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Nebraska
Nebraska
/nɪˈbræskə/ ( listen) is a state that lies in both the Great Plains
Great Plains
and the Midwestern United States. It is bordered by South Dakota
South Dakota
to the north, Iowa
Iowa
to the east and Missouri
Missouri
to the southeast, both across the Missouri
Missouri
River, Kansas
Kansas
to the south, Colorado
Colorado
to the southwest and Wyoming
Wyoming
to the west. It is the only triply landlocked U.S. state. Nebraska's area is just over 77,220 square miles (200,000 km2) with almost 1.9 million people. Its state capital is Lincoln, and its largest city is Omaha, which is on the Missouri
Missouri
River. Indigenous peoples
Indigenous peoples
including Omaha, Missouria, Ponca, Pawnee, Otoe, and various branches of the Lakota (Sioux) tribes lived in the region for thousands of years before European exploration. The state is crossed by many historic trails and was explored by the Lewis and Clark Expedition. Nebraska
Nebraska
was admitted as the 37th state of the United States
United States
in 1867. It is the only state in the United States
United States
whose legislature is unicameral and officially nonpartisan. Nebraska
Nebraska
is composed of two major land regions: the Dissected Till Plains and the Great Plains. The Dissected Till Plains
Dissected Till Plains
is a region of gently rolling hills and contains the state's largest cities, Omaha and Lincoln. The Great Plains
Great Plains
occupy most of western Nebraska, characterized by treeless prairie, suitable for cattle-grazing. The state has a large agriculture sector and is a major producer of beef, pork, corn and soybeans. There are two major climatic zones: the eastern half of the state has a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dfa), with a unique warmer subtype considered "warm-temperate" near the southern plains like in Kansas
Kansas
and Oklahoma which have a predominantly humid subtropical climate. The western half has a primarily semi-arid climate (Koppen BSk). The state has wide variations between winter and summer temperatures, decreasing south through the state. Violent thunderstorms and tornadoes occur primarily during spring and summer, but sometimes in autumn. Chinook winds tend to warm the state significantly in the winter and early spring.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History 3 Geography

3.1 Federal land management 3.2 Climate

4 Demographics

4.1 Ancestry 4.2 Religion 4.3 Birth data 4.4 Settlement

5 Taxation 6 Economy

6.1 Industry

7 Transportation

7.1 Railroads 7.2 Roads and highways

8 Law and government

8.1 Executive branch 8.2 Legislative branch 8.3 Judicial branch 8.4 Federal government representation 8.5 Politics

9 Education

9.1 Colleges and universities

10 Culture

10.1 Arts 10.2 Sports

10.2.1 Professional sports 10.2.2 Junior-level sports 10.2.3 College sports

11 See also 12 References 13 Bibliography

13.1 Surveys 13.2 Scholarly special studies

14 External links

Etymology[edit] Nebraska's name is derived from transliteration of the archaic Otoe words Ñí Brásge, pronounced [ɲĩbɾasꜜkɛ] (contemporary Otoe Ñí Bráhge), or the Omaha Ní Btháska, pronounced [nĩbɫᶞasꜜka], meaning "flat water", after the Platte River
Platte River
that flows through the state.[6] History[edit] Main article: History of Nebraska

Nebraska
Nebraska
in 1718, Guillaume de L'Isle
Guillaume de L'Isle
map, with the approximate area of the future state highlighted.

Indigenous peoples
Indigenous peoples
lived in the region of present-day Nebraska
Nebraska
for thousands of years before European exploration. The historic tribes in the state included the Omaha, Missouria, Ponca, Pawnee, Otoe, and various branches of the Lakota (Sioux), some of which migrated from eastern areas into this region. When European exploration, trade, and settlement began, both Spain and France sought to control the region. In the 1690s, Spain established trade connections with the Apaches, whose territory then included western Nebraska. By 1703, France had developed a regular trade with the native peoples along the Missouri River in Nebraska, and by 1719 had signed treaties with several of these peoples. After war broke out between the two countries, Spain dispatched an armed expedition to Nebraska
Nebraska
under Lieutenant General Pedro de Villasur in 1720. The party was attacked and destroyed near present-day Columbus by a large force of Pawnees and Otoes, both allied to the French. The massacre ended Spanish exploration of the area for the remainder of the 18th century.[7][8][9] In 1762, during the Seven Years' War, France ceded the Louisiana territory to Spain. This left Britain and Spain competing for dominance along the Mississippi; by 1773, the British were trading with the native peoples of Nebraska. In response, Spain dispatched two trading expeditions up the Missouri
Missouri
in 1794 and 1795; the second, under James Mackay, established the first European settlement in Nebraska
Nebraska
near the mouth of the Platte. Later that year, Mackay's party built a trading post, dubbed Fort Carlos IV (Fort Charles), near present-day Homer.[7][10][11] In 1819, the United States
United States
established Fort Atkinson as the first U.S. Army post west of the Missouri
Missouri
River, just east of present-day Fort Calhoun. The army abandoned the fort in 1827 as migration moved further west. European-American settlement was scarce until 1848 and the California
California
Gold Rush. On May 30, 1854, the US Congress created the Kansas
Kansas
and the Nebraska
Nebraska
territories, divided by the Parallel 40° North, under the Kansas– Nebraska
Nebraska
Act.[12] The Nebraska
Nebraska
Territory included parts of the current states of Colorado, North Dakota, South Dakota, Wyoming, and Montana.[13] The territorial capital of Nebraska was Omaha.

Homesteaders in central Nebraska
Nebraska
in 1888.

In the 1860s, after the U.S. government forced many of the Native American tribes to cede their lands and settle on reservations, it opened large tracts of land to agricultural development by Europeans and Americans. Under the Homestead Act, thousands of settlers migrated into Nebraska
Nebraska
to claim free land granted by the federal government. Because so few trees grew on the prairies, many of the first farming settlers built their homes of sod, as had the Native Americans such as the Omaha. The first wave of settlement gave the territory a sufficient population to apply for statehood.[14] Nebraska
Nebraska
became the 37th state on March 1, 1867, and the capital was moved from Omaha to the center at Lancaster, later renamed Lincoln after the recently assassinated President of the United States, Abraham Lincoln. The battle of Massacre Canyon
Massacre Canyon
on August 5, 1873, was the last major battle between the Pawnee and the Sioux.[15] During the 1870s to the 1880s, Nebraska
Nebraska
experienced a large growth in population. Several factors contributed to attracting new residents. The first was that the vast prairie land was perfect for cattle grazing. This helped settlers to learn the unfamiliar geography of the area. The second factor was the invention of several farming technologies. Agricultural inventions such as barbed wire, wind mills, and the steel plow, combined with good weather, enabled settlers to use of Nebraska
Nebraska
as prime farming land. By the 1880s, Nebraska's population had soared to more than 450,000 people.[16] The Arbor Day holiday was founded in Nebraska
Nebraska
City by territorial governor J. Sterling Morton. The National Arbor Day
Arbor Day
Foundation is still headquartered in Nebraska
Nebraska
City, with some offices in Lincoln. In the late 19th century, many African Americans
African Americans
migrated from the South to Nebraska
Nebraska
as part of the Great Migration, primarily to Omaha which offered working class jobs in meat packing, the railroads and other industries. Omaha has a long history of civil rights activism. Blacks encountered discrimination from other Americans in Omaha and especially from recent European immigrants, ethnic whites who were competing for the same jobs. In 1912, African Americans
African Americans
founded the Omaha chapter of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People to work for improved conditions in the city and state. Since the 1960s, Native American activism in the state has increased, both through open protest, activities to build alliances with state and local governments, and in the slower, more extensive work of building tribal institutions and infrastructure. Native Americans in federally recognized tribes have pressed for self-determination, sovereignty and recognition. They have created community schools to preserve their cultures, as well as tribal colleges and universities. Tribal politicians have also collaborated with state and county officials on regional issues. Geography[edit] Further information: List of counties in Nebraska, List of Nebraska rivers, and Geography of Omaha

