QUEBEC (/k(w)ɪˈbɛk/ ( listen ); French: Québec ( listen ))
is one of the thirteen provinces and territories of
Canada . It is
bordered to the west by the province of
Ontario and the bodies of
James Bay and
Hudson Bay ; to the north by
Hudson Strait and
Ungava Bay ; to the east by the
Gulf of Saint Lawrence and the
Newfoundland and Labrador
Newfoundland and Labrador ; and to the south by the
New Brunswick and the US states of
New Hampshire ,
Vermont , and New York . It also shares maritime borders with Nunavut,
Prince Edward Island
Prince Edward Island , and
Nova Scotia .
Quebec is Canada's largest
province by area and its second-largest administrative division; only
the territory of
Nunavut is larger. It is historically and politically
considered to be part of
Central Canada (with Ontario).
Quebec is the second-most populous province of
Canada , after
Ontario. It is the only one to have a predominantly French-speaking
population, with French as the sole provincial official language .
Most inhabitants live in urban areas near the Saint Lawrence River
Quebec City , the capital. Approximately half of
Quebec residents live in the Greater
Montreal Area, including the
Montreal . English-speaking communities and English-language
institutions are concentrated in the west of the island of Montreal
but are also significantly present in the
Outaouais , Eastern
Townships , and Gaspé regions. The
Nord-du-Québec region, occupying
the northern half of the province, is sparsely populated and inhabited
primarily by Aboriginal peoples . The climate around the major cities
is four-season continental with cold and snowy winters combined with
warm to hot humid summers, but further north long winter seasons
dominate and as a result the northern areas of the province are marked
by tundra conditions. Even in central Quebec, at comparatively
southerly latitudes, winters are severe in inland areas.
Quebec independence debates have played a large role in the politics
of the province .
Parti Québécois governments held referendums on
sovereignty in 1980 and 1995 ; both were voted down by voters, the
latter defeated by a very narrow margin. In 2006, the House of
Canada passed a symbolic motion recognizing the
"Québécois as a nation within a united Canada."
While the province's substantial natural resources have long been the
mainstay of its economy, sectors of the knowledge economy such as
aerospace , information and communication technologies, biotechnology
, and the pharmaceutical industry also play leading roles. These many
industries have all contributed to helping
Quebec become an
economically influential province within Canada, second only to
Ontario in economic output.
* 1 Etymology and boundary changes
* 2 Geography
* 2.1 Hydrography
* 2.2 Topography
* 2.3 Climate
* 2.4 Wildlife
* 2.5 Vegetation
* 3 History
Indigenous peoples and European exploration
* 3.3 Seven Years\' War and capitulation of
* 3.5 Effects of the
* 3.5.1 Separation of the Province of
* 3.6 Patriotes\' Rebellion in Lower
* 3.8 World War I and
World War II
World War II
Parti Québécois and national unity
* 3.11 Statut particulier ("special status")
* 4 Government and politics
* 4.1 Administrative subdivisions
* 5 Demographics
* 5.1 Language
* 5.2 Population centres
* 6 Economy
* 6.1 Natural resources
* 7 Science and technology
* 8 Infrastructure
* 8.1 Transportation
* 8.2 Energy
* 9 Culture
* 9.1 Society
* 9.2 Music and dance
* 9.3 Film, television, and radio
* 9.4 Literature and theatre
* 9.5 Fine arts
* 9.6 Circus and street art
* 9.7 Heritage
* 9.8 Cuisine
* 9.9 Sports
* 10 National symbols
* 10.1 Other official symbols
* 10.2 Fête nationale (National Holiday)
* 11 See also
* 12 References
* 12.1 Notes
* 12.2 Journals
* 13 Further reading
* 14 External links
ETYMOLOGY AND BOUNDARY CHANGES
The arrival of
Samuel de Champlain
Samuel de Champlain , the father of
New France ,
on the site of
The name "Québec", which comes from the Algonquin word kébec
meaning "where the river narrows", originally referred to the area
Quebec City where the
Saint Lawrence River narrows to a
cliff-lined gap. Early variations in the spelling of the name included
Québecq (Levasseur, 1601) and Kébec (Lescarbot, 1609). French
Samuel de Champlain
Samuel de Champlain chose the name Québec in 1608 for the
colonial outpost he would use as the administrative seat for the
French colony of
New France . The province is sometimes referred to
as "La belle province" ("The beautiful province").
The Province of
Quebec was founded in the Royal Proclamation of 1763
after the Treaty of Paris formally transferred the French colony of
Canada to Britain after the Seven Years\' War . The proclamation
restricted the province to an area along the banks of the Saint
Lawrence River. The
Quebec Act of 1774 expanded the territory of the
province to include the
Great Lakes and the
Ohio River Valley and
south of Rupert\'s Land , more or less restoring the borders
previously existing under French rule before the Conquest. The Treaty
of Versailles ceded territories south of the
Great Lakes to the United
States. After the
Constitutional Act of 1791 , the territory was
divided between Lower
Canada (present-day Quebec) and Upper Canada
Ontario ), with each being granted an elected legislative
assembly. In 1840, these become
Canada East and
Canada West after the
British Parliament unified Upper and Lower
Canada into the Province of
Canada . This territory was redivided into the Provinces of Quebec
Ontario at Confederation in 1867. Each became one of the first
four provinces .
Canada purchased Rupert\'s Land from the Hudson\'s Bay
Company and over the next few decades the Parliament of Canada
Quebec portions of this territory that would more than
triple the size of the province. In 1898, the Canadian Parliament
passed the first
Quebec Boundary Extension Act that expanded the
provincial boundaries northward to include the lands of the local
aboriginal peoples . This was followed by the addition of the
District of Ungava through the
Quebec Boundaries Extension Act of 1912
that added the northernmost lands of the
Inuit to create the modern
Province of Quebec. In 1927, the border between
Newfoundland and Labrador
Newfoundland and Labrador was established by the British Judicial
Committee of the Privy Council .
Quebec officially disputes this
Geography of Quebec Map of
Located in the eastern part of Canada, and (from a historical and
political perspective) part of Central Canada,
Quebec occupies a
territory nearly three times the size of France or Texas, most of
which is very sparsely populated. Its topography is very different
from one region to another due to the varying composition of the
ground, the climate (latitude and altitude), and the proximity to
water. The Saint Lawrence Lowland (south) and the Canadian Shield
(north) are the two main topographic regions, and are radically
Quebec has one of the world's largest reserves of fresh water ,
occupying 12% of its surface. It has 3% of the world's renewable
fresh water, whereas it has only 0.1% of its population. More than
half a million lakes, including 30 with an area greater than 250
square kilometres (97 sq mi), and 4,500 rivers pour their torrents
into the Atlantic Ocean, through the
Gulf of Saint Lawrence and the
Arctic Ocean, by James , Hudson , and Ungava bays. The largest inland
body of water is the
Caniapiscau Reservoir , created in the
realization of the
James Bay Project to produce hydroelectric power.
Lake Mistassini is the largest natural lake in Quebec. Michel's
Ashuapmushuan River in Saint-Félicien ,
Saint Lawrence River has some of the world's largest sustaining
inland Atlantic ports at
Montreal (the province's largest city),
Trois-Rivières , and
Quebec City (the capital). Its access to the
Atlantic Ocean and the interior of North America made it the base of
early French exploration and settlement in the 17th and 18th
centuries. Since 1959, the
Saint Lawrence Seaway
Saint Lawrence Seaway has provided a
navigable link between the Atlantic Ocean and the Great Lakes.
Quebec City, the river broadens into the world's largest
estuary , the feeding site of numerous species of whales, fish, and
seabirds. The river empties into the
Gulf of Saint Lawrence . This
marine environment sustains fisheries and smaller ports in the Lower
Saint Lawrence (Bas-Saint-Laurent), Lower North Shore (Côte-Nord),
and Gaspé (Gaspésie) regions of the province. The Saint Lawrence
River with its estuary forms the basis of Quebec's development through
the centuries. At the same time, many affluent rivers testify to the
exploration of land, among them Ashuapmushuan , Chaudière , Gatineau
, Manicouagan , Ottawa , Richelieu , Rupert , Saguenay ,
Saint-François , and Saint-Maurice .
Quebec's highest point at 1,652 metres is Mont d'Iberville, known in
Mount Caubvick , located on the border with Newfoundland
and Labrador in the northeastern part of the province, in the Torngat
Mountains . The most populous physiographic region is the Saint
Lawrence Lowland . It extends northeastward from the southwestern
portion of the province along the shores of the Saint Lawrence River
Quebec City region, limited to the North by the Laurentian
Mountains and to the South by the Appalachians . It mainly covers the
areas of the
Centre-du-Québec , Laval ,
the southern regions of the
Mauricie and includes
Anticosti Island , the Mingan
Archipelago , and other small islands of the Gulf of St. Lawrence
lowland forests ecoregion . Its landscape is low-lying and flat,
except for isolated igneous outcrops near
Montreal called the
Monteregian Hills , formerly covered by the waters of
Lake Champlain .
The Oka hills also rise from the plain. Geologically, the lowlands
formed as a rift valley about 100 million years ago and are prone to
infrequent but significant earthquakes. The most recent layers of
sedimentary rock were formed as the seabed of the ancient Champlain
Sea at the end of the last ice age about 14,000 years ago. The
combination of rich and easily arable soils and Quebec's relatively
warm climate makes this valley the most prolific agricultural area of
Quebec province. Mixed forests provide most of Canada's springtime
maple syrup crop. The rural part of the landscape is divided into
narrow rectangular tracts of land that extend from the river and date
back to settlement patterns in 17th century
New France . Autumn
landscape of Haute-
More than 95% of Quebec's territory lies within the
Canadian Shield .
