The ISRAELITES (/ˈɪzriəˌlaɪtsˌ/ ; Hebrew : בני
ישראל _Bnei Yisra'el_) were a Semitic-speaking people of
the ancient Near East , who inhabited a part of
Canaan during the
tribal and monarchic periods . The ancient
considered to be an outgrowth of the indigenous Canaanite populations
that long inhabited the
Southern Levant ,
Syria , ancient
the Transjordan .
Hebrew Bible , the term _Israelites_ refers to the direct
descendants of any of the sons of the patriarch
Jacob , or to the
descendants of the people who are called Israel, and to a worshiper of
God of Israel,
Yahweh . In the period of the divided monarchy it
was only used to refer to the inhabitants of the northern kingdom, and
it is only extended to cover the people of the southern kingdom in
post-exilic usage. The
Israelites were also known as the _
and the _
Twelve Tribes of Israel _.
Jews are named after and also descended from the southern
Kingdom of Judah , particularly the tribes of
Benjamin and partially
Levi . The word "Jews" is found in 2
Kings (16:6), Chronicles (I, 4:18), and in numerous passages in the
Book of Jeremiah , the
Book of Zechariah and the
Book of Esther . The
Samaritans , whose religious texts consist of the five books of the
Samaritan Torah (but which do not contain the books comprising the
Tanakh _), do not refer to themselves as Jews, although they
do regard themselves as Israelites, in accordance with the
Kingdom of Israel (Samaria) , often called the Northern Kingdom
of Israel, contained all the tribes except for the tribes of Judah and
Benjamin. Following its conquest by Assyria , these ten tribes were
allegedly dispersed and lost to history, and they are henceforth known
Ten Lost Tribes
Ten Lost Tribes . Jewish tradition holds that
Samaria was so
named because the region's mountainous terrain was used to keep
"Guard" (_Shamer_) for incoming enemy attacks. According to Samaritan
tradition, however, the Samaritan ethnonym is not derived from the
region of Samaria, but from the fact that they were the "Guardians"
(_Shamerim_) of the true Israelite religion. Thus, according to
Samaritan tradition, the region was named
Samaria after them, not vice
Modern Hebrew , the
Samaritans are called _Shomronim_, while
Samaritan Hebrew they call themselves _Shamerim_.
Judaism , an Israelite is, broadly speaking, a lay member of the
Jewish ethnoreligious group , as opposed to the priestly orders of
Levites . In texts of
Jewish law such as the
Gemara , the term יהודי (Yehudi), meaning Jew, is rarely used,
and instead the ethnonym ישראלי (Yisraeli), or Israelite, is
widely used to refer to Jews.
Samaritans commonly refer to themselves
Jews collectively as Israelites, and they describe themselves
as the Israelite Samaritans.
* 1 Etymology
* 2 Terminology
* 3 Historical
* 4 Biblical
* 5 See also
* 6 References
* 7 Bibliography
Merneptah stele . While alternative translations exist, the
majority of biblical archaeologists translate a set of hieroglyphs as
Israel_, representing the first instance of the name
Israel in the
The term _Israelite_ is the English name for the descendants of the
Jacob in ancient times, which is derived from the
Greek Ισραηλίτες, which was used to translate the Biblical
Hebrew term _b'nei yisrael_, יִשְׂרָאֵל as either "sons of
Israel " or "children of Israel".
The name _Israel_ first appears in the
Hebrew Bible in Genesis 32:29.
It refers to the renaming of Jacob, who, according to the Bible,
wrestled with an angel , who gave him a blessing and renamed him
_Israel_ because he had "striven with
God and with men, and have
Hebrew Bible etymologizes the name as from _yisra_ "to
prevail over" or "to struggle/wrestle with", and _el _, "
God , the
The name _Israel_ first appears in non-biblical sources c. 1209 BCE,
in an inscription of the Egyptian pharaoh
Merneptah . The inscription
is very brief and says simply: "
Israel is laid waste and his seed is
not" (see below). The inscription refers to a people, not to an
individual or a nation-state.
In modern Hebrew , _b'nei yisrael_ ("children of Israel") can denote
Jewish people at any time in history; it is typically used to
emphasize Jewish ethnic identity. From the period of the
probably used before that period) the term _Yisrael_ ("an Israel")
acquired an additional narrower meaning of
Jews of legitimate birth
Levites and Aaronite priests (_kohanim _). In modern Hebrew
this contrasts with the term _Yisraeli_ (English "Israeli "), a
citizen of the modern State of
Israel , regardless of religion or
The term _Hebrew _ has
Eber as an eponymous ancestor. It is used
synonymously with "Israelites", or as an ethnolinguistic term for
historical speakers of the
Hebrew language in general.
The Greek term _
Ioudaioi _ (
Jews ) was an exonym originally referring
to members of the
Tribe of Judah
Tribe of Judah , which formed the nucleus of the
kingdom of Judah , and was later adopted as a self-designation by
people in the diaspora who identified themselves as loyal to the God
Israel and the Temple in Jerusalem.
The Samaritans, who claim descent from the tribes of
Aaron for kohens ), are named after the
Israelite Kingdom of
Samaria , but until modern times many Jewish
authorities contested their claimed lineage, deeming them to have been
conquered foreigners who were settled in the Land of
Israel by the
Assyrians, as was the typical Assyrian policy to obliterate national
Samaritans both recognize each other as
communities with an authentic Israelite origin.
