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London is the
capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller lowercase (or more formally ''minusc ...
and
largest city The United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization that aims to maintain international peace and international security, security, develop friendly relations among nations, achieve international cooperation, ...
of
England England is a that is part of the . It shares land borders with to its west and to its north. The lies northwest of England and the to the southwest. England is separated from by the to the east and the to the south. The country cover ...

England
and the
United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some prefer to use Britain as shorth ...

United Kingdom
. It stands on the
River Thames The River Thames ( ), known alternatively in parts as the River Isis, is a river that flows through southern England Southern England, or the South of England, also known as the South, is an area of England consisting of the southernmos ...
in south-east England at the head of a
estuary An estuary is a partially enclosed Coast, coastal body of brackish water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, and with a free connection to the open sea. Estuaries form a transition zone between river environments and maritime envir ...

estuary
down to the
North Sea The North Sea is a sea The sea, connected as the world ocean or simply the ocean The ocean (also the sea or the world ocean) is the body of salt water which covers approximately 71% of the surface of the Earth.
, and has been a major settlement for two millennia. The
City of London The City of London is a City status in the United Kingdom, city, Ceremonial counties of England, ceremonial county and local government district that contains the historic centre and the primary central business district (CBD) of London. It c ...

City of London
, its ancient core and financial centre, was founded by the
Romans Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Rome, region Lazio, ...

Romans
as ''
Londinium Londinium, also known as Roman London, was the capital of Roman Britain during most of the period of Roman rule. It was originally a settlement established on the current site of the City of London around AD 47–50. It sat at a key cross ...
'' and retains boundaries close to its medieval ones.See also: Independent city § National capitals. Since the 19th century, "London" has also referred to the
metropolis A metropolis () is a large city or conurbation which is a significant economic, political, and cultural center for a country or region, and an important hub for regional or international connections, commerce, and communications. A big city ...

metropolis
around this core, historically split between the
counties A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposes Chambers Dictionary, L. Brookes (ed.), 2005, Chambers Harrap Publishers Ltd, Edinburgh in certain modern nations. The term is derived from the Old French ...
of
Middlesex Middlesex (; abbreviation: Middx) is a Historic counties of England, historic county in South East England, southeast England. Its area is almost entirely within the wider urbanised area of London and mostly within the Ceremonial counties of En ...

Middlesex
,
Essex Essex () is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Chambers (publisher), William and Ro ...

Essex
,
Surrey Surrey () is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Chambers (publisher), William and Ro ...

Surrey
,
Kent Kent is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Chambers (publisher), William and Robert ...

Kent
, and
Hertfordshire Hertfordshire (; often abbreviated Herts) is one of the home counties in southern England England is a that is part of the . It shares land borders with to its west and to its north. The lies northwest of England and the to the s ...

Hertfordshire
, which largely comprises
Greater London Greater London is an administrative area Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, are generic names ...

Greater London
, governed by the
Greater London Authority The Greater London Authority (GLA), colloquially known by the metonym "City Hall", is the Devolution in the United Kingdom, devolved Regions of England, regional governance body of the London Regions of England, region, which consists of the Ci ...
.The Greater London Authority consists of the
Mayor of London The mayor of London is the chief executive of the Greater London Authority The Greater London Authority (GLA), colloquially known by the metonym "City Hall", is the Devolution in the United Kingdom, devolved Regions of England, regional ...
and the
London Assembly The London Assembly is a 25-member elected body, part of the Greater London Authority The Greater London Authority (GLA), known colloquially as City Hall, is the devolved regional governance body of London London is the capital city, c ...
. The London Mayor is distinguished from the
Lord Mayor of London The Lord Mayor of London is the mayor In many countries, a mayor is the highest-ranking official An official is someone who holds an office (function or mandate, regardless whether it carries an actual working space with it) in an organi ...
, who heads the
City of London Corporation The City of London Corporation, officially and legally the Mayor and Commonalty and Citizens of the City of London, is the municipal governing body of the City of London, the historic centre of London and the location of much of the United Kingd ...
running the
City of London The City of London is a City status in the United Kingdom, city, Ceremonial counties of England, ceremonial county and local government district that contains the historic centre and the primary central business district (CBD) of London. It c ...

City of London
.
The
City of Westminster The City of Westminster is a City status in the United Kingdom, city and London boroughs, borough in Inner London which forms a core part of Central London. It is the site of the United Kingdom's Houses of Parliament and much of the British gov ...

City of Westminster
, to the west of the City of London, has for centuries held the national
government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Departmen ...
and
parliament In modern politics and history, a parliament is a legislative body of government. Generally, a modern parliament has three functions: Representation (politics), representing the Election#Suffrage, electorate, making laws and overseeing the ...
. London, as one of the world's
global cities A global city, also called a power city, world city, alpha city or world center, is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ...

global cities
, exerts strong influence on its
arts The arts refers to the theory, human application and physical expression of creativity Creativity is a phenomenon whereby something somehow new and somehow valuable is formed. The created item may be intangible (such as an idea, a scienti ...
,
commerce Commerce is the exchange of goods and services Goods are items that are usually (but not always) tangible, such as pens, salt, apples, and hats. Services are activities provided by other people, who include doctors, lawn care workers, denti ...

commerce
,
education Education is the process of facilitating , or the acquisition of , s, , morals, s, s, and personal development. Educational methods include , , , and directed . Education frequently takes place under the guidance of educators; however, lea ...

education
,
entertainment Entertainment is a form of activity that holds the attention and interest In finance Finance is the study of financial institutions, financial markets and how they operate within the financial system. It is concerned with the creatio ...

entertainment
,
fashion Fashion is a form of self-expression and autonomy at a particular period and place and in a specific context, of clothing, footwear, Lifestyle (sociology), lifestyle, Fashion accessory, accessories, makeup, hairstyle, and body posture. The term i ...

fashion
,
finance Finance is the study of financial institutions, financial markets and how they operate within the financial system. It is concerned with the creation and management of money and investments. Savers and investors have money available which could ...

finance
,
health care Healthcare is the maintenance or improvement of health Health is a state of physical, mental and social well-being Well-being, also known as ''wellness'', ''prudential value'' or ''quality of life'', refers to what is intrinsically valuab ...

health care
,
media Media may refer to: Physical means Communication * Media (communication), tools used to deliver information or data ** Advertising media, various media, content, buying and placement for advertising ** Broadcast media, communications deliv ...
,
tourism at the archaeological site of Chichén Itza. in Vienna. Tourism is travel for pleasure or business; also the theory and practice of touring (disambiguation), touring, the business of attracting, accommodating, and entertaining tourists, and th ...

tourism
, and
communications Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in relation with") is "an apparent answer to the painful divisions between self and other, private and public, and inner thought and outer world." As this definition indica ...

communications
. Its
GDP Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary In a 1786 James Gillray caricature, the plentiful money bags handed to King George III are contrasted with the beggar whose legs and arms were amputated, in the left corner">174x174px Money is any ...
(€801.66 billion in 2017) makes it the biggest urban economy in
Europe Europe is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven geographical regions are commonly regarded as continents. Ordered ...

Europe
and one of the major
financial centre A financial centre, financial center, or financial hub is a location with a concentration of participants Participation or Participant may refer to: Politics *Participation (decision making), mechanisms for people to participate in social de ...
s in the world. In 2019 it had the second highest number of
ultra high-net-worth individual Ultra-high-net-worth individuals (UHNWI) are defined as having a net worth Net worth is the value of all the non-financial and financial asset In financial accountancy, financial accounting, an asset is any resource owned or controlled by a b ...
s in Europe after
Paris Paris () is the Capital city, capital and List of communes in France with over 20,000 inhabitants, most populous city of France, with an estimated population of 2,175,601 residents , in an area of more than . Since the 17th century, Paris ha ...

Paris
and the second-highest number of billionaires of any city in Europe after
Moscow Moscow ( , American English, US chiefly ; rus, links=no, Москва, r=Moskva, p=mɐˈskva, a=Москва.ogg) is the Capital city, capital and List of cities and towns in Russia by population, largest city of Russia. The city stands on the ...

Moscow
. With Europe's largest concentration of higher education institutions, it includes
Imperial College London Imperial College London (legally Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine) is a Public university, public research university in London. Imperial grew out of Albert, Prince Consort, Prince Albert's Albertopolis, vision for a cultural ce ...

Imperial College London
in
natural Nature, in the broadest sense, is the natural, physical, material world or universe The universe ( la, universus) is all of space and time and their contents, including planets, stars, galaxies, and all other forms of matter and ...
and
applied science Applied science is the use of the scientific method The scientific method is an Empirical evidence, empirical method of acquiring knowledge that has characterized the development of science since at least the 17th century. It involves caref ...
s, the
London School of Economics , mottoeng = To understand the causes of things , established = 1895 , type = Public In public relations and communication science, publics are groups of individual people, and the public (a.k.a. the general public) is the totality of s ...
in
social science Social science is the branch A branch ( or , ) or tree branch (sometimes referred to in botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist o ...

social science
s, and the comprehensive
University College London University College London, which UCL, is a major located in , United Kingdom. UCL is a of the , and is the second-largest and the largest by postgraduate enrolment. Established in 1826, as London University, by founders inspired by the r ...
. The city is home to the most 5-star hotels of any city in the world. In 2012, London became the first city to host three
Summer Olympic Games The Summer Olympic Games, also known as the Games of the Olympiad, are a major international multi-sport event A multi-sport event is an organized sporting Sporting may refer to: *Sport, recreational games and play *Sporting (neighborhood), ...
. Over recent decades, as a result of increased
immigration Immigration is the international movement of people to a destination country A country is a distinct territorial body or political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective ident ...

immigration
, London has become one of the most
ethnically diverse The term multiculturalism has a range of meanings within the contexts of sociology Sociology is the study of society, human social behaviour, patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture that surrounds everyday life. ...

ethnically diverse
cities in the world, and over 300 languages are now spoken in the city. The mid-2018 population of
Greater London Greater London is an administrative area Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, are generic names ...

Greater London
of about 9 million, made it Europe's third-most populous city. It accounts for 13.4 per cent of the UK population.
Greater London Built-up Area The Greater London Built-up Area, or Greater London Urban Area, is a conurbation A conurbation is a region comprising a number of metropolises, cities, large towns, and other urban areas that, through population growth and physical expansion, ha ...

Greater London Built-up Area
is the fourth-most populous in Europe, after
Istanbul Istanbul ( , ; tr, İstanbul ), formerly known as Constantinople, is the List of largest cities and towns in Turkey, largest city in Turkey and the country's economic, cultural and historic center. The city straddles the Bosporus strait, and lie ...

Istanbul
,
Moscow Moscow ( , American English, US chiefly ; rus, links=no, Москва, r=Moskva, p=mɐˈskva, a=Москва.ogg) is the Capital city, capital and List of cities and towns in Russia by population, largest city of Russia. The city stands on the ...

Moscow
and
Paris Paris () is the Capital city, capital and List of communes in France with over 20,000 inhabitants, most populous city of France, with an estimated population of 2,175,601 residents , in an area of more than . Since the 17th century, Paris ha ...

Paris
, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census. The
London metropolitan area The London metropolitan area includes London London is the capital city, capital and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, largest city of England and the United Kingdom. The city stands on the River Thames in the south-east of Englan ...
is the third-most populous in Europe after Istanbul's and Moscow's, with 14,040,163 inhabitants in 2016. London has four
World Heritage Site A World Heritage Site is a landmark or area with legal protection by an international convention administered by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). World Heritage Sites are designated by UNESCO for h ...
s: the
Tower of London The Tower of London, officially Her Majesty's Royal Palace and Fortress of the Tower of London, is a historic castle in East Sussex East Sussex is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative ...

Tower of London
;
Kew Gardens Kew Gardens is a botanic garden A botanical garden or botanic gardenThe terms ''botanic'' and ''botanical'' and ''garden'' or ''gardens'' are used more-or-less interchangeably, although the word ''botanic'' is generally reserved for the ...

Kew Gardens
; the
Palace of Westminster The Palace of Westminster serves as the meeting place for both the House of Commons The House of Commons is the name for the elected lower house A lower house is one of two chambers Chambers may refer to: Places Canada: *Chambers Towns ...

Palace of Westminster
, along with
Westminster Abbey Westminster Abbey, formally titled the Collegiate Church of Saint Peter at Westminster, is a large, mainly Gothic Gothic or Gothics may refer to: People and languages *Goths or Gothic people, the ethnonym of a group of East Germanic tribes ...

Westminster Abbey
, and St Margaret's Church; and the historic settlement in
Greenwich Greenwich ( , , , or ) is a town in south-east The points of the compass are the Euclidean vector, vectors by which planet-based directions are conventionally defined. A compass rose is primarily composed of four cardinal directions—north, ...

Greenwich
, where the
Royal Observatory, Greenwich The Royal Observatory, Greenwich (ROG; known as the Old Royal Observatory from 1957 to 1998, when the working Royal Greenwich Observatory, RGO, temporarily moved south from Greenwich to Herstmonceux) is an observatory situated on a hill in Gr ...

Royal Observatory, Greenwich
defines the
Prime Meridian#REDIRECT Prime meridian A prime meridian is the meridian (geography), meridian (a line of longitude) in a geographic coordinate system at which longitude is defined to be 0°. Together, a prime meridian and its anti-meridian (the 180th meridian ...

Prime Meridian
(0°
longitude Longitude (, ) is a geographic coordinate A geographic coordinate system (GCS) is a coordinate system associated with position (geometry), positions on Earth (geographic position). A GCS can give positions: *as Geodetic coordinates, ...

longitude
) and
Greenwich Mean Time Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) is the Local mean time, mean solar time at the Royal Observatory, Greenwich, Royal Observatory in Greenwich, London, counted from midnight. At different times in the past, it has been calculated in different ways, i ...
. Other landmarks include
Buckingham Palace Buckingham Palace () is the London London is the and of and the . It stands on the in south-east England at the head of a down to the , and has been a major settlement for two millennia. The , its ancient core and financial ce ...

Buckingham Palace
, the
London Eye The London Eye, or the Millennium Wheel, is a cantilevered is anchored and extends over the edge of a swimming pool). The bottom example is created by adding a Robin boundary condition to the beam element, which essentially adds an elastic spr ...

London Eye
,
Piccadilly Circus Piccadilly Circus is a road junction and public space of London London is the capital city, capital and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, largest city of England and the United Kingdom. The city stands on the River Thames in the ...

Piccadilly Circus
,
St Paul's Cathedral St Paul's Cathedral is an Anglicanism, Anglican cathedral in London. As the seat of the Bishop of London, the cathedral serves as the mother church of the Diocese of London. It sits on Ludgate Hill at the highest point of the City of London a ...

St Paul's Cathedral
,
Tower Bridge Tower Bridge is a combined bascule and suspension bridge in London London is the capital city, capital and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, largest city of England and the United Kingdom. The city stands on the River Thames in ...

Tower Bridge
and
Trafalgar Square Trafalgar Square ( ) is a public square in the City of Westminster, Central London, established in the early 19th century around the area formerly known as Charing Cross. The Square's name commemorates the Battle of Trafalgar, the Royal Navy, ...

Trafalgar Square
. It has numerous museums, galleries, libraries and sporting venues, including the
British Museum The British Museum, in the Bloomsbury Bloomsbury is a district in the West End of London The West End of London (commonly referred to as the West End) is a district of Central London Central London is the innermost part of Lond ...

British Museum
,
National Gallery The National Gallery is an art museum An art museum is a building or space for the display of art, usually from the museum's own Collection (artwork), collection. It might be in public or private ownership and may be accessible to all or h ...
,
Natural History Museum A natural history museum or museum of natural history is a scientific institution with that include current and historical records of s, s, , s, , , , and more. History The primary role of a natural history is to provide the scientific c ...

Natural History Museum
,
Tate Modern Tate Modern is an art gallery located in London. It houses the United Kingdom's national collection of international modern Modern may refer to: History *Modern history Human history, also known as world history, is the description of h ...

Tate Modern
,
British Library The British Library is the national library A national library is a library established by a government as a country's preeminent repository of information. Unlike public library, public libraries, these rarely allow citizens to borrow book ...

British Library
and
West End theatre West End theatre is mainstream professional theatre Theatre or theater is a collaborative form of performing art that uses live performers, usually actors or actresses, to present the experience of a real or imagined event before a live ...
s. The
London Underground The London Underground (also known simply as the Underground, or by its nickname the Tube) is a rapid transit system serving Greater London and some parts of the adjacent ceremonial counties of England, counties of Buckinghamshire, Essex and H ...

London Underground
is the oldest
rapid transit Rapid transit or mass rapid transit (MRT), also known as heavy rail, metro, subway, tube, U-Bahn Rapid transit in Germany consists of four U-Bahn systems and fourteen S-Bahn systems. The U-Bahn or Untergrundbahn (''underground railway'') ...
system in the world.


Toponymy

''London'' is an ancient name, already attested in the first century AD, usually in the
Latinised Latinisation or Latinization can refer to: * Latinisation of names, the practice of rendering a non-Latin name in a Latin style * Latinisation in the Soviet Union, the campaign in the USSR during the 1920s and 1930s to replace traditional writing sy ...
form ; for example, handwritten
Roman Roman or Romans most often refers to: *, the capital city of Italy *, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *, the people of ancient Rome *', shortened to ''Romans'', a letter in the New Testament of the Christian Bible Roman ...

Roman
tablets recovered in the city originating from AD 65/70–80 include the word ('in London'). Over the years, the name has attracted many mythicising explanations. The earliest attested appears in
Geoffrey of Monmouth Geoffrey of Monmouth ( la, Galfridus Monemutensis, Galfridus Arturus, cy, Gruffudd ap Arthur, Sieffre o Fynwy; c. 1095 – c. 1155) was a British cleric and one of the major figures in the development of British historiography and the popularit ...
's , written around 1136. Modern scientific analyses of the name must account for the origins of the different forms found in early sources:
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in relation with") is "an appa ...

Latin
(usually {{lang, la, Londinium),
Old English Old English (, ), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest recorded form of the English language English is a West Germanic language of the Indo-European language family The Indo-European languages are a language family A language ...
(usually {{lang, ang, Lunden), and
Welsh Welsh may refer to: Related to Wales * Welsh, referring or related to Wales * Welsh language, a Brittonic Celtic language of the Indo-European language family, indigenous to the British Isles, spoken in Wales ** Patagonian Welsh, a dialect of Wels ...
(usually {{lang, cy, Llundein), with reference to the known developments over time of sounds in those different languages. It is agreed that the name came into these languages from Common Brythonic; recent work tends to reconstruct the lost Celtic form of the name as {{lang, cel-x-proto, *Londonjon or something similar. This was adapted into Latin as {{lang, la, Londinium and borrowed into
Old English Old English (, ), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest recorded form of the English language English is a West Germanic language of the Indo-European language family The Indo-European languages are a language family A language ...
.{{Cite journal , last1=Bynon , first1=Theodora , year=2016 , title=London's Name , journal= Transactions of the Philological Society , volume=114 , issue=3 , pages=281–97 , doi=10.1111/1467-968X.12064 The toponymy of the Common Brythonic form is debated. Prominent was
Richard Coates Richard Coates (born 16 April 1949, in Grimsby Grimsby, also Great Grimsby, is a port town and the administrative centre of North East Lincolnshire, England, on the South Bank of the Humber Estuary, close to the North Sea. It was the home ...
's 1998 argument that it derived from pre-Celtic Old European *{{PIE, ''(p)lowonida'', meaning "river too wide to ford". Coates suggested this was a name given to the part of the
River Thames The River Thames ( ), known alternatively in parts as the River Isis, is a river that flows through southern England Southern England, or the South of England, also known as the South, is an area of England consisting of the southernmos ...
that flows through London, from which the settlement gained the
Celtic The words Celt and Celtic (also Keltic) may refer to: Ethno-linguistics *Celts The Celts (, see pronunciation of ''Celt'' for different usages) are. "CELTS location: Greater Europe time period: Second millennium B.C.E. to present ancestry: ...
form of its name, {{lang, cel-x-proto, *Lowonidonjon.{{Cite journal , last=Coates , first=Richard , year=1998 , title=A new explanation of the name of London , journal=Transactions of the Philological Society , volume=96 , issue=2 , pages=203–229 , doi=10.1111/1467-968X.00027 However, most work has accepted a plain Celtic origin. Recent studies favour an explanation of a Celtic derivative of a
Proto-Indo-European Proto-Indo-European (PIE) is the theorized common ancestor of the Indo-European language family The Indo-European languages are a language family A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech ( ...
root *{{PIE, ''lendh-'' ('sink, cause to sink'), combined with the Celtic suffix {{lang, cel-x-proto, *-injo- or {{lang, cel-x-proto, *-onjo- (used to form place-names).
Peter Schrijver Peter Schrijver (; born 1963) is a Dutch linguist. He is a professor of Celtic languages The Celtic languages ( , ) are a group of related languages descended from Proto-Celtic. They form a branch of the Indo-European language family. Th ...
has specifically suggested that the name originally meant "place that floods (periodically, tidally)". Until 1889, the name "London" applied officially only to the
City of London The City of London is a City status in the United Kingdom, city, Ceremonial counties of England, ceremonial county and local government district that contains the historic centre and the primary central business district (CBD) of London. It c ...

City of London
, but since then it has also referred to the
County of London The County of London was a county of England from 1889 to 1965, corresponding to the area known today as Inner London. It was created as part of the general introduction of elected county government in England, by way of the Local Government Ac ...
and to
Greater London Greater London is an administrative area Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, are generic names ...

Greater London
. In writing, "London" is occasionally contracted to "LDN".{{clarify, date=February 2020 Such usage originated in
SMS language SMS (Short Message Service) is a text messaging service component of most telephone A telephone is a telecommunications Appliance (disambiguation), device that permits two or more users to conduct a conversation when they are too far ap ...
and often appears in a
social media Social media are interactive technologies that facilitate the creation Creation may refer to: Religion * Creation ''ex nihilo'', the concept that matter was created by God out of nothing * Creation myth A creation myth (or cosmogonic myth) ...

social media
user profile A user profile is a visual display of personal data associated with a specific user, or a customized desktop environment In computing Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computing machinery. ...

user profile
,
suffix In linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for studying and modeling them. The traditional areas of linguistic analysis include ...
ing an
alias An alias is an alternative name, such as a pseudonym. Alias or aliasing may also refer to: Arts and entertainment Comics * Alias (comics), ''Alias'' (comics), an American comic book * Alias Enterprises, a United States publishing company, includ ...
or handle.


