th century.

In 1762, during the Seven Years\' War , France ceded the Louisiana territory to Spain. This left Britain and Spain competing for dominance along the Mississippi; by 1773, the British were trading with the native peoples of Nebraska. In response, Spain dispatched two trading expeditions up the Missouri
Missouri
in 1794 and 1795; the second, under James Mackay, established the first European settlement in Nebraska
Nebraska
near the mouth of the Platte. Later that year, Mackay's party built a trading post, dubbed Fort Carlos IV (Fort Charles), near present-day Homer .

In 1819, the United States
United States
established Fort Atkinson as the first U.S. Army post west of the Missouri
Missouri
River, just east of present-day Fort Calhoun . The army abandoned the fort in 1827 as migration moved further west. European-American settlement was scarce until 1848 and the California Gold Rush . On May 30, 1854, the US Congress created the Kansas
Kansas
and the Nebraska
Nebraska
territories, divided by the Parallel 40° North , under the Kansas–Nebraska Act
Kansas–Nebraska Act
. The Nebraska
Nebraska
Territory included parts of the current states of Colorado
Colorado
, North Dakota
North Dakota
, South Dakota
South Dakota
, Wyoming
Wyoming
, and Montana
Montana
. The territorial capital of Nebraska
Nebraska
was Omaha . Homesteaders in central Nebraska
Nebraska
in 1888.

In the 1860s, after the U.S. government forced many of the Native American tribes to cede their lands and settle on reservations , it opened large tracts of land to agricultural development by Europeans and Americans. Under the Homestead Act , thousands of settlers migrated into Nebraska
Nebraska
to claim free land granted by the federal government. Because so few trees grew on the prairies , many of the first farming settlers built their homes of sod , as had the Native Americans
Americans
such as the Omaha. The first wave of settlement gave the territory a sufficient population to apply for statehood. Nebraska became the 37th state on March 1, 1867, and the capital was moved from Omaha to the center at Lancaster, later renamed Lincoln after the recently assassinated President of the United States, Abraham Lincoln . The battle of Massacre Canyon on August 5, 1873, was the last major battle between the Pawnee and the Sioux
Sioux
.

During the 1870s to the 1880s, Nebraska
Nebraska
experienced a large growth in population. Several factors contributed to attracting new residents. The first was that the vast prairie land was perfect for cattle grazing. This helped settlers to learn the unfamiliar geography of the area. The second factor was the invention of several farming technologies. Agricultural inventions such as barbed wire, wind mills, and the steel plow, combined with good weather, enabled settlers to use of Nebraska
Nebraska
as prime farming land. By the 1880s, Nebraska's population had soared to more than 450,000 people. The Arbor Day holiday was founded in Nebraska
Nebraska
City by territorial governor J. Sterling Morton . The National Arbor Day Foundation is still headquartered in Nebraska
Nebraska
City , with some offices in Lincoln.

In the late 19th century, many African Americans migrated from the South to Nebraska
Nebraska
as part of the Great Migration , primarily to Omaha which offered working class jobs in meat packing , the railroads and other industries. Omaha has a long history of civil rights activism. Blacks encountered discrimination from other Americans
Americans
in Omaha and especially from recent European immigrants, ethnic whites who were competing for the same jobs. In 1912, African Americans founded the Omaha chapter of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People to work for improved conditions in the city and state.

Since the 1960s, Native American activism in the state has increased, both through open protest, activities to build alliances with state and local governments, and in the slower, more extensive work of building tribal institutions and infrastructure. Native Americans
Americans
in federally recognized tribes have pressed for self-determination, sovereignty and recognition. They have created community schools to preserve their cultures, as well as tribal colleges and universities . Tribal politicians have also collaborated with state and county officials on regional issues.

GEOGRAPHY

Further information: List of counties in Nebraska , List of Nebraska rivers , and Geography of Omaha Map of Nebraska. Forested hills in the Pine Ridge region of Nebraska. Play media Animation begins with a wide view of the entire United States
United States
and then zooms down to an area in Nebraska
Nebraska
where water usage studies have been carried out.

The state is bordered by South Dakota
South Dakota
to the north; Iowa
Iowa
to the east and Missouri
Missouri
to the southeast, across the Missouri River ; Kansas
Kansas
to the south; Colorado
Colorado
to the southwest; and Wyoming
Wyoming
to the west. The state has 93 counties ; it occupies the central portion of the Frontier Strip . Nebraska
Nebraska
is split into two time zones , with the state's eastern half observing Central Time and the western half observing Mountain Time . Three rivers cross the state from west to east. The Platte River , formed by the confluence of the North Platte and the South Platte , runs through the state's central portion, the Niobrara River flows through the northern part, and the Republican River runs across the southern part.