The terms "Jews" and "Samaritans" largely replaced the title
"Children of Israel" as the commonly used ethnonym for each
History of ancient Israel and Judah
PART OF A SERIES ON THE
HISTORY OF ISRAEL
ANCIENT ISRAEL AND JUDAH
* United monarchy
* Northern Kingdom
Kingdom of Judah
* Babylonian rule
SECOND TEMPLE PERIOD (530 BC–AD 70)
* Persian rule
* Hellenistic period
MIDDLE AGES (70–1517)
* Roman Palaestina
* Byzantine Palaestina
* Sasanian conquest
* Mamluk Sultanate
MODERN HISTORY (1517–1948)
* Ottoman rule
* British mandate
STATE OF ISRAEL (1948–PRESENT)
HISTORY OF THE LAND OF ISRAEL BY TOPIC
* Jewish leaders
* Jewish warfare
Several theories exist proposing the origins of the
raiding groups, infiltrating nomads or emerging from indigenous
Canaanites driven from the wealthier urban areas by poverty to seek
their fortunes in the highland. Various, ethnically distinct groups
of itinerant nomads such as the
Shasu recorded in Egyptian
texts as active in
Canaan could have been related to the
later Israelites, which does not exclude the possibility that the
majority may have had their origins in
Canaan proper. The name Yahweh
, the god of the later Israelites, may indicate connections with the
Mount Seir in Edom.
The prevailing academic opinion today is that the
Israelites were a
mixture of peoples predominantly indigenous to Canaan, although an
Egyptian matrix of peoples may also played a role in their
ethnogenesis, with an ethnic composition similar to that in
Moab , and including Hapiru and Šośu . The defining
feature which marked them off from the surrounding societies was a
staunch egalitarian organization focused on
Yahweh worship, rather
than mere kingship.
The language of the Canaanites may perhaps be best described as an
"archaic form of Hebrew, standing in much the same relationship to the
Hebrew of the
Old Testament as does the language of Chaucer to modern
English." The Canaanites were also the first people, as far as is
known, to have used an alphabet .
Israel first appears c. 1209 BCE, at the end of the Late
Bronze Age and the very beginning of the period archaeologists and
Iron Age I , on the
Merneptah Stele raised by the
Merneptah . The inscription is very brief
Canaan with every evil,
Carried off is Ashkelon,
Seized upon is Gezer,
Yenocam is made as that which does not exist
Israel lies fallow, it has no seed_;
Ḫurru has become a widow because of Egypt.
As distinct from the cities named (
Yenoam ) which
are written with a toponymic marker ,
Israel is written
hieroglyphically with a demonymic determinative indicating that the
reference is to a human group, variously located in central Palestine
or the highlands of
Samaria . Over the next two hundred years (the
Iron Age I) the number of highland villages increased from
25 to over 300 and the settled population doubled to 40,000. By the
10th century BCE a rudimentary state had emerged in the north-central
highlands, and in the 9th century this became a kingdom. Settlement
in the southern highlands was minimal from the 12th through the 10th
centuries BCE, but a state began to emerge there in the 9th century,
and from 850 BCE onwards a series of inscriptions are evidence of a
kingdom which its neighbours refer to as the "House of
After the destruction of the Israelite kingdoms of Judah and Samaria
in 586 BCE and 720 BCE respectively, the concepts of Jew and
Samaritan gradually replaced Judean and Israelite. When the Jews
returned from the
Babylonian captivity , the
Hasmonean kingdom was
established in present-day
Israel , consisting of three regions which
were Judea, Samaria, and the Galilee. In the pre-exilic first Temple
period the political power of
Judea was concentrated within the tribe
of Judah ,
Samaria was dominated by the tribe of
Ephraim and the House
of Joseph , while the
Galilee was associated with the tribe of
Naphtali , the most eminent tribe of northern Israel. At the time of
the Kingdom of Samaria, the
Galilee was populated by northern tribes
of Israel, but following the
Babylonian exile the region became
Jewish. During the second Temple period relations between the
Samaritans remained tense. In 120 BCE the Hasmonean king Yohanan
Hyrcanos I destroyed the Samaritan temple on
Mount Gerizim , due to
the resentment between the two groups over a disagreement of whether
Mount Moriah in
Mount Gerizim in
Shechem was the actual
site of the
Aqedah , and the chosen place for the Holy Temple , a
source of contention that had been growing since the two houses of the
former united monarchy first split asunder in 930 BCE and which had
finally exploded into warfare. 190 years after the destruction of
the Samaritan Temple and the surrounding area of Shechem, the Roman
Titus launched a military campaign to crush the Jewish revolt
of 66 CE, which resulted in the destruction of the Jewish Temple in
Jerusalem in 70 CE, and the subsequent exile of
Galilee in 135 CE following the
Bar Kochba revolt .
Map of the
Holy Land ,
Pietro Vesconte , 1321, showing the
allotments of the tribes of Israel. Described by Adolf Erik
Nordenskiöld as "the first non-Ptolemaic map of a definite country"
Model of the
Mishkan constructed under the auspices of
Timna Park ,
The Israelite story begins with some of the culture heroes of the
Jewish people, the Patriarchs . The
Torah traces the
Israelites to the
Jacob , grandson of Abraham, who was renamed
Israel after a
mysterious incident in which he wrestles all night with
God or an
angel. Jacob's twelve sons (in order of birth), Reuben , Simeon , Levi
, Judah , Dan ,
Naphtali , Gad ,
Zebulun , Joseph
Benjamin , become the ancestors of twelve tribes, with the
exception of Joseph, whose two sons Mannasseh and
Ephraim , who were
adopted by Jacob, become tribal eponyms (Genesis 48).