It is generally a quite flat and exposed mountainous terrain
interspersed with higher points such as the
Laurentian Mountains in
southern Quebec, the
Otish Mountains in central
Quebec and the Torngat
Ungava Bay . The topography of the Shield has been
shaped by glaciers from the successive ice ages, which explains the
glacial deposits of boulders, gravel and sand, and by sea water and
post-glacial lakes that left behind thick deposits of clay in parts of
the Shield. The
Canadian Shield also has a complex hydrological
network of perhaps a million lakes, bogs, streams and rivers. It is
rich in the forestry, mineral and hydro-electric resources that are a
mainstay of the
Quebec economy. Primary industries sustain small
cities in regions of
Saguenay–Lac-Saint-Jean , and
Côte-Nord . Mont Tremblant
Labrador Peninsula is covered by the Laurentian Plateau (or
Canadian Shield ), dotted with mountains such as
Otish Mountains . The
Ungava Peninsula is notably composed of D'Youville mountains,
Puvirnituq mountains and Pingualuit crater. While low and medium
altitude peak from western
Quebec to the far north, high altitudes
mountains emerge in the
Capitale-Nationale region to the extreme east,
along its longitude. In the
Labrador Peninsula portion of the Shield,
the far northern region of
Nunavik includes the
Ungava Peninsula and
consists of flat
Arctic tundra inhabited mostly by the
Inuit . Further
south lie the subarctic taiga of the Eastern
Canadian Shield taiga
ecoregion and the boreal forest of the Central
Canadian Shield forests
, where spruce , fir , and poplar trees provide raw materials for
Quebec's pulp and paper and lumber industries. Although the area is
inhabited principally by the
Naskapi , and Innu
First Nations ,
thousands of temporary workers reside at Radisson to service the
James Bay Hydroelectric Project on the La Grande and Eastmain
rivers. The southern portion of the shield extends to the Laurentians
, a mountain range just north of the Saint Lawrence Lowland , that
attracts local and international tourists to ski hills and lakeside
The Appalachian region of
Quebec has a narrow strip of ancient
mountains along the southeastern border of Quebec. The Appalachians
are actually a huge chain that extends from
Alabama to Newfoundland .
In between, it covers in
Quebec near 800 km (497 mi), from the
Montérégie hills to the Gaspé Peninsula. In western Quebec, the
average altitude is about 500 metres, while in the Gaspé Peninsula,
the Appalachian peaks (especially the Chic-Choc) are among the highest
in Quebec, exceeding 1000 metres.
Köppen climate types of
Quebec has three main climate regions. Southern and western Quebec,
including most of the major population centres, have a humid
continental climate (
Köppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification Dfb) with four
distinct seasons having warm to occasionally hot and humid summers and
often very cold and snowy winters. The main climatic influences are
from western and northern
Canada and move eastward, and from the
southern and central United States that move northward. Because of the
influence of both storm systems from the core of North America and the
Atlantic Ocean, precipitation is abundant throughout the year, with
most areas receiving more than 1,000 millimetres (39 in) of
precipitation, including over 300 centimetres (120 in) of snow in many
areas. During the summer, severe weather patterns (such as tornadoes
and severe thunderstorms ) occur occasionally. Most of central Quebec
has a subarctic climate (Köppen Dfc). Winters are long, very cold,
and snowy, and among the coldest in eastern Canada, while summers are
warm but very short due to the higher latitude and the greater
Arctic air masses. Precipitation is also somewhat less
than farther south, except at some of the higher elevations. The
northern regions of
Quebec have an arctic climate (Köppen ET), with
very cold winters and short, much cooler summers. The primary
influences in this region are the
Arctic Ocean currents (such as the
Labrador Current ) and continental air masses from the High
Baie-Saint-Paul during winter
The four seasons in
Quebec are spring, summer, autumn and winter,
with conditions differing by region. They are then differentiated
according to the insolation , temperature and precipitation of snow
Quebec City, the length of the daily sunshine varies from 8:37 hrs
in December to 15:50 hrs in June; the annual variation is much greater
(from 4:54 to 19:29 hrs) at the northern tip of the province. From
temperate zones to the northern territories of the Far North, the
brightness varies with latitude, as well as the Northern Lights and
midnight sun .
Quebec is divided into four climatic zones: arctic, subarctic, humid
continental and East maritime. From south to north, average
temperatures range in summer between 25 and 5 °C (77 and 41 °F) and,
in winter, between −10 and −25 °C (14 and −13 °F). In
periods of intense heat and cold, temperatures can reach 35 °C (95
°F) in the summer and −40 °C (−40 °F) during the Quebec
winter, They may vary depending on the
Wind chill .
The all-time record of the greatest precipitation in winter was
established in winter 2007–2008, with more than five metres of snow
in the area of
Quebec City, while the average amount received per
winter is around three metres. March 1971, however, saw the
"Century\'s Snowstorm " with more than 40 centimetres (16 in) in
Montreal to 80 centimetres (31 in) in Mont Apica of snow within 24
hours in many regions of southern Quebec. Also, the winter of 2010 was
the warmest and driest recorded in more than 60 years.
Average daily maximum and minimum temperatures for selected locations
The large land wildlife is mainly composed of the white-tailed deer ,
the moose , the muskox , the caribou , the
American black bear and the
polar bear . The average land wildlife includes the cougar , the
coyote , the eastern wolf , the bobcat (wild cat), the
Arctic fox ,
the fox, etc. The small animals seen most commonly include the eastern
grey squirrel , the snowshoe hare , the groundhog , the skunk , the
raccoon , the chipmunk and the Canadian beaver .
Biodiversity of the estuary and gulf of
Saint Lawrence River
consists of an aquatic mammal wildlife, of which most goes upriver
through the estuary and the
Saguenay–St. Lawrence Marine Park until
the Île d\'Orléans (French for Orleans Island) , such as the blue
whale , the beluga , the minke whale and the harp seal (earless seal).
Among the Nordic marine animals, there are two particularly important
to cite: the walrus and the narwhal .
Snowy owl : official bird
Inland waters are populated by small to large fresh water fish, such
as the largemouth bass , the
American pickerel , the walleye , the
Acipenser oxyrinchus , the muskellunge , the
Atlantic cod , the Arctic
char , the brook trout , the
Microgadus tomcod (tomcod), the Atlantic
salmon , the rainbow trout , etc.
Among the birds commonly seen in the southern inhabited part of
Quebec, there are the
American robin , the house sparrow , the
red-winged blackbird , the mallard , the common grackle , the blue jay
American crow , the black-capped chickadee , some warblers and
swallows , the starling and the rock pigeon , the latter two having
been introduced in
Quebec and are found mainly in urban areas. Avian
fauna includes birds of prey like the golden eagle , the peregrine
falcon , the snowy owl and the bald eagle . Sea and semi-aquatic birds
Quebec are mostly the
Canada goose , the double-crested
cormorant , the northern gannet , the
European herring gull , the
great blue heron , the sandhill crane , the
Atlantic puffin and the
common loon . Many more species of land, maritime or avian wildlife
are seen in Quebec, but most of the Quebec-specific species and the
most commonly seen species are listed above.
Some livestock have the title of "Québec heritage breed", namely the
Canadian horse , the Chantecler chicken and the Canadian cow .
Moreover, in addition to food certified as "organic", Charlevoix lamb
is the first local
Quebec product whose geographical indication is
protected. Livestock production also includes the pig breeds
Landrace, Duroc and Yorkshire and many breeds of sheep and cattle.
The Wildlife Foundation of
Quebec and the Data Centre on Natural
Quebec (CDPNQ)(French acronym) are the main agencies
working with officers for wildlife conservation in Quebec.
Taiga forest in Gaspé, Québec,
Given the geology of the province and its different climates, there
is an established number of large areas of vegetation in Quebec. These
areas, listed in order from the northernmost to the southernmost are:
the tundra , the taiga , the Canadian boreal forest (coniferous),
mixed forest and deciduous forest .
On the edge of the
Ungava Bay and
Hudson Strait is the tundra , whose
flora is limited to a low vegetation of lichen with only less than 50
growing days a year. The tundra vegetation survives an average annual
temperature of −8 °C (18 °F). The tundra covers more than 24% of
the area of Quebec. Further south, the climate is conducive to the
growth of the Canadian boreal forest , bounded on the north by the
taiga . The different forest areas of
Not as arid as the tundra , the taiga is associated with the
Arctic regions of the
Canadian Shield and is characterized by a
greater number of both plant (600) and animal (206) species, many of
which live there all year. The taiga covers about 20% of the total
area of Quebec. The Canadian boreal forest is the northernmost and
most abundant of the three forest areas in
Quebec that straddle the
Canadian Shield and the upper lowlands of the province. Given a warmer
climate, the diversity of organisms is also higher, since there are
about 850 plant species and 280 vertebrates species. The Canadian
boreal forest covers 27% of the area of Quebec. The mixed forest is a
transition zone between the Canadian boreal forest and deciduous
forest . By virtue of its transient nature, this area contains a
diversity of habitats resulting in large numbers of plant (1000) and
vertebrates (350) species, despite relatively cool temperatures. The
ecozone mixed forest covers 11.5% of the area of
Quebec and is
characteristic of the Laurentians , the Appalachians and the eastern
lowlands forests. The third most northern forest area is
characterized by deciduous forests . Because of its climate (average
annual temperature of 7 °C (45 °F)), it is in this area that one
finds the greatest diversity of species, including more than 1600
vascular plants and 440 vertebrates . Its relatively long growing
season lasts almost 200 days and its fertile soils make it the centre
of agricultural activity and therefore of urbanization of Quebec. Most
of Quebec's population lives in this area of vegetation, almost
entirely along the banks of the St. Lawrence.
Deciduous forests cover
approximately 6.6% of the area of Quebec.
The total forest area of
Quebec is estimated at 750,300 square
kilometres (289,700 sq mi). From the
Abitibi-Témiscamingue to the
North Shore , the forest is composed primarily of conifers such as the
Abies balsamea , the jack pine , the white spruce , the black spruce
and the tamarack . Some species of deciduous trees such as the yellow
birch appear when the river is approached in the south. The deciduous
forest of the
Saint Lawrence Lowlands
Saint Lawrence Lowlands is mostly composed of deciduous
species such as the sugar maple , the red maple , the white ash , the
American beech , the butternut (white walnut) , the American elm , the
basswood , the bitternut hickory and the northern red oak as well as
some conifers such as the eastern white pine and the northern
whitecedar . The distribution areas of the paper birch , the trembling
aspen and the mountain ash cover more than half of
History of Quebec
INDIGENOUS PEOPLES AND EUROPEAN EXPLORATION
Glacial lakes Agassiz and Ojibway , 7,900 BPE.
At the time of first European contact and later colonization,
Inuit nations controlled what is now Quebec.
Their lifestyles and cultures reflected the land on which they lived.