Nebraska
Nebraska
is composed of two major land regions: the Dissected Till Plains and the Great Plains . The easternmost portion of the state was scoured by Ice Age glaciers ; the Dissected Till Plains were left after the glaciers retreated. The Dissected Till Plains is a region of gently rolling hills; Omaha and Lincoln are in this region. The Great Plains occupy most of western Nebraska, with the region consisting of several smaller, diverse land regions, including the Sandhills , the Pine Ridge , the Rainwater Basin , the High Plains and the Wildcat Hills . Panorama Point , at 5,424 feet (1,653 m), is Nebraska's highest point; though despite its name and elevation, it is a relatively low rise near the Colorado
Colorado
and Wyoming
Wyoming
borders. A past Nebraska
Nebraska
tourism slogan was "Where the West Begins"; locations given for the beginning of the "West" include the Missouri
Missouri
River, the intersection of 13th and O Streets in Lincoln (where it is marked by a red brick star), the 100th meridian , and Chimney Rock .

FEDERAL LAND MANAGEMENT

Areas under the management of the National Park Service
National Park Service
include:

* Agate
Agate
Fossil Beds National Monument near Harrison * California National Historic Trail * Chimney Rock National Historic Site near Bayard * Homestead National Monument of America in Beatrice * Lewis "> Köppen climate types in Nebraska
Nebraska
Winter at Scotts Bluff National Monument
Scotts Bluff National Monument
.

Two major climatic zones are represented in Nebraska: the eastern half of the state has a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification _Dfa_), and the western half, a semi-arid climate (Koppen _BSk_). The entire state experiences wide seasonal variations in temperature and precipitation. Average temperatures are fairly uniform across Nebraska, with hot summers and generally cold winters.

Average annual precipitation decreases east to west from about 31.5 inches (800 mm) in the southeast corner of the state to about 13.8 inches (350 mm) in the Panhandle . Humidity also decreases significantly from east to west. Snowfall across the state is fairly even, with most of Nebraska
Nebraska
receiving between 25 and 35 inches (65 and 90 cm) of snow annually. Nebraska's highest recorded temperature is 118 °F (48 °C) at Minden on July 24, 1936 and the lowest recorded temperature is −47 °F (−44 °C) at Camp Clarke on February 12, 1899.

Nebraska
Nebraska
is in Tornado
Tornado
Alley . Thunderstorms are common in the spring and summer months, and violent thunderstorms and tornadoes happen primarily during the spring and summer, though they can also occur in the autumn. The chinook winds from the Rocky Mountains provide a temporary moderating effect on temperatures in western Nebraska
Nebraska
during the winter months.

Average daily maximum and minimum temperatures for selected cities in Nebraska
Nebraska
LOCATION JULY (°F) JULY (°C) JANUARY (°F) JANUARY (°C)

Omaha 87/66 30/19 33/13 1/–10

Lincoln 89/66 31/19 35/14 2/–10

Grand Island 87/64 31/17 36/14 2/–10

Kearney 90/63 32/17 36/12 2/–11

North Platte 88/60 31/16 39/11 4/–11

Papillion 87/66 31/19 32/12 0/–11

DEMOGRAPHICS

HISTORICAL POPULATION

CENSUS POP.

1860 28,841

1870 122,993

326.5%

1880 452,402

267.8%

1890 1,062,656

134.9%

1900 1,066,300

0.3%

1910 1,192,214

11.8%

1920 1,296,372

8.7%

1930 1,377,963

6.3%

1940 1,315,834

−4.5%

1950 1,325,510

0.7%

1960 1,411,330

6.5%

1970 1,483,493

5.1%

1980 1,569,825

5.8%

1990 1,578,385

0.5%

2000 1,711,263

8.4%

2010 1,826,341

6.7%

EST. 2016 1,907,116

4.4%

Source: 1910–2010 2015 estimate

The United States
United States
Census Bureau estimates that the population of Nebraska
Nebraska
was 1,896,190 on July 1, 2015, a 3.82% increase since the 2010 United States
United States
Census . The center of population of Nebraska
Nebraska
is in Polk County , in the city of Shelby .

ANCESTRY

According to the 2010 Census , 86.1% of the population was White (82.1% non-Hispanic white ), 4.5% was Black or African American, 1.0% American Indian and Alaska
Alaska
Native, 1.8% Asian, 0.1% Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander, 2.2% from two or more races. 9.2% of the total population was of Hispanic or Latino origin (they may be of any race).

As of 2004, the population of Nebraska
Nebraska
included about 84,000 foreign-born residents (4.8% of the population).

Nebraska
Nebraska
racial breakdown of population RACIAL COMPOSITION 1990 2000 2010

White 93.8% 89.6% 86.1%

Black 3.6% 4.0% 4.5%

Asian 0.8% 1.3% 1.8%

Native 0.8% 0.9% 1.0%

Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander - 0.1% 0.1%

Other race 1.0% 2.8% 4.3%

Two or more races - 1.4% 2.2%

The five largest ancestry groups in Nebraska
Nebraska
are German (38.6%), Irish (12.4%), English (9.6%), Mexican (8.7%), and Czech (5.5%).