Map of Nebraska

The state is bordered by South Dakota
South Dakota
to the north; Iowa
Iowa
to the east and Missouri
Missouri
to the southeast, across the Missouri
Missouri
River; Kansas
Kansas
to the south; Colorado
Colorado
to the southwest; and Wyoming
Wyoming
to the west. The state has 93 counties and is split between two time zones, with the state's eastern half observing Central Time and the western half observing Mountain Time. Three rivers cross the state from west to east. The Platte River, formed by the confluence of the North Platte and the South Platte, runs through the state's central portion, the Niobrara River
Niobrara River
flows through the northern part, and the Republican River runs across the southern part. Nebraska
Nebraska
is composed of two major land regions: the Dissected Till Plains and the Great Plains. The easternmost portion of the state was scoured by Ice Age
Ice Age
glaciers; the Dissected Till Plains
Dissected Till Plains
were left after the glaciers retreated. The Dissected Till Plains
Dissected Till Plains
is a region of gently rolling hills; Omaha and Lincoln are in this region. The Great Plains occupy most of western Nebraska, with the region consisting of several smaller, diverse land regions, including the Sandhills, the Pine Ridge, the Rainwater Basin, the High Plains and the Wildcat Hills. Panorama Point, at 5,424 feet (1,653 m), is Nebraska's highest point; though despite its name and elevation, it is a relatively low rise near the Colorado
Colorado
and Wyoming
Wyoming
borders. A past Nebraska
Nebraska
tourism slogan was "Where the West Begins"; locations given for the beginning of the "West" include the Missouri
Missouri
River, the intersection of 13th and O Streets in Lincoln (where it is marked by a red brick star), the 100th meridian, and Chimney Rock. Federal land management[edit]

Nebraska
Nebraska
National Forest

Areas under the management of the National Park Service
National Park Service
include:

Agate
Agate
Fossil Beds National Monument near Harrison California
California
National Historic Trail Chimney Rock National Historic Site
Chimney Rock National Historic Site
near Bayard Homestead National Monument of America
Homestead National Monument of America
in Beatrice Lewis and Clark National Historic Trail Missouri
Missouri
National Recreational River near Ponca Mormon
Mormon
Pioneer National Historic Trail Niobrara National Scenic River
Niobrara National Scenic River
near Valentine Oregon
Oregon
National Historic Trail Pony Express
Pony Express
National Historic Trail Scotts Bluff National Monument
Scotts Bluff National Monument
at Gering

Areas under the management of the National Forest Service
National Forest Service
include:

Nebraska
Nebraska
National Forest Oglala National Grassland Samuel R. McKelvie National Forest

Climate[edit]

Köppen climate types in Nebraska

Winter at Scotts Bluff National Monument

Two major climatic zones are represented in Nebraska: the eastern half of the state has a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dfa), and the western half, a semi-arid climate (Koppen BSk). The entire state experiences wide seasonal variations in temperature and precipitation. Average temperatures are fairly uniform across Nebraska, with hot summers and generally cold winters. Average annual precipitation decreases east to west from about 31.5 inches (800 mm) in the southeast corner of the state to about 13.8 inches (350 mm) in the Panhandle. Humidity also decreases significantly from east to west. Snowfall across the state is fairly even, with most of Nebraska
Nebraska
receiving between 25 to 35 inches (640 to 890 mm) of snow annually.[17] Nebraska's highest-recorded temperature is 118 °F (48 °C) at Minden on July 24, 1936 and the lowest-recorded temperature is −47 °F (−44 °C) at Camp Clarke on February 12, 1899. Nebraska
Nebraska
is in Tornado
Tornado
Alley. Thunderstorms are common in the spring and summer months, and violent thunderstorms and tornadoes happen primarily during the spring and summer, though they can also occur in the autumn. The chinook winds from the Rocky Mountains
Rocky Mountains
provide a temporary moderating effect on temperatures in western Nebraska
Nebraska
during the winter months.[18][19]

Average daily maximum and minimum temperatures for selected cities in Nebraska[20]

Location July (°F) July (°C) January (°F) January (°C)

Omaha 87/66 30/19 33/13 1/–10

Lincoln 89/66 31/19 35/14 2/–10

Grand Island 87/64 31/17 36/14 2/–10

Kearney 90/63 32/17 36/12 2/–11

North Platte 88/60 31/16 39/11 4/–11

Papillion 87/66 31/19 32/12 0/–11

Demographics[edit]

Historical population

Census Pop.

1860 28,841

1870 122,993

326.5%

1880 452,402

267.8%

1890 1,062,656

134.9%

1900 1,066,300

0.3%

1910 1,192,214

11.8%

1920 1,296,372

8.7%

1930 1,377,963

6.3%

1940 1,315,834

−4.5%

1950 1,325,510

0.7%

1960 1,411,330

6.5%

1970 1,483,493

5.1%

1980 1,569,825

5.8%

1990 1,578,385

0.5%

2000 1,711,263

8.4%

2010 1,826,341

6.7%

Est. 2017 1,920,076

5.1%

Source: 1910–2010[21] 2015 estimate[22]

The United States
United States
Census Bureau estimates that the population of Nebraska
Nebraska
was 1,896,190 on July 1, 2015, a 3.82% increase since the 2010 United States
United States
Census.[22] The center of population of Nebraska
Nebraska
is in Polk County, in the city of Shelby.[23] Ancestry[edit] According to the 2010 Census, 86.1% of the population was White (82.1% non-Hispanic white), 4.5% was Black or African American, 1.0% American Indian and Alaska
Alaska
Native, 1.8% Asian, 0.1% Native Hawaiian
Native Hawaiian
and other Pacific Islander, and 2.2% from two or more races. 9.2% of the total population was of Hispanic or Latino origin (they may be of any race).[24] As of 2004, the population of Nebraska
Nebraska
included about 84,000 foreign-born residents (4.8% of the population).

Nebraska
Nebraska
racial breakdown of population

Racial composition 1990[25] 2000[26] 2010[27]

White 93.8% 89.6% 86.1%

Black 3.6% 4.0% 4.5%

Asian 0.8% 1.3% 1.8%

Native 0.8% 0.9% 1.0%

Native Hawaiian
Native Hawaiian
and other Pacific Islander - 0.1% 0.1%

Other race 1.0% 2.8% 4.3%

Two or more races - 1.4% 2.2%

The five largest ancestry groups in Nebraska
Nebraska
are German (38.6%), Irish (12.4%), English (9.6%), Mexican (8.7%), and Czech (5.5%). Nebraska
Nebraska
has the largest Czech American and non- Mormon
Mormon
Danish American population (as a percentage of the total population) in the nation. German Americans
German Americans
are the largest ancestry group in most of the state, particularly in the eastern counties. Thurston County (made up entirely of the Omaha and Winnebago reservations) has an American Indian majority, and Butler County is one of only two counties in the nation with a Czech-American plurality. Religion[edit] The religious affiliations of the people of Nebraska
Nebraska
are:

Religion in Nebraska
Nebraska
(2014)[28]

religion

percent

Protestant

51%

Catholic

23%

No religion

20%

Mormon

1%

Hindu

1%

Buddhist

1%

Other faith

2%

Don't know

1%

The largest single denominations by number of adherents in 2010 were the Roman Catholic
Catholic
Church (372,838), the Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod (112,585), the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America
Evangelical Lutheran Church in America
(110,110) and the United Methodist Church
United Methodist Church
(109,283).[29] Birth data[edit] As of 2011, 31.0% of Nebraska's population younger than age 1 were minorities.[30] Note: Births in table don't add up, because Hispanics are counted both by their ethnicity and by their race, giving a higher overall number.