Algonquians organized into seven political entities lived nomadic
lives based on hunting, gathering, and fishing in the rugged terrain
Canadian Shield (
James Bay Cree, Innu , Algonquins ) and
Appalachian Mountains (Mi\'kmaq , Abenaki ). St. Lawrence Iroquoians
, a branch of the Iroquois, lived more settled lives, growing corn,
beans and squash in the fertile soils of the St. Lawrence Valley. They
appear to have been later supplanted by the Mohawk nation. The Inuit
continue to fish and hunt whale and seal in the harsh
along the coasts of Hudson and Ungava Bay. These people traded fur
and food and sometimes warred with each other.
New France Three Huron-Wyandot chiefs from
Wendake in Quebec.
New France had largely peaceful relations with the
indigenous people such as their allies the Huron. After the defeat of
the Huron by their mutual enemies the
Iroquois many fled from Ontario
to Quebec. A depiction of
Jacques Cartier by
Théophile Hamel ,
1844. No contemporary likeness of Cartier has been found to exist.
Around 1522–1523, the Italian navigator Giovanni da Verrazzano
King Francis I of France to commission an expedition to find
a western route to
Cathay (China). In 1534, Breton explorer Jacques
Cartier planted a cross in the
Gaspé Peninsula and claimed the land
in the name of King Francis I. It was the first province of New
France. However, initial French attempts at settling the region met
with failure. French fishing fleets, however, continued to sail to
the Atlantic coast and into the St. Lawrence River, making alliances
First Nations that would become important once France began to
occupy the land.
Samuel de Champlain
Samuel de Champlain was part of a 1603 expedition from France that
travelled into the St. Lawrence River. In 1608, he returned as head
of an exploration party and founded
Quebec City with the intention of
making the area part of the
French colonial empire . Champlain's
Habitation de Québec , built as a permanent fur trading outpost, was
where he would forge a trading, and ultimately a military alliance,
with the Algonquin and Huron nations.
First Nations traded their furs
for many French goods such as metal objects, guns, alcohol, and
Coureurs des bois , voyageurs and
Catholic missionaries used river
canoes to explore the interior of the North American continent. They
establishing fur trading forts on the
Great Lakes (Étienne Brûlé
Hudson Bay (Radisson and Groseilliers 1659–60), Ohio River
Mississippi River (La Salle 1682), as well as the Saskatchewan
Missouri River (de la Verendrye 1734–1738).
After 1627, King
Louis XIII of France
Louis XIII of France allowed the Company of New
France to introduced the seigneurial system and forbade settlement in
New France by anyone other than Roman Catholics .
In 1629 there was the surrender of
Quebec , without battle, to
English privateers led by
David Kirke during the Thirty Years\' War .
Samuel de Champlain
Samuel de Champlain argued that the English seizing of the
lands was illegal as the war had already ended; he worked to have the
lands returned to France. As part of the ongoing negotiations of their
exit from the Anglo-French War , in 1632 the English king Charles
agreed to return the lands in exchange for Louis XIII paying his
wife's dowry . These terms were signed into law with the Treaty of
Saint-Germain-en-Laye . The lands in
Acadia were returned
to the French
Company of One Hundred Associates .
New France became a Royal Province in 1663 under King Louis XIV of
France with a Sovereign Council that included intendant
Jean Talon .
The population grew slowly under French rule, thus remained
relatively low as growth was largely achieved through natural births,
rather than by immigration. To encourage population growth and to
redress the severe imbalance between single men and women, King Louis
XIV sponsored the passage of approximately 800 young French women
(known as les filles du roi ) to the colony. Most of the French were
Canadiens " or "
Habitants "), and the rate of population
growth among the settlers themselves was very high.
SEVEN YEARS\' WAR AND CAPITULATION OF NEW FRANCE
Main article: Seven Years\' War
New France became more aggressive in their efforts to
expel British traders and colonists from the Ohio Valley . They began
construction of a series of fortifications to protect the area. In
George Washington launched a surprise attack on a group of
Canadien soldiers sleeping in the early morning hours. It came at a
time when no declaration of war had been issued by either country.
This frontier aggression known as the Jumonville affair set the stage
French and Indian War
French and Indian War (a US designation; in
Canada it is
usually referred to as the Seven Years' War, although French Canadians
often call it La guerre de la Conquête ) in North America. By 1756,
France and Britain were battling the Seven Years\' War worldwide. In
1758, the British mounted an attack on
New France by sea and took the
French fort at Louisbourg .
On September 13, 1759, the British forces of General James Wolfe
defeated those of French General
Louis-Joseph de Montcalm
Louis-Joseph de Montcalm on the
Plains of Abraham outside
Quebec City. With the exception of the small
Saint Pierre and Miquelon
Saint Pierre and Miquelon , located off the coast of
Newfoundland, France ceded its North American possessions to Great
Britain through the
Treaty of Paris (1763) in favour of gaining the
Guadeloupe for its then-lucrative sugar cane industry. The
Royal Proclamation of 1763 renamed
Canada (part of New France)
as the Province of
Quebec Act The Province of
Quebec in 1774
With unrest growing in the colonies to the south, which would one day
grow into the
American Revolution , the British were worried that the
Canadians might also support the growing rebellion. At
that time, French-speaking
Canadians formed the vast majority of the
population of the province of
Quebec (more than 99%) and British
immigration was not going well. To secure the allegiance of the
approximately 90,000 French-speaking
Canadians to the British crown,
first Governor James Murray and later Governor Guy Carleton promoted
the need for change. There was also a need to compromise between the
conflicting demands of the French-speaking Canadian subjects and those
of newly arrived British subjects. These efforts by the colonial
governors eventually resulted in enactment of the
Quebec Act of
Quebec Act provided the people of
Quebec their first Charter of
Rights and paved the way to later official recognition of the French
French culture . The act also allowed
maintain French civil law and sanctioned freedom of religion, allowing
Roman Catholic Church to remain, one of the first cases in history
of state-sanctioned freedom of religious practice.
EFFECTS OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION
Quebec Act was unrelated to the events in Boston of
1773, and was not regarded as one of the Coercive Acts , the timing of
its passage led British colonists to the south to believe that it was
part of the program to punish them. The
Quebec Act offended a variety
of interest groups in the British colonies. Land speculators and
settlers objected to the transfer of western lands previously claimed
by the colonies to a non-representative government. Many feared the
establishment of Catholicism in Quebec, and that the French Canadians
were being courted to help oppress British Americans. Defending
Quebec from an American attack during the Battle of
Quebec in December
On June 27, 1775, General
George Washington decided to attempt an
Canada by the American
Continental Army to wrest Quebec
and the St. Lawrence River from the British. the invasion failed when
British reinforcements came down the St. Lawrence in May 1776 and the
Trois-Rivières turned into a disaster for the Americans.
The army withdrew to Ticonderoga. Although some help was given to the
Americans by the locals, Governor Carleton punished American
sympathizers and public support of the American cause came to an end.
Frederick Haldimand took over for Guy Carleton as governor of
The arrival of 10,000 Loyalists at
Quebec in 1784 destroyed the
political balance that Haldimand (and Carleton before him) had worked
so hard to achieve. The swelling numbers of English encouraged them to
make greater demands for recognition with the colonial government. To
restore stability to his largest remaining North American colony, King
George III sent Carleton back to
Quebec to remedy the situation.
In ten years,
Quebec had undergone a dramatic change. What worked for
Carleton in 1774 was not likely to succeed in 1784. Specifically,
there was no possibility of restoring the previous political balance
– there were simply too many English people unwilling to reach a
compromise with the 145,000
Canadiens or their colonial governor. The
situation called for a more creative approach to problem solving.
Separation Of The Province Of Quebec
A Plan of the Inhabited Part of the Province of Quebec, c. 1785
by James Peachey. Peter Winkworth Collection. Library and Archives
Loyalists soon petitioned the government to be allowed to use the
British legal system they were used to in the American colonies. The
creation of Upper and Lower
Canada in 1791 allowed most Loyalists to
live under British laws and institutions, while the French-speaking
population of Lower
Canada could maintain their familiar French civil
law and the
Catholic religion. Therefore, Governor Haldimand (at the
suggestion of Carleton) drew Loyalists away from
Quebec City and
Montreal by offering free land on the northern shore of Lake Ontario
to anyone willing to swear allegiance to George III. The Loyalists
were thus given land grants of 200 acres (81 ha) per person.
Basically, this approach was designed with the intent of keeping
French and English as far apart as possible. Therefore, after the
separation of the Province of Quebec, Lower
Canada and Upper Canada
were formed, each with its own government.
PATRIOTES\' REBELLION IN LOWER CANADA
Main article: Lower
Canada Rebellion The burning of the
Parliament Buildings in
Montreal occurred on the night of April 25,
In 1837, residents of Lower
Canada – led by Louis-Joseph Papineau
and Robert Nelson – formed an armed resistance group to seek an end
to the unilateral control of the British governors. They made a
Declaration of Rights with equality for all citizens without
discrimination and a Declaration of Independence of Lower-
1838. Their actions resulted in rebellions in both Lower and Upper
Canada . An unprepared
British Army had to raise militia force; the
rebel forces scored a victory in Saint-Denis but were soon defeated.
After the rebellions, Lord Durham was asked to undertake a study and
prepare a report on the matter and to offer a solution for the British
Parliament to assess. Following Durham's report, the British
government merged the two colonial provinces into one Province of
Canada in 1840 with the Act of Union . The two colonies remained
distinct in administration, election, and law.
In 1848, Baldwin and LaFontaine, allies and leaders of the Reformist
party, were asked by Lord Elgin to form an administration together
under the new policy of responsible government . The French language
subsequently regained legal status in the Legislature.
In the 1860s, the delegates from the colonies of British North
America (Canada, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island, and
Newfoundland) met in a series of conferences to discuss self-governing
status for a new confederation. The first
took place in
Charlottetown , Prince Edward Island, followed by the
Quebec Conference in
Quebec City which led to a delegation going to
London, Britain, to put forth a proposal for a national union.
As a result of those deliberations, in 1867 the Parliament of the
United Kingdom passed the
British North America
British North America Acts , providing for
the Confederation of most of these provinces. The former Province of
Canada was divided into its two previous parts as the provinces of
Ontario (Upper Canada) and
Quebec (Lower Canada).
