HOME
The Info List - Israelites



--- Advertisement ---


(i) (i) (i) (i) (i)

The ISRAELITES (/ˈɪzriəˌlaɪtsˌ/ ; Hebrew : בני ישראל‎‎ _Bnei Yisra'el_) were a Semitic-speaking people of the ancient Near East , who inhabited a part of Canaan
Canaan
during the tribal and monarchic periods . The ancient Israelites
Israelites
are considered to be an outgrowth of the indigenous Canaanite populations that long inhabited the Southern Levant , Syria
Syria
, ancient Israel
Israel
and the Transjordan .

In the Hebrew Bible , the term _Israelites_ refers to the direct descendants of any of the sons of the patriarch Jacob
Jacob
, or to the descendants of the people who are called Israel, and to a worshiper of the God
God
of Israel, Yahweh
Yahweh
. In the period of the divided monarchy it was only used to refer to the inhabitants of the northern kingdom, and it is only extended to cover the people of the southern kingdom in post-exilic usage. The Israelites
Israelites
were also known as the _ Hebrews
Hebrews
_ and the _ Twelve Tribes of Israel _.

The Jews
Jews
are named after and also descended from the southern Israelite Kingdom of Judah , particularly the tribes of Judah , Benjamin
Benjamin
and partially Levi
Levi
. The word "Jews" is found in 2 Kings (16:6), Chronicles (I, 4:18), and in numerous passages in the Book of Jeremiah , the Book of Zechariah and the Book of Esther . The Samaritans
Samaritans
, whose religious texts consist of the five books of the Samaritan Torah (but which do not contain the books comprising the Jewish _ Tanakh _), do not refer to themselves as Jews, although they do regard themselves as Israelites, in accordance with the Torah
Torah
.

The Kingdom of Israel (Samaria) , often called the Northern Kingdom of Israel, contained all the tribes except for the tribes of Judah and Benjamin. Following its conquest by Assyria , these ten tribes were allegedly dispersed and lost to history, and they are henceforth known as the Ten Lost Tribes
Ten Lost Tribes
. Jewish tradition holds that Samaria
Samaria
was so named because the region's mountainous terrain was used to keep "Guard" (_Shamer_) for incoming enemy attacks. According to Samaritan tradition, however, the Samaritan ethnonym is not derived from the region of Samaria, but from the fact that they were the "Guardians" (_Shamerim_) of the true Israelite religion. Thus, according to Samaritan tradition, the region was named Samaria
Samaria
after them, not vice versa. In Modern Hebrew
Modern Hebrew
, the Samaritans
Samaritans
are called _Shomronim_, while in Samaritan Hebrew they call themselves _Shamerim_.

In Judaism
Judaism
, an Israelite is, broadly speaking, a lay member of the Jewish ethnoreligious group , as opposed to the priestly orders of Kohanim
Kohanim
and Levites . In texts of Jewish law such as the Mishnah
Mishnah
and Gemara , the term יהודי (Yehudi), meaning Jew, is rarely used, and instead the ethnonym ישראלי (Yisraeli), or Israelite, is widely used to refer to Jews. Samaritans
Samaritans
commonly refer to themselves and to Jews
Jews
collectively as Israelites, and they describe themselves as the Israelite Samaritans.

CONTENTS

* 1 Etymology * 2 Terminology * 3 Historical Israelites
Israelites
* 4 Biblical Israelites
Israelites
* 5 See also * 6 References * 7 Bibliography

ETYMOLOGY

_ The Merneptah stele . While alternative translations exist, the majority of biblical archaeologists translate a set of hieroglyphs as Israel_, representing the first instance of the name Israel
Israel
in the historical record.

The term _Israelite_ is the English name for the descendants of the biblical patriarch Jacob
Jacob
in ancient times, which is derived from the Greek Ισραηλίτες, which was used to translate the Biblical Hebrew term _b'nei yisrael_, יִשְׂרָאֵל as either "sons of Israel
Israel
" or "children of Israel".

The name _Israel_ first appears in the Hebrew Bible in Genesis 32:29. It refers to the renaming of Jacob, who, according to the Bible, wrestled with an angel , who gave him a blessing and renamed him _Israel_ because he had "striven with God
God
and with men, and have prevailed". The Hebrew Bible etymologizes the name as from _yisra_ "to prevail over" or "to struggle/wrestle with", and _el _, " God
God
, the divine".

The name _Israel_ first appears in non-biblical sources c. 1209 BCE, in an inscription of the Egyptian pharaoh Merneptah . The inscription is very brief and says simply: " Israel
Israel
is laid waste and his seed is not" (see below). The inscription refers to a people, not to an individual or a nation-state.

TERMINOLOGY

See also: Hebrews
Hebrews

In modern Hebrew , _b'nei yisrael_ ("children of Israel") can denote the Jewish people at any time in history; it is typically used to emphasize Jewish ethnic identity. From the period of the Mishna (but probably used before that period) the term _Yisrael_ ("an Israel") acquired an additional narrower meaning of Jews
Jews
of legitimate birth other than Levites and Aaronite priests (_kohanim _). In modern Hebrew this contrasts with the term _Yisraeli_ (English "Israeli "), a citizen of the modern State of Israel
Israel
, regardless of religion or ethnicity.

The term _Hebrew _ has Eber as an eponymous ancestor. It is used synonymously with "Israelites", or as an ethnolinguistic term for historical speakers of the Hebrew language in general.

The Greek term _ Ioudaioi _ ( Jews
Jews
) was an exonym originally referring to members of the Tribe of Judah
Tribe of Judah
, which formed the nucleus of the kingdom of Judah , and was later adopted as a self-designation by people in the diaspora who identified themselves as loyal to the God of Israel
Israel
and the Temple in Jerusalem.

