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Bela (son) Beker (son) Ashbel (son) Gera (son) Naaman (son) Ehi (son) Rosh (son) Muppim (son) Huppim (son) Ard (son) [1]

Parents

Jacob
Jacob
(father) Rachel
Rachel
(mother)

Relatives

Reuben (half brother) Simeon (half brother) Levi
Levi
(half brother) Judah (half brother) Issachar (half brother) Zebulun (half brother) Dan (half brother) Naphtali (half brother) Gad (half brother) Asher
Asher
(half brother) Joseph
Joseph
(brother) Dinah
Dinah
(half sister)

Benjamin
Benjamin
(Hebrew: בנימין, "Son of the right side") was the last-born of Jacob's thirteen children (12 sons and 1 daughter), and the second and last son of Rachel
Rachel
in Jewish, Christian
Christian
and Islamic tradition. He was the progenitor of the Israelite Tribe
Tribe
of Benjamin. In the Hebrew Bible
Hebrew Bible
unlike Rachel's first son, Joseph, Benjamin
Benjamin
was born in Canaan. In the Samaritan Pentateuch, Benjamin's name appears as "Binyaamem" (Hebrew: בנימים, "Son of my days"). In the Quran, Benjamin
Benjamin
is referred to as righteous young child, who remained with Jacob
Jacob
when the older brothers plotted against Joseph. Later rabbinic traditions name him as one of four ancient Israelites
Israelites
who died without sin, the other three being Chileab, Jesse
Jesse
and Amram.

Contents

1 Name 2 Israelites
Israelites
in Egypt 3 Origin 4 Benjamin's sons 5 In Islam 6 See also 7 Citations 8 References 9 External links

Name[edit] According to the Hebrew Bible, Benjamin's name arose when Jacob deliberately changed the name "Benoni", the original name of Benjamin, since Benoni was an allusion to Rachel's dying just after she had given birth, as it means "son of my pain".[2] Textual scholars regard these two names as fragments of naming narratives coming from different sources - one being the Jahwist and the other being the Elohist.[3] Unusually for one of the 12 tribes of Israel, the Bible does not explain the etymology of Benjamin's name. Medieval commentator Rashi gives two different explanations, based on Midrashic sources. "Son of the south", with south derived from the word for the right hand side, referring to the birth of Benjamin
Benjamin
in Canaan, as compared with the birth of all the other sons of Jacob
Jacob
in Aram.[4][5] Modern scholars have proposed that "son of the south" / "right" is a reference to the tribe being subordinate to the more dominant tribe of Ephraim.[5] Alternatively, Rashi
Rashi
suggests it means "son of days", meaning a son born in Jacob's old age. The Samaritan Pentateuch
Samaritan Pentateuch
consistently spells his name "בן ימים", with a terminal mem, ("Binyamim"), which could be translated literally as "spirit man" but is in line with the interpretation that the name was a reference to the advanced age of Jacob
Jacob
when Benjamin
Benjamin
was born.[5] According to classical rabbinical sources, Benjamin
Benjamin
was only born after Rachel
Rachel
had fasted for a long time, as a religious devotion with the hope of a new child as a reward. By then Jacob
Jacob
had become over 100 years old.[5] Benjamin
Benjamin
is treated as a young child in most of the Biblical narrative,[5] but at one point is abruptly described as the father of ten sons.[6] Textual scholars believe that this is the result of the genealogical passage, in which his children are named, being from a much later source than the Jahwist and Elohist narratives, which make up most of the Joseph
Joseph
narrative, and which consistently describe Benjamin
Benjamin
as a child.[5] Israelites
Israelites
in Egypt[edit]

Benjamin
Benjamin
(right) embracing his brother Joseph.

