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Borough
A borough is an administrative division in various English-speaking countries. In principle, the term borough designates a self-governing walled town, although in practice, official use of the term varies widely. History[edit] The word borough derives from common Proto-Germanic "*burgz", meaning "fort": compare with bury, burgh and brough (England), burgh (Scotland), Burg (Germany), borg (Scandinavia), burcht, burg (Dutch), boarch (West Frisian), and the Germanic borrowing present in neighbouring Indo-European languages
Indo-European languages
such as borgo (Italian), bourg (French), burgo (Spanish and Portuguese), burg (Romanian), purg (Kajkavian) and durg (दर्ग) (Hindi) and arg (ارگ) (Persian)
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Irish Language
The Irish language
Irish language
(Gaeilge), also referred to as the Gaelic or the Irish Gaelic language,[5] is a Goidelic
Goidelic
language (Gaelic) of the Indo-European language family originating in Ireland
Ireland
and historically spoken by the Irish people. Irish is spoken as a first language by a small minority of Irish people, and as a second language by a larger group of non-native speakers. Irish has been the predominant language of the Irish people
Irish people
for most of their recorded history, and they have brought it with them to other regions, notably Scotland
Scotland
and the Isle of Man, where Middle Irish gave rise to Scottish Gaelic
Scottish Gaelic
and Manx respectively
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Cognates
In linguistics, cognates are words that have a common etymological origin.[1] For example, the English word dish and the German word Tisch ("table"), are cognates because they both come from Latin discus, which relates to their flat surfaces. Cognates may have evolved similar, different or even opposite meanings. But, in most cases, there are some similar letters in the word. Some words sound similar, but don't come from the same root. These are called false cognates and are described in more detail below. In etymology, the cognate category excludes doublets and loanwords. The word cognate derives from the Latin
Latin
noun cognatus, which means "blood relative".[2]Contents1 Characteristics 2 Across languages 3 Within the same language 4 False cognates 5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External linksCharacteristics[edit] Cognates do not need to have the same meaning, which may have changed as the languages developed separately
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Latin
Latin
Latin
(Latin: lingua latīna, IPA: [ˈlɪŋɡʷa laˈtiːna]) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. The Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets, and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet. Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium, in the Italian Peninsula.[3] Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire. Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin
developed into the Romance languages, such as Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, French, and Romanian. Latin, Greek and French have contributed many words to the English language
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Norman Conquest
The Norman conquest of England
England
(in Britain, often called the Norman Conquest or the Conquest) was the 11th-century invasion and occupation of England
England
by an army of Norman, Breton, and French soldiers led by Duke William II of Normandy, later styled William the Conqueror. William's claim to the English throne derived from his familial relationship with the childless Anglo-Saxon King Edward the Confessor, who may have encouraged William's hopes for the throne. Edward died in January 1066 and was succeeded by his brother-in-law Harold Godwinson. The Norwegian king Harald Hardrada
Harald Hardrada
invaded northern England
England
in September 1066 and was victorious at the Battle of Fulford, but Harold defeated and killed him at the Battle of Stamford Bridge
Battle of Stamford Bridge
on 25 September. Within days, William landed in southern England
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German Language
No official regulation ( German orthography
German orthography
regulated by the Council for German Orthography[4]). Language
Language
codesISO 639-1 deISO 639-2 ger (B) deu (T)ISO 639-3 Variously: deu – German gmh&#
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English Language
English is a West Germanic language
West Germanic language
that was first spoken in early medieval England
England
and is now a global lingua franca.[4][5] Named after the Angles, one of the Germanic tribes that migrated to England, it ultimately derives its name from the Anglia (Angeln) peninsula in the Baltic Sea. It is closely related to the Frisian languages, but its vocabulary has been significantly influenced by other Germanic languages, particularly Norse (a North Germanic
North Germanic
language), as well as by Latin
Latin
and Romance languages, especially French.[6] English has developed over the course of more than 1,400 years. The earliest forms of English, a set of Anglo-Frisian dialects brought to Great Britain by Anglo-Saxon settlers in the 5th century, are called Old English
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Middle English
Middle English
Middle English
(ME) is collectively the varieties of the English language spoken after the Norman Conquest
Norman Conquest