The Samaritans, who claim descent from the tribes of Ephraim
Ephraim
and Manasseh (plus Levi
Levi
through Aaron
Aaron
for kohens ), are named after the Israelite Kingdom of Samaria
Samaria
, but until modern times many Jewish authorities contested their claimed lineage, deeming them to have been conquered foreigners who were settled in the Land of Israel
Israel
by the Assyrians, as was the typical Assyrian policy to obliterate national identities. Today, Jews
Jews
and Samaritans
Samaritans
both recognize each other as communities with an authentic Israelite origin.

The terms "Jews" and "Samaritans" largely replaced the title "Children of Israel" as the commonly used ethnonym for each respective community.

HISTORICAL ISRAELITES

See also: History of ancient Israel and Judah

PART OF A SERIES ON THE

HISTORY OF ISRAEL

ANCIENT ISRAEL AND JUDAH

* Prehistory * Canaan
Canaan
* Israelites * United monarchy * Northern Kingdom * Kingdom of Judah * Babylonian rule

SECOND TEMPLE PERIOD (530 BC–AD 70)

* Persian rule * Hellenistic period * Hasmonean dynasty

* Herodian dynasty

* Kingdom * Tetrarchy

* Roman Judea
Judea

MIDDLE AGES (70–1517)

* Roman Palaestina

* Byzantine Palaestina

* Prima * Secunda

* Sasanian conquest

* Caliphates

* Filastin * Urdunn

* Crusades * Ayyubid dynasty * Mamluk Sultanate

MODERN HISTORY (1517–1948)

* Ottoman rule

* Eyalet * Mutasarrifate

* Old Yishuv * Zionism * OETA * British mandate

STATE OF ISRAEL (1948–PRESENT)

* Independence * Timeline * Years * Arab–Israeli conflict * Start-up Nation

HISTORY OF THE LAND OF ISRAEL BY TOPIC

* Judaism
Judaism
* Jerusalem
Jerusalem
* Zionism * Jewish leaders * Jewish warfare * Nationality

RELATED

* Jewish history
Jewish history
* Hebrew calendar * Archaeology * Museums

Israel
Israel
portal

* v * t * e

Several theories exist proposing the origins of the Israelites
Israelites
in raiding groups, infiltrating nomads or emerging from indigenous Canaanites driven from the wealthier urban areas by poverty to seek their fortunes in the highland. Various, ethnically distinct groups of itinerant nomads such as the Habiru
Habiru
and Shasu recorded in Egyptian texts as active in Edom and Canaan
Canaan
could have been related to the later Israelites, which does not exclude the possibility that the majority may have had their origins in Canaan
Canaan
proper. The name Yahweh , the god of the later Israelites, may indicate connections with the region of Mount Seir in Edom.

The prevailing academic opinion today is that the Israelites
Israelites
were a mixture of peoples predominantly indigenous to Canaan, although an Egyptian matrix of peoples may also played a role in their ethnogenesis, with an ethnic composition similar to that in Ammon
Ammon
, Edom and Moab
Moab
, and including Hapiru and Šośu . The defining feature which marked them off from the surrounding societies was a staunch egalitarian organization focused on Yahweh
Yahweh
worship, rather than mere kingship.

The language of the Canaanites may perhaps be best described as an "archaic form of Hebrew, standing in much the same relationship to the Hebrew of the Old Testament
Old Testament
as does the language of Chaucer to modern English." The Canaanites were also the first people, as far as is known, to have used an alphabet .

The name Israel
Israel
first appears c. 1209 BCE, at the end of the Late Bronze Age and the very beginning of the period archaeologists and historians call Iron Age
Iron Age
I , on the Merneptah Stele raised by the Egyptian Pharaoh Merneptah . The inscription is very brief

Plundered is Canaan
Canaan
with every evil, Carried off is Ashkelon, Seized upon is Gezer, Yenocam is made as that which does not exist _ Israel
Israel
lies fallow, it has no seed_; Ḫurru has become a widow because of Egypt.

As distinct from the cities named ( Ashkelon
Ashkelon
, Gezer , Yenoam ) which are written with a toponymic marker , Israel
Israel
is written hieroglyphically with a demonymic determinative indicating that the reference is to a human group, variously located in central Palestine or the highlands of Samaria
Samaria
. Over the next two hundred years (the period of Iron Age
Iron Age
I) the number of highland villages increased from 25 to over 300 and the settled population doubled to 40,000. By the 10th century BCE a rudimentary state had emerged in the north-central highlands, and in the 9th century this became a kingdom. Settlement in the southern highlands was minimal from the 12th through the 10th centuries BCE, but a state began to emerge there in the 9th century, and from 850 BCE onwards a series of inscriptions are evidence of a kingdom which its neighbours refer to as the "House of David
David
."

After the destruction of the Israelite kingdoms of Judah and Samaria in 586 BCE and 720 BCE respectively, the concepts of Jew and Samaritan gradually replaced Judean and Israelite. When the Jews returned from the Babylonian captivity , the Hasmonean kingdom
Hasmonean kingdom
was established in present-day Israel
Israel
, consisting of three regions which were Judea, Samaria, and the Galilee. In the pre-exilic first Temple period the political power of Judea
Judea
was concentrated within the tribe of Judah , Samaria
Samaria
was dominated by the tribe of Ephraim
Ephraim
and the House of Joseph , while the Galilee
Galilee
was associated with the tribe of Naphtali , the most eminent tribe of northern Israel. At the time of the Kingdom of Samaria, the Galilee
Galilee
was populated by northern tribes of Israel, but following the Babylonian exile the region became Jewish. During the second Temple period relations between the Jews
Jews
and Samaritans
Samaritans
remained tense. In 120 BCE the Hasmonean king Yohanan Hyrcanos I destroyed the Samaritan temple on Mount Gerizim , due to the resentment between the two groups over a disagreement of whether Mount Moriah in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
or Mount Gerizim in Shechem
Shechem
was the actual site of the Aqedah , and the chosen place for the Holy Temple , a source of contention that had been growing since the two houses of the former united monarchy first split asunder in 930 BCE and which had finally exploded into warfare. 190 years after the destruction of the Samaritan Temple and the surrounding area of Shechem, the Roman emperor Titus
Titus
launched a military campaign to crush the Jewish revolt of 66 CE, which resulted in the destruction of the Jewish Temple in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
in 70 CE, and the subsequent exile of Jews
Jews
from Judea
Judea
and the Galilee
Galilee
in 135 CE following the Bar Kochba revolt .

