Israelites (/ˈɪzriəˌlaɪtsˌ/; Hebrew: בני ישראל
Bnei Yisra'el) were a confederation of
Iron Age Semitic-speaking
tribes of the ancient Near East, who inhabited a part of
the tribal and monarchic periods. According to the
religious narrative of the Hebrew Bible, the Israelites' origin is
traced back to the Biblical patriarchs and matriarchs
Abraham and his
wife Sarah, through their son
Isaac and his wife Rebecca, and their
Jacob who was later called Israel, from whence they derive their
name, with his wives
Leah and Rachel.
Modern archaeology has largely discarded the historicity of the
religious narrative, with it being reframed as constituting an
inspiring national myth narrative. The
Israelites and their culture,
according to the modern archaeological account, did not overtake the
region by force, but instead branched out of the indigenous Canaanite
peoples that long inhabited the Southern Levant, Syria, ancient
Israel, and the Transjordan region through the development
of a distinct monolatristic—later cementing as
monotheistic—religion centered on Yahweh, one of the Ancient
Canaanite deities. The outgrowth of Yahweh-centric belief, along with
a number of cultic practices, gradually gave rise to a distinct
Israelite ethnic group, setting them apart from other
Hebrew Bible the term
Israelites is used interchangeably with
the term Twelve Tribes of Israel. Although related, the terms Hebrews,
Jews are not interchangeable in all instances.
"Israelites" (Yisraelim) refers specifically to the direct descendants
of any of the sons of the patriarch
Jacob (later called Israel), and
his descendants as a people are also collectively called "Israel",
including converts to their faith in worship of the god of Israel,
Yahweh. "Hebrews" (ʿIvrim) on the contrary is used to denote the
Israelites' immediate forebears who dwelt in the land of Canaan, the
Israelites themselves, and the Israelites' ancient and modern
Jews and Samaritans). "Jews" (Yehudim) is used
to denote the descendants of the Israelites' who coalesced when the
Tribe of Judah
Tribe of Judah absorbed the remnants of various other Israelite
tribes. Thus, for instance,
Abraham was a Hebrew but he was not
technically an Israelite nor was he a Jew, but
Jacob was both a Hebrew
and the first Israelite but not a Jew, while
King David (as a member
of the Tribe of Judah) was all three, a Hebrew, an Israelite, and a
Judahite (Yehudi, Jew). A Samaritan, on the contrary, while being both
a Hebrew and an Israelite, is not a Jew.
During the period of the divided monarchy "Israelites" was only used
to refer to the inhabitants of the northern Kingdom of Israel, and it
is only extended to cover the people of the southern Kingdom of Judah
in post-exilic usage.
Israelites are the ethnic stock from which modern
Samaritans originally trace their ancestry.
Jews are named after and also descended from the southern
Israelite Kingdom of Judah,
particularly the tribes of Judah,
Benjamin and partially Levi.
Finally, in Judaism, the term "Israelite" is, broadly speaking, used
to refer to a lay member of the Jewish ethnoreligious group, as
opposed to the priestly orders of
Kohanim and Levites. In texts of
Jewish law such as the
Mishnah and Gemara, the term יהודי
(Yehudi), meaning Jew, is rarely used, and instead the ethnonym
ישראלי (Yisraeli), or Israelite, is widely used to refer to
Samaritans commonly refer to themselves and to
as Israelites, and they describe themselves as the Israelite
3 Historical Israelites
4 Biblical Israelites
6 See also
Merneptah stele. While alternative translations exist, the
majority of biblical archaeologists translate a set of hieroglyphs as
Israel, representing the first instance of the name
Israel in the
The term Israelite is the English name for the descendants of the
Jacob in ancient times, which is derived from the
Greek Ισραηλίτες, which was used to translate the
Biblical Hebrew term b'nei yisrael, יִשְׂרָאֵל as either
"sons of Israel" or "children of Israel".