The Torah's Joseph
Joseph
narrative, at a stage when Joseph
Joseph
is unrecognised by his brothers, describes Joseph
Joseph
as testing whether his brothers have reformed by secretly planting a silver cup in Benjamin's bag. Then, publicly searching the bags for it, and after finding it in Benjamin's possession, demanding that Benjamin
Benjamin
become his slave as a punishment.[7] The narrative goes on to state that when Judah (on behalf of the other brothers) begged Joseph
Joseph
not to enslave Benjamin
Benjamin
and instead enslave him, since enslavement of Benjamin
Benjamin
would break Jacob's heart. This caused Joseph
Joseph
to recant and reveal his identity.[7] The midrashic book of Jasher argues that prior to revealing his identity, Joseph
Joseph
asked Benjamin
Benjamin
to find his missing brother (i.e. Joseph) via astrology, using an astrolabe-like tool.[5] It continues by stating that Benjamin divined that the man on the throne was Joseph, so Joseph
Joseph
identified himself to Benjamin
Benjamin
(but not the other brothers), and revealed his scheme (as in the Torah) to test how fraternal the other brothers were.[5]

An illustration from the Morgan Bible
Morgan Bible
of Benjamin
Benjamin
being returned to Egypt
Egypt
(Genesis 44).

Some classical rabbinical sources argue that Joseph
Joseph
identified himself for other reasons.[5] In these sources, Benjamin
Benjamin
swore an oath, on the memory of Joseph, that he was innocent of theft, and, when challenged about how believable the oath would be, explained that remembering Joseph
Joseph
was so important to him that he had named his sons in Joseph's honour.[5] These sources go on to state that Benjamin's oath touched Joseph
Joseph
so deeply that Joseph
Joseph
was no longer able to pretend to be a stranger.[5] In the narrative, just prior to this test, when Joseph
Joseph
had first met all of his brothers (but not identified himself to them), he had held a feast for them;[8] the narrative heavily implies that Benjamin
Benjamin
was Joseph's favorite brother, since he is overcome with tears when he first meets Benjamin
Benjamin
in particular,[9] and he gives Benjamin
Benjamin
five times as much food as he apportions to the others.[10] According to textual scholars, this is really the Jahwist's account of the reunion after Joseph
Joseph
identifies himself, and the account of the threat to enslave Benjamin
Benjamin
is just the Elohist's version of the same event, with the Elohist being more terse about Joseph's emotions towards Benjamin, merely mentioning that Benjamin
Benjamin
was given five times as many gifts as the others.[5] Origin[edit]

An exterior view of a Mamluk
Mamluk
caravanserai complex, including the mausoleum of Nabi Yamin, traditionally believed to be the tomb of Benjamin, located outside Kfar Saba, Israel.

Biblical scholars regard it as obvious, from their geographic overlap and their treatment in older passages, that originally Ephraim and Manasseh were considered one tribe, that of Joseph.[11] According to several biblical scholars, Benjamin
Benjamin
was also originally part of this single tribe, but the biblical account of Joseph
Joseph
as his father became lost.[11][12] The description of Benjamin
Benjamin
being born after the arrival in Canaan
Canaan
is thought by some scholars to refer to the tribe of Benjamin
Benjamin
coming into existence by branching from the Joseph
Joseph
group after the tribe had settled in Canaan.[12] A number of biblical scholars suspect that the distinction of the Joseph
Joseph
tribes (including Benjamin) is that they were the only Israelites
Israelites
which went to Egypt
Egypt
and returned, while the main Israelite tribes simply emerged as a subculture from the Canaanites and had remained in Canaan
Canaan
throughout.[12][13] According to this view, the story of Jacob's visit to Laban to obtain a wife originated as a metaphor for this migration, with the property and family which were gained from Laban representing the gains of the Joseph
Joseph
tribes by the time they returned from Egypt.[12] According to textual scholars, the Jahwist version of the Laban narrative only mentions the Joseph
Joseph
tribes, and Rachel, and does not mention the other tribal matriarchs whatsoever.[12][14] Benjamin's sons[edit] According to Genesis 46:21, Benjamin
Benjamin
had ten sons: Bela, Becher, Ashbel, Gera, Naaman, Ehi, Rosh, Muppim, Huppim, and Ard. The name of his wife/wives are not given. Classical rabbinical tradition adds that each son's name honors Joseph:[5]