BIBLICAL ISRAELITES

Map of the Holy Land
Holy Land
, Pietro Vesconte , 1321, showing the allotments of the tribes of Israel. Described by Adolf Erik Nordenskiöld as "the first non-Ptolemaic map of a definite country" Model of the Mishkan
Mishkan
constructed under the auspices of Moses
Moses
, in Timna Park , Israel
Israel

The Israelite story begins with some of the culture heroes of the Jewish people, the Patriarchs . The Torah
Torah
traces the Israelites
Israelites
to the patriarch Jacob
Jacob
, grandson of Abraham, who was renamed Israel
Israel
after a mysterious incident in which he wrestles all night with God
God
or an angel. Jacob's twelve sons (in order of birth), Reuben , Simeon , Levi , Judah , Dan , Naphtali , Gad , Asher
Asher
, Issachar , Zebulun , Joseph and Benjamin
Benjamin
, become the ancestors of twelve tribes, with the exception of Joseph, whose two sons Mannasseh and Ephraim
Ephraim
, who were adopted by Jacob, become tribal eponyms (Genesis 48).

The mothers of Jacob's sons are:

* Leah : Reuben, Simeon, Levi, Judah, Issachar, Zebulun * Rachel
Rachel
: Joseph ( Ephraim
Ephraim
and Menasseh), Benjamin * Bilhah (Rachel's maid): Dan, Naphtali * Zilpah (Leah's maid): Gad, Asher
Asher
(Genesis 35:22–26)

Jacob
Jacob
and his sons are forced by famine to go down into Egypt , although Joseph was already there, as he had been sold into slavery while young. When they arrive they and their families are 70 in number, but within four generations they have increased to 600,000 men of fighting age, and the Pharaoh of Egypt, alarmed, first enslaves them and then orders the death of all male Hebrew children. A woman from the tribe of Levi
Levi
hides her child, places him in a woven basket, and sends him down the Nile
Nile
river. He is named Mosheh, or Moses
Moses
, by the Egyptians who find him. Being a Hebrew baby, they award a Hebrew woman the task of raising him, the mother of Moses
Moses
volunteers, and the child and his mother are reunited.

At the age of forty Moses
Moses
kills an Egyptian, after he sees him beating a Hebrew to death, and escapes as a fugitive into the Sinai desert, where he is taken in by the Midianites and marries Zipporah , the daughter of the Midianite priest Jethro . When he is eighty years old, Moses
Moses
is tending a herd of sheep in solitude on Mount Sinai when he sees a desert shrub that is burning but is not consumed . The God of Israel
Israel
calls to Moses
Moses
from the fire and reveals his name, Yahweh (from the Hebrew root word 'HWH' meaning to exist), and tells Moses that he is being sent to Pharaoh to bring the people of Israel
Israel
out of Egypt.

Yahweh
Yahweh
tells Moses
Moses
that if Pharaoh refuses to let the Hebrews
Hebrews
go to say to Pharaoh "Thus says Yahweh: Israel
Israel
is my son, my first-born and I have said to you: Let my son go, that he may serve me, and you have refused to let him go. Behold, I will slay your son, your first-born". Moses
Moses
returns to Egypt and tells Pharaoh that he must let the Hebrew slaves go free. Pharaoh refuses and Yahweh
Yahweh
strikes the Egyptians with a series of horrific plagues, wonders, and catastrophes , after which Pharaoh relents and banishes the Hebrews
Hebrews
from Egypt. Moses
Moses
leads the Israelites
Israelites
out of bondage toward the Red Sea
Red Sea
, but Pharaoh changes his mind and arises to massacre the fleeing Hebrews. Pharaoh finds them by the sea shore and attempts to drive them into the ocean with his chariots and drown them.

Yahweh
Yahweh
causes the Red Sea
Red Sea
to part and the Hebrews
Hebrews
pass through on dry land into the Sinai. After the Israelites
Israelites
escape from the midst of the sea, Yahweh
Yahweh
causes the ocean to close back in on the pursuing Egyptian army, drowning them to death. In the desert Yahweh
Yahweh
feeds them with manna that accumulates on the ground with the morning dew. They are led by a column of cloud , which ignites at night and becomes a pillar of fire to illuminate the way, southward through the desert until they come to Mount Sinai. The twelve tribes of Israel
Israel
encamp around the mountain, and on the third day Mount Sinai begins to smolder, then catches fire, and Yahweh
Yahweh
speaks the Ten Commandments
Ten Commandments
from the midst of the fire to all the Israelites, from the top of the mountain.

Moses
Moses
ascends biblical Mount Sinai and fasts for forty days while he writes down the Torah
Torah
as Yahweh
Yahweh
dictates, beginning with Bereshith and the creation of the universe and earth. He is shown the design of the Mishkan
Mishkan
and the Ark of the Covenant , which Bezalel is given the task of building. Moses
Moses
descends from the mountain forty days later with the Sefer Torah
Torah
he wrote, and with two rectangular lapis lazuli tablets, into which Yahweh
Yahweh
had carved the Ten Commandments
Ten Commandments
in Paleo–Hebrew . In his absence, Aaron
Aaron
has constructed an image of Yahweh, depicting him as a young Golden Calf , and has presented it to the Israelites, declaring "Behold O Israel, this is your god who brought you out of the land of Egypt". Moses
Moses
smashes the two tablets and grinds the golden calf into dust, then throws the dust into a stream of water flowing out of Mount Sinai, and forces the Israelites to drink from it. Map of the twelve tribes of Israel
Israel
(before the move of Dan to the north), based on the Book of Joshua
Joshua

Moses
Moses
ascends Mount Sinai for a second time and Yahweh
Yahweh
passes before him and says: 'Yahweh, Yahweh, a god of compassion, and showing favor, slow to anger, and great in kindness and in truth, who shows kindness to the thousandth generation, forgiving wrongdoing and injustice and wickedness, but will by no means clear the guilty, causing the consequences of the parent's wrongdoing to befall their children, and their children's children, to the third and fourth generation' Moses then fasts for another forty days while Yahweh
Yahweh
carves the Ten Commandments into a second set of stone tablets. After the tablets are completed, light emanates from the face of Moses
Moses
for the rest of his life, causing him to wear a veil so he does not frighten people.