The mothers of Jacob's sons are:
Leah : Reuben, Simeon, Levi, Judah, Issachar, Zebulun
Rachel : Joseph (
Ephraim and Menasseh), Benjamin
Bilhah (Rachel's maid): Dan, Naphtali
Zilpah (Leah's maid): Gad,
Asher (Genesis 35:22–26)
Jacob and his sons are forced by famine to go down into Egypt ,
although Joseph was already there, as he had been sold into slavery
while young. When they arrive they and their families are 70 in
number, but within four generations they have increased to 600,000 men
of fighting age, and the Pharaoh of Egypt, alarmed, first enslaves
them and then orders the death of all male Hebrew children. A woman
from the tribe of
Levi hides her child, places him in a woven basket,
and sends him down the
Nile river. He is named Mosheh, or
Moses , by
the Egyptians who find him. Being a Hebrew baby, they award a Hebrew
woman the task of raising him, the mother of
Moses volunteers, and the
child and his mother are reunited.
At the age of forty
Moses kills an Egyptian, after he sees him
beating a Hebrew to death, and escapes as a fugitive into the Sinai
desert, where he is taken in by the Midianites and marries
the daughter of the Midianite priest Jethro . When he is eighty years
Moses is tending a herd of sheep in solitude on
Mount Sinai when
he sees a desert shrub that is burning but is not consumed . The God
Israel calls to
Moses from the fire and reveals his name, Yahweh
(from the Hebrew root word 'HWH' meaning to exist), and tells Moses
that he is being sent to Pharaoh to bring the people of
Israel out of
Moses that if Pharaoh refuses to let the
Hebrews go to
say to Pharaoh "Thus says Yahweh:
Israel is my son, my first-born and
I have said to you: Let my son go, that he may serve me, and you have
refused to let him go. Behold, I will slay your son, your first-born".
Moses returns to Egypt and tells Pharaoh that he must let the Hebrew
slaves go free. Pharaoh refuses and
Yahweh strikes the Egyptians with
a series of horrific plagues, wonders, and catastrophes , after which
Pharaoh relents and banishes the
Hebrews from Egypt.
Moses leads the
Israelites out of bondage toward the
Red Sea , but Pharaoh changes
his mind and arises to massacre the fleeing Hebrews. Pharaoh finds
them by the sea shore and attempts to drive them into the ocean with
his chariots and drown them.
Yahweh causes the
Red Sea to part and the
Hebrews pass through on dry
land into the Sinai. After the
Israelites escape from the midst of the
Yahweh causes the ocean to close back in on the pursuing Egyptian
army, drowning them to death. In the desert
Yahweh feeds them with
manna that accumulates on the ground with the morning dew. They are
led by a column of cloud , which ignites at night and becomes a pillar
of fire to illuminate the way, southward through the desert until they
come to Mount Sinai. The twelve tribes of
Israel encamp around the
mountain, and on the third day
Mount Sinai begins to smolder, then
catches fire, and
Yahweh speaks the
Ten Commandments from the midst of
the fire to all the Israelites, from the top of the mountain.
Moses ascends biblical
Mount Sinai and fasts for forty days while he
writes down the
Yahweh dictates, beginning with Bereshith and
the creation of the universe and earth. He is shown the design of
Mishkan and the
Ark of the Covenant , which
Bezalel is given the
task of building.
Moses descends from the mountain forty days later
with the Sefer
Torah he wrote, and with two rectangular lapis lazuli
tablets, into which
Yahweh had carved the
Ten Commandments in
Paleo–Hebrew . In his absence,
Aaron has constructed an image of
Yahweh, depicting him as a young
Golden Calf , and has presented it
to the Israelites, declaring "Behold O Israel, this is your god who
brought you out of the land of Egypt".
Moses smashes the two tablets
and grinds the golden calf into dust, then throws the dust into a
stream of water flowing out of Mount Sinai, and forces the Israelites
to drink from it. Map of the twelve tribes of
Israel (before the
move of Dan to the north), based on the Book of
Mount Sinai for a second time and
Yahweh passes before
him and says: 'Yahweh, Yahweh, a god of compassion, and showing favor,
slow to anger, and great in kindness and in truth, who shows kindness
to the thousandth generation, forgiving wrongdoing and injustice and
wickedness, but will by no means clear the guilty, causing the
consequences of the parent's wrongdoing to befall their children, and
their children's children, to the third and fourth generation' Moses
then fasts for another forty days while
Yahweh carves the Ten
Commandments into a second set of stone tablets. After the tablets are
completed, light emanates from the face of
Moses for the rest of his
life, causing him to wear a veil so he does not frighten people.
Mount Sinai and the
Israelites agree to be the chosen
Yahweh and follow all the laws of the
Torah . Moses
prophesies if they forsake the Torah,
Yahweh will exile them for the
total number of years they did not observe the shmita . Bezael
Ark of the Covenant and the Mishkan, where the presence
Yahweh dwells on earth in the
Holy of Holies , above the Ark of the
Covenant, which houses the Ten Commandments.