Live Births by Race/Ethnicity of Mother

Race 2013[31] 2014[32] 2015[33]

White 22,670 (86.9%) 23,178 (86.5%) 23,126 (86.7%)

> Non-Hispanic White 19,237 (73.7%) 19,471 (72.6%) 19,201 (72.0%)

Black 1,979 (7.6%) 2,015 (7.5%) 2,009 (7.5%)

Asian 854 (3.3%) 1,048 (3.9%) 987 (3.7%)

Native 592 (2.3%) 553 (2.1%) 557 (2.1%)

Hispanic (of any race) 3,895 (14.9%) 4,143 (15.6%) 4,249 (15.9%)

Total Nebraska 26,095 (100%) 26,794 (100%) 26,679 (100%)

Settlement[edit]

Population density in Nebraska

Eighty-nine percent of the cities in Nebraska
Nebraska
have fewer than 3,000 people. Nebraska
Nebraska
shares this characteristic with five other Midwestern states: Kansas, Oklahoma, North Dakota
North Dakota
and South Dakota, and Iowa. Hundreds of towns have a population of fewer than 1,000. Regional population declines have forced many rural schools to consolidate. Fifty-three of Nebraska's 93 counties reported declining populations between 1990 and 2000, ranging from a 0.06% loss (Frontier County) to a 17.04% loss (Hitchcock County).

Omaha, Nebraska's largest city

More urbanized areas of the state have experienced substantial growth. In 2000, the city of Omaha had a population of 390,007; in 2005, the city's estimated population was 414,521 (427,872 including the recently annexed city of Elkhorn), a 6.3% increase over five years. The 2010 census showed that Omaha has a population of 408,958. The city of Lincoln had a 2000 population of 225,581 and a 2010 population of 258,379, a 14.5% increase. As of the 2010 Census, there were 530 cities and villages in the state of Nebraska. There are five classifications of cities and villages in Nebraska, which is based upon population. All population figures are 2013 Census Bureau estimates unless flagged by a reference number. Metropolitan Class City (300,000 or more)

Omaha – 446,970 [34]

Primary Class City (100,000 – 299,999)

Lincoln – 280,364 [34]

First Class City (5,000 – 99,999)

Bellevue – 53,663 Grand Island – 50,550 Kearney – 32,174 Fremont – 26,340 Hastings – 25,093 North Platte – 24,534 Norfolk – 24,523 Columbus – 22,533 Papillion – 21,921 La Vista – 17,562 Scottsbluff – 15,023 South Sioux
Sioux
City – 13,424 Beatrice – 12,157 Lexington – 10,204 Alliance – 8,498 Gering – 8,480 Blair – 7,990 York – 7,961 McCook – 7,697 Nebraska
Nebraska
City – 7,255 Ralston – 7,220 Crete – 7,135 Seward – 7,120 Sidney – 6,829 Plattsmouth – 6,467 Schuyler – 6,143 Chadron – 5,787 Gretna – 5,584 Wayne – 5,543 Holdrege – 5,527

Second Class Cities (800 – 4,999) and Villages (100–800) make up the rest of the communities in Nebraska. There are 116 second-class cities and 382 villages in the state.

Metropolitan areas – 2012 estimate data

Omaha-Council Bluffs – 763,326 ( Nebraska
Nebraska
portion); 885,624 (total for Nebraska
Nebraska
and Iowa) Lincoln – 310,342 Sioux
Sioux
City, Iowa
Iowa
– 26,836 ( Nebraska
Nebraska
portion); 168,921 (total for Nebraska, Iowa
Iowa
and South Dakota) Grand Island – 83,472

Micropolitan
Micropolitan
areas - 2012 estimate data

Kearney – 53,948 Norfolk – 48,286 Scottsbluff – 39,039 North Platte – 37,373 Fremont – 36,427 Columbus – 32,681 Hastings – 31,364 Lexington – 26,249 Beatrice – 21,806

Other areas

Grand Island, Hastings and Kearney comprise the "Tri-Cities" area, with a combined population of 168,748 The northeast corner of Nebraska
Nebraska
is part of the Siouxland
Siouxland
region.

Taxation[edit] Nebraska
Nebraska
has a progressive income tax. The portion of income from $0 to $2,400 is taxed at 2.56%; from $2,400 to $17,500, at 3.57%; from $17,500 to $27,000, at 5.12%; and income over $27,000, at 6.84%. The standard deduction for a single taxpayer is $5,700; the personal exemption is $118.[35] Nebraska
Nebraska
has a state sales and use tax of 5.5%. In addition to the state tax, some Nebraska
Nebraska
cities assess a city sales and use tax, in 0.5% increments, up to a maximum of 1.5%. Dakota County levies an additional 0.5% county sales tax.[36] Food and ingredients that are generally for home preparation and consumption are not taxable.[37] All real property within the state of Nebraska
Nebraska
is taxable unless specifically exempted by statute. Since 1992, only depreciable personal property is subject to tax and all other personal property is exempt from tax. Inheritance tax
Inheritance tax
is collected at the county level. Economy[edit] See also: Nebraska
Nebraska
locations by per capita income

Nebraska
Nebraska
grain bins and elevator

The Bureau of Economic Analysis
Bureau of Economic Analysis
estimates of Nebraska's gross state product in 2010 was $89.8 billion.[38] Per capita personal income in 2004 was $31,339, 25th in the nation. Nebraska
Nebraska
has a large agriculture sector, and is a major producer of beef, pork, corn (maize), soybeans, and sorghum.[39] Other important economic sectors include freight transport (by rail and truck), manufacturing, telecommunications, information technology, and insurance. As of April 2015, the state's unemployment rate was 2.5%, the lowest in the nation.[40] Industry[edit] Kool-Aid
Kool-Aid
was created in 1927 by Edwin Perkins in the city of Hastings, which celebrates the event the second weekend of every August with Kool-Aid
Kool-Aid
Days, and Kool-Aid
Kool-Aid
is the official soft drink of Nebraska.[41] CliffsNotes were developed by Clifton Hillegass of Rising City. He adapted his pamphlets from the Canadian publications, Coles Notes. Omaha is home to Berkshire Hathaway, whose chief executive officer (CEO), Warren Buffett, was ranked in March 2009 by Forbes
Forbes
magazine as the second-richest person in the world. The city is also home to Mutual of Omaha, InfoUSA, TD Ameritrade, West Corporation, Valmont Industries, Woodmen of the World, Kiewit Corporation, Union Pacific Railroad, and Gallup. Ameritas Life Insurance
Insurance
Corp., Nelnet, Sandhills Publishing Company, Duncan Aviation, and Hudl are based in Lincoln; The Buckle is based in Kearney. Sidney is the national headquarters for Cabela's, a specialty retailer of outdoor goods. The world's largest train yard, Union Pacific's Bailey Yard, is in North Platte. The Vise-Grip was invented by William Petersen in 1924, and was manufactured in De Witt until the plant was closed and moved to China in late 2008.[42] Lincoln's Kawasaki Motors Manufacturing
Manufacturing
is the only Kawasaki plant in the world to produce the Jet Ski, All-terrain vehicle
All-terrain vehicle
(ATV), and Mule lines of product. The facility employs more than 1,200 people. The Spade Ranch, in the Sandhills, is one of Nebraska's oldest and largest beef cattle operations. Transportation[edit] Railroads[edit] Further information: List of Nebraska
Nebraska
railroads The Union Pacific Railroad, headquartered in Omaha, was incorporated on July 1, 1862, in the wake of the Pacific Railway Act of 1862.[43][44] Bailey Yard, in North Platte, is the largest railroad classification yard in the world. The route of the original transcontinental railroad runs through the state. Other major railroads with operations in the state are: Amtrak; BNSF Railway; Canadian National Railway; and Iowa
Iowa
Interstate Railroad. Roads and highways[edit] Further information: List of Nebraska
Nebraska
numbered highways