Moses
Moses
descends Mount Sinai and the Israelites
Israelites
agree to be the chosen people of Yahweh
Yahweh
and follow all the laws of the Torah
Torah
. Moses prophesies if they forsake the Torah, Yahweh
Yahweh
will exile them for the total number of years they did not observe the shmita . Bezael constructs the Ark of the Covenant and the Mishkan, where the presence of Yahweh
Yahweh
dwells on earth in the Holy of Holies , above the Ark of the Covenant, which houses the Ten Commandments. Moses
Moses
sends spies to scout out the Land of Canaan
Canaan
, and the Israelites
Israelites
are commanded to go up and conquer the land, but they refuse, due to their fear of warfare and violence. In response, Yahweh
Yahweh
condemns the entire generation, including Moses, who is condemned for striking the rock at Meribah, to exile and death in the Sinai desert.

Before Moses
Moses
dies he gives a speech to the Israelites
Israelites
where he paraphrases a summary of the mizwoth given to them by Yahweh, and recites a prophetic song called the Ha\'azinu . Moses
Moses
prophesies that if the Israelites
Israelites
disobey the Torah, Yahweh
Yahweh
will cause a global exile in addition to the minor one prophesied earlier at Mount Sinai, but at the end of days Yahweh
Yahweh
will gather them back to Israel
Israel
from among the nations when they turn back to the Torah
Torah
with zeal. The events of the Israelite exodus and their sojourn in the Sinai are memorialized in the Jewish and Samaritan festivals of Passover
Passover
and Sukkoth , and the giving of the Torah
Torah
in the Jewish celebration of Shavuoth .

Forty years after the Exodus , following the death of the generation of Moses, a new generation, led by Joshua
Joshua
, enters Canaan
Canaan
and takes possession of the land in accordance with the promise made to Abraham by Yahweh. Land is allocated to the tribes by lottery . Eventually the Israelites
Israelites
ask for a king, and Yahweh
Yahweh
gives them Saul
Saul
. David
David
, the youngest (divinely favored) son of Jesse
Jesse
of Bethlehem
Bethlehem
would succeed Saul
Saul
. Under David
David
the Israelites
Israelites
establish the united monarchy , and under David's son Solomon
Solomon
they construct the Holy Temple in Jerusalem , using the 400-year-old materials of the Mishkan, where Yahweh continues to tabernacle himself among them. On the death of Solomon and reign of his son, Rehoboam , the kingdom is divided in two.

The kings of the northern Kingdom of Samaria
Samaria
are uniformly bad, permitting the worship of other gods and failing to enforce the worship of Yahweh
Yahweh
alone, and so Yahweh
Yahweh
eventually allows them to be conquered and dispersed among the peoples of the earth; and strangers rule over their remnant in the northern land. In Judah some kings are good and enforce the worship of Yahweh
Yahweh
alone, but many are bad and permit other gods, even in the Holy Temple itself, and at length Yahweh
Yahweh
allows Judah to fall to her enemies, the people taken into captivity in Babylon
Babylon
, the land left empty and desolate, and the Holy Temple itself destroyed.

Yet despite these events Yahweh
Yahweh
does not forget his people, but sends Cyrus, king of Persia to deliver them from bondage. The Israelites
Israelites
are allowed to return to Judah and Benjamin, the Holy Temple is rebuilt, the priestly orders restored, and the service of sacrifice resumed. Through the offices of the sage Ezra
Ezra
, Israel
Israel
is constituted as a holy nation, bound by the Torah
Torah
and holding itself apart from all other peoples.

SEE ALSO

* Assyrian captivity * Biblical archaeology * Groups claiming affiliation with Israelites * Israeli Jews
Jews
* Lachish relief * Masoretic Text * Samaritan Pentateuch * Tribal allotments of Israel
Israel
* Who is a Jew?

REFERENCES

* ^ "Israelite". _Random House Webster\'s Unabridged Dictionary _. * ^ Finkelstein, Israel. "Ethnicity and origin of the Iron I settlers in the Highlands of Canaan: Can the real Israel
Israel
stand up?." The Biblical archaeologist 59.4 (1996): 198–212. * ^ Finkelstein, Israel. The archaeology of the Israelite settlement. Jerusalem: Israel
Israel
Exploration Society, 1988. * ^ Finkelstein, Israel, and Nadav Naʼaman, eds. From nomadism to monarchy: archaeological and historical aspects of early Israel. Yad Izhak Ben-Zvi, 1994. * ^ Finkelstein, Israel. "The archaeology of the United Monarchy: an alternative view." Levant 28.1 (1996): 177–87. * ^ Finkelstein, Israel, and Neil Asher
Asher
Silberman. The Bible Unearthed: Archaeology's New Vision of Ancient Israel and the Origin of Sacred Texts. Simon and Schuster, 2002. * ^ _A_ _B_ Tubb 1998 , pp. 13–14 * ^ _A_ _B_ McNutt 1999, p. 47. * ^ K. L. Noll, _ Canaan
Canaan
and Israel
Israel
in Antiquity: An Introduction,_ A&C Black, 2001 p. 164: ‘It would seems that in the eyes of Merneptah’s artisans, Israel
Israel
was a Canaanite group indistinguishable from all other Canaanite groups.’ ‘It is likely that Merneptah’s Israel
Israel
was a group of Canaanites located in the Jezreel Valley.’ * ^ Robert L.Cate, 'Israelite', in Watson E. Mills, Roger Aubrey Bullard, _Mercer Dictionary of the Bible,_ Mercer University Press, 1990 p. 420. * ^ Ann E. Killebrew, Biblical Peoples and Ethnicity. An Archaeological Study of Egyptians, Canaanites, Philistines and Early Israel
Israel
1300–1100 B.C.E. (Archaeology and Biblical Studies), Society of Biblical Literature , 2005 * ^ Schama, Simon (18 March 2014). _The Story of the Jews: Finding the Words 1000 BC–1492 AD_. HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-06-233944-7 .