Nebraska
Nebraska
has the largest Czech American and non-Mormon Danish American population (as a percentage of the total population) in the nation. German Americans are the largest ancestry group in most of the state, particularly in the eastern counties. Thurston County (made up entirely of the Omaha and Winnebago reservations) has an American Indian majority, and Butler County is one of only two counties in the nation with a Czech-American plurality. Population density in Nebraska
Nebraska

RELIGION

The religious affiliations of the people of Nebraska
Nebraska
are:

* Christian – 90%

* Catholic – 28% * Lutheran – 16% * Methodist – 11% * Baptist
Baptist
– 9% * Presbyterian – 4% * Other Protestant – 21% * Other Christian – 1%

* Non-religious – 9% * Other religions – 1%

The largest single denominations by number of adherents in 2010 were the Roman Catholic Church
Roman Catholic Church
(372,838), the Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod (112,585), the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America (110,110) and the United Methodist Church
United Methodist Church
(109,283).

BIRTH DATA

As of 2011, 31.0% of Nebraska's population younger than age 1 were minorities.

_Note: Births in table don't add up, because Hispanics are counted both by their ethnicity and by their race, giving a higher overall number._

Live Births by Race/Ethnicity of Mother RACE 2013 2014 2015

White 22,670 (86.9%) 23,178 (86.5%) 23,126 (86.7%)

> Non-Hispanic White 19,237 (73.7%) 19,471 (72.6%) 19,201 (72.0%)

Black 1,979 (7.6%) 2,015 (7.5%) 2,009 (7.5%)

Asian 854 (3.3%) 1,048 (3.9%) 987 (3.7%)

Native 592 (2.3%) 553 (2.1%) 557 (2.1%)

_Hispanic _ (of any race) _3,895 (14.9%)_ _4,143 (15.6%)_ _4,249 (15.9%)_

TOTAL NEBRASKA 26,095 (100%) 26,794 (100%) 26,679 (100%)

SETTLEMENT

Eighty-nine percent of the cities in Nebraska
Nebraska
have fewer than 3,000 people. Nebraska
Nebraska
shares this characteristic with five other Midwestern states: Kansas
Kansas
, Oklahoma
Oklahoma
, North Dakota
North Dakota
and South Dakota
South Dakota
, and Iowa
Iowa
. Hundreds of towns have a population of fewer than 1,000. Regional population declines have forced many rural schools to consolidate.

Fifty-three of Nebraska's 93 counties reported declining populations between 1990 and 2000, ranging from a 0.06% loss (Frontier County ) to a 17.04% loss (Hitchcock County ).

More urbanized areas of the state have experienced substantial growth. In 2000, the city of Omaha had a population of 390,007; in 2005, the city's estimated population was 414,521 (427,872 including the recently annexed city of Elkhorn ), a 6.3% increase over five years. The 2010 census showed that Omaha has a population of 408,958. The city of Lincoln had a 2000 population of 225,581 and a 2010 population of 258,379, a 14.5% increase.

As of the 2010 Census, there were 530 cities and villages in the state of Nebraska. There are five classifications of cities and villages in Nebraska, which is based upon population. All population figures are 2013 Census Bureau estimates unless flagged by a reference number. Downtown Omaha .

METROPOLITAN CLASS CITY (300,000 OR MORE)

* Omaha – 446,970

PRIMARY CLASS CITY (100,000 – 299,999)

* Lincoln – 280,364

FIRST CLASS CITY (5,000 – 99,999)

* Bellevue – 53,663 * Grand Island – 50,550 * Kearney – 32,174 * Fremont – 26,340 * Hastings – 25,093 * North Platte – 24,534 * Norfolk – 24,523 * Columbus – 22,533 * Papillion – 21,921 * La Vista – 17,562 * Scottsbluff – 15,023 * South Sioux
Sioux
City – 13,424 * Beatrice – 12,157 * Lexington – 10,204 * Alliance – 8,498 * Gering – 8,480 * Blair – 7,990 * York – 7,961 * McCook – 7,697 * Nebraska
Nebraska
City – 7,255 * Ralston – 7,220 * Crete – 7,135 * Seward – 7,120 * Sidney – 6,829 * Plattsmouth – 6,467 * Schuyler – 6,143 * Chadron – 5,787 * Gretna – 5,584 * Wayne – 5,543 * Holdrege – 5,527

Second Class Cities (800 – 4,999) and Villages (100–800) make up the rest of the communities in Nebraska. There are 116 second class cities and 382 villages in the state.

METROPOLITAN AREAS - 2012 ESTIMATE DATA

* Omaha-Council Bluffs – 763,326 ( Nebraska
Nebraska
portion); 885,624 (total for Nebraska
Nebraska
and Iowa) * Lincoln – 310,342 * Sioux
Sioux
City, Iowa
Iowa
– 26,836 ( Nebraska
Nebraska
portion); 168,921 (total for Nebraska, Iowa
Iowa
and South Dakota) * Grand Island – 83,472

MICROPOLITAN AREAS - 2012 ESTIMATE DATA

* Kearney – 53,948 * Norfolk – 48,286 * Scottsbluff – 39,039 * North Platte – 37,373 * Fremont – 36,427 * Columbus – 32,681 * Hastings – 31,364 * Lexington – 26,249 * Beatrice – 21,806

OTHER AREAS

* Grand Island, Hastings and Kearney comprise the "Tri-Cities " area, with a combined population of 168,748 * The northeast corner of Nebraska
Nebraska
is part of the Siouxland region.