New Brunswick and
Nova Scotia joined
Quebec in the new Dominion of
The other provinces then joined the Confederation, one after the
Manitoba and the
Northwest Territories in 1870, British
Columbia in 1871,
Prince Edward Island
Prince Edward Island in 1873,
Yukon in 1898, Alberta
Saskatchewan in 1905, Newfoundland in 1949 and finally
Winston Churchill in
Québec City in 1943
WORLD WAR I AND WORLD WAR II
When the United Kingdom declared war on August 4, 1914,
automatically involved as a dominion. About 6,000 volunteers from
Quebec participated on the European front. Although reaction to
conscription was favourable in English
Canada the idea was deeply
unpopular in Quebec. The
Conscription Crisis of 1917 did much to
highlight the divisions between French and English-speaking Canadians
World War II
World War II , the participation of
Quebec was more important
but led to the
Conscription Crisis of 1944 and opposition. Many
Quebecers fought against the axis power between 1939 to 1945 with the
involvement of many francophone regiments such as Les Fusiliers
Mont-Royal , le
Régiment de la Chaudière and many more.
Adélard Godbout implemented a
program of progressive legislation that laid the groundwork for the
The conservative government of
Maurice Duplessis and his Union
Quebec politics from 1944 to 1959 with the support
Pierre Trudeau and other liberals formed an
intellectual opposition to Duplessis's regime, setting the groundwork
Quiet Revolution under
Jean Lesage 's Liberals . The Quiet
Revolution was a period of dramatic social and political change that
saw the decline of Anglo supremacy in the
Quebec economy, the decline
Roman Catholic Church's influence, the formation of
hydroelectric companies under
Hydro-Québec and the emergence of a
pro-sovereignty movement under former Liberal minister René Lévesque
October Crisis and
Front de libération du Québec
Beginning in 1963, a paramilitary group that became known as the
Front de libération du Québec (FLQ) launched a decade-long series of
propaganda and terrorism that included bombings, robberies and attacks
directed primarily at English institutions, resulting in at least
five deaths. In 1970, their activities culminated in events referred
to as the
October Crisis when
James Cross , the British trade
commissioner to Canada, was kidnapped along with
Pierre Laporte , a
provincial minister and Vice-Premier. Laporte was strangled with his
own rosary beads a few days later. In their published Manifesto, the
militants stated: "In the coming year Bourassa will have to face
reality; 100,000 revolutionary workers, armed and organized." At the
request of Premier Robert Bourassa, Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau
War Measures Act .
PARTI QUéBéCOIS AND NATIONAL UNITY
Parti Québécois and
Quebec sovereignty movement
In 1977, the newly elected
Parti Québécois government of René
Lévesque introduced the
Charter of the French Language . Often known
Bill 101 , it defined French as the only official language of
Quebec in areas of provincial jurisdiction.
Lévesque and his party had run in the 1970 and 1973
under a platform of separating
Quebec from the rest of Canada. The
party failed to win control of Quebec's National Assembly both times
– though its share of the vote increased from 23 percent to 30
percent – and Lévesque was defeated both times in the riding he
contested. In the 1976 election, he softened his message by promising
a referendum (plebiscite) on sovereignty-association rather than
outright separation, by which
Quebec would have independence in most
government functions but share some other ones, such as a common
currency, with Canada. On November 15, 1976, Lévesque and the Parti
Québécois won control of the provincial government for the first
time. The question of sovereignty-association was placed before the
voters in the
1980 Quebec referendum . During the campaign, Pierre
Trudeau promised that a vote for the "no" side was a vote for
reforming Canada. Trudeau advocated the patriation of Canada's
Constitution from the United Kingdom. The existing constitutional
British North America
British North America Act , could only be amended by the
United Kingdom Parliament upon a request by the Canadian parliament.
René Lévesque in Paul Sauvé arena, Montreal, on the 1973
Sixty percent of the
Quebec electorate voted against the proposition
for sovereignty-association. Polls showed that the overwhelming
majority of English and immigrant Quebecers voted against, and that
French Quebecers were almost equally divided, with older voters less
in favour and younger voters more in favour. After his loss in the
referendum, Lévesque went back to Ottawa to start negotiating a new
constitution with Trudeau, his minister of Justice
Jean Chrétien and
the nine other provincial premiers. Lévesque insisted
Quebec be able
to veto any future constitutional amendments. The negotiations quickly
reached a stand-still.
Quebec is the only province not to have
assented to the patriation of the Canadian constitution in 1982.
In subsequent years, two attempts were made to gain Quebec's approval
of the constitution. The first was the
Meech Lake Accord of 1987,
which was finally abandoned in 1990 when the province of
not pass it within the established deadline. (Newfoundland premier
Clyde Wells had expressed his opposition to the accord, but, with the
failure in Manitoba, the vote for or against Meech never took place in
his province.) This led to the formation of the sovereigntist Bloc
Québécois party in Ottawa under the leadership of
Lucien Bouchard ,
who had resigned from the federal cabinet. The second attempt, the
Charlottetown Accord of 1992, also failed to gain traction. This
result caused a split in the
Quebec Liberal Party that led to the
formation of the new Action démocratique (Democratic Action) party
Mario Dumont and
Jean Allaire . The results of the 1995
Quebec referendum per circonscription. Dark brown means high no %;
dark blue means high yes %
On October 30, 1995, with the
Parti Québécois back in power since
1994, a second referendum on sovereignty took place. This time, it was
rejected by a slim majority (50.6 percent NO to 49.4 percent YES).
STATUT PARTICULIER ("SPECIAL STATUS")
Given the province's heritage and the preponderance of French (unique
among the Canadian provinces), there has been debate in Canada
regarding the unique status (statut particulier) of
Quebec and its
people, wholly or partially. Prior attempts to amend the Canadian
constitution to acknowledge
Quebec as a "distinct society " –
referring to the province's uniqueness within
Canada regarding law,
language, and culture – have been unsuccessful; however, the federal
government under Prime Minister
Jean Chrétien would later endorse
Quebec as a distinct society.
On October 30, 2003, the
National Assembly of Quebec
National Assembly of Quebec voted
unanimously to affirm "that the people of Québec form a nation." On
November 27, 2006, the House of Commons passed a symbolic motion moved
by Prime Minister
Stephen Harper declaring "that this House recognize
that the Québécois form a nation within a united Canada."
However, there is considerable debate and uncertainty over what this
GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS
Politics of Quebec ,
Monarchy in Quebec , and
Government of Quebec The Parliament Building in
The Lieutenant Governor represents the Queen of
Canada and acts as
the province's head of state . The head of government is the premier
(called premier ministre in French) who leads the largest party in the
unicameral National Assembly , or Assemblée Nationale, from which the
Executive Council of Quebec is appointed.
Until 1968, the
Quebec legislature was bicameral , consisting of the
Legislative Council and the Legislative Assembly . In that year, the
Legislative Council was abolished and the Legislative Assembly was
renamed the National Assembly.
Quebec was the last province to abolish
its legislative council.
The government of
Quebec awards an order of merit called the National
Quebec . It is inspired in part by the French Legion of
Honour . It is conferred upon men and women born or living in Quebec
(but non-Quebecers can be inducted as well) for outstanding
The government of
Quebec takes the majority of its revenue through a
progressive income tax , a 9.975% sales tax and various other taxes
(such as carbon, corporate and capital gains taxes), equalization
payments from the federal government, transfer payments from other
provinces and direct payments. By some measures
Quebec is the highest
taxed province; a 2012 study indicated that "
Quebec companies pay 26
per cent more in taxes than the Canadian average". A 2014 report by
Fraser Institute indicated that "Relative to its size,
the most indebted province in
Canada by a wide margin".
Administrative subdivisions of Quebec
Quebec has subdivisions at the regional, supralocal and local levels.
Excluding administrative units reserved for Aboriginal lands, the
primary types of subdivision are:
At the regional level:
* 17 administrative regions .
At the supralocal level:
* 86 regional county municipalities or RCMs (municipalités
régionales de comté, MRC);
* 2 metropolitan communities (communautés métropolitaines).
At the local level:
* 1,117 local municipalities of various types ;
* 11 agglomerations (agglomérations) grouping 42 of these local
* within 8 local municipalities, 45 boroughs (arrondissements).
Demographics of Quebec and
In the 2016 census ,
Quebec had a population of 8,164,361 living in
3,531,663 of its 3,858,943 total dwellings, a 3.3% change from its
2011 population of 7,903,001. With a land area of 1,356,625.27 km2
(523,795.95 sq mi), it had a population density of 6.0/km2 (15.6/sq
mi) in 2016. In 2013, Statistics
Canada estimated the province's
population to be 8,155,334.
At 1.69 children per woman, Quebec's 2011 fertility rate is above the
Canada-wide rate of 1.61, and is higher than it was at the turn of
the 21st century. However, it is still below the replacement fertility
rate of 2.1. This contrasts with its fertility rates before 1960,
which were among the highest of any industrialized society. Although
Quebec is home to only 24% of the population of Canada, the number of
international adoptions in
Quebec is the highest of all provinces of
Canada. In 2001, 42% of international adoptions in
Canada were carried
out in Quebec. By 2012, the population of
Quebec reached 8 million,
and it is projected to reach 9.2 million in 2056. Life expectancy in
Quebec reached a new high in 2011, with an expectancy of 78.6 years
for men and 83.2 years for women; this ranked as the third-longest
life expectancy among Canadian provinces, behind those of British
All the tables in the following section have been reduced from their
original size, for full tables see main article Demographics of
Origins in this table are self-reported and respondents were allowed
to give more than one answer.
Ethnic origin (2006)
Percentages are calculated as a proportion of the total number of
respondents (7,435,905) and may total more than 100 percent due to
Only groups with 1.5 percent or more of respondents are shown.
The 2006 census counted a total aboriginal population of 108,425 (1.5
percent) including 65,085 North American Indians (0.9 percent), 27,985
Métis (0.4 percent), and 10,950
Inuit (0.15 percent). It should be
noted however, that there is a significant undercount, as many of the
biggest Indian bands regularly refuse to participate in Canadian
censuses for political reasons regarding the question of aboriginal
sovereignty. In particular, the largest Mohawk
Kanesatake ) were not counted.
Nearly 9% of the population of
Quebec belongs to a visible minority
group. This is a lower percentage than that of
British Columbia ,
Alberta , and
Manitoba but higher than that of the other five
provinces. Most visible minorities in
Quebec live in or near Montreal
. Visible minorities in
Visible minorities (2006)
Total visible minority population
Percentages are calculated as a proportion of the total number of
Only groups with more than 0.5 percent of respondents are shown.