* ^ * "In the broader sense of the term, a Jew is any person belonging to the worldwide group that constitutes, through descent or conversion, a continuation of the ancient Jewish people, who were themselves the descendants of the Hebrews
Hebrews
of the Old Testament."

* "The Jewish people as a whole, initially called Hebrews
Hebrews
(ʿIvrim), were known as Israelites
Israelites
(Yisreʾelim) from the time of their entrance into the Holy Land
Holy Land
to the end of the Babylonian Exile (538 BC)."

Jew at Encyclopædia Britannica * ^ "Israelite, in the broadest sense, a Jew, or a descendant of the Jewish patriarch Jacob" Israelite at Encyclopædia Britannica * ^ "Hebrew, any member of an ancient northern Semitic people that were the ancestors of the Jews." Hebrew (People) at Encyclopædia Britannica * ^ Ostrer, Harry (19 April 2012). _Legacy: A Genetic History of the Jewish People_. Oxford University Press, USA. ISBN 978-0-19-970205-3 . * ^ Brenner, Michael (13 June 2010). _A Short History of the Jews_. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-14351-X . * ^ Scheindlin, Raymond P. (1998). _A Short History of the Jewish People: From Legendary Times to Modern Statehood_. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-513941-9 . * ^ Adams, Hannah (1840). _The History of the Jews: From the Destruction of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
to the Present Time_. London Society House. * ^ Diamond, Jared (1993). "Who are the Jews?" (PDF). Retrieved November 8, 2010. Natural History 102:11 (November 1993): 12–19. * ^ 2 Kings 16:6 – King James Version
King James Version
* ^ _The people and the faith of the Bible_ by André Chouraqui, Univ of Massachusetts Press, 1975, p. 43 * ^ Yesaahq ben 'Aamraam. _Samaritan Exegesis: A Compilation Of Writings From The Samaritans_. 2013. ISBN 1482770814 . Benyamim Tsedaka, at 1:24 * ^ John Bowman. Samaritan Documents Relating to Their History, Religion and Life (Pittsburgh Original Texts and Translations Series No. 2). 1977. ISBN 0915138271 * ^ Strong's Exhaustive Concordance G2474 * ^ Brown Drivers Briggs H3478 * ^ Scherman, Rabbi Nosson (editor), _The Chumash_, The Artscroll Series, Mesorah Publications, LTD, 2006, pp. 176–77 * ^ Kaplan, Aryeh, "Jewish Meditation", Schocken Books, New York, 1985, p. 125 * ^ Caroline Johnson Hodge,_If Sons, Then Heirs: A Study of Kinship and Ethnicity in the Letters of Paul,_ Oxford University Press, 2007 pp. 52–55. * ^ Markus Cromhout,_Jesus and Identity: Reconstructing Judean Ethnicity in Q,_ James Clarke & Co, 2015 pp. 121ff. * ^ Daniel Lynwood Smith,_Into the World of the New Testament: Greco-Roman and Jewish Texts and Contexts,_ Bloomsbury Publishing, 2015 p. 124. * ^ Stephen Sharot,_Comparative Perspectives on Judaisms and Jewish Identities,_ Wayne State University Press 2011 p. 146. * ^ "Homepage of A.B Institute of Samaritan Studies". Retrieved March 27, 2015. * ^ _Settings of silver: an introduction to Judaism_, Stephen M. Wylen, Paulist Press, 2000, ISBN 0-8091-3960-X , p. 59 * ^ Israel
Israel
Finkelstein, Neil Asher
Asher
Silberman, _The Bible
Bible
Unearthed _, Simon and Schuster 2002, p. 104. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ K. van der Toorn,_Family Religion in Babylonia, Ugarit and Israel: Continuity and Changes in the Forms of Religious Life_, BRILL 1996 pp. 181, 282. * ^ Alan Mittleman, 'Judaism:Covenant, Pluralism and Piety‘, in Bryan S. Turner (ed.) _The New Blackwell Companion to the Sociology of Religion,_ John Wiley & Sons, 2010 pp. 340–63, 346. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Norman Gottwald, _Tribes of Yahweh: A Sociology of the Religion of Liberated Israel, 1250–1050 BCE,_ A&C Black, 1999 p. 433, cf. 455–—56 * ^ Richard A. Gabriel , _The Military History of Ancient Israel_. Greenwood Publishing Group, 2003 p. 63: The ethnically mixed character of the Israelites
Israelites
is reflected even more clearly in the foreign names of the group's leadership. Moses
Moses
himself, of course, has an Egyptian name. Hur is Moses' name. But so do Hophni, Phinehas, Hur, and Merari, the son of Levi. * ^ Stefan Paas, _Creation and Judgement: Creation Texts in Some Eighth Century Prophets_. Brill, 2003 pp. 110–21, 144. * ^ "Canaan". _Encyclopædia Britannica_. Retrieved March 27, 2015.