Israel first appears in the
Hebrew Bible in Genesis 32:29. It
refers to the renaming of Jacob, who, according to the Bible, wrestled
with an angel, who gave him a blessing and renamed him
he had "striven with
God and with men, and have prevailed". The Hebrew
Bible etymologizes the name as from yisra "to prevail over" or "to
struggle/wrestle with", and el, "God, the divine".
Israel first appears in non-biblical sources c. 1209 BCE, in
an inscription of the Egyptian pharaoh Merneptah. The inscription is
very brief and says simply: "
Israel is laid waste and his seed is not"
(see below). The inscription refers to a people, not to an individual
or a nation-state.
Hebrews and Assyrian captivity
In modern Hebrew, b'nei yisrael ("children of Israel") can denote the
Jewish people at any time in history; it is typically used to
emphasize Jewish ethnic identity. From the period of the
probably used before that period) the term Yisrael ("an Israel")
acquired an additional narrower meaning of
Jews of legitimate birth
Levites and Aaronite priests (kohanim). In modern Hebrew
this contrasts with the term Yisraeli (English "Israeli"), a citizen
of the modern State of Israel, regardless of religion or ethnicity.
The term Hebrew has
Eber as an eponymous ancestor. It is used
synonymously with "Israelites", or as an ethnolinguistic term for
historical speakers of the
Hebrew language in general.
The Greek term
Ioudaioi (Jews) was an exonym originally referring to
members of the Tribe of Judah, which formed the nucleus of the kingdom
of Judah, and was later adopted as a self-designation by people in the
diaspora who identified themselves as loyal to the
the Temple in Jerusalem.
The Samaritans, who claim descent from the tribes of
Aaron for kohens), are named after the
Israelite Kingdom of Samaria, but until modern times many Jewish
authorities contested their claimed lineage, deeming them to have been
conquered foreigners who were settled in the Land of
Israel by the
Assyrians, as was the typical Assyrian policy to obliterate national
Samaritans both recognize each other as
communities with an authentic Israelite origin.
The terms "Jews" and "Samaritans" largely replaced the title "Children
of Israel" as the commonly used ethnonym for each respective
See also: History of ancient
Israel and Judah
Part of a series on the
History of Israel
Ancient Israel and Judah
Kingdom of Judah
Second Temple period
Second Temple period (530 BC–AD 70)
Middle Ages (70–1517)
Revolt against Constantius Gallus
Revolt against Heraclius
Modern history (1517–1948)
History of the Land of
Israel by topic
Several theories exist proposing the origins of the
raiding groups, infiltrating nomads or emerging from indigenous
Canaanites driven from the wealthier urban areas by poverty to seek
their fortunes in the highland. Various, ethnically distinct
groups of itinerant nomads such as the
Shasu recorded in
Egyptian texts as active in
Canaan could have been related to
the later Israelites, which does not exclude the possibility that the
majority may have had their origins in
Canaan proper. The name Yahweh,
the god of the later Israelites, may indicate connections with the
Mount Seir in Edom.
The prevailing academic opinion today is that the
Israelites were a
mixture of peoples predominantly indigenous to Canaan, although an
Egyptian matrix of peoples may also played a role in their
ethnogenesis, with an ethnic composition similar to that
Edom and Moab, and including Hapiru and Šośu. The
defining feature which marked them off from the surrounding societies
was a staunch egalitarian organization focused on
rather than mere kingship.
The language of the Canaanites may perhaps be best described as an
"archaic form of Hebrew, standing in much the same relationship to the
Hebrew of the
Old Testament as does the language of Chaucer to modern
English." The Canaanites were also the first people, as far as is
known, to have used an alphabet.
Israel first appears c. 1209 BCE, at the end of the Late
Bronze Age and the very beginning of the period archaeologists and
Iron Age I, on the
Merneptah Stele raised by the
Egyptian Pharaoh Merneptah. The inscription is very brief
Canaan with every evil,
Carried off is Ashkelon,
Seized upon is Gezer,
Yenocam is made as that which does not exist
Israel lies fallow, it has no seed;
Ḫurru has become a widow because of Egypt.