Quebec is unique among the provinces in its overwhelmingly Roman
Catholic population. This is a legacy of colonial times when only
Roman Catholics were permitted to settle in
New France . The 2001
census showed the population to be 90.3 percent Christian (in contrast
to 77 percent for the whole country) with 83.4 percent Catholic
Christian (including 83.2 percent Roman Catholic); 4.7 percent
Protestant Christian (including 1.2 percent
Anglican , 0.7 percent
United Church ; and 0.5 percent
Baptist ); 1.4 percent Orthodox
Christian (including 0.7 percent
Greek Orthodox ); and 0.8 percent
other Christian; as well as 1.5 percent Muslim; 1.3 percent Jewish;
Buddhist ; 0.3 percent
Hindu ; and 0.1 percent
Sikh . An
additional 5.8 percent of the population said they had no religious
affiliation (including 5.6 percent who stated that they had no
religion at all).
Percentages are calculated as a proportion of the total number of
Language demographics of Quebec This image shows
the painting Débat sur les langues lors de la première Assemblée
législative du Bas-
Canada le 21 janvier 1793 (Debate on languages
during the first Legislative Assembly of Lower Canada, January 21,
Charles Huot .
Linguistic map of the province of
Quebec (source: Statistics
Canada, 2006 census)
Francophone majority, less than 33% Anglophone
Francophone majority, more than 33% Anglophone Anglophone majority,
less than 33%
Francophone Anglophone majority, more than 33%
Francophone Allophone majority (indigenous) Data not available
The official language of
Quebec is French.
Quebec is the only
Canadian province whose population is mainly
Francophone ; 6,102,210
people (78.1 percent of the population) recorded it as their sole
native language in the 2011 Census, and 6,249,085 (80.0%) recorded
that they spoke it most often at home. Knowledge of French is
widespread even among those who do not speak it natively; in 2011,
about 94.4 percent of the total population reported being able to
speak French, alone or in combination with other languages, while
47.3% reported being able to speak English.
In 2011, 599,230 people (7.7 percent of the population) people in
Quebec declared English to be their mother tongue , and 767,415 (9.8
percent) used it most often as their home language The
English-speaking community or Anglophones are entitled to services in
English in the areas of justice, health, and education; services in
English are offered in municipalities in which more than half the
residents have English as their mother tongue. Allophones , people
whose mother tongue is neither French nor English, made up 12.3
percent (961,700) of the population, according to the 2011 census,
though a smaller figure – 554,400 (7.1 percent) – actually used
these languages most often in the home.
A considerable number of
Quebec residents consider themselves to be
bilingual in French and English. In Quebec, about 42.6 percent of the
population (3,328,725 people) report knowing both languages; this is
the highest proportion of bilinguals of any Canadian province. One
specific area in the
Bilingual Belt called the West Island of
Montreal, represented by the federal electoral district of
Lac-Saint-Louis , is the most bilingual area in the province: 72.8% of
its residents claim to know English and French according to the most
recent census. In contrast, in the rest of
Canada , in 2006 only
about 10.2 percent (2,430,990) of the population had a knowledge of
both of the country's official languages. Altogether, 17.5% of
Canadians are bilingual in French and English.
In 2011, the most common mother tongue languages in the province were
as follows: (Figures shown are for single-language responses only.)
Mother tongue language (2011)
native speakers Percentage of
Following were Creoles (0.8%), Chinese (0.6%), Greek (0.5%),
Portuguese (0.5%), Romanian (0.4%), Vietnamese (0.3%), and Russian
(0.3%). In addition, 152,820 (2.0%) reported having more than one
English is not designated an official language by
Quebec law .
However, both English and French are required by the Constitution Act,
1867 for the enactment of laws and regulations and any person may use
English or French in the National Assembly and the courts of Quebec.
The books and records of the National Assembly must also be kept in
both languages. Until 1969,
Quebec was the only officially bilingual
Canada and most public institutions functioned in both
languages. English was also used in the legislature, government
commissions and courts.
Since the 1970s, languages other than French on commercial signs have
been permitted only if French is given marked prominence. This law has
been the subject of periodic controversy since its inception. The
written forms of French place-names in
Canada retain their diacritics
such as accent marks over vowels in English text. Legitimate
exceptions are MONTREAL and QUEBEC. However, the accented forms are
increasingly evident in some publications. The Canadian Style states
that MONTRéAL and QUéBEC (the city) must retain their accents in
English federal documents.
List of population centres in Quebec
LARGEST METROPOLITAN AREAS IN QUEBEC
Canada 2011 Census
Economy of Quebec
Quebec has an advanced , market-based , and open economy . In 2009,
its gross domestic product (GDP) of US$32,408 per capita at purchasing
power parity puts the province at par with Japan, Italy and Spain, but
remains lower than the Canadian average of US$37,830 per capita. The
Quebec is ranked the 37th largest economy in the world just
Greece and 28th for the gross domestic product (GDP) per
capita. View of
Montreal from the Mont-Royal belvedere
The economy of
Quebec represents 20.36% of the total GDP of
Like most industrialized countries, the economy of
Quebec is based
mainly on the services sector . Quebec's economy has traditionally
been fuelled by abundant natural resources, a well-developed
infrastructure, and average productivity. The provincial GDP in 2010
was C$319,348 billion, which makes
Quebec the second largest economy
The provincial debt-to-GDP ratio peaked at 50% in fiscal year
2014-2015, and is projected to decline to 40% in 2021-2022. The
credit rating of
Quebec is currently Aa2 according to the Moody\'s
agency. In June 2017 S"> The Institut national de la recherche
scientifique helping to advance scientific knowledge and to train a
new generation of students in various scientific and technological
sectors. More than one million Quebecers work in the field of science
and technology which represents more than 30% of Quebec's GDP.
Quebec's economy has undergone tremendous changes over the last
decade. Firmly grounded in the knowledge economy ,
Quebec has one of
the highest growth rate of gross domestic product (GDP) in Canada. The
knowledge sector represents about 30.9% of Quebec's GDP.
experiencing faster growth of its R&D spending than other Canadian
provinces. Quebec's spending in R&D in 2011 was equal to 2.63% of
GDP, above the
European Union average of 1.84% and will have to
reaches the target of devoting 3% of GDP to research and development
activities in 2013 according to the
Lisbon Strategy . The percentage
spent on research and technology (R&D) is the highest in
higher than the averages for the Organisation for Economic
Co-operation and Development and the G7 countries. Approximately 1.1
million Quebecers work in the field of science and technology. A
mockup of a
Bombardier CSeries being developed by Bombardier Aerospace
. Since 1856,
Quebec has established itself as a pioneer of modern
Quebec has over 260 companies which employ about
43,000 people. Approximately 62% of the Canadian aerospace industry is
based in Quebec.
Quebec is also a major player in several leading-edge industries
including aerospace , information technologies and software and
multimedia . Approximately 60% of the production of the Canadian
aerospace industry are from Quebec, where sales totalled C$12.4
billion in 2009.
Quebec is one of North America's leading high-tech
player. This vast sector encompassing approximately 7,300 businesses
and employ more than 145,000 people.
Pauline Marois has recently
unveiled a two billion dollar budget for the period between 2013 to
2017 to create about 115,000 new jobs in knowledge and innovation
sectors. The government promises to provide about 3% of Quebec's GDP
in research and development (R"> Mining town of
Fermont , North
Shore , the beginning of the road of iron.
The abundance of natural resources gives
Quebec an advantageous
position on the world market.
Quebec stands out particularly in the
mining sector, ranking among the top ten areas to do business in
mining. It also stands for the exploitation of its forest resources.
Quebec is remarkable for the natural resources of its vast territory.
It has about 30 mines, 158 exploration companies and fifteen primary
processing industries. Many metallic minerals are exploited, the
principals are gold, iron, copper and zinc . Many other substances are
extracted including titanium , asbestos , silver, magnesium , nickel
and many other metals and industrial minerals. However, only 40% of
the mineral potential of
Quebec is currently known. In 2003, the value
of mineral exploitation reached
Quebec 3.7 billion Canadian dollars.
Moreover, as a major centre of exploration for diamonds,
seen, since 2002, an increase in its mineral explorations,
particularly in the Northwest as well as in the
Otish Mountains and
Torngat Mountains .
The vast majority (90.5%) of Quebec's forests are publicly owned.
Forests cover more than half of Quebec's territory, for a total area
of nearly 761,100 square kilometres (293,900 sq mi). The Quebec
forest area covers seven degrees of latitude.
More than a million lakes and rivers cover Quebec, occupying 21% of
the total area of its territory. The aquatic environment is composed
of 12.1% of fresh water and 9.2% of saltwater (percentage of total QC
SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
The government of
Quebec has launched the Stratégie québécoise de
la recherche et de l'innovation (SQRI) in 2007 which aims to promote
development through research, science and technology. The government
hopes to create a strong culture of innovation in
Quebec for the next
decades and to create a sustainable economy. The spending on research
and development reached some 7.824 billion dollars in 2007, roughly
the equivalent of 2.63% of Quebec's GDP.
Quebec is ranked, as of
March 2011, 13th in the world in terms of investment in research and
development. The research and development expenditures will be more
than 3% of the province's GDP in 2013. The R&D expenditure in Quebec
is higher than the average G7 and
OECD countries. Science and
technology are key factors in the economic position of Quebec. More
than one million people in
Quebec are employed in the science and
Hubert Reeves , astrophysicist, awarded the
Albert Einstein Medal .
Rudolph A. Marcus , chemist and
Nobel Prize in Chemistry laureate.
Héroux-Devtek Has designed and manufactured the
Apollo Lunar Module
Apollo Lunar Module
Marc Garneau , the first Canadian in outer space (October 1984).
Mont Mégantic Observatory, the second largest telescope in Eastern
A TM4 MФTIVE motor, invented by
TM4 Electrodynamic Systems , a
subsidiary of Hydro-Québec.
The ferry N.M. Camille-Marcoux, of the Société des traversiers
du Québec, ensuring liaison Baie-Comeau—
Development and security of land transportation in
provided by the ministère des Transports du Québec . Other
organizations, such as the
Canadian Coast Guard and Nav
provide the same service for the sea and air transportation. The
Commission des transports du Québec works with the freight carriers
and the public transport.