Belah (meaning swallow), in reference to Joseph
Joseph
disappearing (being swallowed up) Becher (meaning first born), in reference to Joseph
Joseph
being the first child of Rachel Ashbel (meaning capture), in reference to Joseph
Joseph
having suffered captivity Gera (meaning grain), in reference to Joseph
Joseph
living in a foreign land (Egypt) Naaman (meaning grace), in reference to Joseph
Joseph
having graceful speech Ehi (meaning my brother), in reference to Joseph
Joseph
being Benjamin's only full-brother (as opposed to half-brothers) Rosh (meaning elder), in reference to Joseph
Joseph
being older than Benjamin Muppim (meaning double mouth), in reference to Joseph
Joseph
passing on what he had been taught by Jacob Huppim (meaning marriage canopies), in reference to Joseph
Joseph
being married in Egypt, while Benjamin
Benjamin
was not there Ard (meaning wanderer/fugitive), in reference to Joseph
Joseph
being like a rose

In Islam[edit] Though not named in the Quran,[15] Benjamin
Benjamin
is referred to as the righteous youngest son of Jacob, in the narrative of Joseph
Joseph
in Islamic tradition. Apart from that, however, Islamic tradition does not provide much detail regarding Benjamin's life, and refers to him as being born from Jacob's wife Rachel. As with Jewish tradition, it also further links a connection between the names of Benjamin's children and Joseph.[16] See also[edit]

Benjamin
Benjamin
(other)

For a list of persons with the given name Benjamin
Benjamin
see All pages beginning with "Benjamin"

Tribe
Tribe
of Benjamin Paul the Apostle, also known as Rabbi
Rabbi
Shaul - a student of Gamliel or Paul the Jew from the Tribe
Tribe
of Benjamin; see Romans
Romans
11:1 and Phillipians 3:5 Mordecai
Mordecai
the Jew, from the Tribe of Benjamin
Tribe of Benjamin
see Esther
Esther
2:5 Queen Esther
Esther
also known as Hadassah, the cousin of Mordecai
Mordecai
the Jew - see the Book of Esther

Citations[edit]

^ Genesis 46:21 ^ Genesis 35:18 ^ Richard Elliott Friedman, Who wrote the Bible? ^ https://www.chabad.org/library/bible_cdo/aid/8230/jewish/Chapter-35.htm#showrashi=true ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Jewish Encyclopedia ^ Genesis 46:21 ^ a b Genesis 44 ^ Genesis 43 ^ Genesis 43:30 ^ Genesis 43:34 ^ a b Jewish Encyclopedia, Ephraim ^ a b c d e Peake's commentary on the Bible ^ Israel Finkelstein, The Bible Unearthed ^ Richard Elliott Friedman, Who Wrote the Bible? ^ Quran 12:4–102 ^ Vajda, G.; Wensick, A. J. Binyamin. I. Encyclopaedia of Islam. 

References[edit]

 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Easton, Matthew George (1897). "Benjamin". Easton's Bible Dictionary
Easton's Bible Dictionary
(New and revised ed.). T. Nelson and Sons. 

External links[edit]

"Benjamin", Jewish Encyclopedia, 1908: Material on the tribe, its territory, Rabbinical tradition and Islam.

v t e

People and things in the Quran

Characters

Non-humans

Allâh ("The God")

Names of Allah
Allah
found in the Quran

Beings in Paradise

Ghilmān or Wildān Ḥūr

Animals

Related

The baqarah (cow) of Israelites The dhi’b (wolf) that Jacob
Jacob
feared could attack Joseph The fīl (elephant) of the Abyssinians) Ḥimār (Domesticated donkey) The hud-hud (hoopoe) of Solomon The kalb (dog) of the sleepers of the cave The nāqaṫ (she-camel) of Saleh The nūn (fish or whale) of Jonah

Non-related

Ḥimār (Wild ass) Qaswarah
Qaswarah
('Lion', 'Beast of prey' or 'Hunter')

Jinns

‘Ifrîṫ ("Strong one") Mârid ("Rebellious one")

Iblīs the Shayṭān (Devil)

Qarīn

Prophets

Mentioned

Ādam (Adam) Al-Yasa‘ (Elisha) Ayyūb (Job) Dāwūd (David) Dhūl-Kifl (Ezekiel?) Hārūn (Aaron) Hūd (Eber?) Idrīs (Enoch?) Ilyās (Elijah) ‘Imrān (Joachim the father of Maryam) Is-ḥāq (Isaac) Ismā‘īl (Ishmael)