As distinct from the cities named (Ashkelon, Gezer, Yenoam) which are
written with a toponymic marker,
Israel is written hieroglyphically
with a demonymic determinative indicating that the reference is to a
human group, variously located in central Palestine or the
highlands of Samaria. Over the next two hundred years (the period
Iron Age I) the number of highland villages increased from 25 to
over 300 and the settled population doubled to 40,000. By the
10th century BCE a rudimentary state had emerged in the north-central
highlands, and in the 9th century this became a kingdom.
Settlement in the southern highlands was minimal from the 12th through
the 10th centuries BCE, but a state began to emerge there in the 9th
century, and from 850 BCE onwards a series of inscriptions are
evidence of a kingdom which its neighbours refer to as the "House of
After the destruction of the Israelite kingdoms of Judah and Samaria
in 586 BCE and 720 BCE respectively, the concepts of Jew and
Samaritan gradually replaced Judean and Israelite. When the Jews
returned from the Babylonian captivity, the
Hasmonean kingdom was
established in present-day Israel, consisting of three regions which
were Judea, Samaria, and the Galilee. In the pre-exilic First Temple
Period the political power of
Judea was concentrated within the tribe
Samaria was dominated by the tribe of
Ephraim and the House
of Joseph, while the
Galilee was associated with the tribe of
Naphtali, the most eminent tribe of northern Israel. At the
time of the Kingdom of Samaria, the
Galilee was populated by northern
tribes of Israel, but following the
Babylonian exile the region became
Jewish. During the second Temple period relations between the
Samaritans remained tense. In 120 BCE the Hasmonean king Yohanan
Hyrcanos I destroyed the Samaritan temple on Mount Gerizim, due to the
resentment between the two groups over a disagreement of whether Mount
Mount Gerizim in
Shechem was the actual site of
the Aqedah, and the chosen place for the Holy Temple, a source of
contention that had been growing since the two houses of the former
united monarchy first split asunder in 930 BCE and which had finally
exploded into warfare. 190 years after the destruction of the
Samaritan Temple and the surrounding area of Shechem, the Roman
Titus launched a military campaign to crush the Jewish revolt
of 66 CE, which resulted in the destruction of the Jewish Temple in
Jerusalem in 70 CE, and the subsequent exile of
Galilee in 135 CE following the Bar Kochba revolt.
Map of the Holy Land, Pietro Vesconte, 1321, showing the allotments of
the tribes of Israel. Described by
Adolf Erik Nordenskiöld
Adolf Erik Nordenskiöld as "the
first non-Ptolemaic map of a definite country"
Model of the
Mishkan constructed under the auspices of Moses, in Timna
The Israelite story begins with some of the culture heroes of the
Jewish people, the Patriarchs. The
Torah traces the
Israelites to the
patriarch Jacob, grandson of Abraham, who was renamed
Israel after a
mysterious incident in which he wrestles all night with
God or an
angel. Jacob's twelve sons (in order of birth), Reuben, Simeon, Levi,
Judah, Dan, Naphtali, Gad, Asher, Issachar, Zebulun, Joseph and
Benjamin, become the ancestors of twelve tribes, with the exception of
Joseph, whose two sons Mannasseh and Ephraim, who were adopted by
Jacob, become tribal eponyms (Genesis 48).
The mothers of Jacob's sons are:
Leah: Reuben, Simeon, Levi, Judah, Issachar, Zebulun
Rachel: Joseph (
Ephraim and Menasseh), Benjamin
Bilhah (Rachel's maid): Dan, Naphtali
Zilpah (Leah's maid): Gad,
Asher (Genesis 35:22–26)
Jacob and his sons are forced by famine to go down into Egypt,
although Joseph was already there, as he had been sold into slavery
while young. When they arrive they and their families are 70 in
number, but within four generations they have increased to 600,000 men
of fighting age, and the Pharaoh of Egypt, alarmed, first enslaves
them and then orders the death of all male Hebrew children. A woman
from the tribe of
Levi hides her child, places him in a woven basket,
and sends him down the
Nile river. He is named Mosheh, or Moses, by
the Egyptians who find him. Being a Hebrew baby, they award a Hebrew
woman the task of raising him, the mother of
Moses volunteers, and the
child and his mother are reunited.