* ^ Grabbe 2008, p. 75 * ^ McNutt 1999, p. 70. * ^ Joffe pp. 440ff. * ^ Davies, 1992, pp. 63–64. * ^ Joffe pp. 448–49. * ^ Joffe p. 450. * ^ Finkelstein & Silberman 2001, The Bible Unearthed p. 221. * ^ Grabbe, Lester L. (2004). _A History of the Jews
Jews
and Judaism
Judaism
in the Second Temple Period_. T&T Clark International. p. 28. ISBN 0-567-08998-3 . * ^ Sefer Devariam Pereq לד, ב; Deuteronomy
Deuteronomy
34, 2, Sefer Yehoshua Pereq כ, ז; Joshua
Joshua
20, 7, Sefer Yehoshua Pereq כא, לב; Joshua
Joshua
21, 32, Sefer Melakhim Beth Pereq טו, כט; Second Kings 15, 29, Sefer Devrei Ha Yamim Aleph Pereq ו, סא; First Chronicles 6, 76 * ^ See File:12 Tribes of Israel
Israel
Map.svg * ^ http://www.usc.edu/dept/LAS/arc/neapolis/samaritantemple.htm * ^ Y. Magen. "The Gathering at the President\'s House". Israel Antiquities Authority. Retrieved March 27, 2015. * ^ Josephus, _Antiquities of the Jews_ XVIII.7.2. Josephus
Josephus
, _War of the Jews
Jews
_ II.8.11, II.13.7, II.14.4, II.14.5 * ^ "The Diaspora". Jewish Virtual Library. ; "The Bar-Kokhba Revolt". Jewish Virtual Library. * ^ Adolf Erik Nordenskiöld (1889). _Facsimile-atlas to the Early History of Cartography: With Reproductions of the Most Important Maps Printed in the XV and XVI Centuries_. Kraus. pp. 51, 64. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _The Jews
Jews
in the time of Jesus: an introduction_ p. 18 Stephen M. Wylen, Paulist Press, 1996, 215 pages, pp. 18–20 * ^ Bereshith, Genesis * ^ Shemoth; Exodus 1 and 2 * ^ Shemoth; Exodus 3 and 4 * ^ English translation of the papyrus. A translation also in R. B. Parkinson, _The Tale of Sinuhe and Other Ancient Egyptian Poems_. Oxford World\'s Classics, 1999. * ^ Shemoth; Exodus 5 through 15 * ^ Shemoth; Exodus 15, 19, and 20 * ^ Bereshith; Genesis 1 * ^ The Hidden Face of God: Science Reveals the Ultimate Truth by Gerald L. Schroeder Ph.D. (May 9, 2002) * ^ Shemoth; Exodus 24 * ^ Tehillim; Psalms 106, 19-20 * ^ Shemoth; Exodus 21 through 32 * ^ Shemoth; Exodus, 34, 6–7 * ^ Shemoth; Exodus 34 * ^ Wayiqra; Leviticus 26 * ^ Shemoth; Exodus 35 through 40, Wayiqra; Leviticus, Bamidhbar; Numbers, Devariam; Deuteronomy * ^ Devariam; Deuteronomy
Deuteronomy
28 and 29 and 30 * ^ Devariam; Deuteronomy * ^ Yehoshua; Joshua, Shoftim; Judges, Shmuel; Samuel, Melakhim; Kings * ^ Melakhim; Kings, Divrei HaYamim; Chronicles * ^ Daniel, Ezra, Nehemiah