Dhabih Ullah

Isma'il Ṣādiq al-Wa‘d (Fulfiller of the Promise) Lūṭ (Lot) Ṣāliḥ Shu‘ayb (Jethro, Reuel or Hobab?) Sulaymān ibn Dāwūd ( Solomon
Solomon
son of David) ‘ Uzair
Uzair
(Ezra?) Yaḥyā ibn Zakariyyā ( John the Baptist
John the Baptist
the son of Zechariah) Ya‘qūb (Jacob)

Isrâ’îl (Israel)

Yūnus (Jonah)

Dhūn-Nūn ("He of the Fish
Fish
(or Whale)" or "Owner of the Fish
Fish
(or Whale)") Ṣāḥib al-Ḥūṫ ("Companion of the Whale")

Yūsuf ibn Ya‘qūb ( Joseph
Joseph
son of Jacob) Zakariyyā (Zechariah)

Ulu-l-‘Azm

Muḥammad

Aḥmad Other names and titles of Muhammad

ʿĪsā (Jesus)

Al-Masīḥ (The Messiah) Ibn Maryam (Son of Mary)

Mūsā Kalīmullāh ( Moses
Moses
He who spoke to God) Ibrāhīm Khalīlullāh ( Abraham
Abraham
Friend of God) Nūḥ (Noah)

Debatable ones

Dhūl-Qarnain (Cyrus the Great?) Luqmân Maryam (Mary) Ṭâlûṫ (Saul or Gideon?)

Implied

Irmiyā (Jeremiah) Ṣamû’îl (Samuel) Yūsha‘ ibn Nūn (Joshua, companion and successor of Moses)

People of Prophets

Evil ones

Āzar (possibly Terah) Fir‘awn ( Pharaoh
Pharaoh
of Moses' time) Hāmān Jâlûṫ (Goliath) Qārūn (Korah, cousin of Moses) As-Sāmirī Abî Lahab Slayers of Saleh's she-camel (Qaddar ibn Salif and Musda' ibn Dahr)

Good ones

Adam's immediate relatives

Martyred son Wife

Believer of Ya-Sin Family of Noah

Father Lamech Mother Shamkhah bint Anush or Betenos

Luqman's son People of Aaron and Moses

Believer of Fir'aun Family (Hizbil/Hizqil ibn Sabura) Imra’aṫ Fir‘awn (Âsiyá bint Muzâḥim or Bithiah) Khidr Magicians of the Pharaoh Moses' wife Moses' sister-in-law Mother Sister

People of Abraham

Mother Abiona or Amtelai the daughter of Karnebo Ishmael's mother Isaac's mother

People of Jesus

Disciples (including Peter) Mary's mother Zechariah's wife

People of Joseph

Brothers (including Binyāmin (Benjamin) and Simeon) Egyptians

‘Azîz (Potiphar, Qatafir or Qittin) Malik (King Ar-Rayyân ibn Al-Walîd)) Wife of ‘Azîz (Zulaykhah)

Mother

People of Solomon

Mother Queen of Sheba Vizier

Zayd

Implied or not specified

Abrahah Bal'am/Balaam Barsisa Caleb or Kaleb the companion of Joshua Luqman's son Nebuchadnezzar II Nimrod Rahmah the wife of Ayyub Shaddad

Groups

Mentioned

Aş-ḥāb al-Jannah

People of Paradise People of the Burnt Garden

Aş-ḥāb as-Sabṫ (Companions of the Sabbath) Christian
Christian
apostles

Ḥawāriyyūn (Disciples of Jesus)

Companions of Noah's Ark Aş-ḥāb al-Kahf war-Raqīm (Companions of the Cave and Al-Raqaim? Companions of the Elephant People of al-Ukhdūd People of a township in Surah Ya-Sin People of Yathrib or Medina Qawm Lûṭ (People of Sodom and Gomorrah) Nation of Noah

Tribes, ethnicities or families

A‘rāb (Arabs or Bedouins)

ʿĀd (people of Hud) Companions of the Rass Qawm Ṫubba‘ (People of Tubba')

People of Saba’ or Sheba

Quraysh Thamûd (people of Saleh)

Aṣ-ḥâb al-Ḥijr ("Companions of the Stoneland")