Moses sends spies to
scout out the Land of
Canaan , and the
Israelites are commanded to go
up and conquer the land, but they refuse, due to their fear of warfare
and violence. In response,
Yahweh condemns the entire generation,
including Moses, who is condemned for striking the rock at Meribah, to
exile and death in the Sinai desert.
Moses dies he gives a speech to the
Israelites where he
paraphrases a summary of the mizwoth given to them by Yahweh, and
recites a prophetic song called the Ha\'azinu .
Moses prophesies that
Israelites disobey the Torah,
Yahweh will cause a global exile
in addition to the minor one prophesied earlier at Mount Sinai, but at
the end of days
Yahweh will gather them back to
Israel from among the
nations when they turn back to the
Torah with zeal. The events of the
Israelite exodus and their sojourn in the Sinai are memorialized in
the Jewish and Samaritan festivals of
Sukkoth , and the
giving of the
Torah in the Jewish celebration of
Forty years after the Exodus , following the death of the generation
of Moses, a new generation, led by
Joshua , enters
Canaan and takes
possession of the land in accordance with the promise made to Abraham
by Yahweh. Land is allocated to the tribes by lottery . Eventually the
Israelites ask for a king, and
Yahweh gives them
David , the
youngest (divinely favored) son of
Bethlehem would succeed
Saul . Under
Israelites establish the united monarchy , and
under David's son
Solomon they construct the Holy Temple in Jerusalem
, using the 400-year-old materials of the Mishkan, where Yahweh
continues to tabernacle himself among them. On the death of Solomon
and reign of his son,
Rehoboam , the kingdom is divided in two.
The kings of the northern Kingdom of
Samaria are uniformly bad,
permitting the worship of other gods and failing to enforce the
Yahweh alone, and so
Yahweh eventually allows them to be
conquered and dispersed among the peoples of the earth; and strangers
rule over their remnant in the northern land. In Judah some kings are
good and enforce the worship of
Yahweh alone, but many are bad and
permit other gods, even in the Holy Temple itself, and at length
Yahweh allows Judah to fall to her enemies, the people taken into
Babylon , the land left empty and desolate, and the Holy
Temple itself destroyed.
Yet despite these events
Yahweh does not forget his people, but sends
Cyrus, king of Persia to deliver them from bondage. The
allowed to return to Judah and Benjamin, the Holy Temple is rebuilt,
the priestly orders restored, and the service of sacrifice resumed.
Through the offices of the sage
Israel is constituted as a holy
nation, bound by the
Torah and holding itself apart from all other
Groups claiming affiliation with Israelites
* Tribal allotments of
Who is a Jew?
* ^ "Israelite". _Random House Webster\'s Unabridged Dictionary _.
* ^ Finkelstein, Israel. "Ethnicity and origin of the Iron I
settlers in the Highlands of Canaan: Can the real
Israel stand up?."
The Biblical archaeologist 59.4 (1996): 198–212.
* ^ Finkelstein, Israel. The archaeology of the Israelite
Israel Exploration Society, 1988.
* ^ Finkelstein, Israel, and Nadav Naʼaman, eds. From nomadism to
monarchy: archaeological and historical aspects of early Israel. Yad
Izhak Ben-Zvi, 1994.
* ^ Finkelstein, Israel. "The archaeology of the United Monarchy:
an alternative view." Levant 28.1 (1996): 177–87.
* ^ Finkelstein, Israel, and Neil
Asher Silberman. The Bible
Unearthed: Archaeology's New Vision of
Ancient Israel and the Origin
of Sacred Texts. Simon and Schuster, 2002.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Tubb 1998 , pp. 13–14
* ^ _A_ _B_ McNutt 1999, p. 47.
* ^ K. L. Noll, _
Israel in Antiquity: An Introduction,_
A&C Black, 2001 p. 164: ‘It would seems that in the eyes of
Israel was a Canaanite group indistinguishable
from all other Canaanite groups.’ ‘It is likely that Merneptah’s
Israel was a group of Canaanites located in the Jezreel Valley.’
* ^ Robert L.Cate, 'Israelite', in Watson E. Mills, Roger Aubrey
Bullard, _Mercer Dictionary of the Bible,_ Mercer University Press,
1990 p. 420.
* ^ Ann E. Killebrew, Biblical Peoples and Ethnicity. An
Archaeological Study of Egyptians, Canaanites, Philistines and Early
Israel 1300–1100 B.C.E. (Archaeology and Biblical Studies), Society
of Biblical Literature , 2005
* ^ Schama, Simon (18 March 2014). _The Story of the Jews: Finding
the Words 1000 BC–1492 AD_. HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-06-233944-7 .
* ^ * "In the broader sense of the term, a Jew is any person
belonging to the worldwide group that constitutes, through descent or
conversion, a continuation of the ancient Jewish people, who were
themselves the descendants of the
Hebrews of the Old Testament."
Jewish people as a whole, initially called
were known as
Israelites (Yisreʾelim) from the time of their entrance
Holy Land to the end of the Babylonian Exile (538 BC)."