At the age of forty
Moses kills an Egyptian, after he sees him beating
a Hebrew to death, and escapes as a fugitive into the Sinai desert,
where he is taken in by the Midianites and marries Zipporah, the
daughter of the Midianite priest Jethro. When he is eighty years old,
Moses is tending a herd of sheep in solitude on
Mount Sinai when he
sees a desert shrub that is burning but is not consumed. The
Israel calls to
Moses from the fire and reveals his name,
the Hebrew root word 'HWH' meaning to exist), and tells
Moses that he
is being sent to Pharaoh to bring the people of
Israel out of
Moses that if Pharaoh refuses to let the
Hebrews go to
say to Pharaoh "Thus says Yahweh:
Israel is my son, my first-born and
I have said to you: Let my son go, that he may serve me, and you have
refused to let him go. Behold, I will slay your son, your first-born".
Moses returns to Egypt and tells Pharaoh that he must let the Hebrew
slaves go free. Pharaoh refuses and
Yahweh strikes the Egyptians with
a series of horrific plagues, wonders, and catastrophes, after which
Pharaoh relents and banishes the
Hebrews from Egypt.
Moses leads the
Israelites out of bondage toward the Red Sea, but Pharaoh changes
his mind and arises to massacre the fleeing Hebrews. Pharaoh finds
them by the sea shore and attempts to drive them into the ocean with
his chariots and drown them.
Yahweh causes the
Red Sea to part and the
Hebrews pass through on dry
land into the Sinai. After the
Israelites escape from the midst of the
Yahweh causes the ocean to close back in on the pursuing Egyptian
army, drowning them to death. In the desert
Yahweh feeds them with
manna that accumulates on the ground with the morning dew. They are
led by a column of cloud, which ignites at night and becomes a pillar
of fire to illuminate the way, southward through the desert until they
come to Mount Sinai. The twelve tribes of
Israel encamp around the
mountain, and on the third day
Mount Sinai begins to smolder, then
catches fire, and
Yahweh speaks the
Ten Commandments from the midst of
the fire to all the Israelites, from the top of the mountain.
Moses ascends biblical
Mount Sinai and fasts for forty days while he
writes down the
Yahweh dictates, beginning with Bereshith and
the creation of the universe and earth. He is shown the design
Mishkan and the Ark of the Covenant, which
Bezalel is given the
task of building.
Moses descends from the mountain forty days later
with the Sefer
Torah he wrote, and with two rectangular lapis
lazuli tablets, into which
Yahweh had carved the Ten Commandments
in Paleo–Hebrew. In his absence,
Aaron has constructed an image of
Yahweh, depicting him as a young Golden Calf, and has presented it
to the Israelites, declaring "Behold O Israel, this is your god who
brought you out of the land of Egypt".
Moses smashes the two tablets
and grinds the golden calf into dust, then throws the dust into a
stream of water flowing out of Mount Sinai, and forces the Israelites
to drink from it.
Map of the twelve tribes of
Israel (before the move of Dan to the
north), based on the Book of Joshua
Mount Sinai for a second time and
Yahweh passes before
him and says: 'Yahweh, Yahweh, a god of compassion, and showing favor,
slow to anger, and great in kindness and in truth, who shows kindness
to the thousandth generation, forgiving wrongdoing and injustice and
wickedness, but will by no means clear the guilty, causing the
consequences of the parent's wrongdoing to befall their children, and
their children's children, to the third and fourth generation'
Moses then fasts for another forty days while
Yahweh carves the Ten
Commandments into a second set of stone tablets. After the tablets are
completed, light emanates from the face of
Moses for the rest of his
life, causing him to wear a veil so he does not frighten people.
