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Benjamin
BENJAMIN was the last-born of Jacob
Jacob
's thirteen children (12 sons 1 daughter), and the second and last son of Rachel
Rachel
in Jewish, Christian and Islamic tradition. He was the progenitor of the Israelite Tribe of Benjamin
Benjamin
. In the Hebrew Bible
Hebrew Bible
unlike Rachel's first son, Joseph , Benjamin
Benjamin
was born in Canaan
Canaan
. In the Samaritan Pentateuch , Benjamin's name appears as "Binyaamem" (Hebrew : בנימין, "Son of my days"). In the Quran
Quran
, Benjamin
Benjamin
is referred to as righteous young child, who remained with Jacob
Jacob
when the older brothers plotted against Joseph
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Fasted
FASTING is a willing abstinence or reduction from some or all food , drink , or both, for a period of time. An ABSOLUTE FAST or DRY FASTING is normally defined as abstinence from all food and liquid for a defined period, usually a period of 24 hours, or a number of days. Water fasting allows drinking water but nothing else. Other fasts may be partially restrictive, limiting only particular foods or substances. A fast may also be intermittent in nature . Fasting practices may preclude intercourse and other activities as well as food. In a physiological context, fasting may refer to the metabolic status of a person who has not eaten overnight, or to the metabolic state achieved after complete digestion and absorption of a meal. Several metabolic adjustments occur during fasting, and some diagnostic tests are used to determine a fasting state
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Morgan Bible
The MORGAN BIBLE (The Pierpont Morgan Library
Morgan Library
, New York , Ms M. 638), also called the CRUSADER BIBLE or MACIEJOWSKI BIBLE, is a medieval picture Bible
Bible
of 46 folios . The book consists of paintings of events from Hebrew scripture , set in the scenery and customs of thirteenth-century France
France
, depicted from a Christian
Christian
perspective. Scenes are surrounded by text in three scripts and five languages: Latin
Latin
, Persian , Arabic
Arabic
, Judeo-Persian , and Hebrew
Hebrew
. Forty three folios are kept in the Pierpont Morgan Library. Two folios are kept in the Bibliothèque nationale de France
France
. A single folio is kept in the J. Paul Getty Museum
J. Paul Getty Museum
, Los Angeles
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Sefer HaYashar (midrash)
—— Tannaitic —— * Mishnah
Mishnah
* Tosefta
Tosefta
—— Amoraic ( Gemara
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Mem
MEM (also spelled MEEM or MIM) is the thirteenth letter of the Semitic abjads , including Phoenician Mēm , Hebrew Mēm מ, Aramaic Mem , Syriac Mīm ܡܡ, and Arabic
Arabic
Mīm م. Its value is . The Phoenician letter gave rise to the Greek Mu (Μ), Etruscan , Latin M , and Cyrillic М . CONTENTS * 1 Origins * 2 Arabic
Arabic
mīm * 3 Hebrew Mem * 3.1 Hebrew pronunciation * 3.2 Variations on written form/pronunciation * 3.3 Significance * 3.4 Mem and Tarot * 4 Character encodings * 5 See also * 6 External links ORIGINS Mem is believed to derive from the Egyptian hieroglyphic symbol for water , which had been simplified by the Phoenicians and named after their word for water, mem ( ), ultimately coming from Proto-Semitic *maʾ-/*may-
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Aram-Naharaim
ARAM-NAHARAIM ( Aramaic
Aramaic
: ארם נהריים) is a region that is mentioned five times in the Hebrew Bible or Old Testament
Old Testament
. It is commonly identified with Nahrima mentioned in three tablets of the Amarna correspondence as a geographical description of the kingdom of Mitanni . In Genesis, it is used somewhat interchangeably with the names Paddan Aram and Haran to denote the place where Abraham
Abraham
stayed briefly with his father Terah 's family after leaving Ur of the Chaldees , while en route to Canaan (Gen. 11:31), and the place to which later patriarchs obtained wives, rather than marry daughters of Canaan
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Chuppah
A CHUPPAH ( Hebrew
Hebrew
: חוּפָּה‎‎, pl. חוּפּוֹת, chuppot, literally, "canopy" or "covering"), also HUPPAH, CHIPE, CHUPAH, or CHUPPA, is a canopy under which a Jewish couple stand during their wedding ceremony . It consists of a cloth or sheet, sometimes a tallit , stretched or supported over four poles, or sometimes manually held up by attendants to the ceremony. A chuppah symbolizes the home that the couple will build together. In a more general sense, chupah refers to the method by which nesuin, the second stage of a Jewish marriage, is accomplished. According to some opinions, it is accomplished by the couple standing under the canopy; however, there are other views
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Classical Rabbinical Literature
RABBINIC LITERATURE, in its broadest sense, can mean the entire spectrum of rabbinic writings throughout Jewish history. However, the term often refers specifically to literature from the Talmudic era, as opposed to medieval and modern rabbinic writing, and thus corresponds with the Hebrew term SIFRUT HAZAL (Hebrew : ספרות חז"ל‎‎ "Literature sages," where Hazal normally refers only to the sages of the Talmudic era). This more specific sense of "Rabbinic literature"—referring to the Talmudim , Midrash
Midrash