Ajam Ar- Rûm (literally "The Romans") Banî Isrâ’îl (Children of Israel) Mu’ṫafikāṫ (The overthrown cities of Sodom and Gomorrah) People of Ibrahim People of Ilyas People of Nuh People of Shuaib

Ahl Madyan People of Madyan) Aṣ-ḥāb al-Aykah
Aṣ-ḥāb al-Aykah
("Companions of the Wood")

Qawm Yûnus (People of Jonah) Ya'juj and Ma'juj/Gog and Magog Ahl al-Bayṫ ("People of the Household")

Household of Abraham

Brothers of Yūsuf Daughters of Abraham's nephew Lot (Ritha, Za'ura, et al.) Progeny of Imran Household of Moses Household of Muhammad ibn Abdullah ibn Abdul-Muttalib ibn Hashim

Daughters of Muhammad Wives of Muhammad

Household of Salih

People of Fir'aun Current Ummah of Islam (Ummah of Muhammad)

Aṣ-ḥāb Muḥammad (Companions of Muhammad)

Muhajirun (Emigrants) Anṣār Muslims of Medina
Medina
who helped Muhammad and his Meccan followers, literally 'Helpers')

People of Mecca

Umm Jamil (wife of Abu Lahab)

Children of Ayyub Dead son of Sulaiman Qabil/Cain (son of Adam) Wali'ah or Wa'ilah/Waala (wife of Nuh) Walihah or Wahilah (wife of Lut) Ya’jūj wa Ma’jūj (Gog and Magog) Yam or Kan'an (son of Nuh)

Implicitly mentioned

Amalek Ahl al-Suffa (People of the Verandah) Banu Nadir Banu Qaynuqa Banu Qurayza Iranian people Umayyad Dynasty Aus & Khazraj People of Quba

Religious groups

Ahl al-dhimmah (Dhimmi) Kâfirûn (Infidels) Zoroastrians Munāfiqūn (Hypocrites) Muslims People of the Book (Ahl al-Kiṫāb)

Naṣārā (Christian(s) or People of the Injil)

Ruhban ( Christian
Christian
monks) Qissis ( Christian
Christian
priest)

Yahūd (Jews)

Ahbār (Jewish scholars) Rabbani/Rabbi

Sabians

Polytheists

Meccan polytheists at the time of Muhammad Mesopotamian polytheists at the time of Abraham
Abraham
and Lot

Locations

Mentioned

Al-Arḍ Al-Mubārakah
Al-Arḍ Al-Mubārakah
("The Land The Blessed")

Al-Arḍ Al-Muqaddasah ("The Land The Holy")

In the Arabian Peninsula
Arabian Peninsula
(excluding Madyan)

Al-Aḥqāf ("The Sandy Plains," or "the Wind-curved Sand-hills")

Iram dhāṫ al-‘Imād (Iram of the Pillars)

Al-Madīnah (formerly Yathrib) ‘Arafāṫ Al-Ḥijr (Hegra) Badr Ḥunayn Makkah (Mecca)

Bakkah Ka‘bah (Kaaba) Maqām Ibrāhīm (Station of Abraham) Safa and Marwah

Saba’ (Sheba)

‘Arim Saba’ (Dam of Sheba)

Rass

Jahannam
Jahannam
(Hell) Jannah
Jannah
(Paradise, literally 'Garden') In Mesopotamia:

Al-Jūdiyy

Munzalanm-Mubārakan ("Place-of-Landing Blessed")

Bābil (Babylon) Qaryaṫ Yūnus ("Township of Jonah," that is Nineveh)

Door of Hittah Madyan (Midian) Majma' al-Bahrain Miṣr (Mainland Egypt) Salsabîl (A river in Paradise) Sinai Region or Tīh Desert

Al-Wād Al-Muqaddas Ṭuwan (The Holy Valley of Tuwa)

Al-Wādil-Ayman (The valley on the 'righthand' side of the Valley of Tuwa and Mount Sinai)

Mount Sinai
Mount Sinai
or Mount Tabor

Implied

Antioch

Antakya

Arabia Ayla Barrier of Dhul-Qarnayn Bayt al-Muqaddas
Bayt al-Muqaddas
& 'Ariha Bilād ar-Rāfidayn (Mesopotamia) Canaan Cave of Seven Sleepers Dār al-Nadwa Al-Ḥijāz (literally "The Barrier")