History

{{main, History of London, Timeline of London


Prehistory

In 1993, remains of a
Bronze Age The Bronze Age is a prehistoric that was characterized by the use of , in some areas , and other early features of urban . The Bronze Age is the second principal period of the , as proposed in modern times by , for classifying and studying a ...
bridge were found on the south foreshore upstream from
Vauxhall Bridge Vauxhall Bridge is a Grade II* listed steel and granite deck arch bridge in central London. It crosses the River Thames in a southeast–northwest direction between Vauxhall on the south bank and Pimlico on the north bank. Opened in 1906, it rep ...

Vauxhall Bridge
.{{Cite journal , last=Denison , first=Simon , title=First 'London Bridge' in River Thames at Vauxhall , journal=British Archaeology , date=July 1999 , issue=46 , url=http://www.britarch.ac.uk/ba/ba46/ba46news.html , access-date=15 April 2011 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110427021948/http://www.britarch.ac.uk/ba/ba46/ba46news.html , archive-date=27 April 2011 , url-status=live This either crossed the
Thames The River Thames ( ), known alternatively in parts as the River Isis, is a river that flows through southern England Southern England, or the South of England, also known as the South, is an area of England consisting of the southernmos ...
or reached a now-lost island in it. Two of the timbers were
radiocarbon dated Radiocarbon dating (also referred to as carbon dating or carbon-14 dating) is a method for determining the age of an object containing organic material Organic matter, organic material, or natural organic matter refers to the large source of ...
to 1750–1285 BCE. In 2010, foundations of a large timber structure, dated to 4800–4500 BCE, were found on the Thames's south foreshore downstream from Vauxhall Bridge.{{Cite web , last=Milne , first=Gustav , title=London's Oldest Foreshore Structure! , url=http://www.thamesdiscovery.org/frog-blog/london-s-oldest-find-discovered-at-vauxhall , website=Frog Blog , publisher=Thames Discovery Programme , access-date=15 April 2011 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110430002236/http://www.thamesdiscovery.org/frog-blog/london-s-oldest-find-discovered-at-vauxhall , archive-date=30 April 2011 , url-status=live The function of the
mesolithic The Mesolithic (Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is appro ...

mesolithic
structure is unclear. Both structures are on the south bank of the Thames, where the now-underground
River Effra The River Effra is a former stream or small river in south London South London is the southern part of London, England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with ...
flows into the Thames.


Roman London

{{main, Londinium Despite the evidence of scattered Brythonic settlements in the area, the first major settlement was founded by the
Romans Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Rome, region Lazio, ...
about four years after the invasion of 43 CE.{{Cite book , title=Roman London , last=Perring , first=Dominic , year=1991 , publisher=Routledge , location=London , isbn=978-0-203-23133-3 , page=1 This only lasted until about 61 CE, when the
Iceni The Iceni ( , ) or Eceni were a Brittonic tribe of eastern Britain during the Iron Age The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age system, three-age division of the prehistory and protohistory of Homo sapiens, humanity. It was preceded by ...
tribe led by Queen Boudica stormed it and burnt it to the ground.{{Cite web , title=British History Timeline - Roman Britain , url=https://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/timeline/romanbritain_timeline_noflash.shtml , url-status=dead , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110430191143/http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/timeline/romanbritain_timeline_noflash.shtml , archive-date=30 April 2011 , access-date=7 June 2008 , website=
BBC The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a public service broadcaster, headquartered at Broadcasting House in Westminster, London London is the capital city, capital and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, largest city of ...

BBC
, publisher=
The next, planned incarnation of
Londinium Londinium, also known as Roman London, was the capital of Roman Britain during most of the period of Roman rule. It was originally a settlement established on the current site of the City of London around AD 47–50. It sat at a key cross ...
prospered, superseding
Colchester Colchester () is a historic market town and the largest settlement within the borough of Colchester in the county of Essex, in the East of England. Colchester occupies the site of what was Camulodunum, the first Colonia (Roman), major Roman ci ...
as capital of the
Roman province The Roman provinces (Latin: ''provincia'', pl. ''provinciae'') were the administrative regions of Ancient Rome outside Roman Italy that were controlled by the Romans under the Roman Republic and later the Roman Empire. Each province was ruled ...

Roman province
of
Britannia Britannia () is the national personification upright=0.9, An early example of National personification in a gospel book dated 990: Germania.html"_;"title="Sclavinia,_Germania">Sclavinia,_Germania,_Sclavinia,_Germania,_Gallia">Germania.ht ...

Britannia
in 100. At its height in the 2nd century, Roman London had a population of about 60,000.


Anglo-Saxon and Viking period London

With the early 5th-century collapse of Roman rule, London ceased to be a capital and the walled city of
Londinium Londinium, also known as Roman London, was the capital of Roman Britain during most of the period of Roman rule. It was originally a settlement established on the current site of the City of London around AD 47–50. It sat at a key cross ...
was effectively abandoned, although Roman civilisation continued around
St Martin-in-the-Fields St Martin-in-the-Fields is an English Anglican Anglicanism is a Western Western may refer to: Places *Western, Nebraska, a village in the US *Western, New York, a town in the US *Western Creek, Tasmania, a locality in Australia *We ...

St Martin-in-the-Fields
until about 450. From about 500, an
Anglo-Saxon The Anglo-Saxons were a who inhabited . They traced their origins to the 5th century settlement of incomers to Britain, who migrated to the island from the coastlands of . However, the of the Anglo-Saxons occurred within Britain, and the ide ...
settlement known as
Lundenwic The history of Anglo-Saxon London relates to the history of the city Towns and cities A city is a large human settlement In geography, statistics and archaeology, a settlement, locality or populated place is a community in which people ...
developed slightly west of the old Roman city.{{Cite web , url=http://www.museumoflondon.org.uk/English/EventsExhibitions/Past/MissingLink/Themes/TML_themes_Lundenwic.htm , title=The early years of Lundenwic , publisher=The
Museum of London The Museum of London documents the history of the UK's capital city from prehistoric to modern times and is located in the City of London on the London Wall, close to the Barbican Centre and is part of the Barbican complex of buildings created i ...

Museum of London
, archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20080610043903/http://www.museumoflondon.org.uk/English/EventsExhibitions/Past/MissingLink/Themes/TML_themes_Lundenwic.htm , archive-date=10 June 2008 , url-status=dead
By about 680 the city had become a major port again, but there is little evidence of large-scale production. From the 820s repeated
Viking Vikings—"pirate", non, víkingr is the modern name given to seafaring people primarily from Scandinavia Scandinavia; : ''Skadesi-suolu''/''Skađsuâl''. ( ) is a in , with strong historical, cultural, and linguistic ties. In ...

Viking
assaults brought decline. Three are recorded; those in 851 and 886 succeeded, while the last, in 994, was rebuffed.{{Cite web , url=https://web.cn.edu/kwheeler/viking_attacklist.html?showall=1 , title=Viking Attacks , access-date=19 January 2016 , last1=Wheeler , first1=Kip , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160101055729/https://web.cn.edu/kwheeler/viking_attacklist.html?showall=1 , archive-date=1 January 2016 , url-status=dead The
Vikings Vikings—"pirate", non, víkingr is the modern name given to seafaring people primarily from Scandinavia Scandinavia; : ''Skadesi-suolu''/''Skađsuâl''. ( ) is a in , with strong historical, cultural, and linguistic ties. In ...

Vikings
applied
Danelaw The Danelaw (, also known as the Danelagh; ang, Dena lagu; da, Danelagen) was the part of England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to its west and ...
over much of eastern and northern England, its boundary running roughly from London to
Chester Chester is a walled cathedral city in Cheshire, England, on the River Dee, Wales, River Dee, close to the border with Wales. With a population of 79,645 in 2011, it is the most populous settlement of Cheshire West and Chester, which had a po ...

Chester
as an area of political and geographical control imposed by the
Viking Vikings—"pirate", non, víkingr is the modern name given to seafaring people primarily from Scandinavia Scandinavia; : ''Skadesi-suolu''/''Skađsuâl''. ( ) is a in , with strong historical, cultural, and linguistic ties. In ...

Viking
incursions formally agreed by the
Danish Danish may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to the country of Denmark * A national or citizen of Denmark, also called a "Dane", see Demographics of Denmark * Danish people or Danes, people with a Danish ancestral or ethnic identity * Danis ...
warlord A warlord is a person who exercises military, economic, and political control over a region in a country without a strong national government; largely because of coercive control over the armed forces. Warlords have existed throughout much of hi ...
,
Guthrum Guthrum ( ang, Guðrum, c. 835 – c. 890) was King of East Anglia East Anglia is a geographical area in the East of England The East of England is one of the nine official regions of England. This region was created in 1994 and was ...
and the West Saxon king
Alfred the Great Alfred the Great (848/49 – 26 October 899) was king of the West Saxons This is a list of monarchs of Wessex until 886 AD. For later monarchs, see the List of English monarchs. While the details of the later monarchs are confirmed by a numbe ...

Alfred the Great
in 886. The ''
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle The ''Anglo-Saxon Chronicle'' is a collection of annals in Old English Old English (, ), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest recorded form of the English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoke ...
'' records that Alfred "refounded" London in 886. Archaeological research shows this involved abandonment of
Lundenwic The history of Anglo-Saxon London relates to the history of the city Towns and cities A city is a large human settlement In geography, statistics and archaeology, a settlement, locality or populated place is a community in which people ...
and a revival of life and trade within the old Roman walls. London then grew slowly until a dramatic increase in about 950.{{Cite encyclopedia , last=Vince , first=Alan , year=2001 , title=London , editor=Lapidge, Michael , editor2=Blair, John , editor3=Keynes, Simon , editor4=Scragg, Donald , encyclopedia=The Blackwell Encyclopaedia of Anglo-Saxon England , publisher=Blackwell , isbn=978-0-631-22492-1 By the 11th century, London was clearly the largest town in England.
Westminster Abbey Westminster Abbey, formally titled the Collegiate Church of Saint Peter at Westminster, is a large, mainly Gothic Gothic or Gothics may refer to: People and languages *Goths or Gothic people, the ethnonym of a group of East Germanic tribes ...

Westminster Abbey
, rebuilt in
Romanesque Romanesque may refer to: In art and architecture *First Romanesque, or Lombard Romanesque architectural style *Pre-Romanesque art and architecture, a term used for the early phase of the style *Romanesque architecture, architecture of Europe wh ...
style by King
Edward the Confessor Edward the Confessor ( ang, Ēadƿeard Andettere ; la, Eduardus Confessor , ; 1003 – 5 January 1066) was one of the last Anglo-Saxon The Anglo-Saxons were a cultural group Culture () is an umbrella term which encompasses the so ...

Edward the Confessor
, was one of the grandest churches in Europe.
Winchester Winchester is a cathedral city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London ...

Winchester
had been the capital of Anglo-Saxon England, but from this time London became the main forum for foreign traders and the base for defence in time of war. In the view of
Frank Stenton Sir Frank Merry Stenton, FBA (17 May 1880 – 15 September 1967) was a 20th-century historian of Anglo-Saxon England Anglo-Saxon England was early medieval England England in the Middle Ages concerns the history of England during the Middle ...
: "It had the resources, and it was rapidly developing the dignity and the political self-consciousness appropriate to a
national capital A capital or capital city is the municipality holding primary status in a Department (country subdivision), department, country, Constituent state, state, province, or other administrative region, usually as its seat of the government. A capital ...
."


Middle Ages

After winning the
Battle of Hastings The Battle of Hastings or nrf, Batâle dé Hastings was fought on 14 October 1066 between the Norman-French army of William, the Duke of Normandy, and an English army under the Anglo-Saxon The Anglo-Saxons were a cultural group Cu ...

Battle of Hastings
,
William, Duke of Normandy William I (c. 1028Bates ''William the Conqueror'' p. 33 – 9 September 1087), usually known as William the Conqueror and sometimes William the Bastard, was the first Norman Norman or Normans may refer to: Ethnic and cultural identit ...

William, Duke of Normandy
was crowned
King of England This list of kings and queens of the begins with , who initially ruled , one of the which later made up modern England. Alfred styled himself King of the from about 886, and while he was not the first king to claim to rule all of the , his ...
in newly completed
Westminster Abbey Westminster Abbey, formally titled the Collegiate Church of Saint Peter at Westminster, is a large, mainly Gothic Gothic or Gothics may refer to: People and languages *Goths or Gothic people, the ethnonym of a group of East Germanic tribes ...

Westminster Abbey
on Christmas Day 1066.{{Cite web , last=Ibeji , first=Dr Mike , date=17 February 2011 , title=History – 1066 – King William , url=https://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/normans/1066_06.shtml , url-status=live , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20090922053048/http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/normans/1066_06.shtml , archive-date=22 September 2009 , access-date=29 March 2021 , website=
BBC The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a public service broadcaster, headquartered at Broadcasting House in Westminster, London London is the capital city, capital and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, largest city of ...

BBC
, publisher=
William built the
Tower of London The Tower of London, officially Her Majesty's Royal Palace and Fortress of the Tower of London, is a historic castle in East Sussex East Sussex is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative ...

Tower of London
, the first of many such in
England England is a that is part of the . It shares land borders with to its west and to its north. The lies northwest of England and the to the southwest. England is separated from by the to the east and the to the south. The country cover ...

England
rebuilt in stone in the south-eastern corner of the city, to intimidate the inhabitants.{{Cite web , url=https://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/architecture_02.shtml , title=A History of British Architecture — White Tower , last=Tinniswood , first=Adrian , author-link=Adrian Tinniswood , publisher=BBC , access-date=5 May 2008 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20090213124332/http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/architecture_02.shtml , archive-date=13 February 2009 , url-status=live In 1097, began building
Westminster Hall The Palace of Westminster serves as the meeting place for both the House of Commons The House of Commons is the name for the elected lower house of the bicameral parliaments of the United Kingdom and Canada. In the UK and Canada, the Common ...
, close by the abbey of the same name. It became the basis of a new
Palace of Westminster The Palace of Westminster serves as the meeting place for both the House of Commons The House of Commons is the name for the elected lower house A lower house is one of two chambers Chambers may refer to: Places Canada: *Chambers Towns ...

Palace of Westminster
.{{Cite web , url=http://www.parliament.uk/about/history/building.cfm , title=UK Parliament — Parliament: The building , date=9 November 2007 , publisher=UK Parliament , access-date=27 April 2008 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20080311032051/http://www.parliament.uk/about/history/building.cfm , archive-date=11 March 2008 , url-status=dead{{Cite web , url=http://www.parliament.uk/parliament/guide/palace.htm , title=Palace of Westminster , publisher=UK Parliament , access-date=27 April 2008 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20080404171249/http://www.parliament.uk/parliament/guide/palace.htm , archive-date=4 April 2008 , url-status=dead In the 12th century, the institutions of central government, which had hitherto followed the royal English court around the country, grew in size and sophistication and became increasingly fixed, for most purposes at
Westminster Westminster is a district in Central London Central London is the innermost part of London London is the capital city, capital and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, largest city of England and the United Kingdom. The city sta ...

Westminster
, although the royal treasury, having been moved from
Winchester Winchester is a cathedral city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London ...

Winchester
, came to rest in the
Tower A tower is a tall structure A structure is an arrangement and organization of interrelated elements in a material object or system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rul ...

Tower
. While the
City of Westminster The City of Westminster is a City status in the United Kingdom, city and London boroughs, borough in Inner London which forms a core part of Central London. It is the site of the United Kingdom's Houses of Parliament and much of the British gov ...

City of Westminster
developed into a true governmental capital, its distinct neighbour, the
City of London The City of London is a City status in the United Kingdom, city, Ceremonial counties of England, ceremonial county and local government district that contains the historic centre and the primary central business district (CBD) of London. It c ...

City of London
, remained England's largest city and principal commercial centre and flourished under its own unique administration, the
Corporation of London The City of London Corporation, officially and legally the Mayor and Commonalty and Citizens of the City of London, is the municipal governing body of the City of London The City of London is a City status in the United Kingdom, city, Ce ...
. In 1100, its population was some 18,000; by 1300 it had grown to nearly 100,000.{{Cite book , last1=Schofield , first1=John , last2=Vince , first2=Alan, author2-link=Alan Vince , title=Medieval Towns: The Archaeology of British Towns in Their European Setting , publisher=Continuum International Publishing Group , year=2003 , isbn=978-0-8264-6002-8 , url=https://books.google.com/books?id=Qu7QLC7g7VgC&pg=PA26 , page=26 Disaster struck in the form of the
Black Death The Black Death (also known as the Pestilence, the Great Mortality or the Plague) was a bubonic plague pandemic occurring in Afro-Eurasia from 1346 to 1353. It is the List of epidemics, most fatal pandemic recorded in human history, causing th ...

Black Death
in the mid-14th century, when London lost nearly a third of its population. London was the focus of the
Peasants' Revolt The Peasants' Revolt, also named Wat Tyler's Rebellion or the Great Rising, was a major uprising across large parts of England in 1381. The revolt had various causes, including the socio-economic and political tensions generated by the Black ...
in 1381.{{Cite web , url=https://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/richard_ii_king.shtml , title=Richard II (1367–1400) , publisher=BBC , access-date=12 October 2008 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110430191132/http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/richard_ii_king.shtml , archive-date=30 April 2011 , url-status=live London was also a centre of England's
Jewish population , the world's "core" Jews, Jewish population, those identifying as Jews above all else, is 15.7 million (or 0.2 % of the 7.89 billion humans). The "connected" Jewish population, including those who say they are partly Jewish or that have Jewi ...
before their Edict of Expulsion, expulsion by Edward I of England, Edward I in 1290. Violence against Jews occurred in 1190, when it was rumoured that the new king had ordered their massacre after they had presented themselves at his coronation.{{Cite web , last1=Jacobs , first1=Joseph , year=1906 , title=England , url=http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/5764-england , website=Jewish Encyclopedia , publisher= In 1264 during the Second Barons' War, Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester, Simon de Montfort's rebels killed 500 Jews while attempting to seize records of debts.{{Citation , publisher=Continuum , ol=24816680M , isbn=978-1-84725-186-2 , location=London , title=The King's Jews , url=https://archive.org/details/kingsjewsmoneyma00mund , first=Robin R. , last=Mundill , lccn=2010282921 , oclc=466343661 , date=2010 , pages=88–99


Early modern

During the Tudor period the English Reformation, Reformation produced a gradual shift to Protestantism. Much of London property passed from church to private ownership, which accelerated trade and business in the city.{{Cite book , last=Pevsner , first=Nikolaus , title=London - The Cities of London and Westminster , publisher=Penguin Books , edition=2nd , volume=1 , publication-date=1 January 1962 , pages=48 , asin=B0000CLHU5 In 1475, the Hanseatic League set up a main trading base (''kontor'') of England in London, called the ''Stalhof'' or ''Steelyard''. It remained until 1853, when the Hanseatic cities of Lübeck, Bremen and Hamburg sold the property to South Eastern Railway, UK, South Eastern Railway.{{Cite EB1911 , wstitle=Steelyard, Merchants of the Woollen cloth was shipped undyed and undressed from 14th/15th century London to the nearby shores of the Low Countries, where it was considered indispensable. Yet English maritime enterprise hardly reached beyond the seas of north-west Europe. The commercial route to Italy and the Mediterranean was normally through Antwerp and over the Alps; any ships passing through the Strait of Gibraltar to or from England were likely to be Italian or Republic of Ragusa, Ragusan. The reopening of the Netherlands to English shipping in January 1565 spurred a burst of commercial activity. The Royal Exchange, London, Royal Exchange was founded. Mercantilism grew and monopoly traders such as the East India Company were founded as trade expanded to the New World. London became the main
North Sea The North Sea is a sea The sea, connected as the world ocean or simply the ocean The ocean (also the sea or the world ocean) is the body of salt water which covers approximately 71% of the surface of the Earth.
port, with migrants arriving from England and abroad. The population rose from about 50,000 in 1530 to about 225,000 in 1605. In the 16th century William Shakespeare and his contemporaries lived in London at a time of hostility to the development of the Elizabethan theatre, theatre. By the end of the Tudor period in 1603, London was still compact. There was an assassination attempt on James I of England, James I in Westminster, in the Gunpowder Plot of 5 November 1605.{{Cite book , title=James I , last=Durston , first=Christopher , year=1993 , publisher=Routledge , location=London , isbn=978-0-415-07779-8 , pag
59
, url=https://archive.org/details/jamesi0000durs/page/59
In 1637, the government of Charles I of England, Charles I attempted to reform administration in the London area. This called for the Corporation of the city to extend its jurisdiction and administration over expanding areas around the city. Fearing an attempt by the Crown to diminish the Liberties of London, coupled with a lack of interest in administering these additional areas or concern by city guilds of having to share power, caused the Corporation's "The Great Refusal", a decision which largely continues to account for the unique governmental status of the City of London, City. In the English Civil War the majority of Londoners supported the Roundhead, Parliamentary cause. After an initial advance by the Cavaliers, Royalists in 1642, culminating in the battles of Battle of Brentford (1642), Brentford and Battle of Turnham Green, Turnham Green, London was surrounded by a defensive perimeter wall known as the Lines of Communication (London), Lines of Communication. The lines were built by up to 20,000 people, and were completed in under two months. The fortifications failed their only test when the New Model Army entered London in 1647, and they were levelled by Parliament the same year. London was Bubonic plague, plagued by disease in the early 17th century,{{Cite web , url=http://urbanrim.org.uk/plague%20list.htm , title=A List of National Epidemics of Plague in England 1348–1665 , publisher=Urban Rim , date=4 December 2009 , access-date=3 May 2010 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20090508010316/http://urbanrim.org.uk/plague%20list.htm , archive-date=8 May 2009 , url-status=dead culminating in the Great Plague of London, Great Plague of 1665–1666, which killed up to 100,000 people, or a fifth of the population.{{Cite web , title=Story of the plague , url=http://www.channel4.com/history/microsites/H/history/plague/story.html , url-status=dead , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110513041728/http://www.channel4.com/history/microsites/H/history/plague/story.html , archive-date=13 May 2011 , publisher=Channel 4 The Great Fire of London broke out in 1666 in Pudding Lane in the city and quickly swept through the wooden buildings.{{Cite book , last=Pepys , first=Samuel , author-link=Samuel Pepys , title=The Diary of Samuel Pepys , volume=45: August/September 1666 , date=2 September 1666 , orig-year=1893 , editor=Mynors Bright (decipherer) , editor2=Henry B. Wheatley , url=http://www.gutenberg.org/cache/epub/4167/pg4167.html , isbn=978-0-520-22167-3 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130813025236/http://www.gutenberg.org/cache/epub/4167/pg4167.html , archive-date=13 August 2013 , url-status=live Rebuilding took over ten years and was supervised by Robert Hooke{{Cite web , last=Schofield , first=Dr. John , date=17 February 2011 , title=BBC - History - British History in depth: London After the Great Fire , url=http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/civil_war_revolution/after_fire_01.shtml , url-status=live , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20090410000142/http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/civil_war_revolution/after_fire_02.shtml , archive-date=10 April 2009 , access-date=29 March 2021 , website=www.bbc.co.uk , language=en-GB{{Cite web , title=Rebuilding after the fire , url=http://www.museumoflondon.org.uk/English/EventsExhibitions/Special/LondonsBurning/Themes/1405/ , url-status=dead , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20080201204641/http://www.museumoflondon.org.uk/English/EventsExhibitions/Special/LondonsBurning/Themes/1405/ , archive-date=1 February 2008 , access-date=27 April 2008 , publisher=
Museum of London The Museum of London documents the history of the UK's capital city from prehistoric to modern times and is located in the City of London on the London Wall, close to the Barbican Centre and is part of the Barbican complex of buildings created i ...