TAXATION

Nebraska
Nebraska
has a progressive income tax . The portion of income from $0 to $2,400 is taxed at 2.56%; from $2,400 to $17,500, at 3.57%; from $17,500 to $27,000, at 5.12%; and income over $27,000, at 6.84%. The standard deduction for a single taxpayer is $5,700; the personal exemption is $118.

Nebraska
Nebraska
has a state sales and use tax of 5.5%. In addition to the state tax, some Nebraska
Nebraska
cities assess a city sales and use tax, in 0.5% increments, up to a maximum of 1.5%. Dakota County levies an additional 0.5% county sales tax. Food and ingredients that are generally for home preparation and consumption are not taxable. All real property within the state of Nebraska
Nebraska
is taxable unless specifically exempted by statute. Since 1992, only depreciable personal property is subject to tax and all other personal property is exempt from tax. Inheritance tax
Inheritance tax
is collected at the county level.

ECONOMY

See also: Nebraska locations by per capita income Nebraska grain bins and elevator

The Bureau of Economic Analysis
Bureau of Economic Analysis
estimates of Nebraska's gross state product in 2010 was $89.8 billion. Per capita personal income in 2004 was $31,339, 25th in the nation. Nebraska
Nebraska
has a large agriculture sector, and is a major producer of beef , pork , corn (maize) , soybeans , and sorghum . Other important economic sectors include freight transport (by rail and truck), manufacturing , telecommunications , information technology , and insurance .

As of April 2015, the state's unemployment rate was 2.5%, the lowest in the nation.

INDUSTRY

Kool-Aid was created in 1927 by Edwin Perkins in the city of Hastings , which celebrates the event the second weekend of every August with Kool-Aid Days, and Kool-Aid is the official soft drink of Nebraska. _ CliffsNotes _ were developed by Clifton Hillegass of Rising City . He adapted his pamphlets from the Canadian publications, _Coles Notes _.

Omaha is home to Berkshire Hathaway
Berkshire Hathaway
, whose Chief executive officer (CEO), Warren Buffett
Warren Buffett
, was ranked in March 2009 by _ Forbes
Forbes
_ magazine as the second richest person in the world . The city is also home to Mutual of Omaha , InfoUSA, TD Ameritrade
TD Ameritrade
, West Corporation , Valmont Industries , Woodmen of the World , Kiewit Corporation , and the Union Pacific Railroad , and Gallup . Ameritas Life Insurance
Insurance
Corp. , Nelnet , Sandhills Publishing Company , and Duncan Aviation are based in Lincoln ; The Buckle is based in Kearney . Sidney is the national headquarters for Cabela\'s , a specialty retailer of outdoor goods.

The world's largest train yard , Union Pacific 's Bailey Yard , is in North Platte . The Vise-Grip was invented by William Petersen in 1924, and was manufactured in De Witt until the plant was closed and moved to China in late 2008.

Lincoln's Kawasaki Motors Manufacturing
Manufacturing
is the only Kawasaki plant in the world to produce the Jet Ski
Jet Ski
, All-terrain vehicle (ATV), and Mule lines of product. The facility employs more than 1200 people.

The Spade Ranch , in the Sandhills , is one of Nebraska's oldest and largest beef cattle operations.

TRANSPORTATION

RAILROADS

Further information: List of Nebraska railroads

The Union Pacific Railroad
Union Pacific Railroad
, headquartered in Omaha, was incorporated on July 1, 1862, in the wake of the Pacific Railway Act of 1862 . Bailey Yard , in North Platte, is the largest railroad classification yard in the world. The route of the original transcontinental railroad runs through the state.

Other major railroads with operations in the state are: Amtrak
Amtrak
; BNSF Railway ; Canadian National Railway
Canadian National Railway
; and Iowa
Iowa
Interstate Railroad .

ROADS AND HIGHWAYS

Further information: List of Nebraska numbered highways

INTERSTATE HIGHWAYS THROUGH THE STATE OF NEBRASKA

THE U.S. ROUTES IN NEBRASKA

LAW AND GOVERNMENT

_ Wikisource has original text related to this article: NEBRASKA CONSTITUTION

PRESIDENTIAL ELECTIONS RESULTS YEAR REPUBLICAN DEMOCRAT

2016 58.70% 495,961_ 33.70% _284,494 _

2012 59.80% _475,064_ 38.03% _302,081_

2008 56.53% _452,979_ 41.60% _333,319_

2004 65.90% _512,814_ 32.68% _254,328_

2000 62.25% _433,862_ 33.25% _231,780_

1996 53.65% _363,467_ 34.95% _236,761_

1992 46.58% _344,346_ 29.40% _217,344_

1988 60.15% _398,447_ 39.20% _259,646_

1984 70.55% _460,054_ 28.81% _187,866_

1980 65.50% _419,937_ 26.00% _166,851_

1976 59.19% _359,705_ 38.46% _233,692_

1972 70.50% _405,298_ 30.70% _198,899_

1968 59.82% _321,163_ 31.81% _170,784_

1964 47.39% _276,847_ 52.61% _307,307_

Treemap
Treemap
of the popular vote by county, 2016 presidential election.