Interstate Highways through the State of Nebraska                                 The U.S. Routes in Nebraska                                                                          

Law and government[edit]

Wikisource
Wikisource
has original text related to this article: Nebraska
Nebraska
Constitution

Presidential elections results

Year Republican Democrat

2016 58.70% 495,961 33.70% 284,494

2012 59.80% 475,064 38.03% 302,081

2008 56.53% 452,979 41.60% 333,319

2004 65.90% 512,814 32.68% 254,328

2000 62.25% 433,862 33.25% 231,780

1996 53.65% 363,467 34.95% 236,761

1992 46.58% 344,346 29.40% 217,344

1988 60.15% 398,447 39.20% 259,646

1984 70.55% 460,054 28.81% 187,866

1980 65.50% 419,937 26.00% 166,851

1976 59.19% 359,705 38.46% 233,692

1972 70.50% 405,298 30.70% 198,899

1968 59.82% 321,163 31.81% 170,784

1964 47.39% 276,847 52.61% 307,307

Treemap
Treemap
of the popular vote by county, 2016 presidential election.

Nebraska's government operates under the framework of the Nebraska Constitution, adopted in 1875,[45] and is divided into three branches: executive, legislative, and judicial. Executive branch[edit] Further information: Governor of Nebraska The head of the executive branch is Governor Pete Ricketts. Other elected officials in the executive branch are Lieutenant Governor Mike Foley, Attorney General Doug Peterson, Secretary of State John A. Gale, State Treasurer Don Stenberg, and State Auditor Charlie Janssen. All elected officials in the executive branch serve four-year terms. Legislative branch[edit] Further information: Nebraska
Nebraska
Legislature
Legislature
and Nebraska
Nebraska
State Capitol Nebraska
Nebraska
is the only state in the United States
United States
with a unicameral legislature. Although this house is officially known simply as the "Legislature", and more commonly called the "Unicameral", its members call themselves "senators". Nebraska's Legislature
Legislature
is also the only state legislature in the United States
United States
that is officially nonpartisan. The senators are elected with no party affiliation next to their names on the ballot, and members of any party can be elected to the positions of speaker and committee chairs. The Nebraska
Nebraska
Legislature can also override the governor's veto with a three-fifths majority, in contrast to the two-thirds majority required in some other states. The Legislature
Legislature
meets in the third Nebraska State Capitol
Nebraska State Capitol
building, built between 1922 and 1932. It was designed by Bertram G. Goodhue. Built from Indiana
Indiana
limestone, the capitol's base is a cross within a square. A 400-foot domed tower rises from this base. The Sower, a 19-foot bronze statue representing agriculture, crowns the building. When Nebraska
Nebraska
became a state in 1867, its legislature consisted of two houses: a House of Representatives and a Senate. For years, U.S. Senator George Norris and other Nebraskans encouraged the idea of a unicameral legislature, and demanded the issue be decided in a referendum. Norris argued:

The constitutions of our various states are built upon the idea that there is but one class. If this be true, there is no sense or reason in having the same thing done twice, especially if it is to be done by two bodies of men elected in the same way and having the same jurisdiction.

Unicameral supporters also argued that a bicameral legislature had a significant undemocratic feature in the committees that reconciled House and Senate legislation. Votes in these committees were secretive, and would sometimes add provisions to bills that neither house had approved. Nebraska's unicameral legislature today has rules that bills can contain only one subject, and must be given at least five days of consideration. In 1934, due in part to the budgetary pressure of the Great Depression, Nebraska
Nebraska
citizens ran a state initiative to vote on a constitutional amendment creating a unicameral legislature, which was approved, which, in effect, abolished the House of Representatives (the lower house). Judicial branch[edit] Further information: Nebraska
Nebraska
Supreme Court The judicial system in Nebraska
Nebraska
is unified, with the Nebraska
Nebraska
Supreme Court having administrative authority over all the courts within the state. Nebraska
Nebraska
uses the Missouri
Missouri
Plan for the selection of judges at all levels, including county courts (as the lowest-level courts) and twelve district courts, which contain one or more counties. The Nebraska State Court of Appeals hears appeals from the district courts, juvenile courts, and workers' compensation courts, and is the final court of appeal. Federal government representation[edit]

The Nebraska State Capitol
Nebraska State Capitol
in Lincoln, Nebraska.

Further information: United States
United States
congressional delegations from Nebraska Nebraska's U.S. senators are Deb Fischer
Deb Fischer
and Ben Sasse, both Republicans; Fischer, elected in 2012, is the senior. Nebraska
Nebraska
has three representatives in the House of Representatives: Jeff Fortenberry
Jeff Fortenberry
(R) of the 1st district; Don Bacon (R) of the 2nd district; and Adrian Smith (R) of the 3rd district. Nebraska
Nebraska
is one of two states ( Maine
Maine
being the other) that allow for a split in the state's allocation of electoral votes in presidential elections. Under a 1991 law, two of Nebraska's five votes are awarded to the winner of the statewide popular vote, while the other three go to the highest vote-getter in each of the state's three congressional districts. Politics[edit] Further information: United States
United States
presidential election in Nebraska, 2012; Nebraska
Nebraska
gubernatorial election, 2014; United States
United States
Senate election in Nebraska, 2014; and Political party strength in Nebraska For most of its history, Nebraska
Nebraska
has been a solidly Republican state. Republicans have carried the state in all but one presidential election since 1940: the 1964 landslide election of Lyndon B. Johnson. In the 2004 presidential election, George W. Bush
George W. Bush
won the state's five electoral votes by a margin of 33 percentage points (making Nebraska's the fourth-strongest Republican vote among states) with 65.9% of the overall vote; only Thurston County, which is majority-Native American, voted for his Democratic challenger John Kerry. In 2008, the state split its electoral votes for the first time: Republican John McCain won the popular vote in Nebraska
Nebraska
as a whole and two of its three congressional districts; the second district, which includes the city of Omaha, went for Democrat Barack Obama. Despite the current Republican domination of Nebraska
Nebraska
politics, the state has a long tradition of electing centrist members of both parties to state and federal office; examples include George W. Norris (who served a few years in the Senate as an independent), J. James Exon, Bob Kerrey, and Chuck Hagel. Voters have tilted to the right in recent years, a trend evidenced when Hagel retired from the Senate in 2008 and was succeeded by conservative Republican Mike Johanns
Mike Johanns
to the U.S. Senate, as well as with the 2006 re-election of Ben Nelson, who was considered the most conservative Democrat in the Senate until his retirement in 2013. Johanns retired in 2015 and was succeeded by another conservative, Sasse. Nelson retired in 2013 and was replaced by conservative Republican Fischer. Former President Gerald Ford
Gerald Ford
was born in Nebraska, but moved away shortly after birth. Illinois
Illinois
native William Jennings Bryan represented Nebraska
Nebraska
in Congress, served as U.S. Secretary of State under President Woodrow Wilson, and unsuccessfully ran for President three times. Education[edit] Colleges and universities[edit]