Black Stone
Black Stone
(Al-Ḥajar al-Aswad) & Al-Hijr of Isma'il Cave of Hira
Hira
& Ghar al-Thawr (Cave of the Bull) Ta'if

Hudaybiyyah Jordan River Nile
Nile
River Palestine River Paradise
Paradise
of Shaddad

Religious locations

Bay'a (Church) Mihrab Monastery Masjid (Mosque, literally "Place of Prostration")

Al-Mash‘ar Al-Ḥarām
Al-Mash‘ar Al-Ḥarām
("The Monument the Sacred") Al-Masjid Al-Aqṣā (Al-Aqsa Mosque, literally "The Place-of-Prostration The Farthest") Al-Masjid Al-Ḥarām (The Sacred Mosque
Mosque
of Mecca) Masjid al-Dirar A Mosque
Mosque
in the area of Medina, possibly:

Masjid Qubâ’ (Quba Mosque) The Prophet's Mosque

Salat (Synagogue)

Plant
Plant
matter

Fruits

Ḥabb dhul-‘aṣf (Corn of the husk) Rummān (Pomegranate) Ṫīn (Fig) Ukul khamṭ (Bitter fruit or food of Sheba) Zayṫūn (Olive) In Paradise

Forbidden fruit of Adam

Bushes, trees or plants

Plants of Sheba

Athl (Tamarisk) Sidr (lote-tree)

Līnah (Tender palm tree) Nakhl (date palm) Rayḥān (Scented plant) Sidraṫ al-Munṫahā Zaqqūm

Texts

Al-Injîl (The Gospel
Gospel
of Jesus) Al-Qur’ân (The Book of Muhammad) Ṣuḥuf-i Ibrâhîm (Scroll(s) of Abraham) Aṫ-Ṫawrâṫ (The Torah)

Ṣuḥuf-i-Mûsâ (Scroll(s) of Moses) Tablets of Stone

Az-Zabûr (The Psalms
Psalms
of David) Umm al-Kiṫâb ("Mother of the Book(s)")

Objects of people or beings

Heavenly Food of Christian
Christian
Apostles Noah's Ark Staff of Musa Ṫābūṫ as-Sakīnah (Casket of Shekhinah) Throne of Bilqis Trumpet of Israfil

Mentioned idols (cult images)

'Ansāb Idols of Israelites:

Baal The ‘ijl (golden calf statue) of Israelites

Idols of Noah's people:

Nasr Suwā‘ Wadd Yaghūth Ya‘ūq

Idols of Quraysh:

Al-Lāṫ Al-‘Uzzá Manāṫ

Jibṫ and Ṭâghûṫ

Celestial bodies

Maṣābīḥ (literally 'lamps'):

Al-Qamar (The Moon) Kawâkib (Planets)

Al-Arḍ (The Earth)

Nujūm (Stars)

Ash-Shams (The Sun)

Liquids

Mā’ ( Water
Water
or fluid)

Nahr (River) Yamm ( River
River
or sea)

Sharâb (Drink)

Events

Battle of al-Aḥzāb ("the Confederates") Battle of Badr Battle of Hunayn Battle of Khaybar Battle of Tabouk Battle of Uhud Conquest of Mecca Incident of Ifk Laylat al-Mabit Mubahala Sayl al-‘Arim
Sayl al-‘Arim
(Flood of the Great Dam of Marib
Marib
in Sheba) The Farewell Pilgrimage
The Farewell Pilgrimage
(Hujja al-Wada') Treaty of Hudaybiyyah Umrah al-Qaza Yawm al-Dār

Implied

Event of Ghadir Khumm

Note: The names are sorted alphabetically. Standard form: Islamic name / Biblical name (title or relationship)

v t e

Children of Jacob
Jacob
by wife in order of birth

Leah

Reuben (1) Simeon (2) Levi
Levi
(3) Judah (4) Issachar (9) Zebulun (10) Dinah
Dinah
(11)

Rachel

Joseph
Joseph
(12) Benjamin
Benjamin
(13)

Bilhah (Rachel's servant)

Dan (5) Naphtali (6)

Zilpah (Leah's servant)

.