Nebraska's government operates under the framework of the Nebraska Constitution, adopted in 1875, and is divided into three branches: executive, legislative, and judicial.

EXECUTIVE BRANCH

Further information: Governor of Nebraska

The head of the executive branch is Governor Pete Ricketts . Other elected officials in the executive branch are Lieutenant Governor Mike Foley , Attorney General Doug Peterson , Secretary of State John A. Gale , State Treasurer Don Stenberg , and State Auditor Charlie Janssen . All elected officials in the executive branch serve four-year terms.

LEGISLATIVE BRANCH

Further information: Nebraska
Nebraska
Legislature
Legislature
and Nebraska State Capitol

Nebraska
Nebraska
is the only state in the United States
United States
with a unicameral legislature. Although this house is officially known simply as the " Legislature
Legislature
", and more commonly called the "Unicameral", its members call themselves "senators". Nebraska's Legislature
Legislature
is also the only state legislature in the United States
United States
that is officially nonpartisan . The senators are elected with no party affiliation next to their names on the ballot, and members of any party can be elected to the positions of speaker and committee chairs. The Nebraska
Nebraska
Legislature can also override the governor's veto with a three-fifths majority, in contrast to the two-thirds majority required in some other states.

The Legislature
Legislature
meets in the third Nebraska State Capitol building, built between 1922 and 1932. It was designed by Bertram G. Goodhue . Built from Indiana
Indiana
limestone, the capitol's base is a cross within a square. A 400-foot domed tower rises from this base. The Sower, a 19-foot bronze statue representing agriculture, crowns the building. When Nebraska
Nebraska
became a state in 1867, its legislature consisted of two houses: a House of Representatives and a Senate. For years, U.S. Senator George Norris and other Nebraskans encouraged the idea of a unicameral legislature, and demanded the issue be decided in a referendum . Norris argued:

The constitutions of our various states are built upon the idea that there is but one class. If this be true, there is no sense or reason in having the same thing done twice, especially if it is to be done by two bodies of men elected in the same way and having the same jurisdiction.

Unicameral supporters also argued that a bicameral legislature had a significant undemocratic feature in the committees that reconciled House and Senate legislation. Votes in these committees were secretive, and would sometimes add provisions to bills that neither house had approved. Nebraska's unicameral legislature today has rules that bills can contain only one subject, and must be given at least five days of consideration. In 1934, due in part to the budgetary pressure of the Great Depression
Great Depression
, Nebraska
Nebraska
citizens ran a state initiative to vote on a constitutional amendment creating a unicameral legislature, which was approved, which, in effect, abolished the House of Representatives (the lower house).

JUDICIAL BRANCH

Further information: Nebraska Supreme Court

The judicial system in Nebraska
Nebraska
is unified, with the Nebraska
Nebraska
Supreme Court having administrative authority over all the courts within the state. Nebraska
Nebraska
uses the Missouri
Missouri
Plan for the selection of judges at all levels, including county courts (as the lowest-level courts) and twelve district courts , which contain one or more counties. The Nebraska State Court of Appeals hears appeals from the district courts, juvenile courts , and workers\' compensation courts, and is the final court of appeal.

FEDERAL GOVERNMENT REPRESENTATION

The Nebraska State Capitol in Lincoln, Nebraska . Further information: United States congressional delegations from Nebraska

Nebraska's U.S. senators are Deb Fischer and Ben Sasse , both Republicans; Fischer, elected in 2012, is the senior.

Nebraska
Nebraska
has three representatives in the House of Representatives : Jeff Fortenberry (R) of the 1st district ; Don Bacon (R) of the 2nd district ; and Adrian Smith (R) of the 3rd district .

Nebraska
Nebraska
is one of two states ( Maine
Maine
being the other) that allow for a split in the state's allocation of electoral votes in presidential elections . Under a 1991 law, two of Nebraska's five votes are awarded to the winner of the statewide popular vote, while the other three go to the highest vote-getter in each of the state's three congressional districts .

POLITICS

Further information: United States
United States
presidential election in Nebraska, 2012 ; Nebraska gubernatorial election, 2014 ; United States
United States
Senate election in Nebraska, 2014 ; and Political party strength in Nebraska

For most of its history, Nebraska
Nebraska
has been a solidly Republican state. Republicans have carried the state in all but one presidential election since 1940 : the 1964 landslide election of Lyndon B. Johnson . In the 2004 presidential election , George W. Bush won the state's five electoral votes by a margin of 33 percentage points (making Nebraska's the fourth-strongest Republican vote among states) with 65.9% of the overall vote; only Thurston County , which is majority-Native American , voted for his Democratic challenger John Kerry . In 2008 , the state split its electoral votes for the first time: Republican John McCain
John McCain
won the popular vote in Nebraska
Nebraska
as a whole and two of its three congressional districts; the second district, which includes the city of Omaha, went for Democrat Barack Obama .