University of Nebraska
Nebraska
system

University of Nebraska–Lincoln University of Nebraska
Nebraska
at Kearney University of Nebraska
Nebraska
at Omaha University of Nebraska
Nebraska
Medical Center Nebraska
Nebraska
College of Technical Agriculture

Nebraska
Nebraska
State College System

Chadron State College Peru State College Wayne State College

Community Colleges

Central Community College Little Priest Tribal College Metropolitan Community College Mid-Plains Community College Nebraska
Nebraska
Indian Community College Northeast Community College Southeast Community College Western Nebraska
Nebraska
Community College

Private colleges/universities

Bellevue University Clarkson College College of Saint Mary Concordia University Creighton University Doane University Grace University Hastings College Midland University Nebraska
Nebraska
Christian College Nebraska
Nebraska
Methodist College Nebraska
Nebraska
Wesleyan University Summit Christian College Union College York College

Further information: Colleges and universities of Omaha, Nebraska Culture[edit] Arts[edit]

This section is empty. You can help by adding to it. (September 2017)

Sports[edit] Main article: Sports in Nebraska

Football game at the University of Nebraska
Nebraska
on September 6, 2008.

Professional sports[edit]

Nebraska Stampede
Nebraska Stampede
- Women's Football Alliance Lincoln Saltdogs
Lincoln Saltdogs
– American Association (independent minor league baseball) Nebraska Danger
Nebraska Danger
– Indoor Football League Omaha Beef
Beef
– Indoor Football League Omaha Storm Chasers
Omaha Storm Chasers
– Pacific Coast League, AAA affiliate of the Kansas
Kansas
City Royals

Junior-level sports[edit]

United States
United States
Hockey League

Lincoln Stars Omaha Lancers Tri-City Storm

College sports[edit] The College World Series
College World Series
has been held in Omaha since 1950. It was held at Rosenblatt Stadium from 1950 through 2010, and at TD Ameritrade Park Omaha since 2011. The following are National Collegiate Athletic Association
National Collegiate Athletic Association
college sports programs in Nebraska:[46]

School Nickname DIvision Conference National titles Founded

University of Nebraska–Lincoln Cornhuskers NCAA Division I Big Ten Conference 19 1869

University of Nebraska
Nebraska
Omaha Mavericks NCAA Division I The Summit League 11 1908

Creighton University Bluejays NCAA Division I Big East Conference 0 1878

University of Nebraska-Kearney UN-Kearney Lopers NCAA Division II MIAA 1 1905

Wayne State College Wayne State Wildcats NCAA Division II NSIC 2 1910

Chadron State College Chadron State Eagles NCAA Division II RMAC 0 1911

Nebraska
Nebraska
Wesleyan University Prairie
Prairie
Wolves NCAA Division III Iowa
Iowa
Intercollegiate Athletic Conference 19 1887

The following are National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics college sports programs in Nebraska:

School Mascot Conference National titles Founded

Bellevue University Bellevue Bruins Midlands 14 1966

College of Saint Mary Saint Mary Flames Midlands 0 1923

Concordia University Concordia Bulldogs Great Plains 1 1894

Doane University Doane Tigers Great Plains 10 1872

Hastings College Hastings Broncos Great Plains 3 1882

Midland University Midland Warriors Great Plains 2 1883

Peru State College Peru State Bobcats Midlands 2 1865

Southeast Community College SCC Storm National Junior College Athletic Association 6 1978

York College York Panthers Midlands 28 1890

See also[edit]

Nebraska
Nebraska
portal

Outline of Nebraska
Outline of Nebraska
– organized list of topics about Nebraska Index of Nebraska-related articles

References[edit]

^ "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". U.S. Census Bureau. June 22, 2017. Retrieved June 22, 2017.  ^ "Median Annual Household Income". The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. Retrieved December 9, 2016.  ^ a b "Elevations and Distances in the United States". United States Geological Survey. 2001. Archived from the original on October 15, 2011. Retrieved October 24, 2011.  ^ a b Elevation adjusted to North American Vertical Datum of 1988. ^ LTC. " Nebraska
Nebraska
Legislature". nebraskalegislature.gov. Retrieved September 4, 2017.  ^ Koontz, John. "Etymology". Siouan Languages. Retrieved November 28, 2006.  ^ a b Hanson, James A. "Spain on the Plains". Nebraska
Nebraska
History 74 (Spring 1993), pp. 2–21. Retrieved 2015-01-04. ^ "Villasur Sent to Nebraska". Nebraskastudies.org. Retrieved 2015-01-04. ^ "The Villasur expedition—1720". Nebraska
Nebraska
State Historical Society. Retrieved 2015-01-04. ^ "Louisiana: European explorations and the Louisiana
Louisiana
Purchase". Library of Congress. Retrieved 2015-01-04. ^ Wood, W. Raymond. "Fort Charles or Mr. Mackey's Trading House". Nebraska
Nebraska
History 76 (Spring 1995), pp. 2–9. Retrieved 2015-01-04. ^ Interactive Media Group – Nebraska
Nebraska
Educational Telecommunications. "1854 Kansas- Nebraska
Nebraska
Act signed". Nebraskastudies.unl.edu. Retrieved May 22, 2012.  ^ The Handybook for Genealogists: United States
United States
of America, 10th ed. (Draper Utah: Everton Publishers, 2002). ^ Marsha Hoffman and Dwight A. Radford, "Nebraska," Redbook: American State, County, and Town Sources, 3rd ed. (Provo: Ancestry, 2004), 408. ^ The Nebraska
Nebraska
Indian Wars Reader, 1865–1877 By R. Eli Paul p.88 Publisher: University of Nebraska
Nebraska
Press (April 1, 1998) Language: English ISBN 0-8032-8749-6 ^ Redbook ^ [1] Archived October 7, 2008, at the Wayback Machine. ^ " Nebraska
Nebraska
Climate Office Applied Climate Science SNR UNL". Nebraskaclimateoffice.unl.edu. July 23, 2009. Archived from the original on December 7, 2008. Retrieved April 17, 2010.  ^ "Climate – Twin Cities Development Association, Inc. – Nebraska: Scottsbluff, Gering, TerryTown, Mitchell, Bayard". Tcdne.org. Archived from the original on June 4, 2009. Retrieved February 24, 2009.  ^ " Nebraska
Nebraska
climate averages". Weatherbase. Retrieved November 9, 2015.  ^ Resident Population Data (May 22, 2012). "Resident Population Data – 2010 Census". 2010.census.gov. Archived from the original on October 19, 2013. Retrieved May 22, 2012.  ^ a b "Table 1. Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2015". U.S. Census Bureau. December 26, 2015. Archived from the original (CSV) on December 23, 2015. Retrieved December 26, 2015.  ^ "Population and Population Centers by State: 2000". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on September 18, 2008. Retrieved December 5, 2008.  ^ " Nebraska
Nebraska
QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau". Quickfacts.census.gov. Archived from the original on October 14, 2012. Retrieved October 18, 2012.  ^ Historical Census Statistics on Population Totals By Race, 1790 to 1990, and By Hispanic Origin, 1970 to 1990, For The United States, Regions, Divisions, and States Archived July 25, 2008, at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Population of Nebraska: Census 2010 and 2000 Interactive Map, Demographics, Statistics, Quick Facts". Censusviewer.com. Retrieved September 4, 2017. [permanent dead link] ^ "2010 Census Data". Census.gov. Retrieved September 4, 2017.  ^ "Religious Landscape Study". Pewforum.com. May 11, 2015. Retrieved December 12, 2017.  ^ "The Association of Religion Data Archives State Membership Report". www.thearda.com. Retrieved November 22, 2013.  ^ "Americans under age 1 now mostly minorities, but not in Ohio: Statistical Snapshot". The Plain Dealer. June 3, 2012. ^ "Births: Final Data for 2013" (PDF). Cdc.gov. Retrieved 4 September 2017.  ^ "Births: Final Data for 2014" (PDF). Cdc.gov. Retrieved 4 September 2017.  ^ "Births: Final Data for 2015" (PDF). Cdc.gov. Retrieved 4 September 2017.  ^ a b "Google Population Stats". Google.com. Retrieved 12 December 2017.  ^ "State Individual Income Tax Rates, 2000–2010". The Tax Foundation. March 25, 2010. Retrieved March 3, 2011.  ^ "Frequently Asked Questions about Nebraska
Nebraska
Sales and Use Tax". Nebraska
Nebraska
Department of Revenue. Retrieved August 27, 2012. ^ "Sales and Use Tax FAQs". Revenue.ne.gov. Retrieved September 4, 2017.  ^ "GDP by State". Greyhill Advisors. Retrieved September 7, 2011.  ^ " Nebraska
Nebraska
State Agriculture Overview – 2006" (PDF). United States Department of Agriculture. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 25, 2007. Retrieved October 17, 2007.  ^ Bls.gov; Local Area Unemployment
Unemployment
Statistics ^ "History: Kool-Aid: Hastings Museum". Hastings Museum. Archived from the original on February 5, 2009. Retrieved February 24, 2009.  ^ Jirovsky, Kristin. "Owner of Nail Jack Tools wants to share former Vise-Grip plant", Lincoln Journal-Star. January 8, 2009. ^ "An Act to aid in the construction of a railroad and telegraph line from the Missouri
Missouri
river to the Pacific ocean, and to secure to the government the use of the same for postal, military, and other purposes 12 Stat. 489, July 1, 1862 ^ "Profile Showing the Grades upon the Different Routes Surveyed for the Union Pacific Rail Road Between the Missouri River
Missouri River
and the Valley of the Platte River". World Digital Library. 1865. Retrieved July 16, 2013.  ^ " Nebraska
Nebraska
as a State". Andreas's History of the State of Nebraska.. Retrieved February 18, 2010. ^ " NCAA Division II
NCAA Division II
Home Page". National Collegiate Athletic Association. Archived from the original on August 22, 2007. Retrieved August 30, 2007. 