The réseau routier québécois (
Quebec road network) is managed by
the Société de l\'assurance automobile du Québec (SAAQ) (Quebec
Automobile Insurance Corporation) and consists of about 185,000
kilometres (115,000 mi) of highways and national, regional, local,
collector and forest roads. In addition,
Quebec has almost 12,000
bridges, tunnels, retaining walls, culverts and other structures such
Quebec Bridge , the
Laviolette Bridge and the Louis-Hippolyte
Lafontaine Bridge-Tunnel .
In the waters of the St. Lawrence there are eight deep-water ports
for the transhipment of goods. In 2003, 3886 cargo and 9.7 million
tonnes of goods transited the
Quebec portion of the St. Lawrence
Concerning rail transport,
Quebec has 6,678 kilometres (4,150 mi) of
railways integrated in the large North American network. Although
primarily intended for the transport of goods through companies such
Canadian National (CN) and the
Canadian Pacific (CP), the
Quebec railway network is also used by inter-city passengers via Via
Amtrak . In April 2012, plans were unveiled for the
construction of an 800 km (497 mi) railway running north from
Sept-Îles , to support mining and other resource extraction in the
The upper air network includes 43 airports that offer scheduled
services on a daily basis. In addition, the
Government of Quebec owns
airports and heliports to increase the accessibility of local services
to communities in the Basse-
Côte-Nord and northern regions.
Various other transport networks crisscross the province of Quebec,
including hiking trails, snowmobile trails and bike paths; the Green
Road being the largest with nearly 4,000 kilometres (2,500 mi) in
List of generating stations in Quebec and
Quebec has been described as a potential clean energy superpower .
The energy balance of
Quebec has undergone a large shift over the past
30 years. In 2008, electricity ranked as the main form of energy used
Quebec (41.6%), followed by oil (38.2%) and natural gas (10.7%).
Quebec is the fourth largest producer of hydroelectricity in the
world after China, Brazil and the United States and relies almost
exclusively (96% in 2008) on this source of renewable energy for its
Culture of Quebec
Quebec is at the centre of French-speaking culture in North America.
Its culture is a symbol of a distinct perspective.
has been one expression of this perspective. Quebec's culture blends
its historic roots with its aboriginal heritage and the contributions
of recent immigrants, as well as receiving a strong influence from
English-speaking North America.
Montreal's cabarets rose to the forefront of the city's cultural life
Prohibition era of
Canada and the United States in the
1920s. The cabarets radically transformed the artistic scene, greatly
influencing the live entertainment industry of Quebec. The Quartier
Latin (English: Latin Quarter) of Montreal, and Vieux-Québec
Old Quebec ) in
Quebec City, are two hubs of activity for
today's artists. Life in the cafés and "terrasses" (outdoor
restaurant terraces) reveals a Latin influence in Quebec's culture,
with the théâtre Saint-Denis in Montréal and the Capitole de
Québec theatre in
Quebec City being among the principal attractions.
A number of governmental and non-government organizations support
cultural activity in Quebec. The Conseil des arts et des lettres du
Québec (CALQ) is an initiative of the Ministry of Culture and
Communications (Quebec) . It supports creation, innovation,
production, and international exhibits for all cultural fields of
Quebec. The Société de développement des entreprises culturelles
(SODEC) works to promote and fund individuals working in the cultural
Prix du Québec is an award given by the government to
confer the highest distinction and honour to individuals demonstrating
exceptional achievement in their respective cultural field.
On February 8, 2007,
Jean Charest announced the
setting up of a Commission tasked with consulting
Quebec Society on
the matter of arrangements regarding cultural diversity . The
Premier's press release reasserted the three fundamental values of
Equality between men and women, primacy of the French language, and
separation of church and state constitute the fundamental values. They
are not subject to any arrangement. They cannot be subordinated by any
Quebec is a free and democratic society that abides by
the rule of law .
Quebec society bases its cohesion and specificity
on a set of statements, a few notable examples of which include:
Charter of Human Rights and Freedoms
Charter of the French Language
Civil Code of Quebec
MUSIC AND DANCE
Music of Quebec and
Dance of Quebec
Traditional music is imbued with many dances, such as the jig , the
quadrille , the reel and line dancing , which developed in the
festivities since the early days of colonization. Various instruments
are more popular in Quebec's culture: harmonica (music-of-mouth or
lip-destruction), fiddle , spoons , jaw harp and accordion . The
podorythmie is a characteristic of traditional
Quebec music and means
giving the rhythm with the feet.
Quebec traditional music is
currently provided by various contemporary groups seen mostly during
Christmas and New Year's Eve celebrations,
Quebec National Holiday and
many local festivals.
Being a modern cosmopolitan society, today, all types of music can be
found in Quebec. From folk music to hip-hop , music has always played
an important role in Quebercers culture. From
La Bolduc in the
1920s–1930s to the contemporary artists, the music in
announced multiple songwriters and performers, pop singers and
crooners, music groups and many more. Quebec's most popular artists of
the last century include the singers
Félix Leclerc (1950s), Gilles
Vigneault (1960s–present), Kate and Anna McGarrigle
Céline Dion (1980s–present). The First
Nations and the
Quebec also have their own traditional music.
From Quebec's musical repertoire, the song A La Claire Fontaine was
the anthem of the
New France , Patriots and
French Canadian , then
replaced by O
Canada . Currently, the song
Gens du pays is by far
preferred by many Quebecers to be the national anthem of Quebec. The
Association québécoise de l\'industrie du disque, du spectacle et de
la vidéo (ADISQ) was created in 1978 to promote the music industry in
Orchestre symphonique de Québec and the Orchestre
symphonique de Montréal are respectively associated with the Opéra
de Québec and the Opéra de
Montreal whose performances are presented
Grand Théâtre de Québec and at
Place des Arts . The Ballets
Jazz de Montreal, the Grands Ballets and
La La La Human Steps are
three important professional troupes of contemporary dance .
Celine Dion during her concert Taking Chances in 2008
Samian during the National Holiday in
Maisonneuve Park . Samian is an
Anishinabeg rap singer who sings both in French and in Algonquin
Loco Locass during the FrancoFolies de Montréal , a large annual
music and performance festival held in
Montreal featuring over 1,000
French-language performers from all over the world.
FILM, TELEVISION, AND RADIO
Cinema of Quebec and
Television in Quebec
Cinémathèque québécoise has a mandate to promote the film and
television heritage of Quebec. Similarly, the National Film Board of
Canada (NFB), a federal Crown corporation, provides for the same
mission in Canada. In a similar way, the Association of Film and
Television in Quebec (APFTQ) promotes independent production in film
and television. While the Association of Producers and Directors of
Quebec (APDQ) represents the business of filmmaking and television,
the Association of Community Radio Broadcasters of
(French acronym) represents the independent radio stations. Several
movie theatres across
Quebec ensure the dissemination of Quebec
cinema. With its cinematic installations, such as the Cité du cinéma
and Mel's studios, the city of
Montreal is home to the filming of
various productions. The State corporation
Télé-Québec , the
federal Crown corporation CBC , general and specialized private
channels, networks, independent and community radio stations broadcast
Quebec téléromans , the national and regional news,
interactive and spoken programmations, etc. Les Rendez-vous du
cinéma québécois is a festival surrounding the ceremony of the
Jutra Awards Night that rewards work and personalities of Quebec
cinema. The Artis and the
Gemini Awards gala recognize the
personalities of television and radio industry in
Quebec and French
Canada. The Film Festival of the 3 Americas,
Quebec City , the
Festival of International Short Film, Saguenay , the World Film
Festival and the Festival of New Cinema ,
Montreal , are other annual
events surrounding the film industry in Quebec.
LITERATURE AND THEATRE
Literature of Quebec
From New France,
Quebec literature was first developed in the travel
accounts of explorers such as
Jacques Cartier ,
Jean de Brébeuf , the
Baron de La Hontan and
Nicolas Perrot , describing their relations
with indigenous peoples . The Moulin à paroles traces the great texts
that have shaped the history of
Quebec since its foundation in 1534
until the era of modernity. The first to write the history of Quebec,
since its discovery, was the historian
François-Xavier Garneau . This
author will be part of the current of patriotic literature (also known
as the "poets of the country" and literary identity) that will arise
after the Patriots Rebellion of 1837–1838.
Various tales and stories are told through oral tradition, such as,
among many more, the legends of the
Bogeyman , the
the Black Horse of Trois-Pistoles, the Complainte de Cadieux, the
Corriveau , the dancing devil of Saint-Ambroise, the Giant Beaupré ,
the monsters of the lakes Pohénégamook and Memphremagog , of Quebec
Bridge (called the Devil's Bridge), the
Rocher Percé and of Rose
Latulipe, for example.
Quebec poets and prominent authors marked their era and today
remain anchored in the collective imagination, like, among others,
Philippe Aubert de Gaspé,
Octave Crémazie ,
Honoré Beaugrand ,
Émile Nelligan ,
Lionel Groulx ,
Gabrielle Roy ,
Hubert Aquin ,
Michel Tremblay ,
Marie Laberge , Fred Pellerin and
Gaston Miron . The
regional novel from
Quebec is called Terroir novel and is a literary
tradition specific to the province. It includes such works as The Old
Maria Chapdelaine , Un homme et son péché , Le Survenant,
etc. There are also many successful plays from this literary category,
Les Belles-sœurs and Broue (Brew).
Among the theatre troupes are the Compagnie Jean-Duceppe , the
Théâtre La Rubrique at the Pierrette-Gaudreault venue of the
Institut of arts in Saguenay, the Théâtre Le Grenier, etc. In
addition to the network of cultural centres in Quebec, the venues
Monument-National and the Rideau Vert (green curtain)
Montreal , the Trident Theatre in
Quebec City , etc. The
National Theatre School of
Canada and the Conservatoire de musique et
d\'art dramatique du Québec form the future players.
Popular French-language contemporary writers include
Louis Caron ,
Suzanne Jacob ,
Yves Beauchemin , and
Gilles Archambault . Mavis
Gallant , born in Quebec, lived in Paris from the 1950s onward.
Well-known English-language writers from
Quebec include Leonard Cohen
Mordecai Richler , and
Neil Bissoondath .