Museum of London
{{Cite journal , last=Reddaway , first=Thomas Fiddian , url=https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1468-229X.1940.tb00765.x , title=The Rebuilding of London After the Great Fire , journal=History , publisher=Jonathan Cape , year=1940 , volume=25 , issue=98 , pages=97–112 , doi=10.1111/j.1468-229X.1940.tb00765.x , access-date=28 March 2021 as Surveyor of London.{{Cite book , last=Jardine , first=Lisa , title=The Curious Life of Robert Hooke: The Man Who Measured London , date=18 January 2005 , publisher=Harper Perennial , isbn=978-0060538989 , publication-date=18 January 2005 In 1708 Christopher Wren's masterpiece,
St Paul's Cathedral St Paul's Cathedral is an Anglicanism, Anglican cathedral in London. As the seat of the Bishop of London, the cathedral serves as the mother church of the Diocese of London. It sits on Ludgate Hill at the highest point of the City of London a ...

St Paul's Cathedral
, was completed. During the Georgian era, new districts such as Mayfair were formed in the west; new bridges over the Thames encouraged development in South London. In the east, the Port of London expanded downstream. London's development as an international
financial centre A financial centre, financial center, or financial hub is a location with a concentration of participants Participation or Participant may refer to: Politics *Participation (decision making), mechanisms for people to participate in social de ...
matured for much of the 18th century. In 1762, George III of Great Britain, George III acquired Buckingham Palace, Buckingham House, which was enlarged over the next 75 years. During the 18th century, London was said to be dogged by crime, and the Bow Street Runners were established in 1750 as a professional police force. A total of more than 200 offences were punishable by death, including petty theft. Most children born in the city died before reaching their third birthday. coffeehouse, Coffee-houses became a popular place to debate ideas, as growing literacy and development of the printing press made news widely available, with Fleet Street becoming the centre of the British press. The invasion of Amsterdam by Napoleonic armies led many financiers to relocate to London and the first London international issue was arranged in 1817. Around the same time, the Royal Navy became the world leading war fleet, acting as a major deterrent to potential economic adversaries. The repeal of the Corn Laws in 1846 was specifically aimed at weakening Dutch economic power. London then overtook Amsterdam as the leading international financial centre.{{Cite book , url=https://books.google.com/books?id=Yor4DAAAQBAJ , title=Finance Masters: A Brief History of International Financial Centers in the Last Millennium , last=Coispeau , first=Olivier , date=2016 , publisher=World Scientific , isbn=978-981-310-884-4 According to Samuel Johnson: {{quote, You find no man, at all intellectual, who is willing to leave London. No, Sir, when a man is tired of London, he is tired of life; for there is in London all that life can afford., Samuel Johnson, 1777{{Cite web , url=http://www.samueljohnson.com/tiredlon.html , title=When a man is tired of London, he is tired of life: Samuel Johnson , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110427035831/http://www.samueljohnson.com/tiredlon.html , archive-date=27 April 2011 , url-status=live , df=dmy


Late modern and contemporary

London was the world's List of largest cities throughout history, largest city from about 1831 to 1925,{{Cite web , title=London: The greatest city , url=http://www.channel4.com/history/microsites/H/history/i-m/london4.html , url-status=dead , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20090419104109/http://www.channel4.com/history/microsites/H/history/i-m/london4.html , archive-date=19 April 2009 , access-date=25 March 2021 , publisher=Channel4.com with a population density of 325 per hectare.{{Cite book , last=Bertaud , first=Alain , title=Order without Design: How Markets Shape Cities , publisher=The MIT Press , year=2018 , isbn=978-0262038768 London's overcrowded conditions led to cholera epidemics, claiming 14,000 lives in 1848, and 6,000 in 1866. Rising traffic congestion led to the creation of the world's first local urban rail network. The Metropolitan Board of Works oversaw infrastructure expansion in the capital and some surrounding counties; it was abolished in 1889 when the London County Council was created out of county areas surrounding the capital. The city was the target of many attacks during an early terrorist campaign, the suffragette bombing and arson campaign, between 1912 and 1914, which saw historic landmarks such as
Westminster Abbey Westminster Abbey, formally titled the Collegiate Church of Saint Peter at Westminster, is a large, mainly Gothic Gothic or Gothics may refer to: People and languages *Goths or Gothic people, the ethnonym of a group of East Germanic tribes ...

Westminster Abbey
and
St Paul's Cathedral St Paul's Cathedral is an Anglicanism, Anglican cathedral in London. As the seat of the Bishop of London, the cathedral serves as the mother church of the Diocese of London. It sits on Ludgate Hill at the highest point of the City of London a ...

St Paul's Cathedral
bombed. {{multiple image , direction = vertical , align = right , width = 220 , image1 = British recruits August 1914 Q53234.jpg , caption1 = British volunteer recruits in London, August 1914, during World War I , image2 = LondonBombedWWII full.jpg , caption2 = A bombed-out London street during the Blitz, World War II {{anchor, German air attacksLondon was German strategic bombing during World War I, bombed by the Germans in the First World War, and during the World War II, Second World War, the Blitz and other bombings by the German ''Luftwaffe'' killed over 30,000 Londoners, destroying large tracts of housing and other buildings across the city. The 1948 Summer Olympics were held at the original Wembley Stadium (1923), Wembley Stadium, while London was still recovering from the war. From the 1940s, London became home to many immigrants, primarily from Commonwealth of Nations, Commonwealth countries such as Jamaica, India, Bangladesh and Pakistan, making London one of the most diverse cities in the world. In 1951, the Festival of Britain was held on the South Bank. The Great Smog of 1952 led to the Clean Air Act 1956, which ended the "pea soup fogs" for which London had been notorious. Starting mainly in the mid-1960s, London became a centre for worldwide youth culture, exemplified by the Swinging London sub-culture associated with the King's Road, Chelsea, London, Chelsea and Carnaby Street. The role of trendsetter revived in the punk rock, punk era. In 1965 London's political boundaries were expanded in response to the growth of the urban area and a new Greater London Council was created. During The Troubles in Northern Ireland, London was hit in 1973 to bomb attacks by the Provisional Irish Republican Army, for two decades, starting with the Old Bailey bombing. Racial inequality was highlighted by the 1981 Brixton riot. Greater London's population declined in the decades after the Second World War, from an estimated peak of 8.6 million in 1939 to around 6.8 million in the 1980s. The principal ports for London moved downstream to Port of Felixstowe, Felixstowe and Port of Tilbury, Tilbury, with the London Docklands area becoming a focus for regeneration, including the Canary Wharf development. This was borne out of London's increasing role as an international financial centre in the 1980s. The Thames Barrier was completed in the 1980s to protect London against tidal surges from the
North Sea The North Sea is a sea The sea, connected as the world ocean or simply the ocean The ocean (also the sea or the world ocean) is the body of salt water which covers approximately 71% of the surface of the Earth.
. The Greater London Council was abolished in 1986, leaving London with no central administration until 2000 and the creation of the
Greater London Authority The Greater London Authority (GLA), colloquially known by the metonym "City Hall", is the Devolution in the United Kingdom, devolved Regions of England, regional governance body of the London Regions of England, region, which consists of the Ci ...
. To mark the 21st century, the Millennium Dome,
London Eye The London Eye, or the Millennium Wheel, is a cantilevered is anchored and extends over the edge of a swimming pool). The bottom example is created by adding a Robin boundary condition to the beam element, which essentially adds an elastic spr ...

London Eye
and Millennium Bridge (London), Millennium Bridge were constructed. On 6 July 2005 London was awarded the 2012 Summer Olympics, as the first city to stage the Olympic Games three times. On 7 July 2005, three
London Underground The London Underground (also known simply as the Underground, or by its nickname the Tube) is a rapid transit system serving Greater London and some parts of the adjacent ceremonial counties of England, counties of Buckinghamshire, Essex and H ...

London Underground
trains and a double-decker bus were bombed in a 7 July 2005 London bombings, series of terrorist attacks.{{Cite news , url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/shared/spl/hi/uk/05/london_blasts/what_happened/html/default.stm , title=7 July Bombings: Overview , work=BBC News , location=London , access-date=28 April 2008 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20061225041921/http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/shared/spl/hi/uk/05/london_blasts/what_happened/html/default.stm , archive-date=25 December 2006 , url-status=live In 2008, ''Time (magazine), Time'' named London alongside New York City and Hong Kong as Nylonkong, hailing them as the world's three most influential
global cities A global city, also called a power city, world city, alpha city or world center, is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ...

global cities
. In January 2015, Greater London's population was estimated to be 8.63 million, its highest since 1939.{{Cite web , title=Population Growth in London, 1939–2015 , url=http://data.london.gov.uk/dataset/population-change-1939-2015/resource/0a026346-960e-49e6-b968-a386d2cfe55f , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20150219160246/http://data.london.gov.uk/dataset/population-change-1939-2015/resource/0a026346-960e-49e6-b968-a386d2cfe55f , archive-date=19 February 2015 , url-status=dead , website=London Datastore , publisher=Greater London Authority , access-date=7 July 2015}
Alt URL
/ref> During the 2016 United Kingdom European Union membership referendum, Brexit referendum in 2016, the UK as a whole decided to leave the European Union, but most London constituencies voted for remaining.


Administration


Local government

{{main, Local government in London, History of local government in London, List of heads of London government The administration of London is formed of two tiers: a citywide, strategic tier and a local tier. Citywide administration is coordinated by the
Greater London Authority The Greater London Authority (GLA), colloquially known by the metonym "City Hall", is the Devolution in the United Kingdom, devolved Regions of England, regional governance body of the London Regions of England, region, which consists of the Ci ...
(GLA), while local administration is carried out by 33 smaller authorities.{{Cite web , title=Who runs London - Find Out Who Runs London and How , url=http://www.londoncouncils.gov.uk/who-runs-london, access-date=28 March 2021 , website=London Councils , publisher= The GLA consists of two elected components: the mayor of London, who has executive powers, and the
London Assembly The London Assembly is a 25-member elected body, part of the Greater London Authority The Greater London Authority (GLA), known colloquially as City Hall, is the devolved regional governance body of London London is the capital city, c ...
, which scrutinises the mayor's decisions and can accept or reject the mayor's budget proposals each year. The headquarters of the GLA is City Hall, Southwark, City Hall, Southwark. The mayor since 2016 has been Sadiq Khan, the first Muslim mayor of a major Western capital. The mayor's statutory planning strategy is published as the London Plan, which was most recently revised in 2011.{{Cite web , title=The London Plan , url=http://www.london.gov.uk/priorities/planning/londonplan , url-status=live , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120508220051/http://www.london.gov.uk/priorities/planning/londonplan , archive-date=8 May 2012 , access-date=25 May 2012 , website=
Greater London Authority The Greater London Authority (GLA), colloquially known by the metonym "City Hall", is the Devolution in the United Kingdom, devolved Regions of England, regional governance body of the London Regions of England, region, which consists of the Ci ...
, publisher=
The local authorities are the councils of the 32 London boroughs and the
City of London Corporation The City of London Corporation, officially and legally the Mayor and Commonalty and Citizens of the City of London, is the municipal governing body of the City of London, the historic centre of London and the location of much of the United Kingd ...
.{{Cite web , title=London Government Directory - London Borough Councils , url=http://directory.londoncouncils.gov.uk/ , access-date=29 March 2017 , website=London Councils , publisher= They are responsible for most local services, such as local planning, schools, social work, social services, local roads and refuse collection. Certain functions, such as Waste disposal authorities in London, waste management, are provided through joint arrangements. In 2009–2010 the combined revenue expenditure by London councils and the GLA amounted to just over £22 billion (£14.7 billion for the boroughs and £7.4 billion for the GLA). The London Fire Brigade is the statute, statutory Fire service in the UK, fire and rescue service for Greater London, run by the London Fire and Emergency Planning Authority. It is the third largest fire service in the world.{{Cite web , url=http://www.london-fire.gov.uk/WhoWeAre.asp , title=Who we are , publisher=London Fire Brigade , access-date=25 August 2009 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110429034538/http://www.london-fire.gov.uk/WhoWeAre.asp , archive-date=29 April 2011 , url-status=dead National Health Service Emergency medical services, ambulance services are provided by the London Ambulance Service, London Ambulance Service (LAS) NHS Trust, the largest free-at-the-point-of-use emergency ambulance service in the world.{{Cite web , url=http://www.londonambulance.nhs.uk/about_us.aspx , title=About us , publisher=London Ambulance Service NHS Trust , access-date=25 August 2009 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110427031902/http://www.londonambulance.nhs.uk/about_us.aspx , archive-date=27 April 2011 , url-status=dead The London Air Ambulance charity operates in conjunction with the LAS where required. Her Majesty's Coastguard and the Royal National Lifeboat Institution operate on the
River Thames The River Thames ( ), known alternatively in parts as the River Isis, is a river that flows through southern England Southern England, or the South of England, also known as the South, is an area of England consisting of the southernmos ...
,{{Cite web , date=2010 , title=Station list - HM Coastguard Stations , url=http://www.mcga.gov.uk/c4mca/mcga07-home/aboutus/mcga-online/mcga-sailing-cg66/dops_-_all-cg66-stationlist.htm , url-status=dead , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20101108134307/http://www.mcga.gov.uk/c4mca/mcga07-home/aboutus/mcga-online/mcga-sailing-cg66/dops_-_all-cg66-stationlist.htm , archive-date=8 November 2010 , access-date=25 August 2009 , website=Maritime and Coastguard Agency , publisher={{Cite news , date=2 January 2002 , title=Thames lifeboat service launched , work=BBC News, url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/england/1739401.stm , url-status=live , access-date=25 August 2009 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20040526015753/http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/england/1739401.stm , archive-date=26 May 2004 which is under the jurisdiction of the Port of London Authority from Teddington Lock to the sea.


National government

London is the seat of the Government of the United Kingdom. Many government departments, as well as the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, prime minister's residence at 10 Downing Street, are based close to the
Palace of Westminster The Palace of Westminster serves as the meeting place for both the House of Commons The House of Commons is the name for the elected lower house A lower house is one of two chambers Chambers may refer to: Places Canada: *Chambers Towns ...

Palace of Westminster
, particularly along Whitehall.{{Cite web , title=Prime Minister's Office, 10 Downing Street , url=https://www.gov.uk/government/organisations/prime-ministers-office-10-downing-street , access-date=25 March 2021 , website=uk.gov There are 73 members of Parliament (MPs) from London, elected from local parliamentary List of Parliamentary constituencies in Greater London, constituencies in the national British House of Commons, Parliament. {{as of, 2019, December, 49 are from the Labour Party (UK), Labour Party, 21 are Conservative Party (UK), Conservatives, and three are Liberal Democrats (UK), Liberal Democrat. The ministerial post of minister for London was created in 1994. The current Minister for London is Paul Scully MP.


Policing and crime

{{main, Crime in London Policing in Greater London, with the exception of the
City of London The City of London is a City status in the United Kingdom, city, Ceremonial counties of England, ceremonial county and local government district that contains the historic centre and the primary central business district (CBD) of London. It c ...

City of London
, is provided by the Metropolitan Police, overseen by the mayor through the Mayor's Office for Policing and Crime (MOPAC). The City of London has its own police force – the City of London Police.{{Cite web , url=http://www.london.gov.uk/gla/policing.jsp , title=Policing , publisher=Greater London Authority , access-date=25 August 2009 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20080121173357/http://www.london.gov.uk/gla/policing.jsp , archive-date=21 January 2008 , url-status=dead The British Transport Police are responsible for police services on National Rail,
London Underground The London Underground (also known simply as the Underground, or by its nickname the Tube) is a rapid transit system serving Greater London and some parts of the adjacent ceremonial counties of England, counties of Buckinghamshire, Essex and H ...

London Underground
, Docklands Light Railway and Tramlink services.{{Cite web , date=2021 , title=About Us , url=https://www.btp.police.uk/police-forces/british-transport-police/areas/about-us/about-us/ , access-date=28 March 2021 , website=British Transport Police The Ministry of Defence Police is a special police force in London, which does not generally become involved with policing the general public. Crime rates vary widely across different areas of London. Crime figures are made available nationally at Local authority#England, Local Authority and Ward (England), Ward level. In 2015, there were 118 homicides, a 25.5% increase over 2014. The Metropolitan Police have made detailed crime figures, broken down by category at borough and ward level, available on their website since 2000. Recorded crime has been rising in London, notably violent crime and murder by stabbing and other means have risen. There were 50 murders from the start of 2018 to mid April 2018. Funding cuts to police in London are likely to have contributed to this, though other factors are also involved.


Geography

{{main, Geography of London


Scope

Greater London, London, also known as Greater London, is one of nine regions of England and the top subdivision covering most of the city's metropolis.London is not a city in the usual UK sense of having City status in the United Kingdom, city status granted by the Crown. The small
City of London The City of London is a City status in the United Kingdom, city, Ceremonial counties of England, ceremonial county and local government district that contains the historic centre and the primary central business district (CBD) of London. It c ...

City of London
at its core once comprised the whole settlement, but as its urban area grew, the
Corporation of London The City of London Corporation, officially and legally the Mayor and Commonalty and Citizens of the City of London, is the municipal governing body of the City of London The City of London is a City status in the United Kingdom, city, Ce ...
resisted attempts to amalgamate the City with its suburbs, causing "London" to be defined several ways.{{Cite journal , last1=Beavan , first1=Charles , last2=Bickersteth , first2=Harry , title=Reports of Cases in Chancery, Argued and Determined in the Rolls Court , publisher=Saunders and Benning , year=1865 , url=https://archive.org/details/reportscasesinc14romigoog Forty per cent of Greater London is covered by the London postal district, London post town, in which 'LONDON' forms part of postal addresses.{{Cite book , last=Stationery Office , title=The Inner London Letter Post , publisher=H.M.S.O , year=1980 , isbn=978-0-10-251580-0 , page=128{{Cite book , title=London Postcode and Administrative Boundaries , publisher=Geographers' A-Z Map Company , author=Geographers' A-Z Map Company , year=2008 , edition=6 , isbn=978-1-84348-592-6 The London telephone area code (020) covers a larger area, similar in size to Greater London, although some outer districts are excluded and some just outside included. The Greater London boundary has been List of Greater London boundary changes, aligned to the M25 motorway in places.{{Cite web , url=http://www.opsi.gov.uk/SI/si1993/Uksi_19930441_en_1.htm , title=The Essex, Greater London and Hertfordshire (County and London Borough Boundaries) Order , year=1993 , publisher=Office of Public Sector Information , access-date=6 June 2008 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20100107231348/http://www.opsi.gov.uk/SI/si1993/Uksi_19930441_en_1.htm , archive-date=7 January 2010 , url-status=live Further urban expansion is now prevented by the Metropolitan Green Belt,{{Cite book , last=Dilys , first=M Hill , title=Urban Policy and Politics in Britain , publisher=St. Martin's Press , year=2000 , isbn=978-0-312-22745-6 , pag
268
, url=https://archive.org/details/urbanpolicypolit0000hill/page/268
although the built-up area extends beyond the boundary in places, producing a separately defined Greater London Urban Area. Beyond this is the vast London commuter belt.{{Cite web , url=http://www.london.gov.uk/assembly/reports/plansd/london_regional_200104.pdf , title=London in its Regional Setting , publisher=London Assembly , access-date=6 June 2008 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20080527193714/http://www.london.gov.uk/assembly/reports/plansd/london_regional_200104.pdf , archive-date=27 May 2008 , url-status=dead Greater London is split for some purposes into Inner London and Outer London,{{Cite book , url=http://www.opsi.gov.uk/RevisedStatutes/Acts/ukpga/1963/cukpga_19630033_en_1 , title=London Government Act 1963 , publisher=Office of Public Sector Information , access-date=6 May 2008 , isbn=978-0-16-053895-7 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20100817142118/http://www.opsi.gov.uk/RevisedStatutes/Acts/ukpga/1963/cukpga_19630033_en_1 , archive-date=17 August 2010 , url-status=dead and by the River Thames into North London, North and South London, South, with an informal central London area. The coordinates of the nominal centre of London, traditionally the original Eleanor Cross at Charing Cross near the junction of
Trafalgar Square Trafalgar Square ( ) is a public square in the City of Westminster, Central London, established in the early 19th century around the area formerly known as Charing Cross. The Square's name commemorates the Battle of Trafalgar, the Royal Navy, ...

Trafalgar Square
and Whitehall, are about {{Coord, 51, 30, 26, N, 00, 07, 39, W, type:city(7,000,000)_region:GB.{{Cite web , url=https://www.bbc.co.uk/london/content/articles/2005/08/15/charingcross_feature.shtml , title=London — Features — Where is the Centre of London? , publisher=BBC , access-date=6 June 2008 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20100817141948/http://www.bbc.co.uk/london/content/articles/2005/08/15/charingcross_feature.shtml , archive-date=17 August 2010 , url-status=live However, the geographical centre of London on one definition is in the London Borough of Lambeth, 0.1 miles to the north-east of Lambeth North tube station.


Status

Within London, both the
City of London The City of London is a City status in the United Kingdom, city, Ceremonial counties of England, ceremonial county and local government district that contains the historic centre and the primary central business district (CBD) of London. It c ...