Despite the current Republican domination of Nebraska
Nebraska
politics, the state has a long tradition of electing centrist members of both parties to state and federal office; examples include George W. Norris (who served few years in the Senate as an independent), J. James Exon , and Bob Kerrey
Bob Kerrey
. Voters have tilted to the right in recent years with the election of conservative Mike Johanns to the U.S. Senate and the 2006 re-election of Ben Nelson , who was considered the most conservative Democrat in the Senate until his retirement in 2013, when he was replaced by conservative Republican Deb Fischer .

Former President Gerald Ford was born in Nebraska, but moved away shortly after birth. Illinois
Illinois
native William Jennings Bryan represented Nebraska
Nebraska
in Congress, served as U.S. Secretary of State under President Woodrow Wilson
Woodrow Wilson
, and unsuccessfully ran for President three times.

EDUCATION

COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES

UNIVERSITY OF NEBRASKA SYSTEM

* University of Nebraska–Lincoln * University of Nebraska at Kearney
University of Nebraska at Kearney
* University of Nebraska at Omaha * University of Nebraska Medical Center * Nebraska College of Technical Agriculture

NEBRASKA STATE COLLEGE SYSTEM

* Chadron State College * Peru State College * Wayne State College

COMMUNITY COLLEGES

* Central Community College * Little Priest Tribal College * Metropolitan Community College * Mid-Plains Community College * Nebraska Indian Community College * Northeast Community College * Southeast Community College * Western Nebraska Community College

PRIVATE COLLEGES/UNIVERSITIES

* Bellevue University * Clarkson College * College of Saint Mary * Concordia University * Creighton University * Doane University * Grace University * Hastings College * Midland University * Nebraska Christian College * Nebraska Methodist College * Nebraska Wesleyan University * Summit Christian College * Union College * York College

Further information: Colleges and universities of Omaha, Nebraska

SPORTS

Further information: Sports in Nebraska Football game at the University of Nebraska
Nebraska
on September 6, 2008.

PROFESSIONAL SPORTS

* Nebraska Stampede - Women\'s Football Alliance * Lincoln Saltdogs – American Association (independent minor league baseball ) * Nebraska Danger Indoor Football League * Omaha Beef
Beef
Indoor Football League * Omaha Storm Chasers Pacific Coast League (AAA minor league baseball ; affiliate of the Kansas
Kansas
City Royals

JUNIOR-LEVEL SPORTS

United States
United States
Hockey League

* Lincoln Stars * Omaha Lancers * Tri-City Storm

COLLEGE SPORTS

NCAA Division I Sports

The College World Series has been held in Omaha since 1950. It was held at Rosenblatt Stadium from 1950 through 2010, and at TD Ameritrade Park Omaha since 2011.

The following are National Collegiate Athletic Association
National Collegiate Athletic Association
Division I college sports programs in Nebraska.

SCHOOL NICKNAME CONFERENCE NATIONAL TITLES FOUNDED

University of Nebraska–Lincoln Cornhuskers Big Ten Conference 19 1869

University of Nebraska Omaha Mavericks The Summit League
Summit League
11 1908

Creighton University Bluejays Big East Conference 0 1878

NCAA Division II Sports

Nebraska
Nebraska
has several colleges playing at the NCAA Division II level.

SCHOOL MASCOT CONFERENCE NATIONAL TITLES FOUNDED

University of Nebraska-Kearney UN-Kearney Lopers MIAA 1 1905

Wayne State College Wayne State Wildcats NSIC 2 1910

Chadron State College Chadron State Eagles RMAC 0 1911

NCAA Division III Sports

SCHOOL MASCOT CONFERENCE NATIONAL TITLES FOUNDED

Nebraska Wesleyan University Prairie
Prairie
Wolves Iowa
Iowa
Intercollegiate Athletic Conference 19 1887

NAIA Sports

SCHOOL MASCOT CONFERENCE NATIONAL TITLES FOUNDED

Bellevue University Bellevue Bruins Midlands 14 1966

College of Saint Mary Saint Mary Flames Midlands 0 1923

Concordia University Concordia Bulldogs Great Plains 1 1894

Doane University Doane Tigers Great Plains 10 1872

Hastings College Hastings Broncos Great Plains 3 1882

Midland University Midland Warriors Great Plains 2 1883

Peru State College Peru State Bobcats Midlands 2 1865

Southeast Community College SCC Storm National Junior College Athletic Association 6 1978

York College York Panthers Midlands 28 1890

SEE ALSO

* Nebraska
Nebraska
portal

* Outline of Nebraska – organized list of topics about Nebraska * Index of Nebraska-related articles