Mount Sinai and the
Israelites agree to be the chosen
Yahweh and follow all the laws of the Torah. Moses
prophesies if they forsake the Torah,
Yahweh will exile them for the
total number of years they did not observe the shmita. Bezael
Ark of the Covenant
Ark of the Covenant and the Mishkan, where the presence
Yahweh dwells on earth in the Holy of Holies, above the Ark of the
Covenant, which houses the Ten Commandments.
Moses sends spies to
scout out the Land of Canaan, and the
Israelites are commanded to go
up and conquer the land, but they refuse, due to their fear of warfare
and violence. In response,
Yahweh condemns the entire generation,
including Moses, who is condemned for striking the rock at Meribah, to
exile and death in the Sinai desert.
Moses dies he gives a speech to the
Israelites where he
paraphrases a summary of the mizwoth given to them by Yahweh, and
recites a prophetic song called the Ha'azinu.
Moses prophesies that if
Israelites disobey the Torah,
Yahweh will cause a global exile in
addition to the minor one prophesied earlier at Mount Sinai, but at
the end of days
Yahweh will gather them back to
Israel from among the
nations when they turn back to the
Torah with zeal. The events of
the Israelite exodus and their sojourn in the Sinai are memorialized
in the Jewish and Samaritan festivals of
Passover and Sukkoth, and the
giving of the
Torah in the Jewish celebration of Shavuoth.
Forty years after the Exodus, following the death of the generation of
Moses, a new generation, led by Joshua, enters
Canaan and takes
possession of the land in accordance with the promise made to Abraham
by Yahweh. Land is allocated to the tribes by lottery. Eventually the
Israelites ask for a king, and
Yahweh gives them Saul. David, the
youngest (divinely favored) son of
Bethlehem would succeed
Israelites establish the united monarchy, and
under David's son
Solomon they construct the Holy Temple in Jerusalem,
using the 400-year-old materials of the Mishkan, where Yahweh
continues to tabernacle himself among them. On the death of Solomon
and reign of his son, Rehoboam, the kingdom is divided in two.
The kings of the northern Kingdom of
Samaria are uniformly bad,
permitting the worship of other gods and failing to enforce the
Yahweh alone, and so
Yahweh eventually allows them to be
conquered and dispersed among the peoples of the earth; and strangers
rule over their remnant in the northern land. In Judah some kings are
good and enforce the worship of
Yahweh alone, but many are bad and
permit other gods, even in the Holy Temple itself, and at length
Yahweh allows Judah to fall to her enemies, the people taken into
captivity in Babylon, the land left empty and desolate, and the Holy
Temple itself destroyed.
Yet despite these events
Yahweh does not forget his people, but sends
Cyrus, king of Persia to deliver them from bondage. The
allowed to return to Judah and Benjamin, the Holy Temple is rebuilt,
the priestly orders restored, and the service of sacrifice resumed.
Through the offices of the sage Ezra,
Israel is constituted as a holy
nation, bound by the
Torah and holding itself apart from all other
According to the bible
Abraham came from Ur of the Chaldeans and
Israelites are descended from the Chaldaeans. Chaldea was a
region of ancient Babylonia in what is now southeastern Iraq, the
Chaldeans were Semites, a group of people who spoke language related
The study of (Al-Zahery) suggests the eastern side of fertile crescent
as the homeland of the Y-chromosome haplogroup J, furthermore J(xM172)
seems to have had its center in Iraq.
In 2000, M. Hammer, et al. conducted a study on 1371 men and
definitively established that part of the paternal gene pool of Jewish
communities in Europe, North Africa and Middle East came from a common
Middle East ancestral population. In another study (Nebel) noted;
"In comparison with data available from other relevant populations in
Jews were found to be much more closely related to groups
in the north of the Fertile Crescent (Kurds, Turks, and Armenians)
than to their Arab neighbors."