Henri Julien , La
Émile Nelligan ,
Quebec poet, famous for his poem Winter evening
Charles Daudelin , La Cavalière, 1963, Sculpture installed in
front of the pavilion Gérard Morisset of the
Quebec National Museum
of Fine Arts in
First influenced since the days of
New France by Catholicism, with
works from Frère Luc (Brother Luke) and more recently from Ozias
Guido Nincheri , art of
Quebec has developed around the
specific characteristics of its landscapes and cultural, historical,
social and political representations.
Thus, the development of
Quebec masterpieces in painting, printmaking
and sculpture is marked by the contribution of artists such as
Louis-Philippe Hébert ,
Cornelius Krieghoff ,
Alfred Laliberté ,
Marc-Aurèle Fortin ,
Marc-Aurèle de Foy Suzor-Coté , Jean Paul
Clarence Gagnon , Adrien Dufresne,
Alfred Pellan ,
Jean-Philippe Dallaire ,
Charles Daudelin ,
Arthur Villeneuve ,
Jean-Paul Riopelle ,
Paul-Émile Borduas and
Marcelle Ferron .
The Fine arts of
Quebec are displayed at the
Quebec National Museum
of Fine Arts , the
Montreal Museum of Contemporary Art , the Montreal
Museum of Fine Arts , the
Quebec Salon des métiers d'art and in many
art galleries. While many works decorate the public areas of Quebec,
others are displayed in foreign countries such as the sculpture
Embâcle (Jam) by
Charles Daudelin on Québec Place in Paris and the
statue Québec Libre! (free Quebec!) by
Armand Vaillancourt in San
Montreal School of Fine Arts forms the painters,
printmakers and sculptors of
Various buildings reflect the architectural heritage that
characterizes Quebec, such as religious buildings, city halls, houses
of large estates, and other locations throughout the province.
CIRCUS AND STREET ART
The show Dralion, Cirque du Soleil, introduced in 2004
Several circus troupes were created in recent decades, the most
important being without any doubt the
Cirque du Soleil . Among these
troops are contemporary, travelling and on-horseback circuses, such as
Les 7 Doigts de la Main ,
Cirque Éloize ,
Cavalia , Kosmogonia, Saka
and Cirque Akya. Presented outdoors under a tent or in venues similar
Montreal Casino , the circuses attract large crowds both in
Quebec and abroad. In the manner of touring companies of the
Renaissance , the clowns , street performers, minstrels , or
troubadours travel from city to city to play their comedies. Although
they may appear randomly from time to time during the year, they are
always visible in the cultural events such as the Winterlude in
Quebec Winter Carnival
Quebec Winter Carnival , the
Gatineau Hot Air Balloon
Festival , the
Quebec City Summer Festival , the Just for Laughs
Montreal and the Festival of
New France in Quebec.
The National Circus School and the École de cirque de Québec were
created to train future
Contemporary circus artists. For its part,
Tohu, la Cité des Arts du Cirque was founded in 2004 to disseminate
the circus arts.
Répertoire du patrimoine culturel du Québec and
Bibliothèque et Archives nationales du Québec The school and
the convent of the Congregation of Our Lady of Good Council, the ghost
town of Val-Jalbert,
The Cultural Heritage Fund is a program of the
Quebec government for
the conservation and development of Quebec's heritage, together with
various laws. Several organizations ensure that same mission, both in
the social and cultural traditions in the countryside and heritage
buildings, including the Commission des biens culturels du Québec,
Quebec Heritage Fondation, the Conservation Centre of Quebec, the
Centre for development of living heritage, the
Quebec Council of
living heri tage, the
Quebec Association of heritage interpretation,
Several sites, houses and historical works reflect the cultural
heritage of Quebec, such as the Village Québécois d\'Antan , the
historical village of Val-Jalbert , the
Fort Chambly , the national
home of the Patriots, the Chicoutimi pulp mill (Pulperie de
Lachine Canal and the Victoria Bridge . Strongly
influenced by the presence of the
Catholic Church, the development of
the religious history of
Quebec is provided by organizations like the
Council of the religious heritage of Quebec. Since 2007, the
government promotes, with the various players in the field, the
conclusion of agreements on the use of property belonging to episcopal
factories and corporations to establish "partnerships in financing the
restoration and renovation of religious buildings".
As of December 2011, there are 190 National Historic Sites of Canada
in Quebec. These sites were designated as being of national historic
Various museums tell the cultural history of Quebec, like the Museum
of Civilization , the Museum of French America , the
McCord Museum or
Montreal Museum of Archaeology and History in Pointe-à-Callière
, displaying artifacts, paintings and other remains from the past of
Quebec. Many literary works reproduce the daily lives of the past,
following the social and cultural traditions of
series reproducing the old days such as the trilogy of Pierre
Gauvreau (Le Temps d'une paix, Cormoran and Le Volcan tranquille), La
Famille Plouffe , Les Belles Histoires des Pays-d\'en-Haut , La Petite
Patrie , Entre chien et loup,
Les Filles de Caleb , Blanche, Au nom du
père et du fils, Marguerite Volant, Nos Étés or Musée Éden, among
Cuisine of Quebec
The historical context of 'traditional'
Quebec cuisine is from the
fur trade period and many dishes have a high fat or lard content. From
the early 17th century, French settlers populating North America were
interested in a new cuisine to confront the climate and the needs
arising from the work of colonization. Mindful of the same nutritional
needs as settlers from
Acadia , it has many similarities with Acadian
cuisine. Quebec's cuisine has a strong French and Irish influence,
although many aspects of Canadian aboriginal cuisine have also had a
significant impact on
Quebec is most famous for its
Pâté Chinois ,
Poutine , St. Catherine\'s taffy among
others. The temps des sucres (sugar season) is one of the oldest of
Quebec culinary traditions. During springtime, many Quebecers go to
the cabane à sucre (sugar house) for a traditional meal. The Jewish
Montreal has contributed Montreal-style bagels and smoked
meat which is similar to pastrami .
Quebec has produced beer since the beginning of colonization
especially with the emergence of spruce beer . In 1668, Jean Talon
founded a brewery in
Quebec City, but it closed a decade later.
Although many people tried to produce a beer between the 17th and 18th
centuries, it is only since the 1980s that the industries had produced
on a larger scale. Today there are nearly a hundred breweries and
Molson Coors ,
Labatt and many others.
Quebec also produces wine, ice wine and ice cider .
Quebec has produced cheese for centuries. The first cheese-making
school in North America was established in Saint-Denis-de-Kamouraska
in 1893. It was at this moment that the monks of La Trappe of Oka
began to produce the famous
Oka cheese . Today there are over 300
different cheeses in Quebec.
A classic poutine from
La Banquise in
Montreal-style smoked meat from Schwartz\'s in
La fin du monde by
Unibroue won the World Beer Awards 2011 for the
Blonde Ale in the North America.
The Oka Cheese originated in 1893. Since that time,
Quebec has become
a major producer of Canadian cheese.
Canadiens at the
Quebec constitutes an essential dimension of Quebec
culture. The practice of sports and outdoor activities in
influenced largely by its geography and climate.
Ice hockey remains
the national sport. This sport, which was played for the first time on
March 3, 1875, at the Victoria Skating Rink in
Montreal and promoted
over the years by numerous achievements of the centenary of the
Canadiens , still raises passions. Other major sports
Canadian Football with the
Montreal Alouettes , soccer with
Montreal Impact , the Grand Prix du
Canada Formula 1 racing with
drivers such as
Gilles Villeneuve and
Jacques Villeneuve , and
professional baseball with the former
Montreal Expos . During its
Quebec has hosted several major sporting events; including
1976 Summer Olympics , the Fencing World Championships in 1967,
track cycling in 1974, and the
Transat Québec-Saint-Malo race created
for the first time in 1984.
Symbols of Quebec Fleur-de-lys
In 1939, the government of
Quebec unilaterally ratified its coat of
arms to reflect Quebec\'s political history : French rule (gold lily
on blue background), British rule (lion on red background) and
Canadian rule (maple leaves) and with Quebec's motto below "Je me
Je me souviens ("I remember") was first carved under the
coat of arms of Quebec's Parliament Building façade in 1883. It is an
official part of the coat of arms and has been the official licence
plate motto since 1978, replacing "La belle province" (the beautiful
province). The expression La belle province is still used mostly in
tourism as a nickname for the province. The FLEURDELISé flying
at Place d\'Armes in Montreal.
The fleur-de-lis, the ancient symbol of the
French monarchy , first
arrived on the shores of the
Gaspésie in 1534 with
Jacques Cartier on
his first voyage. When
Samuel de Champlain
Samuel de Champlain founded
Québec City in
1608, his ship hoisted the merchant flag of a white cross on a blue
background. By 1758 at the
Battle of Carillon , the Flag of Carillon
would become the basis of Quebec's desire to have its own flag. By
1903, the parent of today's flag had taken shape, known as the
Fleurdelisé ". The flag in its present form with its 4 white
"fleur-de-lis " lilies on a blue background with a white cross
Union Jack on Quebec's Parliament Building on January 21,
OTHER OFFICIAL SYMBOLS
* The floral emblem of
Quebec is the
Iris versicolor .
* Since 1987 the avian emblem of
Quebec has been the snowy owl .
* An official tree, the yellow birch (bouleau jaune, merisier),
symbolizes the importance Quebecers give to the forests. The tree is
known for the variety of its uses and commercial value, as well as its
In 1998 the
Montreal Insectarium sponsored a poll to choose an
official insect. The white admiral butterfly (Limenitis arthemis) won
with 32% of the 230 660 votes against the spotted lady beetle
(Coleomegilla maculata lengi), the ebony jewelwing damselfly
(Calopteryx maculata), a species of bumble bee (Bombus impatiens) and
the six-spotted tiger beetle (Cicindela sexguttata sexguttata).
FêTE NATIONALE (NATIONAL HOLIDAY)
National Holiday (Quebec)
In 1977, the
Quebec Parliament declared June 24 to be Quebec's
National Holiday. Historically June 24 was a holiday honouring French
Canada's patron saint, St. John the
Baptist , which is why it is
commonly known as La Saint-Jean-Baptiste (often shortened to La
St-Jean). On this day, the song "
Gens du pays " by
Gilles Vigneault is
often heard and commonly regarded as Quebec's unofficial anthem. The
festivities occur on June 23 and 24 and are celebrated all over
Quebec. In cities like Québec and Montréal , great shows are
organized in the main public places (such as the Abraham plains,
Québec , or Maisonneuve Park, Montréal ) where several of the most
Quebec artists relay each others until late at night.