City of London
and the
City of Westminster The City of Westminster is a City status in the United Kingdom, city and London boroughs, borough in Inner London which forms a core part of Central London. It is the site of the United Kingdom's Houses of Parliament and much of the British gov ...

City of Westminster
have City status in the United Kingdom, city status and both the City of London and the remainder of Greater London are Ceremonial counties of England, counties for the purposes of lieutenancies.{{Cite web , url=http://www.opsi.gov.uk/acts/acts1997/ukpga_19970023_en_1 , title=Lieutenancies Act 1997 , publisher=OPSI , access-date=7 June 2008 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20100522210452/http://www.opsi.gov.uk/acts/acts1997/ukpga_19970023_en_1 , archive-date=22 May 2010 , url-status=dead The area of Metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties of England#Greater London, Greater London includes areas that are part of the Historic counties of England, historic counties of
Middlesex Middlesex (; abbreviation: Middx) is a Historic counties of England, historic county in South East England, southeast England. Its area is almost entirely within the wider urbanised area of London and mostly within the Ceremonial counties of En ...

Middlesex
, Kent,
Surrey Surrey () is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Chambers (publisher), William and Ro ...

Surrey
, Essex and
Hertfordshire Hertfordshire (; often abbreviated Herts) is one of the home counties in southern England England is a that is part of the . It shares land borders with to its west and to its north. The lies northwest of England and the to the s ...

Hertfordshire
.{{Cite book , last=Barlow , first=I.M. , title=Metropolitan Government , publisher=Routledge , year=1991 , isbn=9780415020992 , location=London , page=346 London's status as the capital of England, and later the United Kingdom, has never been granted or confirmed officially—by statute or in written form.{{refn, According to the ''Collins English Dictionary'' definition of 'the seat of government', London is not the capital of England, as England does not have its own government. According to the ''Oxford English Reference Dictionary'' definition of 'the most important town' and many other authorities., group=note Its position was formed through constitutional convention (political custom), constitutional convention, making its status as ''de facto'' capital a part of the Constitution of the United Kingdom, UK's uncodified constitution. The capital of England was moved to London from
Winchester Winchester is a cathedral city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London ...

Winchester
as the
Palace of Westminster The Palace of Westminster serves as the meeting place for both the House of Commons The House of Commons is the name for the elected lower house A lower house is one of two chambers Chambers may refer to: Places Canada: *Chambers Towns ...

Palace of Westminster
developed in the 12th and 13th centuries to become the permanent location of the Noble court, royal court, and thus the political capital of the nation.{{Cite journal , last=Schofield , first=John , title=When London became a European capital , date=June 1999 , journal=British Archaeology , publisher=Council for British Archaeology , issue=45 , issn=1357-4442 , url=http://www.britarch.ac.uk/BA/ba45/ba45regs.html , access-date=6 May 2008 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110425074539/http://www.britarch.ac.uk/ba/ba45/ba45regs.html , archive-date=25 April 2011 , url-status=dead More recently, Greater London has been defined as a Regions of England, region of England and in this context is known as ''London''.


Topography

Greater London encompasses a total area of {{convert, 1583, km2, sqmi, an area which had a population of 7,172,036 in 2001 and a population density of {{convert, 4542, PD/km2, PD/sqmi. The extended area known as the London Metropolitan Region or the London Metropolitan Agglomeration, comprises a total area of {{convert, 8382, km2, sqmi has a population of 13,709,000 and a population density of {{convert, 1510, PD/km2, PD/sqmi. Modern London stands on the
Thames The River Thames ( ), known alternatively in parts as the River Isis, is a river that flows through southern England Southern England, or the South of England, also known as the South, is an area of England consisting of the southernmos ...
, its primary geographical feature, a Navigability, navigable river which crosses the city from the south-west to the east. The Thames Valley is a floodplain, flood plain surrounded by gently rolling hills including Parliament Hill, London, Parliament Hill, Addington Hills, and Primrose Hill. Historically London grew up at the lowest bridging point on the Thames. The Thames was once a much broader, shallower river with extensive marshlands; at high tide, its shores reached five times their present width.{{Cite book , url=https://books.google.com/books?id=M9qvtYYhRtAC&pg=PR11 , title=London: A History , first=Francis , last=Sheppard , page=10 , publisher=Oxford University Press , year=2000 , isbn=978-0-19-285369-1 , access-date=6 June 2008 Since the Victorian era the Thames has been extensively Thames Embankment, embanked, and many of its London Tributaries of the River Thames, tributaries now flow Subterranean rivers of London, underground. The Thames is a tidal river, and London is vulnerable to flooding.{{Cite web , url=http://www.environment-agency.gov.uk/yourenv/eff/1190084/natural_forces/flooding/?version=1&lang=_e , title=Flooding , publisher=UK Environment Agency , access-date=19 June 2006 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20060215080725/http://www.environment-agency.gov.uk/yourenv/eff/1190084/natural_forces/flooding/?version=1&lang=_e , archive-date=15 February 2006 , url-status=dead The threat has increased over time because of a slow but continuous rise in Tide, high water level by the slow 'tilting' of the British Isles (up in Scotland and Northern Ireland and down in southern parts of
England England is a that is part of the . It shares land borders with to its west and to its north. The lies northwest of England and the to the southwest. England is separated from by the to the east and the to the south. The country cover ...

England
, Wales and Ireland) caused by post-glacial rebound.{{Cite web , url=http://www.environment-agency.gov.uk/yourenv/eff/1190084/natural_forces/sealevels/?version=1&lang=_e , title="Sea Levels" – UK Environment Agency , publisher=Environment Agency , access-date=6 June 2008 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20080523225152/http://www.environment-agency.gov.uk/yourenv/eff/1190084/natural_forces/sealevels/?version=1&lang=_e , archive-date=23 May 2008 , url-status=dead In 1974 a decade of work began on the construction of the Thames Barrier across the Thames at Woolwich to deal with this threat. While the barrier is expected to function as designed until roughly 2070, concepts for its future enlargement or redesign are already being discussed.


Climate

{{main, Climate of London {{climate chart , London, United Kingdom , 2.3, 8.1, 55.2 , 2.1, 8.4, 40.9 , 3.9, 11.3, 41.6 , 5.5, 14.2, 43.7 , 8.7, 17.9, 49.4 , 11.7, 22.4, 45.1 , 13.9, 23.5, 44.5 , 13.7, 23.2, 49.5 , 11.4, 19.9, 49.1 , 8.4, 15.5, 68.5 , 4.9, 11.1, 59.0 , 2.7, 8.3, 55.2 , float=right , clear=none London has a temperate oceanic climate (Köppen climate classification, Köppen: ''Cfb ''). Rainfall records have been kept in the city since at least 1697, when records began at Kew. At Kew, the most rainfall in one month is {{Convert, 189, mm, in, order=flip, abbr= in November 1755 and the least is {{Convert, 0, mm, in, order=flip, abbr= in both December 1788 and July 1800. Mile End also had {{Convert, 0, mm, in, order=flip, abbr= in April 1893. The wettest year on record is 1903, with a total fall of {{Convert, 969, mm, in, order=flip, abbr= and the driest is 1921, with a total fall of {{Convert, 308, mm, in, order=flip, abbr=. The average annual precipitation amounts to about 600 mm, lower than cities such as Rome, Lisbon, New York City and Sydney. Nevertheless, despite its relatively low annual precipitation, London still receives 109.6 rainy days on the 1.0 mm threshold annually – higher than or at least very similar to the cities mentioned. Temperature extremes in London range from {{convert, 38.1, °C, °F, 1 at Kew on 10 August 2003 down to {{convert, -16.1, °C, °F at Northolt on 1 January 1962. Records for atmospheric pressure have been kept at London since 1692. The highest pressure ever reported is {{convert, 1049.8, mbar, inHg on 20 January 2020. Summers are generally warm, sometimes hot. London's average July high is 23.5 °C (74.3 °F). On average each year, London experiences 31 days above {{convert, 25, °C, °F, 1 and 4.2 days above {{convert, 30.0, °C, °F, 1. During the 2003 European heat wave prolonged heat led to hundreds of heat-related deaths. There was also a previous spell of 15 consecutive days above {{convert, 32.2, °C, °F, 1 in England in 1976 which also caused many heat related deaths. A previous temperature of {{convert, 37.8, °C, °F in August 1911 at the Greenwich station, though this was later disregarded as non-standard.{{Cite web , date=1911 , title=Monthly Weather Report of the Meteorological Office , url=https://www.metoffice.gov.uk/binaries/content/assets/mohippo/pdf/i/7/aug1911.pdf , url-status=dead , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20171113123406/https://www.metoffice.gov.uk/binaries/content/assets/mohippo/pdf/i/7/aug1911.pdf , archive-date=13 November 2017 , access-date=25 March 2021 , publisher=Wyman and Sons, Ltd. Droughts can also, occasionally, be a problem, especially in summer. Most recently in Summer 2018 and with much drier than average conditions prevailing from May to December. However, the most consecutive days without rain was 73 days in the spring of 1893. Winters are generally cool with little temperature variation. Heavy snow is rare but snow usually falls at least once each winter. Spring and autumn can be pleasant. As a large city, London has a considerable urban heat island effect, making the centre of London at times {{convert, 5, C-change, 0 warmer than the suburbs and outskirts. This can be seen below when comparing London Heathrow, {{convert, 15, mi west of London, with the London Weather Centre. {{London weatherbox {{Weather box, location = Greenwich Park, elevation: {{convert, 47, m, ft, 0, abbr=on, 1981–2010 normals , collapsed = y , metric first = y , single line = y , Jan record high C = 14.4 , Feb record high C = 19.7 , Mar record high C = 21.7 , Apr record high C = 25.6 , May record high C = 30.0 , Jun record high C = 32.8 , Jul record high C = 35.3 , Aug record high C = 37.5 , Sep record high C = 30.0 , Oct record high C = 25.6 , Nov record high C = 18.9 , Dec record high C = 15.0 , Jan high C = 8.1 , Feb high C = 8.6 , Mar high C = 11.6 , Apr high C = 14.6 , May high C = 18.1 , Jun high C = 21.0 , Jul high C = 23.4 , Aug high C = 23.1 , Sep high C = 20.0 , Oct high C = 15.5 , Nov high C = 11.3 , Dec high C = 8.4 , year high C = 15.3 , Jan mean C = 5.6 , Feb mean C = 5.7 , Mar mean C = 8.1 , Apr mean C = 10.3 , May mean C = 13.5 , Jun mean C = 16.4 , Jul mean C = 18.6 , Aug mean C = 18.5 , Sep mean C = 15.7 , Oct mean C = 12.2 , Nov mean C = 8.6 , Dec mean C = 5.9 , year mean C = 11.6 , Jan low C = 3.1 , Feb low C = 2.7 , Mar low C = 4.6 , Apr low C = 5.9 , May low C = 8.9 , Jun low C = 11.8 , Jul low C = 13.7 , Aug low C = 13.8 , Sep low C = 11.4 , Oct low C = 8.8 , Nov low C = 5.8 , Dec low C = 3.4 , year low C = 7.8 , Jan record low C = -9.4 , Feb record low C = -9.4 , Mar record low C = -7.8 , Apr record low C = -2.2 , May record low C = -1.1 , Jun record low C = 5.0 , Jul record low C = 7.2 , Aug record low C = 6.1 , Sep record low C = 2.8 , Oct record low C = -3.3 , Nov record low C = -5.0 , Dec record low C = -7.2 , precipitation colour = green , Jan precipitation mm = 41.6 , Feb precipitation mm = 36.3 , Mar precipitation mm = 40.3 , Apr precipitation mm = 40.1 , May precipitation mm = 44.9 , Jun precipitation mm = 47.4 , Jul precipitation mm = 34.6 , Aug precipitation mm = 54.3 , Sep precipitation mm = 51.0 , Oct precipitation mm = 61.1 , Nov precipitation mm = 57.5 , Dec precipitation mm = 48.4 , year precipitation mm = 557.4 , unit precipitation days = 1.0 mm , Jan precipitation days = 11.4 , Feb precipitation days = 8.5 , Mar precipitation days = 9.8 , Apr precipitation days = 9.0 , May precipitation days = 9.2 , Jun precipitation days = 7.4 , Jul precipitation days = 6.3 , Aug precipitation days = 8.1 , Sep precipitation days = 8.6 , Oct precipitation days = 10.9 , Nov precipitation days = 10.9 , Dec precipitation days = 9.5 , year precipitation days = 109.4 , Jan sun = 44.7 , Feb sun = 65.4 , Mar sun = 101.7 , Apr sun = 148.3 , May sun = 170.9 , Jun sun = 171.4 , Jul sun = 176.7 , Aug sun = 186.1 , Sep sun = 133.9 , Oct sun = 105.4 , Nov sun = 59.6 , Dec sun = 45.8 , year sun = 1410.0 , source 1 = Met Office{{cite web , url=https://www.metoffice.gov.uk/public/weather/climate/u10hb54gm, title= Greenwich 1981–2010 averages , access-date=20 November 2018, publisher=Met Office , source 2 = BBC Weather


Districts

{{main, List of districts of London, London boroughs Places within London's vast urban area are identified using district names, such as Mayfair, Southwark, Wembley and Whitechapel. These are either informal designations, reflect the names of villages that have been absorbed by sprawl, or are superseded administrative units such as parishes or Metropolitan boroughs of the County of London, former boroughs. Such names have remained in use through tradition, each referring to a local area with its own distinctive character, but without official boundaries. Since 1965 Greater London has been divided into 32 London boroughs in addition to the ancient City of London.{{Cite web , url=http://www.london.gov.uk/london-life/city-government/boroughs.jsp , title=London boroughs — London Life, GLA , publisher=London Government , access-date=3 November 2008 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20071213025156/http://www.london.gov.uk/london-life/city-government/boroughs.jsp , archive-date=13 December 2007 , url-status=dead{{Cite book , last1=Dogan , first1=Mattei , first2=John D. , last2=Kasarda , title=The Metropolis Era , publisher=Sage , year=1988 , page=99 , isbn=978-0-8039-2603-5 , url=https://books.google.com/books?id=_GFPAAAAMAAJ&q=1965,+32+boroughs+of+london The City of London is the main financial district,{{Cite web , url=http://www.london.gov.uk/london-life/business-and-jobs/financial-centre.jsp , title=London as a financial centre , publisher=Mayor of London , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20080106051217/http://www.london.gov.uk/london-life/business-and-jobs/financial-centre.jsp , archive-date=6 January 2008 , url-status=dead and Canary Wharf has recently developed into a new financial and commercial hub in the London Docklands, Docklands to the east. The West End of London, West End is London's main entertainment and shopping district, attracting tourists.{{Cite news , url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/entertainment/1608619.stm , title=West End still drawing crowds , work=BBC News , access-date=6 June 2008 , date=22 October 2001 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110511121403/http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/entertainment/1608619.stm , archive-date=11 May 2011 , url-status=live West (London sub region), West London includes expensive residential areas where properties can sell for tens of millions of pounds.{{Cite news , url=https://www.theguardian.com/money/2006/apr/17/tax.g2 , title=Super Rich , date=17 April 2006 , work=The Guardian , access-date=7 June 2008 , location=London , first=James , last=Meek , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110501134745/http://www.guardian.co.uk/money/2006/apr/17/tax.g2 , archive-date=1 May 2011 , url-status=live The average price for properties in Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea, Kensington and Chelsea is over £2 million with a similarly high outlay in most of central London.{{Cite web , url=https://www.rbkc.gov.uk/planningandconservation/planningpolicy/idoc.ashx?docid=bf56bda1-575c-435b-92ac-9a71625c1746&version=-1 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20161010131732/https://www.rbkc.gov.uk/planningandconservation/planningpolicy/idoc.ashx?docid=bf56bda1-575c-435b-92ac-9a71625c1746&version=-1 , url-status=dead , archive-date=10 October 2016 , title=Information on latest house prices in the Royal Borough , publisher=Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea{{Cite news , url=https://www.theguardian.com/business/2014/aug/08/housing-london-jump-19-per-cent-year , title=Average house prices in London jump 19 percent in a year , first=Rupert , last=Jones , work=The Guardian , location=London , date=8 August 2014 , access-date=24 September 2014 The East End of London, East End is the area closest to the original Port of London, known for its high immigrant population, as well as for being one of the poorest areas in London.{{Cite news , url=http://msnbc.msn.com/id/8487518/site/newsweek/ , date=6 July 2005 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20060829024354/http://msnbc.msn.com/id/8487518/site/newsweek/ , archive-date=29 August 2006 , title=Tomorrow's East End , work=Newsweek , author=Flynn, Emily , location=New York , url-status=dead The surrounding North East (London sub region), East London area saw much of London's early industrial development; now, brownfield land, brownfield sites throughout the area are being redeveloped as part of the Thames Gateway including the London Riverside and Lower Lea Valley, which was developed into the Olympic Park, London, Olympic Park for the London 2012 Olympic bid, 2012 Olympics and Paralympics.


Architecture

{{main, Architecture of London, List of tallest buildings and structures in London, List of demolished buildings and structures in London London's buildings are too diverse to be characterised by any particular architectural style, partly because of their varying ages. Many grand houses and public buildings, such as the
National Gallery The National Gallery is an art museum An art museum is a building or space for the display of art, usually from the museum's own Collection (artwork), collection. It might be in public or private ownership and may be accessible to all or h ...
, are constructed from Portland stone. Some areas of the city, particularly those just west of the centre, are characterised by white stucco or whitewashed buildings. Few structures in central London pre-date the Great Fire of London, Great Fire of 1666, these being a few trace Ancient Rome, Roman remains, the
Tower of London The Tower of London, officially Her Majesty's Royal Palace and Fortress of the Tower of London, is a historic castle in East Sussex East Sussex is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative ...

Tower of London
and a few scattered Tudor architecture, Tudor survivors in the city. Further out is, for example, the Tudor period, Tudor-period Hampton Court Palace, England's oldest surviving Tudor palace, built by Cardinal Thomas Wolsey in about 1515. Part of the varied architectural heritage are the 17th-century churches by Christopher Wren, Wren, neoclassical financial institutions such as the Royal Exchange, London, Royal Exchange and the Bank of England, to the early 20th century Old Bailey and the 1960s Barbican Estate. The disused—but soon{{when, date=March 2021 to be rejuvenated—1939 Battersea Power Station by the river in the south-west is a local landmark, while some railway termini are excellent examples of Victorian architecture, most notably St Pancras railway station, St. Pancras and Paddington railway station, Paddington.{{Cite web , url=http://www.greatbuildings.com/buildings/Paddington_Station.html , title=Paddington Station , publisher=Great Buildings , access-date=6 June 2008 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110525164017/http://www.greatbuildings.com/buildings/Paddington_Station.html , archive-date=25 May 2011 , url-status=dead The density of London varies, with high employment density in the Central London, central area and Canary Wharf, high residential densities in inner London, and lower densities in Outer London. The Monument in the City of London provides views of the surrounding area while commemorating the Great Fire of London, which originated nearby. Marble Arch and Wellington Arch, at the north and south ends of Park Lane (road), Park Lane, respectively, have royal connections, as do the Albert Memorial and Royal Albert Hall in Kensington. Nelson's Column is a nationally recognised monument in
Trafalgar Square Trafalgar Square ( ) is a public square in the City of Westminster, Central London, established in the early 19th century around the area formerly known as Charing Cross. The Square's name commemorates the Battle of Trafalgar, the Royal Navy, ...

Trafalgar Square
, one of the focal points of central London. Older buildings are mainly brick built, most commonly the yellow London stock brick or a warm orange-red variety, often decorated with carvings and white plaster moulding (decorative), mouldings.{{Cite news , url=https://www.telegraph.co.uk/property/main.jhtml?view=DETAILS&grid=A1&xml=/property/2008/03/27/lpgreen127.xml , title=Eco homes: Wooden it be lovely... ? , work=The Daily Telegraph , access-date=12 October 2008 , location=London , first=Sarah , last=Lonsdale , date=27 March 2008 , archive-url=https://wayback.archive-it.org/all/20130308205754/http://www.telegraph.co.uk/property/greenproperty/3360810/Eco-homes-Wooden-it-be-lovely...-.html , archive-date=8 March 2013 , url-status=dead In the dense areas, most of the concentration is via medium- and high-rise buildings. London's skyscrapers, such as 30 St Mary Axe, Tower 42, the Broadgate Tower and One Canada Square, are mostly in the two financial districts, the
City of London The City of London is a City status in the United Kingdom, city, Ceremonial counties of England, ceremonial county and local government district that contains the historic centre and the primary central business district (CBD) of London. It c ...

City of London
and Canary Wharf. High-rise development is restricted at certain sites if it would obstruct protected views of
St Paul's Cathedral St Paul's Cathedral is an Anglicanism, Anglican cathedral in London. As the seat of the Bishop of London, the cathedral serves as the mother church of the Diocese of London. It sits on Ludgate Hill at the highest point of the City of London a ...

St Paul's Cathedral
and other historic buildings. Nevertheless, there are a number of tall skyscrapers in central London (see Tall buildings in London), including the 95-storey Shard London Bridge, the List of tallest buildings in the United Kingdom, tallest building in the United Kingdom. Other notable modern buildings include City Hall, Southwark, City Hall in Southwark with its distinctive oval shape,{{Cite news , url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/2129199.stm , title=Inside London's new 'glass egg' , date=16 July 2002 , work=BBC News , access-date=26 April 2008 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20090528025840/http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/2129199.stm , archive-date=28 May 2009 , url-status=live the Art Deco BBC Broadcasting House plus the Postmodernism, Postmodernist
British Library The British Library is the national library A national library is a library established by a government as a country's preeminent repository of information. Unlike public library, public libraries, these rarely allow citizens to borrow book ...

British Library
in Somers Town, London, Somers Town/Kings Cross, London, Kings Cross and No 1 Poultry by James Stirling (architect), James Stirling. What was formerly the Millennium Dome, by the Thames to the east of Canary Wharf, is now an entertainment venue called the The O2 (London), O2 Arena.


Cityscape

{{Wide image, Palace of Westminster from the dome on Methodist Central Hall (cropped).jpg, 1000px, The Houses of Parliament and Elizabeth Tower (Big Ben) on the right foreground, the
London Eye The London Eye, or the Millennium Wheel, is a cantilevered is anchored and extends over the edge of a swimming pool). The bottom example is created by adding a Robin boundary condition to the beam element, which essentially adds an elastic spr ...