Groups claiming affiliation with Israelites
Tribal allotments of Israel
Who is a Jew?
^ "Israelite". Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.
^ Finkelstein, Israel. "Ethnicity and origin of the Iron I settlers in
the Highlands of Canaan: Can the real
Israel stand up?." The Biblical
archaeologist 59.4 (1996): 198–212.
^ Finkelstein, Israel. The archaeology of the Israelite settlement.
Israel Exploration Society, 1988.
^ Finkelstein, Israel, and Nadav Na'aman, eds. From nomadism to
monarchy: archaeological and historical aspects of early Israel. Yad
Izhak Ben-Zvi, 1994.
^ Finkelstein, Israel. "The archaeology of the United Monarchy: an
alternative view." Levant 28.1 (1996): 177–87.
^ Finkelstein, Israel, and Neil
Asher Silberman. The
Archaeology's New Vision of
Ancient Israel and the Origin of Sacred
Texts. Simon and Schuster, 2002.
^ Dever, William (2001). What Did the Biblical Writers Know, and When
Did They Know It?. Eerdmans. pp. 98–99.
ISBN 3-927120-37-5. After a century of exhaustive investigation,
all respectable archaeologists have given up hope of recovering any
context that would make Abraham, Isaac, or
Jacob credible "historical
figures" [...] archaeological investigation of
Moses and the Exodus
has similarly been discarded as a fruitless pursuit.
^ a b Tubb 1998, pp. 13–14
^ a b McNutt 1999, p. 47.
^ K. L. Noll,
Israel in Antiquity: An Introduction, A&C
Black, 2001 p. 164: "It would seem that, in the eyes of Merneptah's
Israel was a Canaanite group indistinguishable from all
other Canaanite groups." "It is likely that Merneptah's
Israel was a
group of Canaanites located in the Jezreel Valley."
^ Tubb, 1998. pp. 13–14
^ Mark Smith in "The Early History of God:
Yahweh and Other Deities of
Ancient Israel" states "Despite the long regnant model that the
Israelites were people of fundamentally different
culture, archaeological data now casts doubt on this view. The
material culture of the region exhibits numerous common points between
Israelites and Canaanites in the Iron I period (c.
1200–1000 BCE). The record would suggest that the Israelite
culture largely overlapped with and derived from Canaanite culture...
In short, Israelite culture was largely Canaanite in nature. Given the
information available, one cannot maintain a radical cultural
separation between Canaanites and
Israelites for the Iron I period."
(pp. 6–7). Smith, Mark (2002) "The Early History of God:
Other Deities of Ancient Israel" (Eerdman's)
^ Rendsberg, Gary (2008). "
Israel without the Bible". In Frederick E.
Greenspahn. The Hebrew Bible: New Insights and Scholarship. NYU Press,
^ Robert L.Cate, "Israelite", in Watson E. Mills, Roger Aubrey
Bullard, Mercer Dictionary of the Bible, Mercer University Press, 1990
^ Ostrer, Harry (2012). Legacy: A Genetic History of the Jewish
People. Oxford University Press (published May 8, 2012).
^ Eisenberg, Ronald (2013). Dictionary of Jewish Terms: A Guide to the
Language of Judaism. Schreiber Publishing (published November 23,
2013). p. 431.
^ Gubkin, Liora (2007). You Shall Tell Your Children: Holocaust Memory
Passover Ritual. Rutgers University Press (published
December 31, 2007). p. 190. ISBN 978-0813541938.
^ "Reconstruction of Patrilineages and Matrilineages of
Other Israeli Populations From Y-Chromosome and Mitochondrial DNA
Sequence Variation" (PDF). (855 KB), Hum Mutat
^ Yohanan Aharoni, Michael Avi-Yonah, Anson F. Rainey, Ze'ev Safrai,
Bible Atlas, 3rd Edition, Macmillan Publishing: New
York, 1993, p. 115. A posthumous publication of the work of Israeli
archaeologist Yohanan Aharoni and Michael Avi-Yonah, in collaboration
with Anson F. Rainey and Ze'ev Safrai.