Jew at Encyclopædia Britannica * ^ "Israelite, in the broadest
sense, a Jew, or a descendant of the Jewish patriarch Jacob" Israelite
at Encyclopædia Britannica
* ^ "Hebrew, any member of an ancient northern Semitic people that
were the ancestors of the Jews." Hebrew (People) at Encyclopædia
* ^ Ostrer, Harry (19 April 2012). _Legacy: A Genetic History of
the Jewish People_. Oxford University Press, USA. ISBN
* ^ Brenner, Michael (13 June 2010). _A Short History of the Jews_.
Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-14351-X .
* ^ Scheindlin, Raymond P. (1998). _A Short History of the Jewish
People: From Legendary Times to Modern Statehood_. Oxford University
Press. ISBN 978-0-19-513941-9 .
* ^ Adams, Hannah (1840). _The History of the Jews: From the
Jerusalem to the Present Time_. London Society House.
* ^ Diamond, Jared (1993). "Who are the Jews?" (PDF). Retrieved
November 8, 2010. Natural History 102:11 (November 1993): 12–19.
* ^ 2 Kings 16:6 –
King James Version
King James Version
* ^ _The people and the faith of the Bible_ by André Chouraqui,
Univ of Massachusetts Press, 1975, p. 43
* ^ Yesaahq ben 'Aamraam. _Samaritan Exegesis: A Compilation Of
Writings From The Samaritans_. 2013. ISBN 1482770814 . Benyamim
Tsedaka, at 1:24
* ^ John Bowman. Samaritan Documents Relating to Their History,
Religion and Life (Pittsburgh Original Texts and Translations Series
No. 2). 1977. ISBN 0915138271
* ^ Strong's Exhaustive Concordance G2474
* ^ Brown Drivers Briggs H3478
* ^ Scherman, Rabbi Nosson (editor), _The Chumash_, The Artscroll
Series, Mesorah Publications, LTD, 2006, pp. 176–77
* ^ Kaplan, Aryeh, "Jewish Meditation", Schocken Books, New York,
1985, p. 125
* ^ Caroline Johnson Hodge,_If Sons, Then Heirs: A Study of Kinship
and Ethnicity in the Letters of Paul,_ Oxford University Press, 2007
* ^ Markus Cromhout,_Jesus and Identity: Reconstructing Judean
Ethnicity in Q,_ James Clarke & Co, 2015 pp. 121ff.
* ^ Daniel Lynwood Smith,_Into the World of the New Testament:
Greco-Roman and Jewish Texts and Contexts,_ Bloomsbury Publishing,
2015 p. 124.
* ^ Stephen Sharot,_Comparative Perspectives on Judaisms and Jewish
Identities,_ Wayne State University Press 2011 p. 146.
* ^ "Homepage of A.B Institute of Samaritan Studies". Retrieved
March 27, 2015.
* ^ _Settings of silver: an introduction to Judaism_, Stephen M.
Wylen, Paulist Press, 2000, ISBN 0-8091-3960-X , p. 59
Israel Finkelstein, Neil
Asher Silberman, _The
_, Simon and Schuster 2002, p. 104.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ K. van der Toorn,_Family Religion in Babylonia,
Ugarit and Israel: Continuity and Changes in the Forms of Religious
Life_, BRILL 1996 pp. 181, 282.
* ^ Alan Mittleman, 'Judaism:Covenant, Pluralism and Piety‘, in
Bryan S. Turner (ed.) _The New Blackwell Companion to the Sociology of
Religion,_ John Wiley & Sons, 2010 pp. 340–63, 346.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Norman Gottwald, _Tribes of Yahweh: A Sociology of
the Religion of Liberated Israel, 1250–1050 BCE,_ A&C Black, 1999 p.
433, cf. 455–—56
Richard A. Gabriel , _The Military History of Ancient Israel_.
Greenwood Publishing Group, 2003 p. 63: The ethnically mixed character
Israelites is reflected even more clearly in the foreign names
of the group's leadership.
Moses himself, of course, has an Egyptian
name. Hur is Moses' name. But so do Hophni, Phinehas, Hur, and Merari,
the son of Levi.
* ^ Stefan Paas, _Creation and Judgement: Creation Texts in Some
Eighth Century Prophets_. Brill, 2003 pp. 110–21, 144.
* ^ "Canaan". _Encyclopædia Britannica_. Retrieved March 27, 2015.
* ^ Grabbe 2008, p. 75
* ^ McNutt 1999, p. 70.
* ^ Joffe pp. 440ff.
* ^ Davies, 1992, pp. 63–64.
* ^ Joffe pp. 448–49.
* ^ Joffe p. 450.
* ^ Finkelstein & Silberman 2001,
The Bible Unearthed p. 221.
* ^ Grabbe, Lester L. (2004). _A History of the
the Second Temple Period_. T&T Clark International. p. 28. ISBN
* ^ Sefer Devariam Pereq לד, ב;
Deuteronomy 34, 2, Sefer
Yehoshua Pereq כ, ז;
Joshua 20, 7, Sefer Yehoshua Pereq כא, לב;
Joshua 21, 32, Sefer Melakhim Beth Pereq טו, כט; Second Kings 15,
29, Sefer Devrei Ha Yamim Aleph Pereq ו, סא; First Chronicles 6, 76
* ^ See File:12 Tribes of
* ^ http://www.usc.edu/dept/LAS/arc/neapolis/samaritantemple.htm
* ^ Y. Magen. "The Gathering at the President\'s House". Israel
Antiquities Authority. Retrieved March 27, 2015.