(Hebrew : מדרש‎‎), and related writings, but hardly ever to later texts—is how the term is generally intended when used in contemporary academic writing. On the other hand, the terms meforshim and parshanim (commentaries/commentators) almost always refer to later, post-Talmudic writers of Rabbinic glosses on Biblical and Talmudic texts. This article discusses rabbinic literature in both senses
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Astrology
Expand list for reference ------------------------- ▼ Astrology
Astrology
Astrology
Astrology
images ► Astrology
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Astrolabe
An ASTROLABE (Greek : ἀστρολάβος astrolabos; Arabic
Arabic
: ٱلأَسْطُرلاب‎‎‎‎ al-Asturlāb) is an elaborate inclinometer , historically used by astronomers and navigators , to measure the inclined position in the sky of a celestial body , day or night. It can thus be used to identify stars or planets, to determine local latitude given local time and vice versa, to survey, or to triangulate . It was used in classical antiquity , the Islamic Golden Age , the European Middle Ages
Middle Ages
and the Renaissance
Renaissance
for all these purposes. While the astrolabe is effective for determining latitude on land or calm seas, it is less reliable on the heaving deck of a ship in rough seas. The mariner\'s astrolabe was developed to solve that problem
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Egypt
Coordinates : 26°N 30°E / 26°N 30°E / 26; 30 Arab Republic
Republic
of Egypt جمهورية مصر العربية * ARABIC : Jumhūrīyat Miṣr al-ʿArabīyah EGYPTIAN : Gomhoreyet Maṣr El ʿArabeyah Flag Coat of arms ANTHEM: " Bilady, Bilady, Bilady " "بلادي، بلادي، بلادي" "My country, my country, my country" Capital and largest
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The Exodus
THE EXODUS is the founding myth of Israel , telling how the Israelites were delivered from slavery by their god Yahweh and therefore belong to him through the Mosaic covenant . Spread over the books of Exodus , Leviticus , Numbers , and Deuteronomy
Deuteronomy
, it tells of the events that befell the Israelites following the death of Joseph , their departure from Egypt , and their wanderings in the wilderness, including the revelations at Sinai
Sinai
, up to their arrival at the borders of Canaan
Canaan
. The exodus narrative is not history in the modern sense, (no archeological evidence has been found to support the historical accuracy of the biblical story ) but rather a demonstration of God's acts in history through Israel's bondage, salvation and covenant
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Matriarch
MATRIARCHY is a social system in which females hold primary power, predominate in roles of political leadership, moral authority, social privilege and control of property at the specific exclusion of men, at least to a large degree. While those definitions apply in general English, definitions specific to the disciplines of anthropology and feminism differ in some respects. Most anthropologists hold that there are no known societies that are unambiguously matriarchal, but some authors believe exceptions may exist or may have. Matriarchies may also be confused with matrilineal , matrilocal , and matrifocal societies. A few people consider any non-patriarchal system to be matriarchal, thus including genderally equalitarian systems (Peggy Reeves Sanday favors redefining and reintroducing the word matriarchy, especially in reference to contemporary matrilineal societies such as the Minangkabau ), but most academics exclude them from matriarchies strictly defined
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Caravanserai
A CARAVANSERAI (/kærəˈvænsəri/ ; was a roadside inn where travelers (caravaners ) could rest and recover from the day's journey. Caravanserais supported the flow of commerce, information, and people across the network of trade routes covering Asia, North Africa
North Africa
, and Southeast Europe
Southeast Europe
, especially along the Silk Road
Silk Road

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Mamluk
MAMLUK (Arabic : مملوك mamlūk (singular), مماليك mamālīk (plural), meaning "property", also transliterated as mamlouk, mamluq, mamluke, mameluk, mameluke, mamaluke or marmeluke) is an Arabic designation for slaves. The term is most commonly used to refer to Muslim slave soldiers and Muslim rulers of slave origin
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Divination
DIVINATION (from Latin divinare "to foresee, to be inspired by a god", related to divinus, divine ) is the attempt to gain insight into a question or situation by way of an occultic , standardized process or ritual. Used in various forms throughout history, diviners ascertain their interpretations of how a querent should proceed by reading signs, events, or omens , or through alleged contact with a supernatural agency. Divination
Divination
can be seen as a systematic method with which to organize what appear to be disjointed, random facets of existence such that they provide insight into a problem at hand. If a distinction is to be made between divination and fortune-telling , divination has a more formal or ritualistic element and often contains a more social character, usually in a religious context, as seen in traditional African medicine . Fortune-telling, on the other hand, is a more everyday practice for personal purposes
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