REFERENCES

* ^ "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". U.S. Census Bureau . June 22, 2017. Retrieved June 22, 2017. * ^ "Median Annual Household Income". _The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation_. Retrieved December 9, 2016. * ^ _A_ _B_ "Elevations and Distances in the United States". United States Geological Survey . 2001. Archived from the original on October 15, 2011. Retrieved October 24, 2011. * ^ _A_ _B_ Elevation adjusted to North American Vertical Datum of 1988 . * ^ http://nebraskalegislature.gov/laws/statutes.php?statute=90-105 * ^ Koontz, John. "Etymology". _Siouan Languages_. Retrieved November 28, 2006. * ^ _A_ _B_ Hanson, James A. "Spain on the Plains". _Nebraska History_ 74 (Spring 1993), pp. 2–21. Retrieved 2015-01-04. * ^ "Villasur Sent to Nebraska". Nebraskastudies.org. Retrieved 2015-01-04. * ^ "The Villasur expedition—1720". Nebraska
Nebraska
State Historical Society. Retrieved 2015-01-04. * ^ "Louisiana: European explorations and the Louisiana
Louisiana
Purchase". Library of Congress. Retrieved 2015-01-04. * ^ Wood, W. Raymond. "Fort Charles or Mr. Mackey\'s Trading House". _ Nebraska
Nebraska
History_ 76 (Spring 1995), pp. 2–9. Retrieved 2015-01-04. * ^ Interactive Media Group – Nebraska
Nebraska
Educational Telecommunications. "1854 Kansas- Nebraska
Nebraska
Act signed". Nebraskastudies.unl.edu. Retrieved May 22, 2012. * ^ _The Handybook for Genealogists: United States
United States
of America_, 10th ed. (Draper Utah: Everton Publishers, 2002). * ^ Marsha Hoffman and Dwight A. Radford, "Nebraska," _Redbook: American State, County, and Town Sources_, 3rd ed. (Provo: Ancestry, 2004), 408. * ^ _The Nebraska
Nebraska
Indian Wars Reader, 1865–1877_ By R. Eli Paul p.88 Publisher: University of Nebraska
Nebraska
Press (April 1, 1998) Language: English ISBN 0-8032-8749-6 * ^ _Redbook_ * ^ Archived October 7, 2008, at the Wayback Machine . * ^ " Nebraska
Nebraska
Climate Office Applied Climate Science SNR UNL". Nebraskaclimateoffice.unl.edu. July 23, 2009. Archived from the original on December 7, 2008. Retrieved April 17, 2010. * ^ "Climate – Twin Cities Development Association, Inc. – Nebraska: Scottsbluff, Gering, TerryTown, Mitchell, Bayard". Tcdne.org. Archived from the original on June 4, 2009. Retrieved February 24, 2009. * ^ " Nebraska
Nebraska
climate averages". Weatherbase. Retrieved November 9, 2015. * ^ Resident Population Data (May 22, 2012). "Resident Population Data – 2010 Census". 2010.census.gov. Archived from the original on October 19, 2013. Retrieved May 22, 2012. * ^ _A_ _B_ "Table 1. Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2015" (CSV). U.S. Census Bureau . December 26, 2015. Retrieved December 26, 2015. * ^ "Population and Population Centers by State: 2000". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on September 18, 2008. Retrieved December 5, 2008. * ^ " Nebraska
Nebraska
QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau". Quickfacts.census.gov. Retrieved October 18, 2012. * ^ Historical Census Statistics on Population Totals By Race, 1790 to 1990, and By Hispanic Origin, 1970 to 1990, For The United States, Regions, Divisions, and States Archived July 25, 2008, at the Wayback Machine . * ^ Population of Nebraska: Census 2010 and 2000 Interactive Map, Demographics, Statistics, Quick Facts * ^ 2010 Census Data * ^ "The Association of Religion Data Archives State Membership Report". www.thearda.com. Retrieved November 22, 2013. * ^ " Americans
Americans
under age 1 now mostly minorities, but not in Ohio: Statistical Snapshot". _ The Plain Dealer _. June 3, 2012. * ^ https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr64/nvsr64_01.pdf * ^ https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr64/nvsr64_12.pdf * ^ https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr66/nvsr66_01.pdf * ^ "Google Population Stats". * ^ "Google Population Stats". * ^ "State Individual Income Tax Rates, 2000–2010". The Tax Foundation. March 25, 2010. Retrieved March 3, 2011. * ^ "Frequently Asked Questions about Nebraska
Nebraska
Sales and Use Tax". Nebraska
Nebraska
Department of Revenue. Retrieved August 27, 2012. * ^ "Frequently Asked Questions about Nebraska
Nebraska
Sales and Use Tax". * ^ "GDP by State". Greyhill Advisors. Retrieved September 7, 2011.

* ^ " Nebraska
Nebraska
State Agriculture Overview – 2006" (PDF). United States Department of Agriculture . Archived from the original (PDF) on October 25, 2007. Retrieved October 17, 2007. * ^ Bls.gov; Local Area Unemployment
Unemployment
Statistics * ^ "History: Kool-Aid: Hastings Museum". Hastings Museum . Archived from the original on February 5, 2009. Retrieved February 24, 2009. * ^ Jirovsky, Kristin. "Owner of Nail Jack Tools wants to share former Vise-Grip plant", _Lincoln Journal-Star_. January 8, 2009. * ^ "An Act to aid in the construction of a railroad and telegraph line from the Missouri
Missouri
river to the Pacific ocean, and to secure to the government the use of the same for postal, military, and other purposes 12 Stat. 489, July 1, 1862 * ^ "Profile Showing the Grades upon the Different Routes Surveyed for the Union Pacific Rail Road Between the Missouri River and the Valley of the Platte River". _ World Digital Library
World Digital Library
_. 1865. Retrieved July 16, 2013. * ^ " Nebraska
Nebraska
as a State". _Andreas\'s History of the State of Nebraska_.. Retrieved February 18, 2010. * ^ " NCAA Division II Home Page". National Collegiate Athletic Association. Archived from the original on August 22, 2007. Retrieved August 30, 2007.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