* ^ Josephus, _Antiquities of the Jews_ XVIII.7.2.
Josephus , _War
Jews _ II.8.11, II.13.7, II.14.4, II.14.5
* ^ "The Diaspora". Jewish Virtual Library. ; "The Bar-Kokhba
Revolt". Jewish Virtual Library.
Adolf Erik Nordenskiöld (1889). _Facsimile-atlas to the Early
History of Cartography: With Reproductions of the Most Important Maps
Printed in the XV and XVI Centuries_. Kraus. pp. 51, 64.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _The
Jews in the time of Jesus: an
introduction_ p. 18 Stephen M. Wylen, Paulist Press, 1996, 215 pages,
* ^ Bereshith, Genesis
* ^ Shemoth; Exodus 1 and 2
* ^ Shemoth; Exodus 3 and 4
* ^ English translation of the papyrus. A translation also in R. B.
Parkinson, _The Tale of Sinuhe and Other Ancient Egyptian Poems_.
Oxford World\'s Classics, 1999.
* ^ Shemoth; Exodus 5 through 15
* ^ Shemoth; Exodus 15, 19, and 20
* ^ Bereshith; Genesis 1
* ^ The Hidden Face of God: Science Reveals the Ultimate Truth by
Gerald L. Schroeder Ph.D. (May 9, 2002)
* ^ Shemoth; Exodus 24
* ^ Tehillim; Psalms 106, 19-20
* ^ Shemoth; Exodus 21 through 32
* ^ Shemoth; Exodus, 34, 6–7
* ^ Shemoth; Exodus 34
* ^ Wayiqra; Leviticus 26
* ^ Shemoth; Exodus 35 through 40, Wayiqra; Leviticus, Bamidhbar;
Numbers, Devariam; Deuteronomy
* ^ Devariam;
Deuteronomy 28 and 29 and 30
* ^ Devariam; Deuteronomy
* ^ Yehoshua; Joshua, Shoftim; Judges, Shmuel; Samuel, Melakhim;
* ^ Melakhim; Kings, Divrei HaYamim; Chronicles
* ^ Daniel, Ezra, Nehemiah
* Albertz, Rainer (1994) . _A History of Israelite Religion, Volume
I: From the Beginnings to the End of the Monarchy_. Westminster John
Knox Press. ISBN 978-0-664-22719-7 .
* Albertz, Rainer (1994) . _A History of Israelite Religion, Volume
II: From the Exile to the Maccabees_. Westminster John Knox Press.
ISBN 978-0-664-22720-3 .
* Albertz, Rainer (2003a). _
Israel in Exile: The History and
Literature of the Sixth Century B.C.E._ Society of Biblical
Literature. ISBN 978-1-58983-055-4 .
* Albertz, Rainer; Becking, Bob, eds. (2003b). _Yahwism After the
Exile: Perspectives on Israelite Religion in the Persian Era_.
Koninklijke Van Gorcum. ISBN 978-90-232-3880-5 . CS1 maint: Extra
text: authors list (link )
* Amit, Yaira, et al., eds. (2006). _Essays on
Ancient Israel in its
Near Eastern Context: A Tribute to Nadav Na\'aman_. Eisenbrauns. ISBN
978-1-57506-128-3 . CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link )
* Avery-Peck, Alan, et al., eds. (2003). _The Blackwell Companion to
Judaism_. Blackwell. ISBN 978-1-57718-059-3 . CS1 maint: Extra text:
authors list (link )
* Barstad, Hans M. (2008). _History and the Hebrew Bible_. Mohr
Siebeck. ISBN 978-3-16-149809-1 .
* Becking, Bob, ed. (2001). _Only One God? Monotheism in Ancient
Israel and the Veneration of the Goddess Asherah_. Sheffield Academic
Press. ISBN 978-1-84127-199-6 . CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list
* Becking, Bob. _Law as Expression of Religion (
* Becking, Bob; Korpel, Marjo Christina Annette, eds. (1999). _The
Crisis of Israelite Religion: Transformation of Religious Tradition in
Exilic and Post-Exilic Times_. Brill. ISBN 978-90-04-11496-8 . CS1
maint: Extra text: authors list (link ) Niehr, Herbert.
_Religio-Historical Aspects of the Early Post-Exilic Period_.
* Bedford, Peter Ross (2001). _Temple Restoration in Early
Achaemenid Judah_. Brill. ISBN 978-90-04-11509-5 .
* Ben-Sasson, H.H. (1976). _A History of the Jewish People_. Harvard
University Press. ISBN 0-674-39731-2 .
* Blenkinsopp, Joseph (1988). _Ezra-Nehemiah: A Commentary_.
Eerdmans. ISBN 978-0-664-22186-7 .
* Blenkinsopp, Joseph; Lipschits, Oded, eds. (2003). _Judah and the
Judeans in the Neo-Babylonian Period_. Eisenbrauns. ISBN
978-1-57506-073-6 . CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link )
* Blenkinsopp, Joseph. _Bethel in the Neo-Babylonian Period_.
* Blenkinsopp, Joseph (2009). _Judaism, the First Phase: The Place
Ezra and Nehemiah in the Origins of Judaism_. Eerdmans. ISBN
* Brett, Mark G. (2002). _Ethnicity and the Bible_. Brill. ISBN
* Bright, John (2000). _A History of Israel_. Westminster John Knox
Press. ISBN 978-0-664-22068-6 .