London Eye
on the left foreground and The Shard with Canary Wharf in the background; seen in September 2014


Natural history

The London Natural History Society suggests that London is "one of the World's Greenest Cities" with more than 40 per cent green space or open water. They indicate that 2000 species of flowering plant have been found growing there and that the Tideway, tidal Thames supports 120 species of fish. They also state that over 60 species of bird nest in central London and that their members have recorded 47 species of butterfly, 1173 moths and more than 270 kinds of spider around London. London's wetland areas support nationally important populations of many water birds. London has 38 List of Sites of Special Scientific Interest in Greater London, Sites of Special Scientific Interest (SSSIs), two national nature reserve (United Kingdom), national nature reserves and 76 List of local nature reserves in Greater London, local nature reserves. Amphibians are common in the capital, including smooth newts living by the
Tate Modern Tate Modern is an art gallery located in London. It houses the United Kingdom's national collection of international modern Modern may refer to: History *Modern history Human history, also known as world history, is the description of h ...

Tate Modern
, and common frogs, common toads, palmate newts and great crested newts. On the other hand, native reptiles such as slowworms, common lizards, barred grass snakes and Vipera berus, adders, are mostly only seen in Outer London. Among other inhabitants of London are 10,000 red foxes, so that there are now 16 foxes for every square mile (6 per square kilometre) of London. These urban foxes are noticeably bolder than their country cousins, sharing the pavement with pedestrians and raising cubs in people's backyards. Foxes have even sneaked into the Houses of Parliament, where one was found asleep on a filing cabinet. Another broke into the grounds of
Buckingham Palace Buckingham Palace () is the London London is the and of and the . It stands on the in south-east England at the head of a down to the , and has been a major settlement for two millennia. The , its ancient core and financial ce ...

Buckingham Palace
, reportedly killing some of Queen Elizabeth II's prized pink flamingos. Generally, however, foxes and city folk appear to get along. A survey in 2001 by the London-based Mammal Society found that 80 per cent of 3,779 respondents who volunteered to keep a diary of garden mammal visits liked having them around. This sample cannot be taken to represent Londoners as a whole.{{Cite web , title=The Garden Mammal Survey Report 2001 , url=http://www.mammal.org.uk/sites/default/files/Summary%20Report%20to%20participants%20August%202001.PDF, archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130202114736/http://www.mammal.org.uk/sites/default/files/Summary%20Report%20to%20participants%20August%202001.PDF, url-status=dead, archive-date=2 February 2013 , website=The Mammal Society , publisher=The Mammal Society , access-date=23 November 2015 Other mammals found in
Greater London Greater London is an administrative area Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, are generic names ...

Greater London
are European hedgehog, hedgehog, brown rat, mice, European rabbit, rabbit, shrew, vole, and grey squirrel. In wilder areas of Outer London, such as Epping Forest, a wide variety of mammals are found, including European hare, European badger, badger, field vole, field, bank vole, bank and European water vole, water vole, wood mouse, yellow-necked mouse, European mole, mole, shrew, and least weasel, weasel, in addition to red fox, grey squirrel and hedgehog. A dead Eurasian otter, otter was found at The Highway, in Wapping, about a mile from the
Tower Bridge Tower Bridge is a combined bascule and suspension bridge in London London is the capital city, capital and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, largest city of England and the United Kingdom. The city stands on the River Thames in ...

Tower Bridge
, which would suggest that they have begun to move back after being absent a hundred years from the city. Ten of England's eighteen species of bats have been recorded in Epping Forest: soprano pipistrelle, soprano, nathusius' pipistrelle, Nathusius' and common pipistrelles, common noctule, serotine, barbastelle, Daubenton's bat, Daubenton's, brown long-eared bat, brown long-eared, Natterer's bat, Natterer's and Leisler's bat, Leisler's. Among the strange sights in London have been a whale in the Thames, while the BBC Two programme "Natural World: Unnatural History of London" shows feral pigeons using the
London Underground The London Underground (also known simply as the Underground, or by its nickname the Tube) is a rapid transit system serving Greater London and some parts of the adjacent ceremonial counties of England, counties of Buckinghamshire, Essex and H ...

London Underground
to get around the city, a Pinniped, seal that takes fish from fishmongers outside Billingsgate Fish Market, and foxes that will "sit" if given sausages. Herds of Red deer, red and fallow deer also roam freely within much of Richmond Park, Richmond and Bushy Park. A cull takes place each November and February to ensure numbers can be sustained.{{Cite news , author=Bishop , first=Rachael , date=5 November 2012 , title=Richmond Park Deer Cull Begins , work=Sutton & Croydon Guardian , location=London , url=http://www.yourlocalguardian.co.uk/news/local/wandsworthnews/10026864.Richmond_Park_deer_cull_begins/ , url-status=live , access-date=25 March 2021 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200307135458/https://www.yourlocalguardian.co.uk/news/10026864.richmond-park-deer-cull-begins/ , archive-date=7 March 2020 Epping Forest is also known for its fallow deer, which can frequently be seen in herds to the north of the Forest. A rare population of melanistic, black fallow deer is also maintained at the Deer Sanctuary near Theydon Bois. Reeve's muntjac, Muntjac deer, which escaped from deer parks at the turn of the 20th century, are also found in the forest. While Londoners are accustomed to wildlife such as birds and foxes sharing the city, more recently urban deer have started becoming a regular feature, and whole herds of fallow deer come into residential areas at night to take advantage of London's green spaces.


Demography

{{main, Demography of London {{Table London top 10 birth countries The 2011 census recorded that 2,998,264 people or 36.7% of London's population were Foreign-born population of the United Kingdom, foreign-born making it the city with the foreign born#Cities with largest foreign born populations, second largest immigrant population after New York, in terms of absolute numbers. About 69% of children born in London in 2015 had at least one parent who was born abroad. The table to the right shows the commonest countries of birth of London residents. Note that some of the German-born population, in 18th position, are British citizens from birth born to parents serving in the British Armed Forces in Germany. Increasing industrialisation swelled London's population throughout the 19th and early 20th centuries, and for some time in the late 19th and early 20th centuries it was the most populous city in the world. It peaked at 8,615,245 in 1939, just before the outbreak of the Second World War, but had declined to 7,192,091 by the 2001 Census. However, the population then grew by just over a million between the 2001 and 2011 Censuses, to reach 8,173,941 in the latter. However, London's continuous urban area extends beyond Greater London and numbered 9,787,426 people in 2011, while its wider London metropolitan area, metropolitan area had a population of 12–14 million, depending on the definition used.{{Cite web , url=http://www.citypopulation.de/world/Agglomerations.html , title=The Principal Agglomerations of the World , website=City Population , access-date=3 March 2009 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20100704112702/http://www.citypopulation.de/world/Agglomerations.html , archive-date=4 July 2010 , url-status=live{{Cite web , url=http://www.espon.eu/export/sites/default/Documents/Projects/ESPON2006Projects/StudiesScientificSupportProjects/UrbanFunctions/fr-1.4.3_April2007-final.pdf#page=119 , title=British urban pattern: population data , access-date=22 February 2010 , date=March 2007 , website=ESPON project 1.4.3 Study on Urban Functions , publisher=European Spatial Planning Observation Network , page=119 , url-status=dead , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20150924002318/http://www.espon.eu/export/sites/default/Documents/Projects/ESPON2006Projects/StudiesScientificSupportProjects/UrbanFunctions/fr-1.4.3_April2007-final.pdf#page=119 , archive-date=24 September 2015 According to Eurostat, London is the second List of metropolitan areas in Europe, most populous London commuter belt, metropolitan area in Europe. A net 726,000 immigrants arrived there in the period 1991–2001.{{Cite web , last=Leppard , first=David , date=10 April 2005 , title=Immigration Rise Increases Segregation in British Cities , url=http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/uk/article379434.ece , url-status=dead , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20080211185641/http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/uk/article379434.ece , archive-date=11 February 2008 , access-date=25 March 2021 , website=The Times The region covers {{convert, 1579, km2, sqmi, giving a population density of {{convert, 5177, PD/km2, PD/sqmi, more than ten times that of any other ITL (UK), British region.{{Cite web , url=http://www.statistics.gov.uk/downloads/theme_population/regional_snapshot/RS_Lon.pdf , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20080624195152/http://www.statistics.gov.uk/downloads/theme_population/regional_snapshot/RS_Lon.pdf , archive-date=24 June 2008 , title=Population density of London: by London borough, 2006 , publisher=UK Statistics Authority , url-status=live In population terms, London is the 19th World's largest cities, largest city and the 18th List of metropolitan areas by population, largest metropolitan region.{{Cite news , title='Rich List' counts more than 100 UK billionaires , url=https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-27360032 , access-date=11 May 2014 , work=BBC News , date=11 May 2014{{Cite news , url=https://money.cnn.com/2004/06/11/pf/costofliving/ , title=World's Most Expensive Cities 2004 , publisher=CNN , access-date=16 August 2007 , date=11 June 2004 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110501115458/http://money.cnn.com/2004/06/11/pf/costofliving/ , archive-date=1 May 2011 , url-status=live


Age structure and median age

Children younger than 14 constituted 20.6% of the population in Outer London in 2018, and 18% in Inner London. The 15–24 age group was 11.1% in Outer and 10.2% in Inner London, those aged 25–44 years 30.6% in Outer London and 39.7% in Inner London, those aged 45–64 years 24% and 20.7% in Outer and Inner London respectively. Those aged 65 and over are 13.6% in Outer London, but only 9.3% in Inner London.{{Cite web , author= , date=20 April 2020 , title=The Age Distribution of the Population , url=https://www.trustforlondon.org.uk/data/londons-population-age/ , url-status=dead, archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200702033916/https://www.trustforlondon.org.uk/data/population-age-groups/ , archive-date=2 July 2020 , access-date=27 March 2021 , website=Trust for London The median age of London in 2018 was 36.5, which was younger than the UK median of 40.3.


Ethnic groups

{{main, Ethnic groups in London {{multiple image , caption_align = center , header_align = center , align = right , direction = vertical , width = 250 , header = Maps of Greater London showing percentage distribution of selected races according to the 2011 Census , image1 = White Greater London 2011 census.png , alt1 = White , caption1 = White , image2 = Asian Greater London 2011 census.png , alt2 = Asian , caption2 = Asian , image3 = Black Greater London 2011 census.png , alt3 = Black , caption3 = Black According to the Office for National Statistics, based on United Kingdom Census 2011, 2011 Census estimates, 59.8 per cent of the 8,173,941 inhabitants of London were White people, White, with 44.9% White British, 2.2% Irish migration to Great Britain, White Irish, 0.1% Gypsy (term), gypsy/Irish traveller and 12.1% classified as Other White."2011 Census: Key Statistics for Local Authorities in England and Wales"
Office for National Statistics, ONS. Retrieved 3 July 2014
Meanwhile 20.9% of Londoners were of British Asian, Asian and mixed-Asian descent, 19.7% being of full Asian descents and those of mixed-Asian heritage 1.2% of the population. British Indian, Indians accounted for 6.6%, followed by British Pakistanis, Pakistanis and British Bangladeshi, Bangladeshis at 2.7% each. British Chinese, Chinese peoples accounted for 1.5% and British Arabs, Arabs for 1.3%. A further 4.9% were classified as "Other Asian". 15.6% of London's population were of Black British, Black and mixed-Black descent. 13.3% of full Black descent, with mixed-Black heritage comprising 2.3%. Black British, Black Africans accounted for 7.0% of London's population, with 4.2% as British African-Caribbean community, Black Caribbean and 2.1% as "Other Black". 5.0% were of Mixed (United Kingdom ethnicity category), mixed race. As of 2007, Black British, Black and British Asian, Asian children outnumbered White British children by about three to two in state schools across London.{{Cite news , url=https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/1564365/One-fifth-of-children-from-ethnic-minorities.html , title=One fifth of children from ethnic minorities , author=Paton, Graeme , date=1 October 2007 , work=The Daily Telegraph , access-date=7 June 2008 , location=London , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20081206094854/http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/1564365/One-fifth-of-children-from-ethnic-minorities.html , archive-date=6 December 2008 , url-status=live Altogether at the 2011 census, of London's 1,624,768 population aged 0 to 15, 46.4% were White, 19.8% Asian, 19% Black, 10.8% Mixed and 4% another ethnic group. In January 2005, a survey of London's ethnic and religious diversity claimed that more than 300 languages were spoken in London and more than 50 non-indigenous communities had populations of more than 10,000.{{Cite news , url=https://www.theguardian.com/uk/2005/jan/21/britishidentity1 , title=Every race, colour, nation and religion on earth , work=The Guardian , location=London , access-date=6 May 2008 , first=Leo , last=Benedictus , date=21 January 2005 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110501134732/http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2005/jan/21/britishidentity1 , archive-date=1 May 2011 , url-status=live Figures from the Office for National Statistics show that {{as of, 2010, alt=in 2010, London's foreign-born population was 2,650,000 (33%), up from 1,630,000 in 1997. The 2011 census showed that 36.7% of
Greater London Greater London is an administrative area Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, are generic names ...

Greater London
's population were born outside the UK.{{Cite web , url=http://www.statistics.gov.uk/census2001/profiles/H-A.asp , title=Census 2001: London , publisher=Office for National Statistics , access-date=3 June 2006 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110511142104/http://www.statistics.gov.uk/census2001/profiles/H-A.asp , archive-date=11 May 2011 , url-status=live Some of the German-born population were likely to be British nationals born to parents serving in the British Armed Forces in Germany.{{Cite book , url=http://www.ippr.org.uk/publicationsandreports/publication.asp?id=308 , title=Beyond Black and White: Mapping new immigrant communities , last=Kyambi , first=Sarah , date=2005 , access-date=20 January 2007 , isbn=978-1-86030-284-8 , publisher=Institute for Public Policy Research , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110501123816/http://www.ippr.org.uk/publicationsandreports/publication.asp?id=308 , archive-date=1 May 2011 , url-status=dead Estimates by the Office for National Statistics indicate that the five largest foreign-born groups living in London in the period July 2009 to June 2010 were born in India, Poland, the Republic of Ireland, Bangladesh and Nigeria.{{Cite web , url=http://www.statistics.gov.uk/downloads/theme_population/population-by-country-of-birth-and-nationality-jul09-jun10.zip , title=Table 1.4: Estimated population resident in the United Kingdom, by foreign country of birth, July 2009 to June 2010 , publisher=Office for National Statistics , access-date=7 March 2011 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110506152443/http://www.statistics.gov.uk/downloads/theme_population/population-by-country-of-birth-and-nationality-jul09-jun10.zip , archive-date=6 May 2011 , url-status=dead The figure given was the central estimate. See the source for 95% confidence intervals.


Religion

{{main, Religion in London According to the 2011 UK Census, 2011 Census, the largest religious groupings were Christians (48.4%), followed by those of Irreligion, no religion (20.7%), Muslims (12.4%), no response (8.5%), Hinduism, Hindus (5.0%), Jews (1.8%), Sikhism, Sikhs (1.5%), Buddhism, Buddhists (1.0%) and other (0.6%). London has traditionally been Christian, and has a List of churches in London, large number of churches, particularly in the City of London. The well-known
St Paul's Cathedral St Paul's Cathedral is an Anglicanism, Anglican cathedral in London. As the seat of the Bishop of London, the cathedral serves as the mother church of the Diocese of London. It sits on Ludgate Hill at the highest point of the City of London a ...

St Paul's Cathedral
in the City and Southwark Cathedral south of the river are Anglicanism, Anglican administrative centres,{{Cite web , date=7 April 2008 , title=About Saint Paul's, url=http://www.stpauls.co.uk/page.aspx?theLang=001lngdef&pointerid=97320F44yHMK9hndcXZBD5sVH4m52Yc0, url-status=dead , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20080407082352/http://www.stpauls.co.uk/page.aspx?theLang=001lngdef&pointerid=97320F44yHMK9hndcXZBD5sVH4m52Yc0 , archive-date=7 April 2008 , access-date=25 March 2021 , publisher=Dean and Chapter St Paul's while the Archbishop of Canterbury, principal bishop of the Church of England and worldwide Anglican Communion, has his main residence at Lambeth Palace in the London Borough of Lambeth.{{Cite web , title=Lambeth Palace Library , url=http://www.lambethpalacelibrary.org/ , url-status=live , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110430174131/http://www.lambethpalacelibrary.org/ , archive-date=30 April 2011 , access-date=27 April 2008 , website=Lambeth Palace Library {{multiple image , direction = vertical , image1 = St Paul's Cathedral from The south east.jpg, caption1=
St Paul's Cathedral St Paul's Cathedral is an Anglicanism, Anglican cathedral in London. As the seat of the Bishop of London, the cathedral serves as the mother church of the Diocese of London. It sits on Ludgate Hill at the highest point of the City of London a ...

St Paul's Cathedral
, the seat of the Bishop of London , image2 = London Temple.jpg, caption2=The BAPS Shri Swaminarayan Mandir London is the second-largest Hindu temple in England and Europe. Important national and royal ceremonies are shared between St Paul's Cathedral, St Paul's and
Westminster Abbey Westminster Abbey, formally titled the Collegiate Church of Saint Peter at Westminster, is a large, mainly Gothic Gothic or Gothics may refer to: People and languages *Goths or Gothic people, the ethnonym of a group of East Germanic tribes ...

Westminster Abbey
.{{Cite web , url=http://www.westminster-abbey.org/ , title=Westminster Abbey , publisher=Dean and Chapter of Westminster , access-date=27 April 2008 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110505083817/http://www.westminster-abbey.org/ , archive-date=5 May 2011 , url-status=live The Abbey is not to be confused with nearby Westminster Cathedral, which is the largest Roman Catholic cathedral in England and Wales.{{Cite web , url=http://www.westminstercathedral.org.uk/home.html , title=Westminster Cathedral , publisher=Westminster Cathedral , access-date=27 April 2008 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20080327041736/http://www.westminstercathedral.org.uk/home.html , archive-date=27 March 2008 , url-status=dead Despite the prevalence of Anglican churches, observance is low within the denomination. Church attendance continues a long, steady decline, according to Church of England statistics.{{Cite journal , url=http://www.cofe.anglican.org/info/statistics/2007provisionalattendance.pdf , archive-url=https://wayback.archive-it.org/all/20140709133529/http://www.churchofengland.org/about-us/facts-stats.aspx , url-status=dead , archive-date=9 July 2014 , title=Church of England Statistics , publisher=Church of England , access-date=6 June 2008 London also has sizeable Muslim, Hindu, Sikh, and Jewish communities. Notable mosques include the East London Mosque in Tower Hamlets, which is allowed to give the Islamic call to prayer through loudspeakers, the London Central Mosque on the edge of Regent's Park{{Cite web , url=http://www.iccuk.org/index.php?article=1&PHPSESSID=rbt2vceqs1bpn9567k0kiv9hu5 , title=London Central Mosque Trust Ltd , publisher=London Central Mosque Trust Ltd. & The Islamic Cultural Centre , access-date=27 April 2008 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110426193641/http://www.iccuk.org/index.php?article=1&PHPSESSID=rbt2vceqs1bpn9567k0kiv9hu5 , archive-date=26 April 2011 , url-status=live and the Baitul Futuh of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community. After the oil boom, increasing numbers of wealthy Middle-Eastern Arab Muslims based themselves around Mayfair, Kensington and Knightsbridge in West London.{{Cite web , author=Bill , first=Peter , date=30 May 2008 , title=The $300 Billion Arabs Are Coming , url=https://www.standard.co.uk/news/the-300-billion-arabs-are-coming-6890813.html , url-status=live , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110430181240/http://www.thisislondon.co.uk/standard/article-23488244-the-300-billion-arabs-are-coming.do, archive-date=30 April 2011 , access-date=25 March 2021 , website=London Evening Standard There are large Bengali Muslim communities in the eastern boroughs of London Borough of Tower Hamlets, Tower Hamlets and London Borough of Newham, Newham. Large Hindu communities are found in the north-western boroughs of London Borough of Harrow, Harrow and London Borough of Brent, Brent, the latter hosting what was until 2006, Europe's largest Hindu temple, Neasden Temple.{{Cite web , url=https://www.bbc.co.uk/london/content/articles/2005/05/19/hindu_london_feature.shtml , title=Hindu London , date=6 June 2005 , publisher=BBC London , access-date=3 June 2006 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20060218161357/http://www.bbc.co.uk/london/content/articles/2005/05/19/hindu_london_feature.shtml , archive-date=18 February 2006 , url-status=live London is also home to 44 Hindu temples, including the BAPS Shri Swaminarayan Mandir London. There are Sikh communities in East and West London, particularly in Southall, home to one of the largest Sikh populations and the largest Sikh temple outside India.{{Cite news , url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/england/2898761.stm , title=£17 m Sikh temple opens , date=30 March 2003 , work=BBC News , access-date=7 June 2008 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20071003094649/http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/england/2898761.stm , archive-date=3 October 2007 , url-status=live The majority of British Jews live in London, with notable Jewish communities in Stamford Hill, Stanmore, Golders Green, Finchley, Hampstead, Hendon and Edgware in North London. Bevis Marks Synagogue in the
City of London The City of London is a City status in the United Kingdom, city, Ceremonial counties of England, ceremonial county and local government district that contains the historic centre and the primary central business district (CBD) of London. It c ...