SURVEYS

* Chokecherry Places, Essays from the High Plains, Merrill Gilfillan, Johnson Press, Boulder, Colorado, trade paperback, ISBN 1-55566-227-7 . * Olson James C. and Ronald C. Naugle, _History of Nebraska_ 2nd ed (1997) * Andreas, Alfred T., _History of the State of Nebraska_ (1882) (a highly detailed history) * Creigh, Dorothy Weyers. _Nebraska: A Bicentennial History_ (1977) * Faulkner, Virginia, ed. _Roundup: A Nebraska
Nebraska
Reader_ (1957) * Hickey, Donald R. _ Nebraska
Nebraska
Moments: Glimpses of Nebraska's Past_ (1992). * Miewald, Robert D., _ Nebraska
Nebraska
Government 900 pages of scholarly articles * _Nebraska: A Guide to the Cornhusker State_, WPA Guide, 1939; scanned online edition

SCHOLARLY SPECIAL STUDIES

* Barnhart, John D. "Rainfall and the Populist Party in Nebraska." _American Political Science Review_ 19 (1925): 527–40. in JSTOR * Beezley, William H. "Homesteading in Nebraska, 1862–1872", _ Nebraska
Nebraska
History_ 53 (spring 1972): 59–75 * Bentley, Arthur F. "The Condition of the Western Farmer as Illustrated by the Economic History of a Nebraska
Nebraska
Township." _Johns Hopkins University Studies in Historical and Political Science_ 11 (1893): 285–370 * Cherny, Robert W. _Populism, Progressivism, and the Transformation of Nebraska
Nebraska
Politics, 1885–1915_ (1981) * Bogue Allen G. _Money at Interest: The Farm Mortgage on the Middle Border_ (1955) * Brunner, Edmund de S. _Immigrant Farmers and Their Children_ (1929)

* Chudacoff, Howard P. _Mobile Americans: Residential and Social Mobility in Omaha, 1880–1920_ (1972)

* Chudacoff, Howard P. "A New Look at Ethnic Neighborhoods: Residential Dispersion and the Concept of Visibility in a Medium-sized City." _Journal of American History_ 60 (1973): 76–93. about Omaha; in JSTOR

* Coletta, Paolo E. _William Jennings Bryan_. 3 vols. (1964–69) * Dick, Everett. _The Sod-House Frontier: 1854–1890_ (1937) * Farragher, John Mack. _Women and Men on the Overland Trail_ (1979) * Fuller, Wayne E. _The Old Country School: The Story of Rural Education in the Midwest_ (1982) * Grant, Michael Johnston. "Down and Out on the Family Farm" (2002) * Harper, Ivy. _Walzing Matilda: Life and Times of Nebraska
Nebraska
Senator Robert Kerrey_ (1992) * Holter, Don W. _Flames on the Plains: A History of United Methodism
Methodism
in Nebraska_ (1983) * Jeffrey, Julie Roy. _Frontier Women: The Trans- Mississippi
Mississippi
West, 1840–1880_ (1979) * Klein, Maury. _Union Pacific: The Birth of a Railroad, 1862–1893_ (1986) * Klein, Maury (2006) . _Union Pacific: Volume II, 1894-1969_. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press . ISBN 978-0-8166-4460-5 . * Larsen, Lawrence H. _The Gate City: A History of Omaha_ (1982) * Lowitt, Richard. _George W. Norris_ 3 vols. (1971) * Luebke, Frederick C. _Immigrants and Politics: The Germans of Nebraska, 1880–1900_ (1969) * Luebke, Frederick C. "The German-American Alliance in Nebraska, 1910–1917." _ Nebraska
Nebraska
History_ 49 (1969): 165–85 * Olson, James C. _J. Sterling Morton_ (1942) * Overton, Richard C. _Burlington West: A Colonization History of the Burlington Railroad_ (1941) * Parsons Stanley B. "Who Were the Nebraska
Nebraska
Populists?" _Nebraska History_ 44 (1963): 83–99 * Pierce, Neal. _The Great Plains States_ (1973) * Pederson, James F., and Kenneth D. Wald. _Shall the People Rule? A History of the Democratic Party in Nebraska
Nebraska
Politics_ (1972) * Riley, Glenda. _The Female Frontier. A Comparative View of Women on the Prairie
Prairie
and the Plains_ (1978) * Wenger, Robert W. "The Anti-Saloon League in Nebraska
Nebraska
Politics, 1898–1910." _ Nebraska
Nebraska
History_ 52 (1971): 267–92

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