BIBLIOGRAPHY

* Albertz, Rainer (1994) . _A History of Israelite Religion, Volume I: From the Beginnings to the End of the Monarchy_. Westminster John Knox Press. ISBN 978-0-664-22719-7 . * Albertz, Rainer (1994) . _A History of Israelite Religion, Volume II: From the Exile to the Maccabees_. Westminster John Knox Press. ISBN 978-0-664-22720-3 . * Albertz, Rainer (2003a). _ Israel
Israel
in Exile: The History and Literature of the Sixth Century B.C.E._ Society of Biblical Literature. ISBN 978-1-58983-055-4 . * Albertz, Rainer; Becking, Bob, eds. (2003b). _Yahwism After the Exile: Perspectives on Israelite Religion in the Persian Era_. Koninklijke Van Gorcum. ISBN 978-90-232-3880-5 . CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link ) * Amit, Yaira, et al., eds. (2006). _Essays on Ancient Israel in its Near Eastern Context: A Tribute to Nadav Na\'aman_. Eisenbrauns. ISBN 978-1-57506-128-3 . CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link ) * Avery-Peck, Alan, et al., eds. (2003). _The Blackwell Companion to Judaism_. Blackwell. ISBN 978-1-57718-059-3 . CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link ) * Barstad, Hans M. (2008). _History and the Hebrew Bible_. Mohr Siebeck. ISBN 978-3-16-149809-1 . * Becking, Bob, ed. (2001). _Only One God? Monotheism in Ancient Israel
Israel
and the Veneration of the Goddess Asherah_. Sheffield Academic Press. ISBN 978-1-84127-199-6 . CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link ) * Becking, Bob. _Law as Expression of Religion ( Ezra
Ezra
7–10)_. * Becking, Bob; Korpel, Marjo Christina Annette, eds. (1999). _The Crisis of Israelite Religion: Transformation of Religious Tradition in Exilic and Post-Exilic Times_. Brill. ISBN 978-90-04-11496-8 . CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link ) Niehr, Herbert. _Religio-Historical Aspects of the Early Post-Exilic Period_. * Bedford, Peter Ross (2001). _Temple Restoration in Early Achaemenid Judah_. Brill. ISBN 978-90-04-11509-5 . * Ben-Sasson, H.H. (1976). _A History of the Jewish People_. Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-39731-2 . * Blenkinsopp, Joseph (1988). _Ezra-Nehemiah: A Commentary_. Eerdmans. ISBN 978-0-664-22186-7 . * Blenkinsopp, Joseph; Lipschits, Oded, eds. (2003). _Judah and the Judeans in the Neo-Babylonian Period_. Eisenbrauns. ISBN 978-1-57506-073-6 . CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link ) * Blenkinsopp, Joseph. _Bethel in the Neo-Babylonian Period_. * Blenkinsopp, Joseph (2009). _Judaism, the First Phase: The Place of Ezra
Ezra
and Nehemiah in the Origins of Judaism_. Eerdmans. ISBN 978-0-8028-6450-5 . * Brett, Mark G. (2002). _Ethnicity and the Bible_. Brill. ISBN 978-0-391-04126-4 . * Bright, John (2000). _A History of Israel_. Westminster John Knox Press. ISBN 978-0-664-22068-6 . * Cahill, Jane M. _ Jerusalem
Jerusalem
at the Time of the United Monarchy_. * Coogan, Michael D., ed. (1998). _The Oxford History of the Biblical World_. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-513937-2 . CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link ) * Coogan, Michael D. (2009). _A Brief Introduction to the Old Testament_. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-533272-8 . * Coote, Robert B.; Whitelam, Keith W. (1986). "The Emergence of Israel: Social Transformation and State Formation Following the Decline in Late Bronze Age Trade". _ Semeia _ (37): 107–47. * Davies, Philip R. _The Origin of Biblical Israel_. * Davies, Philip R. (1992). _In Search of Ancient Israel_. Sheffield. ISBN 978-1-85075-737-5 . * Davies, Philip R. (2009). "The Origin of Biblical Israel". _Journal of Hebrew Scriptures_. 9 (47). Archived from the original on May 28, 2008. * Day, John (2002). _ Yahweh
Yahweh
and the Gods and Goddesses of Canaan_. Sheffield Academic Press. ISBN 978-0-8264-6830-7 . * Dever, William (2001). _What Did the Biblical Writers Know, and When Did They Know It?_. Eerdmans. ISBN 978-0-8028-2126-3 . * Dever, William (2003). _Who Were the Early Israelites
Israelites
and Where Did They Come From?_. Eerdmans. ISBN 978-0-8028-0975-9 . * Dever, William (2005). _Did God
God
Have a Wife?: Archaeology and Folk Religion in Ancient Israel_. Eerdmans. ISBN 978-0-8028-2852-1 . * Dijkstra, Meindert. _El the God
God
of Israel, Israel
Israel
the People of YHWH: On the Origins of Ancient Israelite Yahwism_. * Dijkstra, Meindert. _I Have Blessed You by YHWH of Samaria
Samaria
and His Asherah: Texts with Religious Elements from the Soil Archive of Ancient Israel_. * Dunn, James D.G; Rogerson, John William, eds. (2003). _Eerdmans commentary on the Bible_. Eerdmans. ISBN 978-0-8028-3711-0 . CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link ) * Edelman, Diana. _Ethnicity and Early Israel_. * Edelman, Diana, ed. (1995). _The Triumph of Elohim: From Yahwisms to Judaisms_. Kok Pharos. ISBN 978-90-390-0124-0 . CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link ) * Finkelstein, Neil Asher; Silberman (2001). _The Bible
Bible
Unearthed_. ISBN 978-0-7432-2338-6 . * Finkelstein, Israel; Mazar, Amihay; Schmidt, Brian B. (2007). _The Quest for the Historical Israel_. Society of Biblical Literature. ISBN 978-1-58983-277-0 . * Gnuse, Robert Karl (1997). _No Other Gods: Emergent Monotheism in Israel_. Sheffield Academic Press. ISBN 978-1-85075-657-6 . * Golden, Jonathan Michael (2004a). _Ancient Canaan
Canaan
and Israel: An Introduction_. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-537985-3 . * Golden, Jonathan Michael (2004b). _Ancient Canaan
Canaan
and Israel: New Perspectives_. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-57607-897-6 . * Goodison, Lucy; Morris, Christine (1998). _Goddesses in Early Israelite Religion in Ancient Goddesses: The Myths and the Evidence_. University of Wisconsin Press. ISBN 978-90-04-10410-5 . * Grabbe, Lester L. (2004). _A History of the Jews
Jews
and Judaism
Judaism
in the Second Temple Period_. T&T Clark International. ISBN 978-0-567-04352-8 . * Grabbe, Lester L., ed. (2008). _ Israel
Israel
in Transition: From Late Bronze II to Iron IIa (c. 1250–850 B.C.E.)_. T&T Clark International. ISBN 978-0-567-02726-9 . CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link ) * Greifenhagen, F.V (2002). _Egypt on the Pentateuch\'s ideological map_. Sheffield Academic Press. ISBN 978-0-8264-6211-4 . * Hesse, Brian; Wapnish, Paula (1997). "Can Pig Remains Be Used for Ethnic Diagnosis in the Ancient Near East?". In Silberman, Neil Asher; Small, David
David
B. _The Archaeology of Israel: Constructing the Past, Interpreting the Present_. Sheffield Academic Press. ISBN 1-85075-650-3 . * Joffe, Alexander H. (2006). _The Rise of Secondary States in the Iron Age
Iron Age
Levant_ (PDF). University of Arizona Press. * Killebrew, Ann E. (2005). _Biblical Peoples and Ethnicity: An Archaeological Study of Egyptians, Canaanites, and Early Israel, 1300–1100 B.C.E._ Society of Biblical Literature. ISBN 978-1-58983-097-4 . * King, Philip J.; Stager, Lawrence E. (2001). _Life in Biblical Israel_. Westminster John Knox Press. ISBN 0-664-22148-3 . * Kottsieper, Ingo. _And They Did Not Care to Speak Yehudit_. * Kuhrt, Amélie (1995). _The Ancient Near East c. 3000–330 C_. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-16763-5 . * Lehman, Gunnar. _The United Monarchy in the Countryside_. * Lemaire, Andre. _Nabonidus in Arabia and Judea
Judea
During the Neo-Babylonian Period_. * Lemche, Niels Peter (1998). _The Israelites
Israelites
in History and Tradition_. Westminster John Knox Press. ISBN 978-0-664-22727-2 . * Levy, Thomas E. (1998). _The Archaeology of Society in the Holy Land_. Continuum International Publishing. ISBN 978-0-8264-6996-0 . * LaBianca, Øystein S.; Younker, Randall W. _The Kingdoms of Ammon, Moab
Moab
and Edom: The Archaeology of Society in Late Bronze/Iron Age Transjordan (c. 1400–500 CE)_. * Lipschits, Oded (2005). _The Fall and Rise of Jerusalem_. Eisenbrauns. ISBN 978-1-57506-095-8 . * Lipschits, Oded, et al., eds. (2006). _Judah and the Judeans in the Fourth Century B.C.E._ Eisenbrauns. ISBN 978-1-57506-130-6 . CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link ) * Lipschits, Oded; Vanderhooft, David. _Yehud Stamp Impressions in the Fourth Century B.C.E_. * Mazar, Amihay. _The Divided Monarchy: Comments on Some Archaeological Issues_. * Markoe, Glenn (2000). _Phoenicians_. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-22614-2 . * Mays, James Luther, et al., eds. (1995). _Old Testament Interpretation_. T&T Clarke. ISBN 978-0-567-29289-6 . CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link ) * Miller, J. Maxwell. _The Middle East and Archaeology_. * McNutt, Paula (1999). _Reconstructing the Society of Ancient Israel_. Westminster John Knox Press. ISBN 978-0-664-22265-9 . * Merrill, Eugene H. (1995). "The Late Bronze/Early Iron Age Transition and the Emergence of Israel". _Bibliotheca Sacra_. 152 (606): 145–62. * Middlemas, Jill Anne (2005). _The Troubles of Templeless Judah_. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-928386-6 . * Miller, James Maxwell; Hayes, John Haralson (1986). _A History of Ancient Israel and Judah_. Westminster John Knox Press. ISBN 0-664-21262-X . * Miller, Robert D. (2005). _Chieftains of the Highland Clans: A History of Israel
Israel
in the 12th and 11th Centuries B.C._ Eerdmans. ISBN 978-0-8028-0988-9 . * Murphy, Frederick J. R. _Second Temple Judaism_. * Nodet, Étienne (1999) . _A Search for the Origins of Judaism: From Joshua
Joshua
to the Mishnah_. Sheffield Academic Press. ISBN 978-1-85075-445-9 . * Pitkänen, Pekka (2004). "Ethnicity, Assimilation and the Israelite Settlement" (PDF). _ Tyndale Bulletin _. 55 (2): 161–82. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 17, 2011. * Rogerson, John William. _Deuteronomy_. * Silberman, Neil Asher; Small, David
David
B., eds. (1997). _The Archaeology of Israel: Constructing the Past, Interpreting the Present_. Sheffield Academic Press. ISBN 978-1-85075-650-7 . CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link ) * Smith, Mark S. (2001). _Untold Stories: The Bible
Bible
and Ugaritic Studies in the Twentieth Century_. Hendrickson Publishers. * Smith, Mark S.; Miller, Patrick D. (2002) . _The Early History of God_. Eerdmans. ISBN 978-0-8028-3972-5 . * Soggin, Michael J. (1998). _An Introduction to the History of Israel
Israel
and Judah_. Paideia. ISBN 978-0-334-02788-1 . * Stager, Lawrence E. _Forging an Identity: The Emergence of Ancient Israel_. * Thompson, Thomas L. (1992). _Early History of the Israelite People_. Brill. ISBN 978-90-04-09483-3 . * Van der Toorn, Karel (1996). _Family Religion in Babylonia, Syria, and Israel_. Brill. ISBN 978-90-04-10410-5 . * Van der Toorn, Karel; Becking, Bob; Van der Horst, Pieter Willem (1999). _Dictionary of Deities and Demons in the Bible_ (2d ed.). Koninklijke Brill. ISBN 978-90-04-11119-6 . * Tubb, Jonathan N. (1998). _Canaanites_. University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 0-8061-3108-X . * Vaughn, Andrew G.; Killebrew, Ann E., eds. (1992). _ Jerusalem
Jerusalem
in Bible
Bible
and Archaeology: The First Temple Period_. Sheffield. ISBN 978-1-58983-066-0 . CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link ) * Wylen, Stephen M. (1996). _The Jews
Jews
in the Time of Jesus: An Introduction_. Paulist Press. ISBN 978-0-8091-3610-0 . * Zevit, Ziony (2001). _The Religions of Ancient Israel: A Synthesis of Parallactic Approaches_. Continuum. ISBN 978-0-8264-6339-5 .