Bibliography[edit] Surveys[edit]

Chokecherry Places, Essays from the High Plains, Merrill Gilfillan, Johnson Press, Boulder, Colorado, trade paperback, ISBN 1-55566-227-7. Olson James C. and Ronald C. Naugle, History of Nebraska
History of Nebraska
2nd ed (1997) Andreas, Alfred T., History of the State of Nebraska
Nebraska
(1882) (a highly detailed history) Creigh, Dorothy Weyers. Nebraska: A Bicentennial History (1977) Faulkner, Virginia, ed. Roundup: A Nebraska
Nebraska
Reader (1957) Hickey, Donald R. Nebraska
Nebraska
Moments: Glimpses of Nebraska's Past (1992). Miewald, Robert D., Nebraska
Nebraska
Government & Politics (1984) Luebke Frederick C. Nebraska: An Illustrated History (1995) Morton, J. Sterling, ed. Illustrated History of Nebraska: A History of Nebraska
Nebraska
from the Earliest Explorations of the Trans-Mississippi Region. 3 vols. (1905–13) Wishart, David J. ed. Encyclopedia of the Great Plains, University of Nebraska
Nebraska
Press, 2004, ISBN 0-8032-4787-7. complete text online; 900 pages of scholarly articles Nebraska: A Guide to the Cornhusker State, WPA Guide, 1939; scanned online edition

Scholarly special studies[edit]

Barnhart, John D. "Rainfall and the Populist Party in Nebraska." American Political Science Review 19 (1925): 527–40. in JSTOR Beezley, William H. "Homesteading in Nebraska, 1862–1872", Nebraska History 53 (spring 1972): 59–75 Bentley, Arthur F. "The Condition of the Western Farmer as Illustrated by the Economic History of a Nebraska
Nebraska
Township." Johns Hopkins University Studies in Historical and Political Science 11 (1893): 285–370 Cherny, Robert W. Populism, Progressivism, and the Transformation of Nebraska
Nebraska
Politics, 1885–1915 (1981) Bogue Allen G. Money at Interest: The Farm Mortgage on the Middle Border (1955) Brunner, Edmund de S. Immigrant Farmers and Their Children (1929) Chudacoff, Howard P. Mobile Americans: Residential and Social Mobility in Omaha, 1880–1920 (1972)

Chudacoff, Howard P. "A New Look at Ethnic Neighborhoods: Residential Dispersion and the Concept of Visibility in a Medium-sized City." Journal of American History 60 (1973): 76–93. about Omaha; in JSTOR

Coletta, Paolo E. William Jennings Bryan. 3 vols. (1964–69) Dick, Everett. The Sod-House Frontier: 1854–1890 (1937) Farragher, John Mack. Women and Men on the Overland Trail (1979) Fuller, Wayne E. The Old Country School: The Story of Rural Education in the Midwest (1982) Grant, Michael Johnston. "Down and Out on the Family Farm" (2002) Harper, Ivy. Walzing Matilda: Life and Times of Nebraska
Nebraska
Senator Robert Kerrey (1992) Holter, Don W. Flames on the Plains: A History of United Methodism in Nebraska
Nebraska
(1983) Jeffrey, Julie Roy. Frontier Women: The Trans- Mississippi
Mississippi
West, 1840–1880 (1979) Klein, Maury. Union Pacific: The Birth of a Railroad, 1862–1893 (1986) Klein, Maury (2006) [1989]. Union Pacific: Volume II, 1894-1969. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota
Minnesota
Press. ISBN 978-0-8166-4460-5.  Larsen, Lawrence H. The Gate City: A History of Omaha (1982) Lowitt, Richard. George W. Norris
George W. Norris
3 vols. (1971) Luebke, Frederick C. Immigrants and Politics: The Germans of Nebraska, 1880–1900 (1969) Luebke, Frederick C. "The German-American Alliance in Nebraska, 1910–1917." Nebraska
Nebraska
History 49 (1969): 165–85 Olson, James C. J. Sterling Morton
J. Sterling Morton
(1942) Overton, Richard C. Burlington West: A Colonization History of the Burlington Railroad (1941) Parsons Stanley B. "Who Were the Nebraska
Nebraska
Populists?" Nebraska
Nebraska
History 44 (1963): 83–99 Pierce, Neal. The Great Plains
Great Plains
States (1973) Pederson, James F., and Kenneth D. Wald. Shall the People Rule? A History of the Democratic Party in Nebraska
Nebraska
Politics (1972) Riley, Glenda. The Female Frontier. A Comparative View of Women on the Prairie
Prairie
and the Plains (1978) Wenger, Robert W. "The Anti-Saloon League in Nebraska
Nebraska
Politics, 1898–1910." Nebraska
Nebraska
History 52 (1971): 267–92