^ The Samaritan Update Retrieved 1 January 2017.
^ Ann E. Killebrew, Biblical Peoples and Ethnicity. An Archaeological
Study of Egyptians, Canaanites, Philistines and Early Israel
1300–1100 B.C.E. (
Archaeology and Biblical Studies), Society of
Biblical Literature, 2005
^ Schama, Simon (18 March 2014). The Story of the Jews: Finding the
Words 1000 BC–1492 AD. HarperCollins.
^ * "In the broader sense of the term, a Jew is any person belonging
to the worldwide group that constitutes, through descent or
conversion, a continuation of the ancient Jewish people, who were
themselves the descendants of the
Hebrews of the Old Testament."
Jewish people as a whole, initially called
were known as
Israelites (Yisreʾelim) from the time of their entrance
Holy Land to the end of the Babylonian Exile (538 BC)."
Jew at Encyclopædia Britannica
^ "Israelite, in the broadest sense, a Jew, or a descendant of the
Jewish patriarch Jacob" Israelite at Encyclopædia Britannica
^ "Hebrew, any member of an ancient northern Semitic people that were
the ancestors of the Jews." Hebrew (People) at Encyclopædia
^ Ostrer, Harry (19 April 2012). Legacy: A Genetic History of the
Jewish People. Oxford University Press, USA.
^ Brenner, Michael (13 June 2010). A Short History of the Jews.
Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-14351-X.
^ Scheindlin, Raymond P. (1998). A Short History of the Jewish People:
From Legendary Times to Modern Statehood. Oxford University Press.
^ Adams, Hannah (1840). The History of the Jews: From the Destruction
Jerusalem to the Present Time. London Society House.
^ Diamond, Jared (1993). "Who are the Jews?" (PDF). Archived from the
original (PDF) on July 21, 2011. Retrieved November 8, 2010.
Natural History 102:11 (November 1993): 12–19.
^ Yesaahq ben 'Aamraam. Samaritan Exegesis: A Compilation Of Writings
From The Samaritans. 2013. ISBN 1482770814. Benyamim Tsedaka, at
^ John Bowman. Samaritan Documents Relating to Their History, Religion
and Life (Pittsburgh Original Texts and Translations Series No. 2).
1977. ISBN 0915138271
^ Strong's Exhaustive Concordance G2474
^ Brown Drivers Briggs H3478
^ Scherman, Rabbi Nosson (editor), The Chumash, The Artscroll Series,
Mesorah Publications, LTD, 2006, pp. 176–77
^ Kaplan, Aryeh, "Jewish Meditation", Schocken Books, New York, 1985,
^ Frederick E. Greenspahn (2008). The Hebrew Bible: New Insights and
Scholarship. NYU Press. pp. 12–.
^ Caroline Johnson Hodge,If Sons, Then Heirs: A Study of Kinship and
Ethnicity in the Letters of Paul, Oxford University Press, 2007 pp.
^ Markus Cromhout,Jesus and Identity: Reconstructing Judean Ethnicity
in Q, James Clarke & Co, 2015 pp. 121ff.
^ Daniel Lynwood Smith,Into the World of the New Testament:
Greco-Roman and Jewish Texts and Contexts, Bloomsbury Publishing, 2015
^ Stephen Sharot,Comparative Perspectives on Judaisms and Jewish
Identities, Wayne State University Press 2011 p. 146.
^ "Homepage of A.B Institute of Samaritan Studies". Retrieved March
^ Settings of silver: an introduction to Judaism, Stephen M. Wylen,
Paulist Press, 2000, ISBN 0-8091-3960-X, p. 59
Israel Finkelstein, Neil
Asher Silberman, The
Bible Unearthed, Simon
and Schuster 2002, p. 104.