* v * t * e

The Biblical and Historical Israelites
Israelites

* Children of Israel
Israel
/ Twelve Tribes of Israel * Ten Lost Tribes
Ten Lost Tribes

* History of ancient Israel and Judah * Land of Israel
Israel
* United Monarchy (Kingdom of Israel) * Northern Kingdom * Southern Kingdom (Kingdom of Judah)

* Tanakh * Bible
Bible
* Hebrew Bible * Old Testament
Old Testament
* Historicity of the Bible
Bible

* v * t * e

Jewish history
Jewish history

ANTIQUITY

* Origins * Ancient Israel and Judah * Hasmoneans * Sanhedrin * Second Temple Judaism
Judaism

* Ancient Greece

* Hellenistic Judaism
Judaism

* Roman Empire * Rabbinic Judaism
Judaism
* Diaspora
Diaspora
* Carthage * Ancient Libya * Ancient Egypt
Ancient Egypt
* Ancient Persia

* Babylon/Mesopotamia

* Babylonian captivity

MIDDLE AGES

* Under Muslim rule * Byzantium * Crusades * Golden Age * Ottoman Empire * Medieval antisemitism
Medieval antisemitism

MODERN

* Jewish question * Disabilities * Emancipation * Enlightenment * Reform Judaism
Judaism
* Zionism * Soviet Union * United States

* World War II

* The Holocaust * Resistance

* Israeli history

* New Yishuv

See also Jewish history
Jewish history
in Israel/Palestine Population history Genetic history Languages Refugees Schisms

* Political movements

Timeline WP: Jewish history
Jewish history

AUTHORITY CONTROL

* GND : 4277305-2

Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title= Israelites
Israelites
additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy .® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. , a non-profit organization.

* Privacy policy * About * Disclaimers * Contact * Developers * Cookie statement * Mobile view

* *

Links: ------ /wiki/Help:IPA/English /wiki/Hebrew_language /#cite_note-1 /wiki/Ancient_Semitic-speaking_peoples /wiki/Ancient_Near_East /wiki/Canaan