Index of Quebec-related articles
Outline of Quebec
Quebec City portal
* ^ A B "Population and dwelling counts, for Canada, provinces and
territories, 2016 and 2011 censuses". Statistics
Canada . February 8,
2017. Retrieved February 12, 2017.
* ^ "Population by year of
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Canada . September 26, 2014. Retrieved March 20, 2016.
* ^ A B The term Québécois (feminine: Québécoise), which is
usually reserved for francophone Quebecers , may be rendered in
English without both e-acute (é) : Quebecois (fem.: Quebecoise).
(Oxford Guide to
Canadian English Usage; ISBN 0-19-541619-8 ; p. 335)
* ^ Office Québécois de la langue francaise. "Status of the
French language". Government of Quebec. Retrieved November 10, 2010.
* ^ "Gross domestic product, expenditure-based, by province and
territory (2015)". Statistics Canada. November 9, 2016. Retrieved
January 13, 2017.
Canada Post (January 17, 2011). "Addressing Guidelines". Canada
Post Corporation. Retrieved July 12, 2011.
* ^ A B C D E F
Portal (September 29, 2010). "National Flag
and Emblems". Government of Quebec. Retrieved July 12, 2011.
* ^ "Quebec".
Oxford English Dictionary
Oxford English Dictionary (3rd ed.). Oxford
University Press . September 2005. (Subscription or UK public library
* ^ According to the Canadian government , QUéBEC (with the acute
accent ) is the official name in French and QUEBEC (without the
accent) is the province's official name in English ; the name is one
of 81 locales of pan-Canadian significance with official forms in both
languages. In this system, the official name of the capital is Québec
in both official languages. The
Quebec government renders both names
as Québec in both languages.
* ^ (Merriam & Webster 2003 )
* ^ "Community highlights for Nord-du-Québec". Statistics Canada.
2006. Retrieved December 1, 2008.
* ^ "Explore Québec". Québec Original. Retrieved October 2, 2015.
* ^ A B "Canada". Berkley Center for Religion, Peace, and World
Affairs . Retrieved December 13, 2011. See drop-down essay on
"History Since 1960"
* ^ "Routine Proceedings: The Québécois". Hansard of 39th
Parliament, 1st Session; No. 087. Parliament of Canada. November 22,
2006. Retrieved April 30, 2008.
* ^ "House of Commons passes
Quebec nation motion". CTV News.
November 27, 2006. Archived from the original on March 6, 2008.
Retrieved October 3, 2009. "The motion is largely seen as a symbolic
recognition of the Québécois nation."
* ^ Poitras, François (January 2004). "Regional Economies Special
Report Micro-Economic Policy Analysis" (PDF). Industry Canada.
Archived from the original (PDF) on June 11, 2008. Retrieved May 15,
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Names". In "Languages", ed. Ives Goddard. Vol. 17 of Handbook of North
American Indians, ed. William C. Sturtevant. Washington, D.C.:
Smithsonian Institution, p. 191.
* ^ "Canada: A People\'s History – The birth of Quebec". Canadian
Broadcast Corporation. 2001. Retrieved August 26, 2006.
* ^ "his Most Christian Majesty cedes and guaranties to his said
Britannick Majesty, in full right, Canada, with all its dependencies,
as well as the island of Cape Breton, and all the other islands and
coasts in the gulph and river of St. Lawrence, and in general, every
thing that depends on the said countries, lands, islands, and coasts,
with the sovereignty, property, possession, and all rights acquired by
treaty, or otherwise, which the Most Christian King and the Crown of
France have had till now over the said countries, lands, islands,
places, coasts, and their inhabitants" – Treaty of Paris, 1763
* ^ Canadian Association of Geographers (1968). Canada: a
Geographical Interpretation. Taylor & Francis. p. 33. ISBN
9780458906000 . GGKEY:E1DDKEKZ35S.
* ^ Henry B. Peirce; L.H. Everts & Co (1877). History of Calhoun
County, Michigan ... With illustrations descriptive of its scenery,
palatial residences, public buildings .. L. H. Everts co. p. 10.
* ^ Ninette Kelley; Michael J. Trebilcock (September 30, 2010). The
Making of the Mosaic: A History of Canadian Immigration Policy.
University of Toronto Press. p. 40. ISBN 978-0-8020-9536-7 .
* ^ Keith Johnston (1881). A physical, historical, political, &
descriptive geography. E. Stanford. p. 98.
* ^ Paul André Linteau; René Durocher; Jean-Claude Robert (1983).
Quebec, a History, 1867–1929. James Lorimer & Company. p. 255. ISBN
* ^ Library of the
Parliament of Canada
Parliament of Canada , "Archived copy". Archived
from the original on June 13, 2006. Retrieved October 24, 2006. .
* ^ A B Toby Elaine Morantz (June 11, 2002). The White Man\'s Gonna
Getcha: The Colonial Challenge to the Crees in Québec. McGill-Queens.
p. 133. ISBN 978-0-7735-2299-2 .
* ^ Canadian Intergovernmental Affairs Secretariat (October 31,
2001). "The Minister of Natural Resources of
Quebec and Minister for
Canadian Intergovernmental Affairs express Quebec\'s position in
relation to the constitutional changes in the designation of
Newfoundland". Government of Quebec. Archived from the original on
April 28, 2005. Retrieved December 10, 2009.
* ^ Institut de la statistique du Québec. "Comparison between the
Quebec and various countries" (in French). Government of
Quebec. Archived from the original on August 8, 2011. Retrieved July
* ^ A B Elson, J. A. "St Lawrence Lowland". Canadian Encyclopedia.
Historica Foundation. Archived from the original on October 26, 2007.
Retrieved April 28, 2008.
* ^ A B C Ministry of Environment of
Quebec 2002 , p. 5.
* ^ Babin 1986 , p. 39.
* ^ Boyer, Marcel (January 12, 2008). "11 idées pour changer le
Québec" (in French). Le Journal de Montréal. Archived from the
original on August 25, 2011. Retrieved July 11, 2011.
* ^ Commission de toponymie du Québec. "Réservoir de Caniapiscau"
(in French). Government of Quebec. Retrieved July 10, 2010.
* ^ "Saguenay-St. Lawrence National Park". Digital Wizards
(Ontario) Inc. Retrieved July 11, 2011.
* ^ "Mont D\'Iberville, Québec/Newfoundland". PeakBagger. November
1, 2004. Retrieved July 14, 2011.
* ^ Parks
Canada (May 2, 2008). "
Mingan Archipelago National Park
Reserve of Canada". Government of Canada. Archived from the original
on November 20, 2007. Retrieved May 15, 2008.
* ^ Natural Resources
Canada (October 25, 2006). "Borderlands / St.
Lawrence Lowlands". The Atlas of Canada. Government of Canada.
Archived from the original on January 5, 2008. Retrieved April 28,
* ^ Lasalle, Pierre; Robert J. Rogerson. "Champlain Sea". The
Canadian Encyclopedia. Historica Foundation. Archived from the
original on December 9, 2007. Retrieved April 28, 2008.
* ^ A B C D E F "Natural History of Quebec". A description of the
natural history of the province. McGill University. Retrieved June 22,
* ^ Johnabbott Faculty. "Köppen Climate world map" (PDF).
johnabbott.qc.ca. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 30,
2011. Retrieved July 13, 2011.
* ^ Climat-Québec. "Climate Normals, tabular, year". Government of
Canada. Retrieved July 13, 2011.
* ^ Climat-Québec. "Tornadoes". Government of Canada. Retrieved
July 13, 2011.
* ^ Climat-Québec. "Climate Normals, tabular, season". Government
of Canada. Retrieved July 13, 2011.
* ^ "Sunrise, Sunset, Length of Daytime". time.unitarium.com.
Portal (October 12, 2006). "Zones climatiques du
Québec". Government of Quebec. Retrieved January 23, 2010.
* ^ Immigration Québec. "Moyenne mensuelle des températures de
Québec (ville) et Montréal". Government of Quebec. Retrieved June 2,
* ^ A B Climat-Québec (August 30, 2010). "Climate Normals,
Tabular". Government of Canada. Retrieved July 12, 2011.
* ^ Environment
Canada (December 29, 2008). "Canada\'s Top Ten
Weather Stories for 2008". Government of Canada. Archived from the
original on August 7, 2011. Retrieved July 13, 2011.
* ^ Société Radio-Canada. "Records de neige". Canadian
Broadcasting Corporation CBC (Radio-
Canada SRC). Archived from the
original on April 18, 2014. Retrieved January 23, 2010.
* ^ Radio-
Canada avec Agence France Presse (March 19, 2010).
"Climat : L\'hiver le plus chaud de l\'histoire du pays" (in French).
Canadian Broadcasting Corporation
Canadian Broadcasting Corporation CBC (Radio-
Canada SRC). Retrieved
April 3, 2010.
* ^ "National Climate Data and Information Archive". Environment
Canada. Archived from the original on July 9, 2013. Retrieved October
* ^ Environnement Canada. "La biodiversité du Saint-Laurent" (in
French). Government of Canada. Archived from the original on August
25, 2011. Retrieved July 12, 2011.
* ^ Ministère des Ressources naturelles et de la Faune. "Espèces
fauniques du Nunavik" (in French). Government of Quebec. Archived from
the original on July 6, 2011. Retrieved July 12, 2011.
* ^ Ministère des Ressources naturelles et de la Faune. "Poissons
du Québec" (in French). Government of Quebec. Archived from the
original on July 6, 2011. Retrieved July 12, 2011.
* ^ Brûlotte 2009 .
* ^ Lepage, Denis. "List of
Quebec birds" (in French). Les Oiseaux
du Québec. Retrieved June 24, 2011.
* ^ Les Publications du Québec: Éditeur officiel du Québec (June
1, 2011). "Loi sur les races animales du patrimoine agricole du
Québec (L.R.Q., c. R-0.01)" (in French). Government of Quebec.
Retrieved July 12, 2011.
* ^ Conseil des appellations réservées et des termes valorisants.
Quebec Recognized Reserved Designations". Ministère de
l'Agriculture, des Pêcheries et de l'Alimentation du Québec.
Retrieved July 14, 2011.
* ^ "Animal Welfare". Fédération des producteurs de porcs du
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* The 1837–1838 Rebellion in Lower Canada, Images from the McCord
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