^ a b c K. van der Toorn,Family Religion in Babylonia, Ugarit and
Israel: Continuity and Changes in the Forms of Religious Life, BRILL
1996 pp. 181, 282.
^ Alan Mittleman, 'Judaism:Covenant, Pluralism and Piety‘, in Bryan
S. Turner (ed.) The New Blackwell Companion to the Sociology of
Religion, John Wiley & Sons, 2010 pp. 340–63, 346.
^ a b c Norman Gottwald, Tribes of Yahweh: A Sociology of the Religion
of Liberated Israel, 1250–1050 BCE, A&C Black, 1999 p. 433, cf.
^ Richard A. Gabriel, The Military History of Ancient Israel.
Greenwood Publishing Group, 2003 p. 63: The ethnically mixed character
Israelites is reflected even more clearly in the foreign names
of the group's leadership.
Moses himself, of course, has an Egyptian
name. Hur is Moses' name. But so do Hophni, Phinehas, Hur, and Merari,
the son of Levi.
^ Stefan Paas, Creation and Judgement: Creation Texts in Some Eighth
Century Prophets. Brill, 2003 pp. 110–21, 144.
^ "Canaan". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved March 27, 2015.
^ Grabbe 2008, p. 75
^ McNutt 1999, p. 70.
^ Joffe pp. 440ff.
^ Davies, 1992, pp. 63–64.
^ Joffe pp. 448–49.
^ Joffe p. 450.
^ Finkelstein & Silberman 2001,
The Bible Unearthed
The Bible Unearthed p. 221.
^ Grabbe, Lester L. (2004). A History of the
Judaism in the
Second Temple Period. T&T Clark International. p. 28.
^ Sefer Devariam Pereq לד, ב;
Deuteronomy 34, 2, Sefer Yehoshua
Pereq כ, ז;
Joshua 20, 7, Sefer Yehoshua Pereq כא, לב; Joshua
21, 32, Sefer Melakhim Beth Pereq טו, כט; Second Kings 15, 29,
Sefer Devrei Ha Yamim Aleph Pereq ו, סא; First Chronicles 6, 76
^ See File:12 Tribes of
^ Y. Magen. "The Gathering at the President's House". Israel
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^ Josephus, Antiquities of the
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^ "The Diaspora". Jewish Virtual Library. ; "The Bar-Kokhba
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Adolf Erik Nordenskiöld
Adolf Erik Nordenskiöld (1889). Facsimile-atlas to the Early
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^ a b c d e The
Jews in the time of Jesus: an introduction p. 18
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^ Bereshith, Genesis
^ Shemoth; Exodus 1 and 2
^ Shemoth; Exodus 3 and 4
^ English translation of the papyrus. A translation also in R. B.
Parkinson, The Tale of Sinuhe and Other Ancient Egyptian Poems. Oxford
World's Classics, 1999.
^ Shemoth; Exodus 5 through 15
^ Shemoth; Exodus 15, 19, and 20
^ Bereshith; Genesis 1
^ The Hidden Face of God: Science Reveals the Ultimate Truth by Gerald
L. Schroeder PhD (May 9, 2002)
^ Shemoth; Exodus 24
^ Tehillim; Psalms 106, 19–20
^ Shemoth; Exodus 21 through 32
^ Shemoth; Exodus, 34, 6–7
^ Shemoth; Exodus 34
^ Wayiqra; Leviticus 26
^ Shemoth; Exodus 35 through 40, Wayiqra; Leviticus, Bamidhbar;
Numbers, Devariam; Deuteronomy
Deuteronomy 28 and 29 and 30
^ Devariam; Deuteronomy
^ Yehoshua; Joshua, Shoftim; Judges, Shmuel; Samuel, Melakhim; Kings
^ Melakhim; Kings, Divrei HaYamim; Chronicles
^ Daniel, Ezra, Nehemiah
^ Genesis 11:31
^ Judith 5:6
^ World Book Encyclopedia. Chaldea. John A. Brinkman. Chicago. World
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