External links[edit]

Find more aboutNebraskaat's sister projects

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Nebraska
Nebraska
state government Nebraska
Nebraska
Division of Travel and Tourism Energy Profile for Nebraska USGS real-time, geographic, and other scientific resources of Nebraska Nebraska
Nebraska
State Facts from USDA Nebraska
Nebraska
Frequently Asked Questions Nebraska
Nebraska
State Publications Online Nebraska
Nebraska
city-data Nebraska
Nebraska
at Curlie (based on DMOZ) nebraskastudies.org – History of Nebraska
History of Nebraska
from Nebraska
Nebraska
Department of Education, Nebraska
Nebraska
State Historical Society, and NET Nebraska
Nebraska
State Databases – Annotated list of searchable databases produced by Nebraska
Nebraska
state agencies and compiled by the Government Documents Roundtable of the American Library Association. Geographic data related to Nebraska
Nebraska
at OpenStreetMap

Preceded by Nevada List of U.S. states by date of statehood Admitted on March 1, 1867 (37th) Succeeded by Colorado

Topics related to Nebraska Cornhusker State

v t e

 State of Nebraska

Lincoln (capital)

Topics

History Governors Lt. Governors Legislature Speakers of the Legislature People Geography Congressional districts maps Tourist attractions

Seal of Nebraska

Society

Crime Culture Demographics Economy Education Politics

Regions

Dissected Till Plains Grand Island metropolitan area Kearney Micropolitan
Micropolitan
Statistical Area Lincoln metropolitan area Omaha metropolitan area Panhandle Pine Ridge Rainwater Basin Sandhills Siouxland Wildcat Hills

Largest cities

Alliance Beatrice Bellevue Columbus Fremont Gering Grand Island Hastings Kearney La Vista Lexington Lincoln McCook Norfolk North Platte Omaha Papillion Scottsbluff South Sioux
Sioux
City York

Counties

Adams Antelope Arthur Banner Blaine Boone Box Butte Boyd Brown Buffalo Burt Butler Cass Cedar Chase Cherry Cheyenne Clay Colfax Cuming Custer Dakota Dawes Dawson Deuel Dixon Dodge Douglas Dundy Fillmore Franklin Frontier Furnas Gage Garden Garfield Gosper Grant Greeley Hall Hamilton Harlan Hayes Hitchcock Holt Hooker Howard Jefferson Johnson Kearney Keith Keya Paha Kimball Knox Lancaster Lincoln Logan Loup Madison McPherson Merrick Morrill Nance Nemaha Nuckolls Otoe Pawnee Perkins Phelps Pierce Platte Polk Red Willow Richardson Rock Saline Sarpy Saunders Scotts Bluff Seward Sheridan Sherman Sioux Stanton Thayer Thomas Thurston Valley Washington Wayne Webster Wheeler York

v t e

Protected areas of Nebraska

Federal

National Monuments

Agate
Agate
Fossil Beds Homestead Scotts Bluff

National Historic Trails

California
California
Trail Lewis & Clark Trail Mormon
Mormon
Trail Oregon
Oregon
Trail Pony Express
Pony Express
Trail

National Wildlife Refuges

Boyer Chute Crescent Lake DeSoto Fort Niobrara John and Louise Seier Karl E. Mundt North Platte Rainwater Basin Valentine

National Forests

Nebraska Samuel R. McKelvie

National Grasslands

Oglala ( Hudson-Meng Bison Kill
Hudson-Meng Bison Kill
& Toadstool Geologic Park)

USFS National Recreation Areas

Pine Ridge

National Wilderness

Fort Niobrara Soldier Creek

Wild and Scenic Rivers

Missouri Niobrara

State

State Parks

Chadron Eugene T. Mahoney Fort Robinson Indian Cave Niobrara Platte River Ponca Smith Falls

State Historical Parks

Ashfall Fossil Beds Ash Hollow Arbor Lodge Bowring Ranch Buffalo Bill Ranch Fort Atkinson Fort Hartsuff Fort Kearny Rock Creek Station

State Recreation Areas

Alexandria Arnold Atkinson Lake Blue River Bluestem Bowman Lake Box Butte Reservoir Branched Oak Bridgeport Brownville Calamus Champion Lake Cheyenne Conestoga Cottonmill Crystal Lake Dead Timber DLD Enders Reservoir Fort Kearny Fremont Lakes Gallagher Canyon Johnson Lake Keller Park Lake Maloney Lake McConaughy Lake Minatare Lake Ogallala Lewis and Clark Long Lake Long Pine Louisville Medicine Creek Memphis Merritt Reservoir Mormon
Mormon
Island North Loup Olive Creek Oliver Reservoir Pawnee Lake Pelican Point Pibel Lake Pioneer Red Willow Reservoir Riverview Marina Rock Creek Lake Rock Creek Station Rockford Sandy Channel Schramm Park Sherman Reservoir Stagecoach Summit Lake Sutherland Reservoir Swanson Reservoir Two Rivers Union Pacific Verdon Victoria Springs Wagon Train Walgren Lake War Axe Wildcat Hills Willow Creek Windmill

State Recreation Trails

Cowboy Trail

Nebraska Game and Parks Commission
Nebraska Game and Parks Commission
(web)

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Major cities

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State capitals

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  New France
New France
(1534–1763)

Subdivisions

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Acadia
(1604–1713) Canada (1608–1763) Pays d'en Haut Domaine du roy Louisiana
Louisiana
(1682–1762, 1802–1803) Illinois
Illinois
Country Ohio
Ohio
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Towns

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Acadia
(Port Royal) Canada

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Louisiana

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List of towns

Forts

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St. Louis
(Illinois) Fort St. Louis
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(Texas) List of Forts

Government

Canada

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Acadia

Governor Lieutenant-General

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Governor Intendant Superior Council

Law

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Economy

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Mississippi
Company Compagnie de l'Occident Chemin du Roy Coureur des bois Voyageurs

Society

Population

1666 census

Habitants King's Daughters Casquette girls Métis Amerindians Slavery Plaçage Gens de couleur libres

Religion

Jesuit missions Récollets Grey Nuns Ursulines Sulpicians

War and peace

Military of New France Intercolonial Wars French and Iroquois Wars Great Upheaval Great Peace of Montreal Schenectady massacre Deerfield massacre

Related

French colonization of the Americas French colonial empire History of Quebec History of the Acadians History of the French-Americans French West Indies Carib Expulsion Atlantic slave trade

Category Portal Commons

v t e

New Spain
New Spain
(1521–1821)

Conflicts

Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire
Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire
Spanish conquest of Guatemala
Spanish conquest of Guatemala
Spanish conquest of Yucatán
Spanish conquest of Yucatán
Anglo-Spanish War (1585–1604)
Anglo-Spanish War (1585–1604)
Anglo-Spanish War (1625–30)
Anglo-Spanish War (1625–30)
Dutch Revolt
Dutch Revolt
Anglo-Spanish War (1654–60)
Anglo-Spanish War (1654–60)
Piracy in the Caribbean
Piracy in the Caribbean
Queen Anne's War
Queen Anne's War
War of Jenkins' Ear
War of Jenkins' Ear
Seven Years' War
Seven Years' War
→ Spanish involvement in the American Revolutionary War