City of London
is affiliated to London's historic Sephardic Jewish community. It is the only synagogue in Europe to have held regular services continually for over 300 years. Stanmore and Canons Park Synagogue has the largest membership of any Orthodox synagogue in Europe, overtaking Ilford synagogue (also in London) in 1998.{{Cite web , url=http://www.jewishagency.org/JewishAgency/English/Israel/Partnerships/Regions/Kavimut/Britain+Communities/Stanmore+11.htm , publisher=The Jewish Agency for Israel , title=Stanmore , access-date=12 October 2008 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110426075317/http://www.jewishagency.org/JewishAgency/English/Israel/Partnerships/Regions/Kavimut/Britain+Communities/Stanmore+11.htm , archive-date=26 April 2011 , url-status=dead The London Jewish Forum was set up in 2006 in response to the growing significance of devolved London Government.{{Cite news , last=Paul , first=Jonny , date=10 December 2006 , url=https://pqasb.pqarchiver.com/jpost/access/1178443551.html?FMT=ABS&FMTS=ABS:FT&date=Dec+10%2C+2006&author=JONNY+PAUL%2C+Jerusalem+Post+correspondent&pub=Jerusalem+Post&edition=&startpage=05&desc=Livingstone+apologizes+to+UK+Jews , title=Livingstone apologizes to UK's Jews , work=The Jerusalem Post , access-date=5 February 2011 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110427064159/http://fr.jpost.com/servlet/Satellite?cid=1164881856232&pagename=JPost%2FJPArticle%2FShowFull , archive-date=27 April 2011 , url-status=live


Accents

Cockney is an accent heard across London, mainly spoken by Working class, working-class and Lower middle class, lower-middle class Londoners. It is mainly attributed to the East End and wider East London, having originated there in the 18th century, although it has been suggested that the Cockney style of speech is much older. John Camden Hotten, in his ''Slang Dictionary'' of 1859, makes reference to "their use of a peculiar slang language" when describing the costermongers of the East End. Since the turn of the century Cockney dialect is less common in parts of the East End itself, with modern strongholds including other parts of London and suburbs in the home counties. Estuary English is an intermediate accent between Cockney and Received Pronunciation. It is widely spoken by people of all classes in London and south-eastern England, associated with the River Thames and its estuary. Multicultural London English (MLE) is a multiethnolect becoming increasingly common in multicultural areas amongst young, working-class people from diverse backgrounds. It is a fusion of an array of ethnic accents, in particular Afro-Caribbean and South Asian, with a significant Cockney influence. Received Pronunciation (RP) is the accent traditionally regarded as the standard for British English. It has no specific geographical correlate, although it is also traditionally defined as the standard speech used in London and south-eastern England. It is mainly spoken by Upper class, upper-class and Upper middle class, upper-middle class Londoners.


Economy

{{main, Economy of London London's gross regional product in 2019 was £503 billion, around a quarter of Economy of the United Kingdom, UK GDP. London has five major business districts: the city, Westminster, Canary Wharf, Camden & Islington and Lambeth & Southwark. One way to get an idea of their relative importance is to look at relative amounts of office space: Greater London had 27 million m2 of office space in 2001, and the City contains the most space, with 8 million m2 of office space. London has some of the highest real estate prices in the world. London is the world's most expensive office market according to world property journal (2015) report. {{As of, 2015 the residential property in London is worth $2.2 trillion – the same value as that of Brazil's annual GDP. The city has the highest property prices of any European city according to the Office for National Statistics and the European Office of Statistics. On average the price per square metre in central London is €24,252 (April 2014). This is higher than the property prices in other G8 European capital cities; Berlin €3,306, Rome €6,188 and Paris €11,229.


The City of London

London's finance industry is based in the
City of London The City of London is a City status in the United Kingdom, city, Ceremonial counties of England, ceremonial county and local government district that contains the historic centre and the primary central business district (CBD) of London. It c ...

City of London
and Canary Wharf, the two major Central business district, business districts in London. London is one of the pre-eminent financial centres of the world as the most important location for international finance.{{Cite news , date=29 November 2007 , title=The City of London's tumble - After the fall , work=The Economist , location=London , url=https://www.economist.com/finance/displaystory.cfm?story_id=E1_TDNDRPTT , url-status=dead , access-date=15 May 2009 , archive-url=https://archive.today/20121208172611/http://www.economist.com/finance/displaystory.cfm?story_id=E1_TDNDRPTT , archive-date=8 December 2012{{Cite news , date=13 September 2007 , title=Magnets for Money , work=The Economist , location=London , url=https://www.economist.com/specialreports/displaystory.cfm?story_id=9753240 , url-status=dead , access-date=15 May 2009 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20090805052952/http://www.economist.com/specialreports/displayStory.cfm?story_id=9753240 , archive-date=5 August 2009 London took over as a major financial centre shortly after 1795 when the Dutch Republic collapsed before the Napoleonic armies. For many bankers established in Amsterdam (e.g. Hope, Baring), this was only time to move to London. The London financial elite was strengthened by a strong Jewish community from all over Europe capable of mastering the most sophisticated financial tools of the time. This unique concentration of talents accelerated the transition from the Commercial Revolution to the Industrial Revolution. By the end of the 19th century, Britain was the wealthiest of all nations, and London a leading
financial centre A financial centre, financial center, or financial hub is a location with a concentration of participants Participation or Participant may refer to: Politics *Participation (decision making), mechanisms for people to participate in social de ...
. Still, {{as of, 2016, lc=y London tops the world rankings on the Global Financial Centres Index (GFCI), and it ranked second in A.T. Kearney's 2018 Global Cities Index. London's largest industry is finance, and its financial exports make it a large contributor to the UK's balance of payments. Around 325,000 people were employed in financial services in London until mid-2007. London has over 480 overseas banks, more than any other city in the world. It is also the world's biggest currency trading centre, accounting for some 37 per cent of the $5.1 trillion average daily volume, according to the BIS. Over 85 per cent (3.2 million) of the employed population of greater London works in the services industries. Because of its prominent global role, London's economy had been affected by the financial crisis of 2007–2008. However, by 2010 the city had recovered, put in place new regulatory powers, proceeded to regain lost ground and re-established London's economic dominance. Along with professional services headquarters, the
City of London The City of London is a City status in the United Kingdom, city, Ceremonial counties of England, ceremonial county and local government district that contains the historic centre and the primary central business district (CBD) of London. It c ...

City of London
is home to the Bank of England, London Stock Exchange, and Lloyd's of London insurance market. Over half the UK's top 100 listed companies (the FTSE 100) and over 100 of Europe's 500 largest companies have their headquarters in central London. Over 70 per cent of the FTSE 100 are within London's metropolitan area, and 75 per cent of Fortune 500 companies have offices in London.{{Cite web, date=9 June 2009, title=London Stock Exchange, url=http://www.londonstockexchange.com/en-gb/, url-status=dead, archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20090609022757/http://www.londonstockexchange.com/en-gb/, archive-date=9 June 2009, access-date=27 April 2008, website=London Stock Exchange, publisher=


Media and technology

Media companies are Media in London, concentrated in London, and the media distribution industry is London's second most competitive sector.{{Cite web , url= http://www.cityoflondon.gov.uk/NR/rdonlyres/2CAE66FB-2DD5-41A5-B916-8FFC37276059/0/BC_RS_lpuk_0511_FR.pdf , archive-url= https://web.archive.org/web/20060525075622/http://www.cityoflondon.gov.uk/NR/rdonlyres/2CAE66FB-2DD5-41A5-B916-8FFC37276059/0/BC_RS_lpuk_0511_FR.pdf , url-status=dead , archive-date=25 May 2006 , title=London's Place in the UK Economy, 2005–6 , date=November 2005 , website=Oxford Economic Forecasting on behalf of the Corporation of London , page=19 , access-date=19 June 2006 The
BBC The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a public service broadcaster, headquartered at Broadcasting House in Westminster, London London is the capital city, capital and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, largest city of ...

BBC
is a significant employer, while other broadcasters also have headquarters around the city. Many List of newspapers in the United Kingdom, national newspapers are edited in London. London is a major retail centre and in 2010 had the highest non-food retail sales of any city in the world, with a total spend of around £64.2 billion. The Port of London is the second largest in the United Kingdom, handling 45 million tonnes of cargo each year. A growing number of technology companies are based in London, notably in East London Tech City, also known as Silicon Roundabout. In April 2014 the city was among the first to receive a geoTLD. In February 2014 London was ranked as the European City of the Future in the 2014/15 list by FDi Magazine. The gas and electricity distribution networks that manage and operate the towers, cables and pressure systems that deliver energy to consumers across the city are managed by National Grid plc, SGN (company), SGN and UK Power Networks.


Tourism

{{main, Tourism in London {{Multiple image , direction=vertical , image1=British Museum from NE 2 (cropped).JPG , caption1=The
British Museum The British Museum, in the Bloomsbury Bloomsbury is a district in the West End of London The West End of London (commonly referred to as the West End) is a district of Central London Central London is the innermost part of Lond ...

British Museum
, image2=Galería Nacional, Londres, Inglaterra, 2014-08-07, DD 036.JPG, , caption2=The
National Gallery The National Gallery is an art museum An art museum is a building or space for the display of art, usually from the museum's own Collection (artwork), collection. It might be in public or private ownership and may be accessible to all or h ...
London is one of the leading tourist destinations in the world and in 2015 was ranked as the most visited city in the world with over 65 million visits. It is also the top city in the world by visitor cross-border spending, estimated at US$20.23 billion in 2015. Tourism is one of London's prime industries, employing 700,000 full-time workers in 2016, and contributes £36 billion a year to the economy. The city accounts for 54% of all inbound visitor spending in the UK. {{As of, 2016 London was the world top city destination as ranked by TripAdvisor users. In 2015 the top most-visited attractions in the UK were all in London. The top 10 most visited attractions were: (with visits per venue) #
British Museum The British Museum, in the Bloomsbury Bloomsbury is a district in the West End of London The West End of London (commonly referred to as the West End) is a district of Central London Central London is the innermost part of Lond ...

British Museum
: 6,820,686 #
National Gallery The National Gallery is an art museum An art museum is a building or space for the display of art, usually from the museum's own Collection (artwork), collection. It might be in public or private ownership and may be accessible to all or h ...
: 5,908,254 #
Natural History Museum A natural history museum or museum of natural history is a scientific institution with that include current and historical records of s, s, , s, , , , and more. History The primary role of a natural history is to provide the scientific c ...

Natural History Museum
(South Kensington): 5,284,023 #Southbank Centre: 5,102,883 #
Tate Modern Tate Modern is an art gallery located in London. It houses the United Kingdom's national collection of international modern Modern may refer to: History *Modern history Human history, also known as world history, is the description of h ...

Tate Modern
: 4,712,581 #Victoria and Albert Museum (South Kensington): 3,432,325 #Science Museum, London, Science Museum: 3,356,212 #Somerset House: 3,235,104 #
Tower of London The Tower of London, officially Her Majesty's Royal Palace and Fortress of the Tower of London, is a historic castle in East Sussex East Sussex is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative ...

Tower of London
: 2,785,249 #National Portrait Gallery, London, National Portrait Gallery: 2,145,486 The number of hotel rooms in London in 2015 stood at 138,769, and is expected to grow over the years.


Transport

{{main, Transport in London, Infrastructure in London Transport is one of the four main areas of policy administered by the Mayor of London,{{Cite web , url=http://www.tfl.gov.uk/ , title=Transport for London , publisher=Transport for London , access-date=27 April 2008 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20100104235448/http://www.tfl.gov.uk/ , archive-date=4 January 2010 , url-status=live but the mayor's financial control does not extend to the longer-distance rail network that enters London. In 2007 the Mayor of London assumed responsibility for some local lines, which now form the London Overground network, adding to the existing responsibility for the London Underground, trams and buses. The public transport network is administered by Transport for London (TfL). The lines that formed the London Underground, as well as trams and buses, became part of an integrated transport system in 1933 when the London Passenger Transport Board or ''London Transport (brand), London Transport'' was created. Transport for London is now the statutory corporation responsible for most aspects of the transport system in Greater London, and is run by a board and a commissioner appointed by the
Mayor of London The mayor of London is the chief executive of the Greater London Authority The Greater London Authority (GLA), colloquially known by the metonym "City Hall", is the Devolution in the United Kingdom, devolved Regions of England, regional ...
.{{Cite web , url=http://www.london.gov.uk/help/faq.jsp#transport , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20071019055413/http://www.london.gov.uk/help/faq.jsp , archive-date=19 October 2007 , title=How do I find out about transport in London? , publisher=Greater London Authority , access-date=5 June 2008 , url-status=dead


Aviation

{{main, Airports of London London is a major international air transport hub with the World's busiest city airport systems by passenger traffic, busiest city airspace in the world. Eight airports use the word ''London'' in their name, but most traffic passes through six of these. Additionally, Airports of London, various other airports also serve London, catering primarily to general aviation flights. *London Heathrow Airport, in London Borough of Hillingdon, Hillingdon, West London, was for many years the World's busiest airport, busiest airport in the world for international traffic, and is the major hub of the nation's flag carrier, British Airways.{{Cite web, date=2020, title=Heathrow Airport Travel Report 2019, url=https://www.heathrow.com/content/dam/heathrow/web/common/documents/company/heathrow-2-0-sustainability/futher-reading/Heathrow-Airport-Travel-Report-2019.pdf, access-date=25 March 2021, website=Heathrow, publisher=LHR Airports Limited, page=38 In March 2008 its fifth terminal was opened.{{cite web , url=http://www.heathrow-airport-uk.info/heathrow-airport-terminal-5.htm , title=Heathrow Airport Terminal 5 , publisher=TMC Ltd , access-date=27 April 2008 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110430195211/http://www.heathrow-airport-uk.info/heathrow-airport-terminal-5.htm , archive-date=30 April 2011 , url-status=dead In 2014, Dubai International Airport, Dubai gained from Heathrow the leading position in terms of international passenger traffic. *London Gatwick Airport,{{cite web , url=http://www.gatwickairport.com/ , title=BAA Gatwick: Gatwick Airport , publisher=BAA , access-date=27 April 2008 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110429215757/http://www.gatwickairport.com/ , archive-date=29 April 2011 , url-status=live south of London in West Sussex, handles flights to more destinations than any other UK airport and is the main base of easyJet, the UK's largest airline by number of passengers. *London Stansted Airport,{{cite book , url=http://www.stanstedairport.com/ , title=BAA Stansted: Stansted Airport , year=2008 , publisher=BAA , access-date=27 April 2008 , isbn=978-0-86039-476-1 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110429151324/http://www.stanstedairport.com/ , archive-date=29 April 2011 , url-status=live north-east of London in
Essex Essex () is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Chambers (publisher), William and Ro ...

Essex
, has flights that serve the greatest number of European destinations of any UK airport and is the main base of Ryanair, the world's largest international airline by number of international passengers. *London Luton Airport, to the north of London in Bedfordshire, is used by several budget airlines for short-haul flights.{{cite book , url=http://www.london-luton.co.uk/en/ , title=London Luton Airport , year=1969 , publisher=London Luton Airport , access-date=27 April 2008 , isbn=978-0-11-510256-1 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110501023741/http://www.london-luton.co.uk/en , archive-date=1 May 2011 , url-status=dead *London City Airport, the most central airport and the one with the shortest runway, in London Borough of Newham, Newham, East London, is focused on business travellers, with a mixture of full-service short-haul scheduled flights and considerable business jet traffic.{{cite web , url=http://www.londoncityairport.com/Default.aspx , title=London City Airport — Corporate Information , publisher=London City Airport Ltd. , access-date=6 June 2008 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110423115236/http://www.londoncityairport.com/Default.aspx , archive-date=23 April 2011 , url-status=dead *London Southend Airport, east of London in
Essex Essex () is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Chambers (publisher), William and Ro ...

Essex
, is a smaller, regional airport that caters for short-haul flights on a limited, though growing, number of airlines. In 2017, international passengers made up over 95% of the total at Southend, the highest proportion of any London airport.


Rail


Underground and DLR

The
London Underground The London Underground (also known simply as the Underground, or by its nickname the Tube) is a rapid transit system serving Greater London and some parts of the adjacent ceremonial counties of England, counties of Buckinghamshire, Essex and H ...

London Underground
, commonly referred to as the Tube, is the oldest{{Cite book , url=http://www.tfl.gov.uk/corporate/modesoftransport/londonunderground/1604.aspx , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20070502045940/http://www.tfl.gov.uk/corporate/modesoftransport/londonunderground/1604.aspx , url-status=dead , archive-date=2 May 2007 , title=London Underground: History , author=Transport for London , access-date=30 December 2012 , isbn=978-0-904711-30-1 , year=1981 and third longest{{Cite news , url=https://www.citymetric.com/transport/what-largest-metro-system-world-1361 , title=What is the largest metro system in the world? , date=5 September 2015 , work=City Metric , access-date=12 June 2018 , location=London , archive-date=12 June 2019 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20190612085224/https://www.citymetric.com/transport/what-largest-metro-system-world-1361 , url-status=dead rapid transit, metro system in the world. The system serves 270 metro station, stations{{Cite journal , title=Key facts , publisher=Transport for London , url=http://www.tfl.gov.uk/corporate/modesoftransport/londonunderground/1608.aspx , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20070529041317/http://www.tfl.gov.uk/corporate/modesoftransport/londonunderground/1608.aspx , url-status=dead , archive-date=29 May 2007 , access-date=15 October 2009 and was formed from several private companies, including the world's first underground electric line, the City and South London Railway.{{Cite book , url=http://de.geocities.com/u_london/london.htm , title=London Underground , last=Schwandl , first=Robert , year=2001 , publisher=UrbanRail.net , access-date=24 September 2006 , isbn=978-3-936573-01-5 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20061006013919/http://de.geocities.com/u_london/london.htm , archive-date=6 October 2006 , url-status=dead It dates from 1863.{{Cite news , url=https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-london-20641351 , title=Oyster card celebrates 150th Tube anniversary , work=BBC News , date=10 December 2012 , access-date=10 January 2013 Over four million journeys are made every day on the Underground network, over 1 billion each year.{{Cite press release , url=http://www.tfl.gov.uk/static/corporate/media/newscentre/archive/7103.html , title=Tube breaks record for passenger numbers , publisher=Transport for London , date=27 December 2007 , access-date=5 February 2011 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110427025251/http://www.tfl.gov.uk/static/corporate/media/newscentre/archive/7103.html , archive-date=27 April 2011 , url-status=dead An investment programme is attempting to reduce congestion and improve reliability, including £6.5 billion (€7.7 billion) spent before the 2012 Summer Olympics. The Docklands Light Railway, Docklands Light Railway (DLR), which opened in 1987, is a second, more medium-capacity rail transport system, local metro system using smaller and lighter tram-type vehicles that serve the London Docklands, Docklands,
Greenwich Greenwich ( , , , or ) is a town in south-east The points of the compass are the Euclidean vector, vectors by which planet-based directions are conventionally defined. A compass rose is primarily composed of four cardinal directions—north, ...

Greenwich
and Lewisham.


Suburban

There are more than 360 railway stations in the London fare zones, London Travelcard Zones on an extensive above-ground suburban railway network. South London, particularly, has a high concentration of railways as it has fewer Underground lines. Most rail lines terminate around the centre of London, running into London station group, eighteen terminal stations, with the exception of the Thameslink (route), Thameslink trains connecting Bedford in the north and Brighton in the south via London Luton Airport, Luton and Gatwick Airport, Gatwick airports.{{Cite web , url=http://www.firstcapitalconnect.co.uk/Main.php?sEvent=HomePage , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20100130091433/http://www.firstcapitalconnect.co.uk/Main.php?sEvent=HomePage , archive-date=30 January 2010 , title=First Capital Connect , publisher=First Capital Connect , access-date=27 April 2008 , url-status=dead London has Britain's busiest station by number of passengers—London Waterloo station, Waterloo, with over 184 million people using the interchange station complex (which includes London Waterloo East railway station, Waterloo East station) each year.{{Cite web , url=http://www.rail-reg.gov.uk/server/show/nav.1529 , title=Rail Station Usage , publisher=Office of Rail Regulation , access-date=24 October 2009 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20070705115621/http://www.rail-reg.gov.uk/server/show/nav.1529 , archive-date=5 July 2007 , url-status=live {{Cite web , url=http://www.tfl.gov.uk/tfl/corporate/modesoftransport/tube/performance/default.asp?onload=entryexit , title=Tube exits , publisher=Transport for London , access-date=24 October 2009 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20070514062729/http://www.tfl.gov.uk/tfl/corporate/modesoftransport/tube/performance/default.asp?onload=entryexit , archive-date=14 May 2007 , url-status=dead {{rws, Clapham Junction is the busiest station in Europe by the number of trains passing. With the need for more rail capacity in London, Crossrail is expected to open in 2021. It will be a new railway line running east to west through London and into the Home Counties with a branch to Heathrow Airport. It is Europe's biggest construction project, with a £15 billion projected cost.


Inter-city and international

London is the centre of the National Rail network, with 70 per cent of rail journeys starting or ending in London. London King's Cross railway station, King's Cross station and Euston railway station, Euston station, which are both in London, are the starting points of the East Coast Main Line and the West Coast Main Line – the two main railway lines in Britain. Like suburban rail services, regional and inter-city trains depart from several termini around the city centre, linking London with the rest of Britain including Aberdeen, Birmingham, Blackpool, Bradford, Brighton, Bristol, Cambridge, Cardiff, Carlisle,
Chester Chester is a walled cathedral city in Cheshire, England, on the River Dee, Wales, River Dee, close to the border with Wales. With a population of 79,645 in 2011, it is the most populous settlement of Cheshire West and Chester, which had a po ...

Chester
, Coventry, Crewe, Derby, Doncaster, Dover, Edinburgh, Exeter, Glasgow, Holyhead (for Dublin), Kingston upon Hull, Hull, Ipswich, Lancaster, Lancashire, Lancaster, Leeds, Liverpool, Nottingham, Manchester, Newcastle upon Tyne, Norwich, Oxford, Peterborough, Plymouth, Portsmouth, Preston, Lancashire, Preston, Reading, Berkshire, Reading, Sheffield, Southampton, Sunderland, Stevenage, Swansea, Weymouth, Dorset, Weymouth, Wolverhampton and York.{{Cite web , last=Smithers , first=Andrew , date=8 December 2020 , title=Great Britain National Rail Train Operators , url=https://www.nationalrail.co.uk/TOCs%20AS%20v46%20Dec%202020.pdf , access-date=27 March 2021 , website=National Rail London also has convenient rail connections with airports out of
Greater London Greater London is an administrative area Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, are generic names ...

Greater London
. These airports include Birmingham Airport (via Birmingham International railway station), East Midlands Airport (via East Midlands Parkway railway station), Inverness Airport (via Inverness railway station), Leeds Bradford Airport (via Bradford Interchange or Leeds railway station) and Liverpool John Lennon Airport (via Liverpool South Parkway railway station). Some international railway services to Continental Europe were operated during the 20th century as boat trains, such as the ''Admiraal de Ruijter (train), Admiraal de Ruijter'' to Amsterdam and the ''Night Ferry'' to Paris and Brussels. The opening of the Channel Tunnel in 1994 connected London directly to the continental rail network, allowing Eurostar services to begin. Since 2007, high-speed trains link St Pancras railway station, St. Pancras International with Lille, Calais,
Paris Paris () is the Capital city, capital and List of communes in France with over 20,000 inhabitants, most populous city of France, with an estimated population of 2,175,601 residents , in an area of more than . Since the 17th century, Paris ha ...

Paris
, Disneyland Paris, Brussels, Amsterdam and other European tourist destinations via the High Speed 1 rail link and the Channel Tunnel. The first Southeastern (train operating company), high-speed domestic trains started in June 2009 linking
Kent Kent is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Chambers (publisher), William and Robert ...