* Cahill, Jane M. _
Jerusalem at the Time of the United Monarchy_.
* Coogan, Michael D., ed. (1998). _The Oxford History of the
Biblical World_. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-513937-2 . CS1
maint: Extra text: authors list (link )
* Coogan, Michael D. (2009). _A Brief Introduction to the Old
Testament_. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-533272-8 .
* Coote, Robert B.; Whitelam, Keith W. (1986). "The Emergence of
Israel: Social Transformation and State Formation Following the
Late Bronze Age Trade". _
Semeia _ (37): 107–47.
* Davies, Philip R. _The Origin of Biblical Israel_.
* Davies, Philip R. (1992). _In Search of Ancient Israel_.
Sheffield. ISBN 978-1-85075-737-5 .
* Davies, Philip R. (2009). "The Origin of Biblical Israel".
_Journal of Hebrew Scriptures_. 9 (47). Archived from the original on
May 28, 2008.
* Day, John (2002). _
Yahweh and the Gods and Goddesses of Canaan_.
Sheffield Academic Press. ISBN 978-0-8264-6830-7 .
* Dever, William (2001). _What Did the Biblical Writers Know, and
When Did They Know It?_. Eerdmans. ISBN 978-0-8028-2126-3 .
* Dever, William (2003). _Who Were the Early
Israelites and Where
Did They Come From?_. Eerdmans. ISBN 978-0-8028-0975-9 .
* Dever, William (2005). _Did
God Have a Wife?: Archaeology and Folk
Religion in Ancient Israel_. Eerdmans. ISBN 978-0-8028-2852-1 .
* Dijkstra, Meindert. _El the
God of Israel,
Israel the People of
YHWH: On the Origins of Ancient Israelite Yahwism_.
* Dijkstra, Meindert. _I Have Blessed You by YHWH of
Samaria and His
Asherah: Texts with Religious Elements from the Soil Archive of
* Dunn, James D.G; Rogerson, John William, eds. (2003). _Eerdmans
commentary on the Bible_. Eerdmans. ISBN 978-0-8028-3711-0 . CS1
maint: Extra text: authors list (link )
* Edelman, Diana. _Ethnicity and Early Israel_.
* Edelman, Diana, ed. (1995). _The Triumph of Elohim: From Yahwisms
to Judaisms_. Kok Pharos. ISBN 978-90-390-0124-0 . CS1 maint: Extra
text: authors list (link )
* Finkelstein, Neil Asher; Silberman (2001). _The
ISBN 978-0-7432-2338-6 .
* Finkelstein, Israel; Mazar, Amihay; Schmidt, Brian B. (2007). _The
Quest for the Historical Israel_. Society of Biblical Literature. ISBN
* Gnuse, Robert Karl (1997). _No Other Gods: Emergent Monotheism in
Israel_. Sheffield Academic Press. ISBN 978-1-85075-657-6 .
* Golden, Jonathan Michael (2004a). _Ancient
Canaan and Israel: An
Introduction_. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-537985-3 .
* Golden, Jonathan Michael (2004b). _Ancient
Canaan and Israel: New
Perspectives_. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-57607-897-6 .
* Goodison, Lucy; Morris, Christine (1998). _Goddesses in Early
Israelite Religion in Ancient Goddesses: The Myths and the Evidence_.
University of Wisconsin Press. ISBN 978-90-04-10410-5 .
* Grabbe, Lester L. (2004). _A History of the
the Second Temple Period_. T&T Clark International. ISBN
* Grabbe, Lester L., ed. (2008). _
Israel in Transition: From Late
Bronze II to Iron IIa (c. 1250–850 B.C.E.)_. T&T Clark
International. ISBN 978-0-567-02726-9 . CS1 maint: Extra text: authors
list (link )
* Greifenhagen, F.V (2002). _Egypt on the Pentateuch\'s ideological
map_. Sheffield Academic Press. ISBN 978-0-8264-6211-4 .
* Hesse, Brian; Wapnish, Paula (1997). "Can Pig Remains Be Used for
Ethnic Diagnosis in the Ancient Near East?". In Silberman, Neil Asher;
David B. _The Archaeology of Israel: Constructing the Past,
Interpreting the Present_. Sheffield Academic Press. ISBN
* Joffe, Alexander H. (2006). _The Rise of Secondary States in the
Iron Age Levant_ (PDF). University of Arizona Press.
* Killebrew, Ann E. (2005). _Biblical Peoples and Ethnicity: An
Archaeological Study of Egyptians, Canaanites, and Early Israel,
1300–1100 B.C.E._ Society of Biblical Literature. ISBN
* King, Philip J.; Stager, Lawrence E. (2001). _Life in Biblical
Israel_. Westminster John Knox Press. ISBN 0-664-22148-3 .
* Kottsieper, Ingo. _And They Did Not Care to Speak Yehudit_.
* Kuhrt, Amélie (1995). _The
Ancient Near East c. 3000–330 C_.
Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-16763-5 .
* Lehman, Gunnar. _The United Monarchy in the Countryside_.
* Lemaire, Andre. _Nabonidus in Arabia and
Judea During the
* Lemche, Niels Peter (1998). _The
Israelites in History and
Tradition_. Westminster John Knox Press. ISBN 978-0-664-22727-2 .