Conflicts with indigenous peoples during colonial rule

Mixtón War
Mixtón War
Yaqui Wars
Yaqui Wars
Chichimeca War
Chichimeca War
Philippine revolts against Spain
Philippine revolts against Spain
Acaxee Rebellion
Acaxee Rebellion
Spanish–Moro conflict
Spanish–Moro conflict
Acoma Massacre
Acoma Massacre
Tepehuán Revolt
Tepehuán Revolt
→ Tzeltal Rebellion → Pueblo Revolt
Pueblo Revolt
Pima Revolt
Pima Revolt
→ Spanish American wars of independence

Government and administration

Central government

Habsburg Spain

Charles I Joanna of Castile Philip II Philp III Philip IV Charles II

Bourbon Spain

Philip V (also reigned after Louis I) Louis I Ferdinand VI Charles III Charles IV Ferdinand VII of Spain
Ferdinand VII of Spain
(also reigned after Joseph I)

Viceroys of New Spain

List of viceroys of New Spain

Audiencias

Guadalajara Captaincy General of Guatemala Manila Mexico Santo Domingo

Captancies General

Cuba Guatemala Philippines Puerto Rico Santo Domingo Yucatán Provincias Internas

Intendancy

Havana New Orleans State of Mexico Chiapas Comayagua Nicaragua Camagüey Santiago de Cuba Guanajuato Valladolid Guadalajara Zacatecas San Luis Potosí Veracruz Puebla Oaxaca Durango Sonora Mérida, Yucatán

Politics

Viceroy Gobernaciones Adelantado Captain general Corregidor (position) Cabildo Encomienda

Treaties

Treaty of Tordesillas Treaty of Zaragoza Peace of Westphalia Treaty of Ryswick Treaty of Utrecht Congress of Breda Treaty of Fontainebleau (1762) Treaty of Paris (1783) Treaty of Córdoba Adams–Onís Treaty

Notable cities, provinces, & territories

Cities

Mexico City Veracruz Xalapa Puebla Toluca Cuernavaca Oaxaca Morelia Acapulco Campeche Mérida Guadalajara Durango Monterrey León Guanajuato Zacatecas Pachuca Querétaro Saltillo San Luis Potosí Los Ángeles Yerba Buena (San Francisco) San José San Diego Santa Fe Albuquerque El Paso Los Adaes San Antonio Tucson Pensacola St. Augustine Havana Santo Domingo San Juan Antigua Guatemala Cebu Manila

Provinces & territories

La Florida Las Californias Santa Fe de Nuevo México Alta California Baja California Tejas Nueva Galicia Nueva Vizcaya Nueva Extremadura New Kingdom of León Cebu Bulacan Pampanga

Other areas

Spanish Formosa

Explorers, adventurers & conquistadors

Pre-New Spain explorers

Christopher Columbus Ferdinand Magellan Juan Sebastián Elcano Vasco Núñez de Balboa Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar

Explorers & conquistadors

Hernán Cortés Juan Ponce de León Nuño de Guzmán Bernal Díaz del Castillo Pedro de Alvarado Pánfilo de Narváez Hernando de Soto Francisco Vásquez de Coronado Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo Miguel López de Legazpi Ángel de Villafañe Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca Pedro Menéndez de Avilés Luis de Carabajal y Cueva Juan de Oñate Juan José Pérez Hernández Gaspar de Portolà Manuel Quimper Cristóbal de Oñate Andrés de Urdaneta Ruy López de Villalobos Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar Francisco Hernández de Córdoba (Yucatán conquistador) Francisco Hernández de Córdoba (founder of Nicaragua) Gil González Dávila Francisco de Ulloa Juan José Pérez Hernández Dionisio Alcalá Galiano Bruno de Heceta Juan Francisco de la Bodega y Quadra Alonso de León Ignacio de Arteaga y Bazán José de Bustamante y Guerra José María Narváez Pedro Sarmiento de Gamboa Antonio Gil Y'Barbo Alexander von Humboldt Thomas Gage

Catholic
Catholic
Church in New Spain

Spanish missions in the Americas

Spanish missions in Arizona Spanish missions in Baja California Spanish missions in California Spanish missions in the Carolinas Spanish missions in Florida Spanish missions in Georgia Spanish missions in Louisiana Spanish missions in Mexico Spanish missions in New Mexico Spanish missions in the Sonoran Desert Spanish missions in Texas Spanish missions in Virginia Spanish missions in Trinidad

Friars, fathers, priests, & bishops

Pedro de Gante Gerónimo de Aguilar Toribio de Benavente Motolinia Bernardino de Sahagún Juan de Zumárraga Alonso de Montúfar Vasco de Quiroga Bartolomé de las Casas Alonso de Molina Diego Durán Diego de Landa Gerónimo de Mendieta Juan de Torquemada Juan de Palafox y Mendoza Carlos de Sigüenza y Góngora Eusebio Kino Francisco Javier Clavijero Junípero Serra Francisco Palóu Fermín Lasuén Esteban Tápis José Francisco de Paula Señan Mariano Payeras Sebastián Montero Marcos de Niza Francisco de Ayeta Antonio Margil Francisco Marroquín Manuel Abad y Queipo Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla José María Morelos

Other events

Suppression of the Jesuits California
California
mission clash of cultures Cargo system Indian Reductions

Society and culture

Indigenous peoples

Mesoamerican

Aztec Maya Huastec Mixtec P'urhépecha Totonac Pipil Kowoj K'iche' Kaqchikel Zapotec Poqomam Mam

Caribbean

Arawak Ciboney Guanajatabey

California

Mission Indians Cahuilla Chumash Cupeño Juaneño Kumeyaay Luiseño Miwok Mohave Ohlone Serrano Tongva

Southwestern

Apache Coahuiltecan Cocopa Comanche Hopi Hualapai La Junta Navajo Pima Puebloan Quechan Solano Yaqui Zuni

North-Northwest Mexico

Acaxee Chichimeca Cochimi Kiliwa Ópata Tepehuán

Florida
Florida
& other Southeastern tribes

Indigenous people during De Soto's travels Apalachee Calusa Creek Jororo Pensacola Seminole Timucua Yustaga

Filipino people

Negrito Igorot Mangyan Peoples of Palawan Ati Panay Lumad Bajau Tagalog Cebuano

Others

Taiwanese aborigines Chamorro people

Architecture

Spanish Colonial style by country Colonial Baroque style Forts Missions

Trade & economy

Real Columbian Exchange Manila galleon Triangular trade

People & classes

Casta

Peninsulars

Criollo Indios Mestizo Castizo Coyotes Pardos Zambo Negros

People

Juan Bautista de Anza Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo Francis Drake Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla Eusebio Kino La Malinche Fermín Lasuén Limahong Moctezuma II Junípero Serra Hasekura Tsunenaga

New Spain
New Spain
Portal

v t e

Political divisions of the United States

States

Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming

Federal district

Washington, D.C.

Insular areas

American Samoa Guam Northern Mariana Islands Puerto Rico U.S. Virgin Islands

Outlying islands

Baker Island Howland Island Jarvis Island Johnston Atoll Kingman Reef Midway Atoll Navassa Island Palmyra Atoll Wake Island

Indian reservations

List of Indian reservations

Coordinates: 41°30′N 100°00′W / 41.5°N 100°W / 41.5; -100

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 131284407 LCCN: n80072484 ISNI: 0000 0004 0427 6848 GND: 4117792-7 SUDOC: 176556257 BNF:

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