Kent
to London.{{Cite web , url=http://www.southeasternrailway.co.uk/highspeed/ , title=Highspeed , publisher=Southeastern , access-date=5 February 2011 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110501110057/http://www.southeasternrailway.co.uk/highspeed/ , archive-date=1 May 2011 , url-status=dead There are plans for a High Speed 2, second high speed line linking London to the Midlands, North West England, and Yorkshire.


Freight

Although rail freight levels are far down compared to their height, significant quantities of cargo are also carried into and out of London by rail; chiefly building materials and landfill waste. As a major hub of the British railway network, London's tracks also carry large amounts of freight for the other regions, such as containerisation, container freight from the Channel Tunnel and English Channel ports, and nuclear waste for nuclear reprocessing, reprocessing at Sellafield.August 2007
Rail Freight Strategy
London Rail


Buses, coaches and trams

London's London Buses, bus network runs 24 hours a day with about 9,300 vehicles, over 675 bus routes and about 19,000 bus stops.{{Cite web , title=What we do – Buses , url=http://www.tfl.gov.uk/corporate/about-tfl/what-we-do/buses , website=Transport for London , publisher=Transport for London , access-date=5 April 2014 In 2019/1920 the network had over 2 billion commuter trips per year. Since 2010 and average of £1.2 billion is taken in revenue each year. London has one of the largest wheelchair-accessible networks in the world{{Cite web , date=20 June 2017 , title=Most Accessible Cities Around The World, url=https://www.sunrisemedical.com.au/blog/world-accessible-cities, access-date=26 March 2021, website=Sunrise Medical and from the third quarter of 2007, became more accessible to hearing and visually impaired passengers as audio-visual announcements were introduced. London's coach hub is Victoria Coach Station, an Art Deco building opened in 1932. The coach station was initially run by a group of coach companies under the name of London Coastal Coaches; however, in 1970 the service and station were included in the nationalisation of the country's coach services, becoming part of the National Bus Company. In 1988, the coach station was purchased by London Transport which then became Transport for London. Victoria Coach Station has weekly passenger numbers of over 200,000 and provides services across the UK and Europe.{{failed verification, date=June 2021 London has a modern tram network, known as Tramlink, centred on Croydon in South London. The network has 39 stops and four routes, and carried 28 million people in 2013. Since June 2008, Transport for London has completely owned and operated Tramlink.


Cable car

London's first and to date only cable car is the Emirates Air Line (cable car), Emirates Air Line, which opened in June 2012. The cable car crosses the
River Thames The River Thames ( ), known alternatively in parts as the River Isis, is a river that flows through southern England Southern England, or the South of England, also known as the South, is an area of England consisting of the southernmos ...
, and links Greenwich Peninsula and the Royal Docks in the east of the city. It is integrated with London's Oyster Card ticketing system, although the Emirates Air Line fares are not included in the Oyster daily capping. It cost £60 million to build and can carry up to 2,500 passengers per hour in each direction at peak times. Similar to the Santander Cycles bike hire scheme, the cable car is sponsored in a 10-year deal by the airline Emirates (airline), Emirates.


Cycling

{{main, Cycling in London In the Greater London Area, around 670,000 people use a bike every day, meaning around 7% of the total population of around 8.8 million use a bike on an average day. This relatively low percentage of bicycle users may be due to the poor investments for cycling in London of about £110 million per year, equating to around £12 per person, which can be compared to £22 in the Netherlands. Cycling in London, Cycling has become an increasingly popular way to get around London. The launch of a Bicycle-sharing system, bicycle hire scheme in July 2010 was successful and generally well received.


Port and river boats

The Port of London, once the largest in the world, is now only the second-largest in the United Kingdom, handling 45 million tonnes of cargo each year as of 2009.{{Cite web , date=10 June 2010 , title=Provisional Port Statistics 2009 , url=http://www.dft.gov.uk/pgr/statistics/datatablespublications/maritime/ports/provportstats2009 , url-status=dead , archive-url=http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20110203090417/http://www.dft.gov.uk/pgr/statistics/datatablespublications/maritime/ports/provportstats2009 , archive-date=3 February 2011 , access-date=26 April 2011 , website=Department for Transport , publisher= Most of this cargo passes through the Port of Tilbury, outside the boundary of Greater London. London has river boat services on the Thames known as Thames Clippers, which offer both commuter and tourist boat services. At major piers including Canary Wharf Pier, Canary Wharf, London Bridge City Pier, London Bridge City
Battersea Power Station
and London Eye Pier, London Eye (Waterloo), services depart at least every 20 minutes during commuter times. The Woolwich Ferry, with 2.5 million passengers every year, is a frequent service linking the North Circular Road, North and South Circular Road, London, South Circular Roads.


Roads

Although the majority of journeys in central London are made by public transport, car travel is common in the suburbs. The London Inner Ring Road, inner ring road (around the city centre), the A406 road, North and A205 road, South Circular roads (just within the suburbs), and the outer orbital motorway (the M25 motorway, M25, just outside the built-up area in most places) encircle the city and are intersected by a number of busy radial routes—but very few motorways penetrate into inner London. A plan for a comprehensive network of motorways throughout the city (the London Ringways, Ringways Plan) was prepared in the 1960s but was mostly cancelled in the early 1970s. The M25 is the second-longest ring-road motorway in Europe at {{convert, 117, mi, km, abbr=on long. The A1 road (Great Britain), A1 and M1 motorway, M1 connect London to Leeds, and Newcastle upon Tyne, Newcastle and Edinburgh. London is notorious for its traffic congestion; in 2009, the average speed of a car in the rush hour was recorded at {{convert, 10.6, mi/h, km/h, abbr=on.{{Cite web , last1=Mulholland , first1=Hélène , title=Boris Johnson mulls 'intelligent' congestion charge system for London , url=http://www.guardian.co.uk/politics/2009/mar/16/boris-johnson-congestion-charge , website=The Guardian , date=16 March 2009 In 2003, a London congestion charge, congestion charge was introduced to reduce traffic volumes in the city centre. With a few exceptions, motorists are required to pay to drive within a defined zone encompassing much of central London. Motorists who are residents of the defined zone can buy a greatly reduced season pass.{{Cite web , url=http://www.tfl.gov.uk/roadusers/congestioncharging/6735.aspx , title=Residents , publisher=Transport for London , access-date=7 June 2008 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110503211945/http://www.tfl.gov.uk/roadusers/congestioncharging/6735.aspx , archive-date=3 May 2011 , url-status=live The London government initially expected the Congestion Charge Zone to increase daily peak period Underground and bus users, reduce road traffic, increase traffic speeds, and reduce queues; however, the increase in private for hire vehicles has affected these expectations. Over the course of several years, the average number of cars entering the centre of London on a weekday was reduced from 195,000 to 125,000 cars – a 35-per-cent reduction of vehicles driven per day.


Education

{{main, Education in London


Tertiary education

{{See also, List of universities and higher education colleges in London London is a major global centre of higher education teaching and research and has the largest concentration of higher education institutes in Europe. According to the QS World University Rankings 2015/16, London has the greatest concentration of top class universities in the world and its international student population of around 110,000 is larger than any other city in the world. A 2014 PricewaterhouseCoopers report termed London the global capital of higher education. A number of world-leading education institutions are based in London. In the 2021 ''QS World University Rankings'',
Imperial College London Imperial College London (legally Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine) is a Public university, public research university in London. Imperial grew out of Albert, Prince Consort, Prince Albert's Albertopolis, vision for a cultural ce ...

Imperial College London
is ranked #8 in the world,
University College London University College London, which UCL, is a major located in , United Kingdom. UCL is a of the , and is the second-largest and the largest by postgraduate enrolment. Established in 1826, as London University, by founders inspired by the r ...
(UCL) is ranked 10th, and King's College London (KCL) is ranked 31st. The
London School of Economics , mottoeng = To understand the causes of things , established = 1895 , type = Public In public relations and communication science, publics are groups of individual people, and the public (a.k.a. the general public) is the totality of s ...
has been described as the world's leading social science institution for both teaching and research.{{Cite news , last=Hipwell , first=Deirdre , date=23 September 2007 , title=London School of Economics and Political Science , work=Times Online , location=London , url=http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/life_and_style/education/sunday_times_university_guide/article2496158.ece , url-status=dead , access-date=27 March 2021 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20081202225123/http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/life_and_style/education/sunday_times_university_guide/article2496158.ece , archive-date=2 December 2008 The London Business School is considered one of the world's leading business schools and in 2015 its MBA programme was ranked second-best in the world by the ''Financial Times''.{{Cite news , url=http://rankings.ft.com/businessschoolrankings/global-mba-rankings , title=FT Global MBA Rankings , work=Financial Times , access-date=25 January 2010 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110504135153/http://rankings.ft.com/businessschoolrankings/global-mba-rankings , archive-date=4 May 2011 , url-status=live , location=London The city is also home to three of the world's top ten performing arts schools (as ranked by the 2020 QS World University Rankings): the Royal College of Music (ranking 2nd in the world), the Royal Academy of Music (ranking 4th) and the Guildhall School of Music and Drama (ranking 6th). With {{HESA student population, INSTID=LON students in LondonCombined total from {{HESA citationIncluded institutions are Birkbeck, University of London, Birkbeck, Royal Central School of Speech and Drama, City, University of London, Courtauld Institute of Art, Goldsmiths, University of London, Goldsmiths, Institute of Cancer Research, King's College London, King's College, London Business School, London School of Economics, LSE, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, LSHTM, Queen Mary, University of London, Queen Mary, Royal Academy of Music, Royal Holloway, University of London, Royal Holloway, Royal Veterinary College, SOAS, University of London, SOAS, St George's, University of London, St George's, University College London, UCL and the #Listed bodies, central institutes & activities. and around 48,000 in University of London Worldwide,{{Cite web , url=https://london.ac.uk/sites/default/files/governance/university-of-london-financial-statement-2018-19.pdf , title=Financial Statements 2018–19 , publisher=University of London , access-date=1 March 2020 , page=8 the federal University of London is the largest contact teaching university in the UK. It includes five multi-faculty universities – City, University of London, City, King's College London, Queen Mary, University of London, Queen Mary, Royal Holloway and University College London, UCL – and a number of smaller and more specialised institutions including Birkbeck College, Birkbeck, the Courtauld Institute of Art, Goldsmiths, University of London, Goldsmiths, the London Business School, the London School of Economics, the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, the Royal Academy of Music, the Central School of Speech and Drama, the Royal Veterinary College and the School of Oriental and African Studies. Members of the University of London have their own University and college admission, admissions procedures, and most award their own degrees. A number of universities in London are outside the University of London system, including Brunel University,
Imperial College London Imperial College London (legally Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine) is a Public university, public research university in London. Imperial grew out of Albert, Prince Consort, Prince Albert's Albertopolis, vision for a cultural ce ...

Imperial College London
,{{refn, Imperial College London was a constituent college of the University of London between 1908 and 2007. Degrees during this time were awarded by the federal university; however, the college now issues its own degrees., group=note Kingston University, London Metropolitan University,{{Cite web , date=August 2008 , title=Performing Arts - Discover where to study with the QS World University Rankings by Subject 2020: Performing Arts , url=http://www.londonmet.ac.uk/library/o90402_3.pdf , url-status=dead , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20090124143209/http://www.londonmet.ac.uk/library/o90402_3.pdf , archive-date=24 January 2009 , access-date=27 March 2021 , website=London Metropolitan University University of East London, University of West London, University of Westminster, London South Bank University, Middlesex University, and University of the Arts London (the largest university of art, design, fashion, communication and the performing arts in Europe). In addition there are three international universities in London – Regent's College, Regent's University London, Richmond, The American International University in London and Schiller International University. London is home to United Hospitals, five major medical schools – Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry (part of Queen Mary, University of London, Queen Mary), King's College London School of Medicine (the largest medical school in Europe), Imperial College School of Medicine, UCL Medical School and St George's, University of London – and has many affiliated teaching hospitals. It is also a major centre for biomedical research, and three of the UK's eight academic health science centres are based in the city – Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, Imperial College Healthcare, King's Health Partners and UCL Partners (the largest such centre in Europe). Additionally, many biomedical and biotechnology spin out companies from these research institutions are based around the city, most prominently in White City, London, White City.There are a number of business schools in London, including the London School of Business and Finance, Cass Business School (part of City University London), Hult International Business School, ESCP Europe, European Business School London, Imperial College Business School, the London Business School and the UCL School of Management. London is also home to many specialist arts education institutions, including the Academy of Live and Recorded Arts, Central School of Ballet, London Academy of Music and Dramatic Art, LAMDA, London College of Contemporary Arts (LCCA), London Contemporary Dance School, The Circus Space, National Centre for Circus Arts, Royal Academy of Dramatic Art, RADA, Rambert Dance Company, Rambert School of Ballet and Contemporary Dance, the Royal College of Art and Trinity Laban.


Primary and secondary education

The majority of primary and secondary schools and further-education colleges in London are controlled by the London boroughs or otherwise state-funded; leading examples include Ashbourne College, Bethnal Green Academy, Brampton Manor Academy, City and Islington College, City of Westminster College, David Game College, Ealing, Hammersmith and West London College, Leyton Sixth Form College, London Academy of Excellence, Tower Hamlets College, and Newham Collegiate Sixth Form Centre. There are also a number of private schools and colleges in London, some old and famous, such as City of London School, Harrow School, Harrow, St Paul's School (London), St Paul's School, Haberdashers' Aske's Boys' School, University College School, The John Lyon School, Highgate School and Westminster School.


Culture

{{main, Culture of London


Leisure and entertainment

{{see also, List of annual events in London, West End theatre Leisure is a major part of the London economy. A 2003 report attributed a quarter of the entire UK leisure economy to London at 25.6 events per 1000 people. Globally the city is one of the big four fashion capitals of the world, and according to official statistics, it is the world's third-busiest film production centre, presents more live comedy than any other city, and has the biggest theatre audience of any city in the world. Within the
City of Westminster The City of Westminster is a City status in the United Kingdom, city and London boroughs, borough in Inner London which forms a core part of Central London. It is the site of the United Kingdom's Houses of Parliament and much of the British gov ...

City of Westminster
in London, the entertainment district of the West End of London, West End has its focus around Leicester Square, where London and world film premieres are held, and
Piccadilly Circus Piccadilly Circus is a road junction and public space of London London is the capital city, capital and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, largest city of England and the United Kingdom. The city stands on the River Thames in the ...

Piccadilly Circus
, with its giant electronic advertisements.{{Cite web , url=http://www.piccadillylights.co.uk/ , title=Piccadilly Lights , publisher=Land Securities , access-date=3 November 2008 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110426103109/http://www.piccadillylights.co.uk/ , archive-date=26 April 2011 , url-status=dead London's West End theatre, theatre district is here, as are many cinemas, bars, clubs, and restaurants, including the city's Chinatown, London, Chinatown district (in Soho), and just to the east is Royal Opera House, Covent Garden, an area housing speciality shops. The city is the home of Andrew Lloyd Webber, whose musicals have dominated the West End theatre since the late 20th century. The United Kingdom's Royal Ballet, English National Ballet, Royal Opera, London, Royal Opera, and English National Opera are based in London and perform at the Royal Opera House, the London Coliseum, Sadler's Wells Theatre, and the Royal Albert Hall, as well as touring the country.{{Cite web , url=http://www.yourlondon.gov.uk/visiting/topic.jsp?topicid=6482&search_title=Theatres+and+concert+halls , title=Theatres and concert halls , publisher=Your London , access-date=6 June 2008 , archive-url= https://web.archive.org/web/20080124185332/http://www.yourlondon.gov.uk/visiting/topic.jsp?topicid=6482&search_title=Theatres%2Band%2Bconcert%2Bhalls , archive-date=24 January 2008 , url-status=dead Islington's {{convert, 1, mi, km long Upper Street, extending northwards from Angel, London, Angel, has more bars and restaurants than any other street in the United Kingdom.{{Cite journal , title=2001: Public houses , publisher=BBC History , url= https://www.bbc.co.uk/history/trail/local_history/city/street_03.shtml?publichouses , access-date=4 June 2008 , archive-url= https://web.archive.org/web/20110430191354/http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/trail/local_history/city/street_03.shtml?publichouses , archive-date=30 April 2011 , url-status=live Europe's busiest shopping area is Oxford Street, a shopping street nearly {{convert, 1, mi, km long, making it the longest shopping street in the UK. Oxford Street is home to vast numbers of retailers and department stores, including the world-famous Selfridges Flagship store#Retailing, flagship store.{{Cite journal , url= http://www.london.gov.uk/londoner/06sep/p7a.jsp , publisher=The Londoner , title=Oxford Street gets its own dedicated local police team , date=September 2006 , access-date=19 June 2007 , archive-url= https://web.archive.org/web/20070930204913/http://www.london.gov.uk/londoner/06sep/p7a.jsp , archive-date=30 September 2007 , url-status=dead Knightsbridge, home to the equally renowned Harrods department store, lies to the south-west. London is home to designers Vivienne Westwood, John Galliano, Galliano, Stella McCartney, Manolo Blahnik, and Jimmy Choo, among others; its renowned art and fashion schools make it an international centre of fashion alongside Paris, Milan, and New York City. London offers a great variety of cuisine as a result of its ethnically diverse population. Gastronomic centres include the Bangladeshi restaurants of Brick Lane and the Chinese food, Chinese restaurants of Chinatown, London, Chinatown.{{Cite web , url=http://www.chinatownlondon.org/ , title=Chinatown — Official website , publisher=Chinatown London , access-date=27 April 2008 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110501115502/http://www.chinatownlondon.org/ , archive-date=1 May 2011 , url-status=dead There is a variety of List of annual events in London, annual events, beginning with the relatively new New Year's Day Parade, a fireworks display at the
London Eye The London Eye, or the Millennium Wheel, is a cantilevered is anchored and extends over the edge of a swimming pool). The bottom example is created by adding a Robin boundary condition to the beam element, which essentially adds an elastic spr ...

London Eye
; the world's second largest street party, the Notting Hill Carnival, is held on the late August Bank Holiday each year. Traditional parades include November's Lord Mayor's Show, a centuries-old event celebrating the annual appointment of a new Lord Mayor of the City of London with a procession along the streets of the city, and June's Trooping the Colour, a formal military pageant performed by regiments of the Commonwealth of Nations, Commonwealth and British Army, British armies to celebrate the Queen's Official Birthday.{{Cite web , url=http://www.royal.gov.uk/output/Page4820.asp , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20080620233221/http://www.royal.gov.uk/output/Page4820.asp , archive-date=20 June 2008 , title=One Queen, Two Birthdays , publisher=Royal Government , access-date=27 September 2008 , url-status=live The Boishakhi Mela is a Bengali New Year festival celebrated by the British Bangladeshi community. It is the largest open-air Asian festival in Europe. After the Notting Hill Carnival, it is the second-largest street festival in the
United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some prefer to use Britain as shorth ...

United Kingdom
attracting over 80,000 visitors from across the country.


Literature, film and television

{{main, London in fiction, London in film, List of television shows set in London, London Television Archive London has been the setting for many works of literature. The pilgrims in Geoffrey Chaucer's late 14th-century ''The Canterbury Tales, Canterbury Tales'' set out for Canterbury from London—specifically, from the The Tabard, Tabard inn, Southwark. William Shakespeare spent a large part of his life living and working in London; his contemporary Ben Jonson was also based there, and some of his work, most notably his play ''The Alchemist (play), The Alchemist'', was set in the city. ''A Journal of the Plague Year'' (1722) by Daniel Defoe is a fictionalisation of the events of the 1665 Great Plague of London, Great Plague. The literary centres of London have traditionally been hilly Hampstead and (since the early 20th century) Bloomsbury. Writers closely associated with the city are the diarist Samuel Pepys, noted for his eyewitness account of the Great Fire of London, Great Fire; Charles Dickens, whose representation of a foggy, snowy, grimy London of street sweepers and pickpockets has been a major influence on people's vision of early Victorian era, Victorian London; and Virginia Woolf, regarded as one of the foremost modernist literature, modernist literary figures of the 20th century.{{Cite web , url=http://www.brynmawr.edu/library/speccoll/guides/london/londoninliterature.shtml , title=London in Literature , publisher=Bryn Mawr College , access-date=6 June 2008 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110427043832/http://www.brynmawr.edu/library/speccoll/guides/london/londoninliterature.shtml , archive-date=27 April 2011 , url-status=live Later important depictions of London from the 19th and early 20th centuries are Dickens' novels, and Arthur Conan Doyle's Sherlock Holmes stories. Also of significance is Letitia Elizabeth Landon's ''Calendar of the London Seasons'' (1834). Modern writers pervasively influenced by the city include Peter Ackroyd, author of a "biography" of London, and Iain Sinclair, who writes in the genre of psychogeography.{{wikisource, Calendar of the London Seasons/Calendar of the London Seasons, 'Calendar of the London Seasons', by L. E. L. London has played a significant role in the film industry. Major studios within or bordering London include Twickenham Film Studios, Twickenham, Ealing Studios, Ealing, Shepperton Studios, Shepperton, Pinewood Studios, Pinewood, Elstree studios, Elstree and Borehamwood,{{Cite web , url=http://filmlondon.org.uk/studio-contacts , title=Film London – studio contacts , website=Filmlondon.org.uk , access-date=27 May 2017 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170810011712/http://filmlondon.org.uk/studio-contacts , archive-date=10 August 2017 , url-status=dead and a special effects and post-production community centred in Soho. Working Title Films has its headquarters in London.{{Cite web , url=http://www.workingtitlefilms.com/ , title=Working Title Films , publisher=Universal Studios , access-date=27 April 2008 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110426181458/http://workingtitlefilms.com/ , archive-date=26 April 2011 , url-status=live London has been the setting for films including ''Oliver Twist (1948 film), Oliver Twist'' (1948), ''Scrooge (1951 film), Scrooge'' (1951), ''Peter Pan (1953 film), Peter Pan'' (1953), ''101 Dalmatians (1996 film), The 101 Dalmatians'' (1961), ''My Fair Lady (film), My Fair Lady'' (1964), ''Mary Poppins (film), Mary Poppins'' (1964), ''Blowup'' (1966), ''The Long Good Friday'' (1980), ''The Great Mouse Detective'' (1986), ''Notting Hill (film), Notting Hill'' (1999), ''Love Actually'' (2003), ''V For Vendetta (film), V For Vendetta'' (2005), ''Sweeney Todd: The Demon Barber of Fleet Street'' (2008) and ''The King's Speech'' (2010). Notable actors and filmmakers from London include; Charlie Chaplin, Alfred Hitchcock, Michael Caine, Helen Mirren, Gary Oldman, Christopher Nolan, Jude Law, Benedict Cumberbatch, Tom Hardy, Keira Knightley and Daniel Day-Lewis. Since 2008, the British Academy Film Awards have taken place at the Royal Opera House. London is a major centre for television production, with studios including BBC Television Centre, The Fountain Studios and The London Studios. Many television programmes have been set in London, including the popular television soap opera ''EastEnders'', broadcast by the BBC since 1985.