* Levy, Thomas E. (1998). _The Archaeology of Society in the Holy
Land_. Continuum International Publishing. ISBN 978-0-8264-6996-0 .
* LaBianca, Øystein S.; Younker, Randall W. _The Kingdoms of Ammon,
Moab and Edom: The Archaeology of Society in Late Bronze/Iron Age
Transjordan (c. 1400–500 CE)_.
* Lipschits, Oded (2005). _The Fall and Rise of Jerusalem_.
Eisenbrauns. ISBN 978-1-57506-095-8 .
* Lipschits, Oded, et al., eds. (2006). _Judah and the Judeans in
the Fourth Century B.C.E._ Eisenbrauns. ISBN 978-1-57506-130-6 . CS1
maint: Extra text: authors list (link )
* Lipschits, Oded; Vanderhooft, David. _Yehud Stamp Impressions in
the Fourth Century B.C.E_.
* Mazar, Amihay. _The Divided Monarchy: Comments on Some
* Markoe, Glenn (2000). _Phoenicians_. University of California
Press. ISBN 978-0-520-22614-2 .
* Mays, James Luther, et al., eds. (1995). _Old Testament
Interpretation_. T&T Clarke. ISBN 978-0-567-29289-6 . CS1 maint: Extra
text: authors list (link )
* Miller, J. Maxwell. _The Middle East and Archaeology_.
* McNutt, Paula (1999). _Reconstructing the Society of Ancient
Israel_. Westminster John Knox Press. ISBN 978-0-664-22265-9 .
* Merrill, Eugene H. (1995). "The Late Bronze/Early Iron Age
Transition and the Emergence of Israel". _Bibliotheca Sacra_. 152
* Middlemas, Jill Anne (2005). _The Troubles of Templeless Judah_.
Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-928386-6 .
* Miller, James Maxwell; Hayes, John Haralson (1986). _A History of
Ancient Israel and Judah_. Westminster John Knox Press. ISBN
* Miller, Robert D. (2005). _Chieftains of the Highland Clans: A
Israel in the 12th and 11th Centuries B.C._ Eerdmans. ISBN
* Murphy, Frederick J. R. _Second Temple Judaism_.
* Nodet, Étienne (1999) . _A Search for the Origins of Judaism:
Joshua to the Mishnah_. Sheffield Academic Press. ISBN
* Pitkänen, Pekka (2004). "Ethnicity, Assimilation and the
Israelite Settlement" (PDF). _
Tyndale Bulletin _. 55 (2): 161–82.
Archived from the original (PDF) on July 17, 2011.
* Rogerson, John William. _Deuteronomy_.
* Silberman, Neil Asher; Small,
David B., eds. (1997). _The
Archaeology of Israel: Constructing the Past, Interpreting the
Present_. Sheffield Academic Press. ISBN 978-1-85075-650-7 . CS1
maint: Extra text: authors list (link )
* Smith, Mark S. (2001). _Untold Stories: The
Bible and Ugaritic
Studies in the Twentieth Century_. Hendrickson Publishers.
* Smith, Mark S.; Miller, Patrick D. (2002) . _The Early History of
God_. Eerdmans. ISBN 978-0-8028-3972-5 .
* Soggin, Michael J. (1998). _An Introduction to the History of
Israel and Judah_. Paideia. ISBN 978-0-334-02788-1 .
* Stager, Lawrence E. _Forging an Identity: The Emergence of Ancient
* Thompson, Thomas L. (1992). _Early History of the Israelite
People_. Brill. ISBN 978-90-04-09483-3 .
* Van der Toorn, Karel (1996). _Family Religion in Babylonia, Syria,
and Israel_. Brill. ISBN 978-90-04-10410-5 .
* Van der Toorn, Karel; Becking, Bob; Van der Horst, Pieter Willem
(1999). _Dictionary of Deities and Demons in the Bible_ (2d ed.).
Koninklijke Brill. ISBN 978-90-04-11119-6 .
* Tubb, Jonathan N. (1998). _Canaanites_. University of Oklahoma
Press. ISBN 0-8061-3108-X .
* Vaughn, Andrew G.; Killebrew, Ann E., eds. (1992). _
Bible and Archaeology: The First Temple Period_. Sheffield. ISBN
978-1-58983-066-0 . CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link )
* Wylen, Stephen M. (1996). _The
Jews in the Time of Jesus: An
Introduction_. Paulist Press. ISBN 978-0-8091-3610-0 .
* Zevit, Ziony (2001). _The Religions of Ancient Israel: A Synthesis
of Parallactic Approaches_. Continuum. ISBN 978-0-8264-6339-5 .
The Biblical and Historical
* Children of
Twelve Tribes of Israel
Ten Lost Tribes
Ten Lost Tribes
History of ancient Israel and Judah
* Land of
* United Monarchy (Kingdom of Israel)
* Northern Kingdom
* Southern Kingdom (Kingdom of Judah)
* Historicity of the
Ancient Israel and Judah
* Second Temple
* Ancient Greece
* Roman Empire
* Ancient Libya
* Ancient Persia
* Under Muslim rule
* Golden Age
* Ottoman Empire
* Soviet Union
* United States
* World War II
* Israeli history
Jewish history in Israel/Palestine Population history
Genetic history Languages Refugees Schisms
* Political movements