(1066) until the late 15th century; scholarly opinion varies but the Oxford English Dictionary specifies the period of 1150 to 1500.[2] This stage of the development of the English language
English language
roughly followed the High to the Late Middle Ages. Middle English
Middle English
developed out of Late Old English, seeing many dramatic changes in its grammar, pronunciation and orthography. Writing customs during Middle English
Middle English
times varied widely, but by the end of the period, about 1470, aided by the invention of the printing press, a standard based on the London
London
dialect (Chancery Standard) had become established
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Scots Language
In the 2011 census, respondents indicated that 1.54 million (30%) are able to speak Scots.[3] Language
Language
familyIndo-EuropeanGermanicWest GermanicIngvaeonicAnglo-FrisianAnglicScotsEarly formsOld EnglishMiddle EnglishEarly ScotsMiddle ScotsDialectsCentral Southern Ulster Northern InsularWriting systemLatinOfficial statusOfficial language inNoneClassified as a "traditional language" by the Scottish Government. Classified as a "regional or minority language" under the European Charter for Regional or
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United Kingdom
The United Kingdom
United Kingdom
of Great Britain
Great Britain
and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
(UK) or Britain, is a sovereign country in western Europe
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Medieval England
England
England
in the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
concerns the history of England
England
during the medieval period, from the end of the 5th century through to the start of the Early Modern period in 1485. When England
England
emerged from the collapse of the Roman Empire, the economy was in tatters and many of the towns abandoned. After several centuries of Germanic immigration, new identities and cultures began to emerge, developing into predatory kingdoms that competed for power. A rich artistic culture flourished under the Anglo-Saxons, producing epic poems such as Beowulf
Beowulf
and sophisticated metalwork. The Anglo-Saxons
Anglo-Saxons
converted to Christianity
Christianity
in the 7th century and a network of monasteries and convents was built across England
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Australia
Coordinates: 25°S 133°E / 25°S 133°E / -25; 133Commonwealth of AustraliaFlagCoat of armsAnthem: "Advance Australia
Australia
Fair"[N 1]Capital Canberra 35°18′29″S 149°07′28″E / 35.30806°S 149.12444°E / -35.30806; 149.12444Largest city SydneyNational language English[N 2]DemonymAustralian Aussie
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Fortress
Fortifications are military constructions, or buildings, designed for the defense of territories in warfare and also used to solidify rule in a region during peace time. For many thousands of years, humans have constructed defensive works in a variety of increasingly complex designs. The term is derived from the Latin
Latin
fortis ("strong") and facere ("to make"). From very early history to modern times, walls have often been necessary for cities to survive in an ever-changing world of invasion and conquest. Some settlements in the Indus Valley Civilization
Indus Valley Civilization
were the first small cities to be fortified. In ancient Greece, large stone walls had been built in Mycenaean Greece, such as the ancient site of Mycenae
Mycenae
(famous for the huge stone blocks of its 'cyclopean' walls)
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Republic Of Ireland
Ireland
Ireland
(/ˈaɪərlənd/ ( listen); Irish: Éire [ˈeːɾʲə] ( listen)), also known as the Republic of Ireland
Ireland
(Poblacht na hÉireann), is a sovereign state in north-western Europe
Europe
occupying 26 of 32 counties of the island of Ireland. The capital and largest city is Dublin, which is located on the eastern part of the island, and whose metropolitan area is home to around a third of the country's 4.75 million inhabitants. The state shares its only land border with Northern Ireland, a part of the United Kingdom. It is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the Celtic Sea to the south, Saint George's Channel
Saint George's Channel
to the south-east, and the Irish Sea to the east
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Provinces And Territories Of Canada
The provinces and territories of Canada
Canada
are the administrative divisions that are responsible for the delivery of sub-national governance within the geographical areas of Canada
Canada
under the authority of the Canadian Constitution. In the 1867 Canadian Confederation, three provinces of British North America—New Brunswick, Nova Scotia and the Province of Canada
Canada
(which, upon Confederation, was divided into Ontario
Ontario
and Quebec)—were united to form a federated colony, which eventually became a sovereign nation in the next century. Over its history, Canada's international borders have changed several times, and the country has grown from the original four provinces to the current ten provinces and three territories
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Ontario
Ontario
Ontario
(/ɒnˈtɛərioʊ/ ( listen); French: [ɔ̃taʁjo]) is one of the 13 provinces and territories of Canada
Canada
and is located in east-central Canada.[7][8] It is Canada's most populous province[9] accounting for nearly 40 percent[10] of the country's population, and is the second-largest province in total area
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