Museums, art galleries and libraries

London is List of museums in London, home to many museums, galleries, and other institutions, many of which are free of admission charges and are major tourist attractions as well as playing a research role. The first of these to be established was the
British Museum The British Museum, in the Bloomsbury Bloomsbury is a district in the West End of London The West End of London (commonly referred to as the West End) is a district of Central London Central London is the innermost part of Lond ...

British Museum
in Bloomsbury, in 1753. Originally containing antiquities, natural history specimens, and the national library, the museum now has 7 million artefacts from around the globe. In 1824, the
National Gallery The National Gallery is an art museum An art museum is a building or space for the display of art, usually from the museum's own Collection (artwork), collection. It might be in public or private ownership and may be accessible to all or h ...
was founded to house the British national collection of Western paintings; this now occupies a prominent position in
Trafalgar Square Trafalgar Square ( ) is a public square in the City of Westminster, Central London, established in the early 19th century around the area formerly known as Charing Cross. The Square's name commemorates the Battle of Trafalgar, the Royal Navy, ...

Trafalgar Square
. The
British Library The British Library is the national library A national library is a library established by a government as a country's preeminent repository of information. Unlike public library, public libraries, these rarely allow citizens to borrow book ...

British Library
is the second List of largest libraries, largest library in the world, and the national library of the United Kingdom. There are many other research libraries, including the Wellcome Library and Dana Library and Research Centre, Dana Centre, as well as academic library, university libraries, including the British Library of Political and Economic Science at London School of Economics, LSE, the Imperial College Central Library, Central Library at Imperial College London, Imperial, the Maughan Library at King's College London, King's, and the Senate House Libraries at the University of London. In the latter half of the 19th century the locale of South Kensington was developed as "Albertopolis", a cultural and scientific quarter. Three major national museums are there: the Victoria and Albert Museum (for the applied arts), the
Natural History Museum A natural history museum or museum of natural history is a scientific institution with that include current and historical records of s, s, , s, , , , and more. History The primary role of a natural history is to provide the scientific c ...

Natural History Museum
, and the London Science Museum, Science Museum. The National Portrait Gallery, London, National Portrait Gallery was founded in 1856 to house depictions of figures from British history; its holdings now comprise the world's most extensive collection of portraits. The national gallery of British art is at Tate Britain, originally established as an annexe of the National Gallery in 1897. The Tate Gallery, as it was formerly known, also became a major centre for modern art. In 2000, this collection moved to
Tate Modern Tate Modern is an art gallery located in London. It houses the United Kingdom's national collection of international modern Modern may refer to: History *Modern history Human history, also known as world history, is the description of h ...

Tate Modern
, a new gallery housed in the former Bankside Power Station, which was built by the Basel-based architecture firm of Herzog & de Meuron.


Music

London is one of the major classical and popular music capitals of the world and hosts major music corporations, such as Universal Music Group, Universal Music Group International and Warner Music Group, as well as countless bands, musicians and industry professionals. The city is also home to many orchestras and concert halls, such as the Barbican Arts Centre (principal base of the London Symphony Orchestra and the London Symphony Chorus), the Southbank Centre (London Philharmonic Orchestra and the Philharmonia Orchestra), Cadogan Hall (Royal Philharmonic Orchestra) and the Royal Albert Hall (The Proms). London's two main opera houses are the Royal Opera House and the London Coliseum (home to the English National Opera). The UK's largest pipe organ is at the Royal Albert Hall. Other significant instruments are at the cathedrals and major churches. Several conservatoires are within the city: Royal Academy of Music, Royal College of Music, Guildhall School of Music and Drama and Trinity College of Music, Trinity Laban. London has numerous venues for rock and pop concerts, including the world's busiest indoor venue, The O2 Arena and Wembley Arena, as well as many mid-sized venues, such as Brixton Academy, the Hammersmith Apollo and the Shepherd's Bush Empire. Several music festivals, including the Wireless Festival, South West Four, Lovebox Festival, Lovebox, and Hyde Park, London, Hyde Park's British Summer Time (concerts), British Summer Time are all held in London. The city is home to the original Hard Rock Cafe and the Abbey Road Studios, where The Beatles recorded many of their hits. In the 1960s, 1970s and 1980s, musicians and groups like Elton John, Pink Floyd, Cliff Richard, David Bowie, Queen (band), Queen, The Kinks, The Rolling Stones, The Who, Eric Clapton, Led Zeppelin, The Small Faces, Iron Maiden, Fleetwood Mac, Elvis Costello, Cat Stevens, The Police, The Cure, Madness (band), Madness, The Jam, Ultravox, Spandau Ballet, Culture Club, Dusty Springfield, Phil Collins, Rod Stewart, Adam Ant, Status Quo (band), Status Quo and Sade (band), Sade, derived their sound from the streets and rhythms of London.{{Cite book , url=https://www.bbc.co.uk/london/content/articles/2006/04/06/garycrowley_londontop40_feature.shtml , title=London's top 40 artists , date=6 April 2006 , publisher=BBC , access-date=9 September 2008 , isbn=978-0-89820-135-2 London was instrumental in the development of punk music, with figures such as the Sex Pistols, The Clash, and Vivienne Westwood all based in the city. More recent artists to emerge from the London music scene include George Michael's Wham!, Kate Bush, Seal (musician), Seal, the Pet Shop Boys, Bananarama, Siouxsie and the Banshees, Bush (band), Bush, the Spice Girls, Jamiroquai, Blur (band), Blur, McFly, The Prodigy, Gorillaz, Bloc Party, Mumford & Sons, Coldplay, Amy Winehouse, Adele, Sam Smith (singer), Sam Smith, Ed Sheeran, Paloma Faith, Ellie Goulding, One Direction and Florence and the Machine.{{Cite web , url=http://www.londonbc.co.uk/history-of-music-in-london.html , title=History of music in London , publisher=The London Music Scene , access-date=2 August 2009 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110427023619/http://www.londonbc.co.uk/history-of-music-in-london.html , archive-date=27 April 2011 , url-status=dead London is also a centre for urban music. In particular the genres UK garage, drum and bass, dubstep and grime (music), grime evolved in the city from the foreign genres of House music, house, hip hop music, hip hop, and reggae, alongside local drum and bass. Music station BBC Radio 1Xtra was set up to support the rise of local urban contemporary music both in London and in the rest of the United Kingdom.


Recreation


Parks and open spaces

{{main, Parks and open spaces in London, Royal Parks of London {{see also, List of Sites of Special Scientific Interest in Greater London, List of local nature reserves in Greater London A 2013 report by the
City of London Corporation The City of London Corporation, officially and legally the Mayor and Commonalty and Citizens of the City of London, is the municipal governing body of the City of London, the historic centre of London and the location of much of the United Kingd ...
said that London is the "greenest city" in Europe with 35,000 acres of public parks, woodlands and gardens. The largest parks in the Central London, central area of London are three of the eight Royal Parks of London, Royal Parks, namely Hyde Park, London, Hyde Park and its neighbour Kensington Gardens in the west, and Regent's Park to the north.{{Cite web , url=http://www.royalparks.org.uk/parks/kensington_gardens/ , title=Kensington Gardens , year=2008 , publisher=The Royal Parks , access-date=26 April 2008 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20100527231143/http://www.royalparks.org.uk/parks/kensington_gardens/ , archive-date=27 May 2010 , url-status=dead Hyde Park in particular is popular for #Sport, sports and sometimes hosts open-air concerts. Regent's Park contains London Zoo, the world's oldest scientific zoo, and is near Madame Tussauds Wax Museum.{{Cite web , url=http://www.madametussauds.com/London/About.aspx , title=Madame Tussauds — Official website , publisher=Madame Tussauds , access-date=6 June 2008 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110501102841/http://www.madametussauds.com/London/About.aspx , archive-date=1 May 2011 , url-status=dead{{Cite web , title=Madame Tussauds, London , url=http://www.tourist-information-uk.com/madame-tussauds.htm , url-status=live , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110427094710/http://www.tourist-information-uk.com/madame-tussauds.htm , archive-date=27 April 2011 , access-date=26 March 2021 , publisher=Madame Tussauds Primrose Hill, immediately to the north of Regent's Park, at {{convert, 256, ft, 0 is a popular spot from which to view the city skyline. Close to Hyde Park are smaller Royal Parks, Green Park and St. James's Park.{{Cite web , year=2008 , title=Green Park , url=http://www.royalparks.org.uk/parks/green_park/, url-status=dead, archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20090904010152/http://www.royalparks.org.uk/parks/green_park/about.cfm, archive-date=4 September 2009 , access-date=26 March 2021 , publisher=The Royal Parks A number of large parks lie outside the city centre, including Hampstead Heath and the remaining Royal Parks of Greenwich Park to the southeast{{Cite web , year=2008 , title=Greenwich Park , url=http://www.royalparks.org.uk/parks/greenwich_park/ , url-status=dead , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120403181733/http://www.royalparks.org.uk/parks/greenwich-park/about-the-park, archive-date=3 April 2012 , access-date=26 March 2021 , publisher=The Royal Parks and Bushy Park and Richmond Park (the largest) to the southwest,{{Cite web , year= , title=Bushy Park , url=http://www.royalparks.org.uk/parks/bushy_park/ , url-status=dead, archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20090122050309/http://www.royalparks.org.uk/parks/bushy_park/ , archive-date=22 January 2009 , access-date=26 March 2021 , publisher=The Royal Parks{{Cite web , url=http://www.royalparks.org.uk/parks/richmond_park/ , title=Richmond Park , year=2008 , publisher=The Royal Parks , access-date=26 April 2008 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20100527212545/http://www.royalparks.org.uk/parks/richmond_park/ , archive-date=27 May 2010 , url-status=dead Hampton Court Park is also a royal park, but, because it contains a palace, it is administered by the Historic Royal Palaces, unlike the eight Royal Parks of London, Royal Parks. Close to Richmond Park is
Kew Gardens Kew Gardens is a botanic garden A botanical garden or botanic gardenThe terms ''botanic'' and ''botanical'' and ''garden'' or ''gardens'' are used more-or-less interchangeably, although the word ''botanic'' is generally reserved for the ...

Kew Gardens
, which has the world's largest collection of living plants. In 2003, the gardens were put on the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, UNESCO list of List of World Heritage Sites of the United Kingdom, World Heritage Sites. There are also parks administered by London's borough Councils, including Victoria Park, London, Victoria Park in the East End and Battersea Park in the centre. Some more informal, semi-natural open spaces also exist, including the {{convert, 320, ha, acre, adj=on Hampstead Heath of North London, and Epping Forest, which covers 2,476 hectares (6,118 acres) in the east. Both are controlled by the
City of London Corporation The City of London Corporation, officially and legally the Mayor and Commonalty and Citizens of the City of London, is the municipal governing body of the City of London, the historic centre of London and the location of much of the United Kingd ...
. Hampstead Heath incorporates Kenwood House, a former stately home and a popular location in the summer months when classical musical concerts are held by the lake, attracting thousands of people every weekend to enjoy the music, scenery and fireworks.{{Cite web , url=http://www.english-heritage.org.uk/server/show/nav.00100200800k00800f , title=Kenwood House , publisher=English Heritage , access-date=26 April 2008 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20100305202033/http://www.english-heritage.org.uk/server/show/nav.00100200800k00800f , archive-date=5 March 2010 , url-status=live Epping Forest is a popular venue for various outdoor activities, including mountain biking, walking, horse riding, golf, angling, and orienteering.


Walking

Walking in London, Walking is a popular recreational activity in London. Areas that provide for walks include Wimbledon Common, Epping Forest, Hampton Court Park, Hampstead Heath, the eight Royal Parks, canals and disused railway tracks.{{Cite web , url=http://www.innerlondonramblers.org.uk/ideasforwalks.html , title=Inner London Ramblers – Walk Ideas , first=Phil , last=Marson , website=innerlondonramblers.org.uk Access to canals and rivers has improved recently, including the creation of the Thames Path, some {{convert, 28, mi, km of which is within
Greater London Greater London is an administrative area Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, are generic names ...

Greater London
, and The Wandle Trail; this runs {{convert, 12, mi, km through South London along the River Wandle, a tributaries of the River Thames, tributary of the River Thames. Other long-distance paths, linking green spaces, have also been created, including the Capital Ring, the Green Chain Walk, London Outer Orbital Path ("Loop"), Jubilee Walkway, Lea Valley Walk, and the Diana, Princess of Wales Memorial Walk.


Sport

{{main, Sport in London London has hosted the Summer Olympic Games, Summer Olympics three times: in 1908 Summer Olympics, 1908, 1948 Summer Olympics, 1948, and 2012,{{Cite web , url=http://www.olympic.org/london-1908-summer-olympics , title=London 1908 , publisher=International Olympic Committee , access-date=5 February 2011 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110425214411/http://www.olympic.org/london-1908-summer-olympics , archive-date=25 April 2011 , url-status=live{{Cite web , url=http://www.olympic.org/london-1948-summer-olympics , title=London 1948 , publisher=International Olympic Committee , access-date=5 February 2011 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110425214340/http://www.olympic.org/london-1948-summer-olympics , archive-date=25 April 2011 , url-status=live making it the first city to host the modern Games three times. The city was also the host of the Commonwealth Games, British Empire Games in 1934 British Empire Games, 1934.{{Cite web , date=28 April 2011 , title=England - Introduction , url=http://www.thecgf.com/countries/intro.asp?loc=ENG , url-status=dead , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110429043207/http://www.thecgf.com/countries/intro.asp?loc=ENG , archive-date=29 April 2011 , access-date=3 November 2008 , website=Commonwealth Games Federation , publisher= In 2017, London hosted the 2017 World Championships in Athletics, World Championships in Athletics for the first time. London's Sport in the United Kingdom#Popularity, most popular sport is association football, football and it has six clubs in the English Premier League as of the 2021–22 Premier League, 2021–22 season: Arsenal F.C., Arsenal, Brentford F.C., Brentford, Chelsea F.C., Chelsea, Crystal Palace F.C., Crystal Palace, Tottenham Hotspur F.C., Tottenham Hotspur, and West Ham United F.C., West Ham United.{{Cite web , title=Barclays Premier League Clubs , url=https://www.premierleague.com/clubs , access-date=29 March 2021 , website=Premier League Other professional teams in London are AFC Wimbledon, Barnet F.C., Barnet, Bromley F.C., Bromley, Charlton Athletic F.C., Charlton Athletic, Dagenham & Redbridge F.C., Dagenham & Redbridge, Fulham F.C., Fulham, Leyton Orient F.C., Leyton Orient, Millwall F.C., Millwall, Queens Park Rangers F.C., Queens Park Rangers and Sutton United F.C., Sutton United. From 1924, the original Wembley Stadium (1923), Wembley Stadium was the home of the England national football team, English national football team. It hosted the 1966 FIFA World Cup Final, with England defeating West Germany, and served as the venue for the FA Cup Final as well as rugby league's Challenge Cup final.{{Cite web , url=http://www.wembleystadium.com/GloriousPast/greatmoments/1steverwembleyFACupFinal.htm , title=Wembley Stadium History — Official Website , publisher=Wembley National Stadium Limited. , access-date=29 April 2008 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20080403102710/http://www.wembleystadium.com/GloriousPast/greatmoments/1steverwembleyFACupFinal.htm , archive-date=3 April 2008 , url-status=dead The new Wembley Stadium serves exactly the same purposes and has a capacity of 90,000.{{Cite journal , url=http://www.wembleystadium.com/pressbox/presspack/factsandFigures.htm , title=Wembley Stadium — Presspack — Facts and Figures , publisher=Wembley National Stadium Limited , access-date=6 June 2008 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20080516051636/http://www.wembleystadium.com/pressbox/presspack/factsandFigures.htm , archive-date=16 May 2008 , url-status=dead Two Premiership Rugby union teams are based in London, Harlequin F.C., Harlequins and London Irish.{{Cite web , url=http://www.premiershiprugby.com/clubs/index.php , title=Premiership Rugby: Clubs , publisher=Premier Rugby , access-date=5 August 2010 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110427075926/http://www.premiershiprugby.com/clubs/index.php , archive-date=27 April 2011 , url-status=dead Ealing Trailfinders Rugby Club, Ealing Trailfinders, Richmond F.C., Richmond and Saracens F.C., Saracens play in the RFU Championship and other rugby union clubs in the city include London Scottish F.C., London Scottish, Rosslyn Park F.C., Westcombe Park R.F.C. and Blackheath F.C.. Twickenham Stadium in south-west London hosts home matches for the England national rugby union team and has a capacity of 82,000 now that the new south stand has been completed.{{Cite press release , publisher=Twickenham Rugby Stadium , title=RFU apply for two additional concerts at Twickenham Stadium in 2007 , url=http://www.rfu.com/microsites/twickenham/index.cfm?StoryID=14822 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20080625050620/http://www.rfu.com/microsites/twickenham/index.cfm?StoryID=14822 , archive-date=25 June 2008 , date=3 October 2006 , url-status=dead While rugby league is more popular in the north of England, there are two professional rugby league clubs in London – the London Broncos in the second-tier RFL Championship, who play at the Trailfinders Sports Ground in West Ealing, and the third-tier League 1 (rugby league), League 1 team, the London Skolars from Wood Green, London Borough of Haringey, Haringey. One of London's best-known annual sports competitions is the Wimbledon Championships, Wimbledon Tennis Championships, held at the All England Lawn Tennis and Croquet Club, All England Club in the south-western suburb of Wimbledon, London, Wimbledon.{{Cite web , url=http://www.wimbledon.org/en_GB/index.html , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20080423182334/http://www.wimbledon.org/en_GB/index.html , archive-date=23 April 2008 , title=Wimbledon — official website , publisher=The All England Tennis and Croquet Club (AELTC) , access-date=29 April 2008 , url-status=dead Played in late June to early July, it is the oldest tennis tournament in the world and widely considered the most prestigious. London has two Test cricket grounds, Lord's (home of Middlesex County Cricket Club, Middlesex C.C.C.) in St John's Wood{{Cite web , url=http://www.lords.org/lords-ground/about-lords/ , title=About Lord's—the home of cricket — official website , year=2008 , publisher=MCC , access-date=29 April 2008 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110505124304/http://www.lords.org/lords-ground/about-lords/ , archive-date=5 May 2011 , url-status=dead and the Oval (home of Surrey County Cricket Club, Surrey C.C.C.) in Kennington.{{Cite web , url=http://www.surreycricket.com/the-brit-oval , title=The Brit Oval — Official Website , year=2008 , publisher=Surrey CCC , access-date=29 April 2008 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20090307124530/http://www.surreycricket.com/the-brit-oval/ , archive-date=7 March 2009 , url-status=dead Lord's has hosted four finals of the Cricket World Cup and is known as the ''Home of Cricket''.{{Cite web , title=Lord's (Cricket Grounds), url=http://www.espncricinfo.com/england/content/ground/57129.html , access-date=26 March 2021 , website=ESPNcricinfo.com Other key events are the annual mass-participation London Marathon, in which some 35,000 runners attempt a {{convert, 26.2, mi, km, adj=on course around the city,{{Cite web , url=http://www.london-marathon.co.uk/site/ , title=Flora London Marathon 2008 , publisher=London Marathon Ltd , access-date=29 April 2008 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20080426224024/http://www.london-marathon.co.uk/site/ , archive-date=26 April 2008 , url-status=dead and the University Boat Race on the
River Thames The River Thames ( ), known alternatively in parts as the River Isis, is a river that flows through southern England Southern England, or the South of England, also known as the South, is an area of England consisting of the southernmos ...
from Putney to Mortlake.{{Cite web , url=http://www.theboatrace.org/ , title=The Oxford and Cambridge Boat Race — Official Website , publisher=The Oxford and Cambridge Boat Race , access-date=29 April 2008 , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110430162037/http://www.theboatrace.org/ , archive-date=30 April 2011 , url-status=live


Notable people

{{main, List of people from London


See also

{{portal, London, Cities, England, United Kingdom *Outline of England *Outline of London{{-


Notes

{{reflist, group=upper-alpha, refs=
City of London The City of London is a City status in the United Kingdom, city, Ceremonial counties of England, ceremonial county and local government district that contains the historic centre and the primary central business district (CBD) of London. It c ...

City of London
and
Greater London Greater London is an administrative area Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, are generic names ...

Greater London
{{Reflist, group="note"


References

{{reflist


Bibliography

*{{Cite book , last=Ackroyd , first=Peter , title=London: The Biography , publisher=Vintage , location=London , year=2001 , isbn=978-0-09-942258-7 , page=880 , title-link=London: The Biography *{{Cite book , last=Mills , first=David , title=Dictionary of London Place Names , publisher=Oxford Paperbacks , year=2001 , isbn=978-0-19-280106-7 , oclc=45406491


External links


London.gov.uk – Greater London AuthorityVisitLondon.com
nbsp;– Official London tourism site
Museum of LondonLondon
in ''British History Online'', with links to numerous authoritative online sources
"London"
''In Our Time'', BBC Radio 4 discussion with Peter Ackroyd, Claire Tomalin and Iain Sinclair (28 September 2000) *{{osmrelation-inline, 175342
Old maps of London
from the Eran Laor Cartographic Collection, The National Library of Israel {{London history {{London landmarks {{Areas of London {{navboxes, title=Outline of London, Other articles related to London, list= {{Governance of Greater London {{Transport in London {{London commuter belt {{Universities and colleges in London {{Megacities {{Olympic Summer Games Host Cities {{Subject bar, commons=yes, wikt=yes, n=yes, n-search=London, q=yes, s=yes, b=no, voy=yes, v=yes, d=yes, d-search=Q84 {{Authority control London, London British capitals Capitals in Europe Greater London Port cities and towns in Southern England Staple ports Southern England 1st-century establishments in Roman Britain Populated places established in the 1st century Capital cities in the United Kingdom